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Answer: A two-way ANOVA is a hypothesis test that includes two nominal independent variables and a scale dependent variable. 12-3. In your own words, define the word cell, first as you would use it in everyday conversation and then as a statistician would use it Answer: In everyday conversation the word cell conjures up images of a prison or a small room in which someone is forced to stay, or of one of the building blocks of a plant or animal. In statistics, the word cell refers to a single condition in a factorial ANOVA that is characterized by its values on each of the independent variables. 12-5. What is the difference in information provided when we say two-way ANOVA versus 2 3 ANOVA Answer: A two-way ANOVA has two independent variables. When we express that as a 2 X 3 ANOVA, we get added detail; the first number tells us that the first independent variable has two levels, and the second number tells us that the other independent variable has three levels. 12-7. What is a marginal mean? Answer: A marginal mean is the mean of a row or a column in a table that shows the cells of a study with a two-way ANOVA design. 12-9. How do bar graphs help us identify and interpret interactions? Explain how the addition of lines to the bar graph can help. Answer: Bar graphs allow us to visually depict the relative changes across the different levels of each independent variable. By adding lines that connect the bars within each series, we can assess whether the lines appear parallel, significantly different from parallel, or intersecting. Intersecting and significantly unparallel lines are indications of interactions. 12-11. In step 6 of our hypothesis testing for a two-way between-groups ANOVA, we make a decision for each F statistic. What are the three possible outcomes with respect to the overall pattern of results? Answer: First, we may be able to reject the null hypothesis for the interaction. (If the interaction is statistically significant, then it might not matter whether the main effects are significant; if they also are significant, then those findings are usually qualified by the interaction and they are not described separately. The overall pattern of cell means can tell the whole story.) Second, if we are not able to reject the null hypothesis for the interaction, then we focus on any significant main effects, drawing a specific directional conclusion for each. Third, if we do not reject the null hypothesis for either main effect or the interaction, then we can only conclude that there is insufficient evidence from this study to support our research hypotheses. 12-13. Define the terms in the following formula: SSinteraction = SStotal + (SSrows + SScolumns + SSwithin). Answer: This is the formula for the between-groups sum of squares for the interaction; we can calculate this by subtracting the other between-groups sums of squares (those for the two main effects) and the within-groups sum of squares

from the total sum of squares. (The between-groups sum of squares for the interaction is essentially what is left over when the main effects are accounted for.) Calculating the Statistic 12-15. Identify the factors and their levels in the following research designs: a. Mens and womens enjoyment of two different sporting events are compared using a 20 -point enjoyment scale. b. The amount of underage drinking, as documented in formal incident reports, is compared at dry college campuses (no alcohol at all regardless of age) and wet campuses (those that enforce the legal age for possession of alcohol). Three different types of colleges are considered: state institutions, private schools, and schools with a religious affiliation. c. The extent of contact with juvenile authorities is compared for youth across three age groups, considering both gender and family composition (two-parent family, single-parent, or no identified authority figure). Answer: a. There are two independent variables or factors: gender and sporting event. Gender has two levels, male and female, and sporting event has two levels. b. Type of campus is one factor that has two levels, dry or wet. The second factor is type of college, which has three levels, including state, private, and religious. c. Age group is the first factor, with three levels; gender is a second factor, with two levels; and family composition is the last factor, with three levels. 12-17. For the following data, calculate cell and marginal

Answer:

12-19. Draw a bar chart for the data presented in Exercise 12-17.

Answer:

12-21. Calculate the five different measures of degrees of freedom for the data presented in Exercise 12-17. Also indicate the critical value for an ANOVA based on each set of degrees of freedom, assuming the p level is 0.01. Answer: dfrows(gender) = Nrows 1 = 2 1 = 1 dfcolumns(sport) = Ncolumns 1 = 2 1 = 1 dfinteraction = (dfrows)(dfcolumns) = (1)(1) = 1 dfwithin = dfM,H + dfM,S + dfW,H + dfW,S = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 dftotal = Ntotal 1 = 16 1 = 15 We can also check that this answer is correct by adding all of the other degrees of freedom together: 1 + 1 + 1 + 12 = 15 The critical value for an F distribution with 1 and 12 degrees of freedom, at a p level of 0.01, is 9.33. 12-23. Using the data provided in Exercise 12-17, calculate each sum of squares: a. Total sum of squares b. Between-groups sum of squares for the independent variable gender c. Between-groups sum of squares for the independent variable sporting event d. Within-groups sum of squares e. Sum of squares for the interaction

b. Sum of squares for gender: SSbetween(rows) = (Mrow GM)2 for each score = 0.560

c. Sum of squares for sporting event: SSbetween(columns) = (Mcolumn GM)2 for each score = 280.560

e. The sum of squares for the interaction is found through subtraction. We subtract all other sources from the total sum of squares, and the remaining amount is the sum of squares for the interaction. SSgender x

sport

SSgender x sport = 475.438 (0.560 + 280.560 + 126.256) = 68.062 12-25. Using your work in Exercises 12-21 and 12-23, create a source table. Answer:

12-27. Using what you know about the expanded source table, fill in the missing values in the table shown here:

Answer:

12-29. Using the information in the source table provided here, compute R2 values for each effect. Using Cohens conventions, explain what these values mean.

According to Cohens conventions, this is approaching a medium effect size. For the main effect B:

According to Cohens conventions, this is approaching a medium effect size. For the interaction:

According to Cohens conventions, this is smaller than a small effect size. Applying the Concepts 12-31. In a fictional study, a cognitive psychologist studied memory for names after a group activity that lasted 20 minutes. The researcher randomly assigned 120 participants to one of three conditions: (1) group members introduced themselves once (one introduction only), (2) group members were introduced by the experimenter and by themselves (two introductions), and (3) group members were introduced by the experimenter and themselves, and wore nametags throughout the group activity (two introductions and nametags). a. What could the researcher do to redesign this study so it would be analyzed with a two-way between-groups ANOVA? Be specific. (Note: There are several possible ways that the researcher could do this.) b. What could the researcher do to redesign this study so it would be analyzed with a two-way within-groups ANOVA? Be specific. (Note: There are several possible ways the researcher could do this.)

Answer: a. There are many possible answers to this question. In addition to using how they were introduced as the independent variable, the researcher could also assess whether having a prior knowledge that they will be tested on their group members names affects memory. The levels for this second independent variable would be that participants are told of the upcoming memory test or that participants are not told of the upcoming memory test. If the researcher randomly assigned participants to the different treatment conditions, this study would require a twoway between-groups ANOVA. b. There are many possible answers to this question. In addition to using how they were introduced as the independent variable, the researcher could also assess whether participants remembered names differently depending on whether the group members were of the same gender as or a different gender from the participant. This would be a within-groups manipulation because every participant would be exposed to members who were of the same gender as the participant and those who were of a different gender from the participant. 12-33. A study on motivated skepticism examined whether participants were more likely to be skeptical when it served their self-interest (Ditto & Lopez, 1992). Ninety-three participants completed a fictitious medical test that told them they had high levels of a certain enzyme, TAA. Participants were randomly assigned to be told either that high levels of TAA had potentially unhealthy consequences or that high levels of TAA had potentially healthy consequences. They were also randomly assigned to complete a dependent measure before or after the TAA test. The dependent measure assessed their perception of the accuracy of the TAA test on a scale of 1 (very inaccurate) to 9 (very accurate). a. State the independent variables and their levels. b. State the dependent variable. c. What kind of ANOVA would be used to analyze these data? State the name using the original language as well as the more specific language. d. Use the more specific language of ANOVA to calculate the number of cells in this research design. e. Draw a table that depicts the cells of this ANOVA. Answer: a. There are two independent variables. One independent variable is what participants were told regarding the consequences of high TAA. Its levels are unhealthy consequences and healthy consequences. The second independent variable is the timing of the recording of participants perceptions of the accuracy of the TAA test. Its levels are before taking the TAA test and after taking the TAA test. b. The dependent variable is the participants perceptions of the accuracy of the TAA test on the 19-point scale. c. A two-way between-groups ANOVA would be used to analyze these data. More precisely, a 2 x2 ANOVA would be used. d. There would be 4 cells in this research design. This number is obtained by multiplying the number of levels of each independent variable (2 x 2).

12-35. Consider again the study discussed in Exercises 12-33 and 12-34. a. Change the cell mean for the participants who had a healthy test outcome and who completed the dependent measure prior to the TAA test so that this is now a quantitative interaction. b. Draw a bar graph depicting the pattern that includes the new cell mean. c. Change the cell mean for the participants who had a healthy test outcome and who completed the dependent measure prior to the TAA test so that there is now no interaction. d. Draw a bar graph that depicts the pattern that includes the new cell mean. Answer: a.

Note: There are several cell means that would work. b. Bar graph of the quantitative interaction with the new cell mean, 4.2:

c.

12-37. Consider again the study in Exercise 12-36. a. Change the cell means for the conservative participants who read about an African American officer so that this is now a quantitative interaction. b. Draw a bar graph that depicts the pattern that includes the new cell means. c. Change the cell means for the moderate and conservative participants who read about an African American officer so that there is now no interaction. d. Draw a bar graph that depicts the pattern that includes the new cell means. Answer: a.

Note: There are several cell means that would work. b. Bar graph depicting the quantitative interaction that results from including the new cell mean, 4.90:

c.

d. Bar graph depicting the absence of an interaction that results from the two new cell means, 4.60 and 5.89:

12-39. Consider the interaction described in Exercise 12-38. a. Draw a new table of cells, but change the means for male participants told that the illness affects mostly women so that there is now a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, interaction. b. Draw a bar graph that represents the means in part (a). c. Draw a new table of cells, but change the means for male participants told that the illness affects mostly women so that there is no interaction. d. Draw a bar graph that represents the means in part (c). Answer: a.

Note: There are several cell means that would work. b. Bar graph for the means:

c.

12-41. A sample of students from our statistics classes reported their GPAs, indicated their genders, and stated whether they were in the universitys Greek system (i.e., in a fraternity or sorority). Following are the GPAs for the different groups of students: Men in a fraternity: 2.6, 2.4, 2.9, 3.0 Men not in a fraternity: 3.0, 2.9, 3.4, 3.7, 3.0 Women in a sorority: 3.1, 3.0, 3.2, 2.9 Women not in a sorority: 3.4, 3.0, 3.1, 3.1 a. What are the independent variables and their levels? What is the dependent variable? b. Draw a table that lists the cells of the study design. Include the cell means. c. Conduct all six steps of hypothesis testing. d. Draw a bar graph for all significant effects. e. Is there a significant interaction? If yes, describe it in words, and indicate whether it is a qualitative or a quantitative interaction. Explain. Answer: a. The first independent variable is the gender of the student, and its levels are men and women. The second independent variable is membership in the Greek system, and its levels are member and nonmember. The dependent

variable is GPA. b.

c. Step 1: Population 1 (men, member) is men who are members of a fraternity. Population 2 (men, nonmember) is men who are not members of a fraternity. Population 3(women, member) is women who are members of a sorority. Population 4 (women, nonmembers) is women who are not members of a sorority. The comparison distributions will be F distributions. The hypothesis test will be a two-way between-groups ANOVA. Assumptions: The data are not from random samples, so we must generalize with caution. The homogeneity of variance assumption is violated because the largest variance (0.115) is much larger than the smallest variance (0.017). Step 2: Main effect of first independent variableGreek membership: Null hypothesis: On average, students who are members in Greek organizations will have the same GPAs as students who are not in Greek organizationsG = NG. Research hypothesis: On average, students who are members in Greek organizations will have different GPAs from those who are not membersG NG. Main effect of second independent variablegender: Null hypothesis: On average, men and women have the same GPAsM = W. Research hypothesis: On average, men and women have different GPAs M W. Interaction: Greek membership x gender: Null hypothesis: The effect of Greek membership does not depend on gender. Research hypothesis: The effect of Greek membership does depend on gender. Step 3: dfcolumns(gender) = 2 1 = 1 dfrows(Greek) = 2 1 = 1 dfinteraction = (1)(1) = 1 dfwithin = dfG,M + dfNG,M + dfG,W + dfNG,W = 3 + 4 + 3 + 3 = 13 Main effect of gender: F distribution with 1 and 13 degrees of freedom Main effect of Greek membership: F distribution with 1 and 13 degrees of freedom Interaction of membership and gender: F distribution with 1 and 13 degrees of freedom Step 4: Cutoff F for main effect of gender: 4.67 Cutoff F for main effect of Greek membership: 4.67 Cutoff F for interaction of gender and membership: 4.67 Step 5: SStotal = (X GM)2 = 1.401 SScolumn(gender) = (Mcolumn(gender) GM)2 = 0.348 SSrow(Greek) = (Mrow(Greek) GM)2 = 0.08 SSwithin = (X Mcell)2 = 0.828

Step 6: There is a statistically significant effect of Greek membership. It appears that those who are not members of the Greek system have higher GPAs, on average, than those who are members. There is no statistically significant main effect of gender; we can only conclude that there is insufficient evidence that men and women have different GPAs, on average. There is no statistically significant interaction; we can only conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the effect of Greek membership depends on gender. d. There is a statistically significant main effect of Greek membership. On average, members of Greek organizations have lower GPAs than nonmembers.

e. There is not a statistically significant interaction. 12-43. Heyman and Ariely (2004) were interested in whether effort and willingness to help were affected by the form and amount of payment offered in return for effort. They predicted that when money was used as payment, in what is called a money market, effort would increase as a function of payment level. On the other hand, if effort is performed out of altruism, in what is called a social market, the level of effort would be consistently high and unaffected by level of payment. In one of their studies, college students were asked to estimate a nother students willingness to help load a sofa into a van in return for a cash payment or no payment (rather than money, these students received candy of equivalent value). Willingness to help was assessed using an 11-point scale ranging from not at all likely to help to will help for sure. Data are presented here to re create some of their findings. Cash payment, low amount of $0.50: 4, 5, 6, 4 Cash payment, moderate amount of $5.00: 7, 8, 8, 7 Candy payment, low amount valued at $0.50: 6, 5, 7, 7 Candy payment, moderate amount valued at $5.00: 8, 6, 5, 5

a. What are the independent variables and their levels? b. What is the dependent variable? c. Draw a table that lists the cells of the study design. Include the cell and marginal means. d. Create a bar graph. e. Using this graph and the table of cell means, describe what effects you see in the pattern of the data. Answer: a. The first independent variable, type of payment, has two levels, cash and candy. The second independent variable, level of payment, has two levels, $0.50 and $5.00. b. The dependent variable is willingness to help, as assessed via an 11-point scale. c.

e. At first, based on the marginal means in the table, it looks as if there is a main effect for amount of payment but not for type of payment; however, the bar graph helps us to see that there is really an interaction. The effect for amount of payment only seems to occurs for the cash payment system. So, the amount of payment does seem to

affect mean willingness to help, but only when cash is used to compensate efforts. When candy is used, the amount given does not seem to affect mean willingness to help. 12-45. Expanding on the work of Heyman and Ariely (2004), lets assume a higher level of payment was included and the following data were collected. (Notice that all data are the same as earlier with the addition of new data under a high payment amount.) Cash payment, low amount of $0.50: 4, 5, 6, 4 Cash payment, moderate amount of $5.00: 7, 8, 8, 7 Cash payment, high amount of $50.00: 9, 8, 7, 8 Candy payment, low amount, valued at $0.50: 6, 5, 7, 7 Candy payment, moderate amount, valued at $5.00: 8, 6, 5, 5 Candy payment, high amount, valued at $50.00: 6, 7, 7, 6 a. What are the independent variables and their levels? What is the dependent variable? b. Draw a table that lists the cells of the study design. Include the cell and marginal means. c. Create a new bar graph of these data. d. Do you think there is a significant interaction? If yes, describe it in words. e. Now that one independent variable has three levels, what additional analyses are needed? Explain what you would do and why. Where do you think significant differences would exist based on the graph you created? Answer: a. The independent variables are type of payment, with two levels still, and level of payment, with three levels now (low, moderate, and high). The dependent variable is still willingness to help, as assessed with the 11-point scale. b.

d. There does seem to be the same qualitative interaction still, such that the effect of the level of payment depends on the type of payment. When candy payments are used, the level seems to have no mean impact. However, when cash payments are used, a low level leads to a lower willingness to help, on average, than when candy is used, and a moderate or high level leads to a higher willingness to help, on average, than when candy is used. e. Post-hoc tests would be needed. Specifically, we would need to compare the three levels of payment to see where specific significant differences exist. Based on the graph we created, it appears as if willingness to help in the low cash payment condition is significantly lower, on average, than in the moderate and high conditions for cash payments. 12-47. Using your work from Exercise 12-41, compute the effect size, R2, for the main effect of gender, membership in a Greek organization, and the interaction of these two variables. Using Cohens conventions, interpret the effect size values. Answer: For the main effect of Greek membership:

According to Cohens conventions, this is a large effect size. For the main effect of gender:

According to Cohens conventions, this is a medium effect size. For the interaction:

According to Cohens conventions, this is a large effect size. 12-49. Lets follow up on what we learned in Exercise 12-44 about motivating helpful behavior through different forms and levels of payment. Compute the effect size, R2, for the main effect of form of payment, level of payment, and the interaction of these two variables. Using Cohens conventions, interpret the effect -size values. Answer: For the main effect of type of payment:

We do not need to refer to Cohens guidelines to know that there is no effect here, and therefore no effect size. For the main effect of level of payment:

According to Cohens conventions, this is a large effect size. For the interaction:

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