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Describe a perfect correlation, including its possible coefficients. Answer: A perfect relation occurs when our data points fall exactly on the line we fit through our data. A perfect relation results in a correlation coefficient of –1.0 or 1.0. 13-5. What magnitude of a correlation coefficient is large enough to be considered important, or worth talking about? Answer: According to Cohen (1988), a correlation coefficient of 0.50 is a large correlation, and 0.30 is a medium one. However, it is unusual in social science research to have a correlation as high as 0.50. The decision of whether a correlation is worth talking about is sometimes based on whether it is statistically significant, as well as what practical effect a correlation of a certain size indicates. 13-7. Explain how the correlation coefficient can be used as a descriptive or inferential statistic. Answer: When used to capture the relation between two variables, the correlation coefficient is a descriptive statistic. When used to draw conclusions about the greater population, such as with hypothesis testing, the coefficient serves as an inferential statistic. 13-9. Explain how the sum of the product of deviations determines the sign of the correlation. Answer: Positive products of deviations, indicating a positive correlation, occur when each member of a pair of scores tends to result in a positive deviation or when each member tends to result in a negative deviation. Negative products of deviations, indicating a negative correlation, occur when members of a pair of scores tend to result in oppositevalued deviations (one negative and the other positive). 13-11. What are the three basic steps to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient? Answer: (1) We calculate the deviation of each score from its mean, multiply the two deviations for each participant, and sum the products of the deviations. (2) We calculate a sum of squares for each variable, multiply the two sums of squares, and take the square root of the product of the sums of squares. (3) We divide the sum from step 1 by the square root in step 2. Calculating the Statistics 13-13. Determine if the data in each of the graphs provided would result in a negative or positive correlation coefficient. a.
Answer: a. These data appear to be negatively correlated. b. These data appear to be positively correlated. c. Neither; these data appear have a very small correlation, if any. 13-15. Use Cohen’s guidelines to describe the strength of the following correlation coefficients: a. −0.28
−0. d. c.79 c. 1. 0.28 is a medium correlation. b.b. –0. 1. 13-17.0 is a perfect correlation. Create a scatterplot for the following data: . –0. 0.0 d.015 is almost no correlation.015 Answer: a. Create a scatterplot for the following data: Answer: 13-19.79 is a large correlation.
Divide the numerator by the denominator to compute the coefficient. Answer: a. c. and sum all products.Answer: 13-21. Calculate the sum of squares for each variable. r. This is the denominator of the correlation coefficient equation. Calculate deviation scores. This is the numerator of the correlation coefficient equation. multiply the deviations for each individual. . Then compute the square root of the product of the sums of squares. Calculate the correlation coefficient for the data provided in Exercise 13-18 by completing these three steps: a. b.
727. Twenty-seven couples are surveyed regarding their years together and their relationship satisfaction.500 = 42.994)(3750) =√1.994 Σ(Y – MY)2 = 3750 = √(488.0 13-23. b.510 b. with the idea that students with less knowledge would care less about the issue than students with greater amounts of knowledge. Forty students were recruited for a study about the relation between knowledge regarding academic integrity and values held by students. Calculate degrees of freedom for each of the following studies: a. . Σ(X – MX)2 = 488.822.MX = 399 MY = 45 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = 17.833.
The highest degrees of freedom listed on the table is 100. during the retrograde phase. When we cannot look up our exact degrees of freedom. New Jersey Transit commuter trains were less likely to be late. dfr = N – 2 = 3113 – 2 = 3111 d. computer crashes. How do transportation expert Schaller’s statement and Newman’s contr adictory results relate to what you learned about probability in Chapter 5? Discuss expected relative-frequency probability in your answer. Newman cited a transportation statistics expert. d. we choose the degrees of freedom that give us the more conservative critical values. Answer: .4%. contrary to Massey’s hypothesis. b.195 and 0. the retrograde phase. Anne Massey. 2006). Data are collected to examine the relation between size of dog and rate of bone and joint health issues. stated that a certain phase of the planet Mercury. documented the likelihood of breakdown on a number of variables in both phases. On the other hand. the rate of baggage complaints at LaGuardia airport increased from 5. Determine the critical values. The New York Times reported that an officer of the International Society for Astrological Research. we look under df = 35. Hours spent studying per week was correlated with credit hour load for 72 students. Andy Newman. who said. Do reporter Newman’s data suggest a correlation between Mercury’s phase and breakdowns? b.381 c. If there were indeed a small correlation that one could observe only across thousands of years of data. traffic disruptions. c. with cutoffs of –0. retrograde and nonretrograde.c.232 and 0.05.38 during non-retrograde periods to 5. –0.44 during retrograde periods. assuming a two-tailed test with a p level of 0. Answer: a. by 0. Newman discovered that. dfr = N – 2 = 27 – 2 = 25 c. delayed plane arrivals—with some variables backing Massey and others not. dfr = N – 2 = 40 – 2 = 38 b. The Times reporter. d. These are the critical values that are more extreme. leads to breakdowns in areas as wide-ranging as communication and travel (Newman. dfr = N – 2 = 72 – 2 = 70 13-25.232 Applying the Concepts 13-27. ―If all of this is due to randomness. for each of the designs described in Exercise 13-23. Write a brief response to Massey’s contention of a correlation between Mercury’s phases and breakdowns in aspects of day-to-day living.‖ Astrologer Massey counters that the pattern she predicts would only emerge across thousands of years of data. which has cutoffs of –0.195. or cutoffs. Newman’s findings were contradictory across all examined variables—rates of theft.381 and 0. a. Bruce Schaller. Aswer: a. how useful would that knowledge be in terms of predicting events in your own life? d. consistent with Massey ’s hypothesis. Because df = 38 is not on the table. Veterinarians from around the country contributed data on 3113 dogs.325. that’s the result you’d expect.325 and 0. –0.
Does the amount that people exercise correlate with the number of friends they have? The accompanying table contains data collected in some of our statistics classes. Be sure to label both axes. What does the scatterplot suggest about the relation between these two variables? c. c. half of the breakdowns that occur would be expected to occur during the retrograde phase and the other half during the nonretrograde phase. just by chance. The accompanying scatterplot depicts the relation between hours of exercise and number of friends. a. b.a. Would it be appropriate to calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient? Explain your answer. d. the observed relative-frequency probability is more likely to differ from the expected relative-frequency probability because we are less likely to have a representative sample of breakdowns. The first column shows hours exercised per week and the second column shows the number of close friends reported by each participant. 13-29. Note that you could also have chosen to put exercise along the y-axis and friends along the x-axis. If we base our conclusions on only a small number of observations of breakdowns. Answer: a. Newman’s data do not suggest a correlation between Mercury’s phases and breakdowns. . Given that there are two phases of Mercury (and assuming they’r e equal in length). b. So in this example we would expect 50% of breakdowns to occur during the retrograde phase and 50% during the nonretrograde phase. This correlation would not be useful in predicting events in your own life because no relation would be observed in this limited time span. Create a scatterplot of these data. Available data do not support the idea that a correlation exists between Mercury’s phases and breakdowns. Expected relative-frequency probability refers to the expected frequency of events. There was no consistency in the report of breakdowns during one of the phases.
including an evaluation of the size of the correlation using Cohen’s guidelines. However. a. and assumptions.05. so we should proceed with caution. Null hypothesis: There is no correlation between externalizing behavior and anxiety among adolescents — H0: r = 0. c. perform all six steps of hypothesis testing to explore the relation between externalizing and anxiety. Answer: a. 10 people. The scatterplot suggests a nonlinear relation between exercise and number of friends. distribution. b. Population 2: Adolescents for whom there is no relation between externalizing behavior and anxiety. We also do not know if the underlying population distribution for externalizing behaviors and anxiety in adolescents is normally distributed (second assumption). f. Because we have such a small data set. . c. We do not know if our data were randomly selected (first assumption). d. it is difficult to evaluate this. and the Pearson correlation coefficient measures only the extent of linear relation between two variables. there is a decrease in the number of friends. b. Population 1: Adolescents like those we studied. The scatterplot suggests that as the number of hours of exercise each week increases from 0 to 5. is that the variability of one variable is equal across the levels of the other variable. there is an increase in the number of friends. but as the hours of exercise continues to increase past 5. randomly selected from the population. The third assumption. Step 6: Make a decision. Step 5: Calculate the test statistic. Our sample size is too small to make any conclusions about this assumption. The comparison distribution is made up of correlation coefficients based on many. e. It would not be appropriate to calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient with this set of data. Using the data in Exercise 13-30.b. so we must be cautious when generalizing our findings. assuming a two-tailed test with a p level of 0. Step 2: State the null and research hypotheses. 13-31. or cutoffs. Step 4: Determine the critical values. many samples of our size. Step 3: Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution. unique to correlation. Step 1: Identify the population. we can see from the scatterplot that our data are somewhat consistently variable.
c.60 Second.Research hypothesis: There is a correlation between externalizing behavior and anxiety among adolescents— H1: r ≠ 0.40 Σ(Y – MY)2 = 438.05 are – 0.40 .40 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = 110.632 and 0. e.632. we calculate the denominator: Σ(X – MX)2 = 66. we calculate the numerator: MX = 6. The Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated in three steps. r.60 MY = 29. First. The critical values for an r distribution with 8 degrees of freedom for a two-tailed test with a p level of 0. d. with the following degrees of freedom: dfr = N – 2 = 10 – 2 = 8. The comparison distribution is a distribution of Pearson correlations.
When the person was male.76 = 170. What might you expect for someone who owns a lot of cats? Explain.632. You would expect a person who owns no cats or just one cat to tend to have many mental health problems. is larger in magnitude than the critical value of 0. Among other analyses. You assess all senior citizens on two variables: (1) the number of cats they own and (2) their level of mental health problems (a higher score indicates more problems). the other variable tends to increase.616 Finally. Graduate student Angela Holiday (2007) conducted a study examining perceptions of combat veterans suffering from mental illness. You may be aware of the stereotype about the crazy elderly person who owns a lot of cats.109. What might you expect for someone who owns a lot of cats? Explain. Participants read a description of a person. c. Because the two variables are negatively related. Imagine that you found a negative relation between these two variables. Because the two variables are positively correlated. they also rated the combat veterans on a range of variables. Participants rated the situation (combat in Iraq) with respect to how traumatic they believed it was. What might you expect for someone who owns no cats or just one cat? Explain. the perception of the situation as traumatic was strongly positively correlated with the perception of the man as feminine but was only weakly . either a man or a woman. You would expect a person who owns no cats or just one cat to tend to have few mental health problems. You would expect a person who owns a lot of cats to tend to have few mental health problems. Because the variables are positively correlated. Imagine that you found a negative relation between these two variables. r = 0. We can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a strong positive correlation between the number of externalizing behaviors performed by adolescents and their level of anxiety.40) =√29. c. the number of mental health problems tends to increase. we compute r: f. b. which means that a person with fewer cats would likely have more mental health problems. as cat ownership increases. Imagine that you found a positive relation between these two variables.40)(438. a. people who have a low score on one variable are also likely to have a low score on the other variable. 13-35. who had recently returned from combat in Iraq and who was suffering from depression. b. 13-33. Our test statistic. Imagine that you found a positive relation between these two variables. This means a person owning lots of cats would likely have a low score on the mental health variable. What might you expect for someone who owns no cats or just one cat? Explain. Answer: a.648. Holiday examined the relation between the perception of the situation as being traumatic and the perception of the veteran as being masculine or feminine. Because the two variables are negatively related. as one variable increases. you decide to interview 100 senior citizens in a retirement complex. the other variable tends to decrease. Have you wondered whether the stereotype is true? As a researcher. including scales that assessed how masculine and how feminine they perceived the person to be. as one variable decreases.= √(66. d. d. You would expect a person who owns a lot of cats to tend to have many mental health problems.
Does the scatterplot suggest that it is appropriate to calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient? Explain. consider whether pairs of deviations tend to have the same sign or opposite signs. The Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated in three steps. it is appropriate to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient for these data. Step 1 is calculating the numerator: . (That is. What would you expect when the person was female? The accompanying table presents some of the data for the perception of the situation as traumatic (on a scale of 1–10. b. d. with 10 being the most feminine). b. The accompanying scatterplot depicts a negative linear relation between perceived femininity and perceived trauma. a. with 10 being the most traumatic) and the perception of the woman as feminine (on a scale of 1 –10. Draw a scatterplot for these data. Because the relation appears linear. Explain why the pattern of pairs of deviation scores enables us to understand the relation between the two variables. Calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient.) Answer: a. c. State what the Pearson correlation coefficient tells us about the relation between these two variables.positively correlated with the perception of the man as masculine.
834 Σ(Y – MX)2 = 3.834)(3.MX = 5. having a high score on one variable was associated with having a low score on the other.833 MY = 5. Those participants who had positive deviation scores on trauma had negative deviation scores on femininity (and vice versa). We calculated the correlation coefficient for the relation between the perception of a situation as traumatic and the perception of a woman’s femininity. So.010 Step 3 is computing r: c.121 = 6. The correlation coefficient reveals a strong negative relation between perceived femininity and perceived trauma.333 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = –4. as trauma increases. Now let’s look at data to examine the relation between the perception of a situation as traumatic and the percep tion of a woman’s masculinity. d. which is a negative correlation.669 Step 2 is calculating the denominator: Σ(X – MX)2 = 10. perceived femininity tends to decrease. his or her score on the second variable was below the mean for that variable (negative deviation).334 = √(10. 13-37. See the description of Holiday’s experiment in Exercise 13-35.334) =√36. meaning that when a person’s score on one variable was above the mean for that variable (positive deviation). .
d. The data appear to be linearly related. The accompanying scatterplot depicts a positive linear relation between perceived trauma and perceived masculinity. it is appropriate to calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient. The Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated in three steps. Calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient.a. Answer: a. State what the Pearson correlation coefficient tells us about the relation between these two variables.) e. therefore. (That is. b. Explain why the pattern of pairs of deviation scores enables us to understand the relation between the two variables. Does the scatterplot suggest that it is appropriate to calculate a Pearson correlation coefficient? Explain. c. consider whether pairs of deviation scores tend to share the same sign or to have opposite signs. Explain how the relations between the perception of a situation as traumatic and the perception of a woman as either masculine or feminine differ from those same relations with respect to men. Step 1 is calculating the numerator: . Draw a scatterplot for these data. b.
834 Σ(Y – MY)2 = 2. e.833 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = 3. there was a positive correlation between the perception of the situation as traumatic and perception of masculinity. Because the scores for each participant tend to fall on the same side of the mean. d.704 = 5.541 Step 3 is computing r: c. the sign of the deviation for the traumatic variable is the same as that for the masculinity variable. . but the observed correlation was stronger for the perceptions of women than for the perceptions of men. For most of the participants. the perception of the situation as traumatic was strongly positively correlated with the perception of the man as feminine.834 Step 2 is calculating the denominator: Σ(X – MX)2 = 10. the perception of the situation as traumatic was strongly negatively correlated with the perception of the woman as feminine.834)(2.834 = √(10. which indicates that those participants scoring above the mean on one variable also tended to score above the mean on the second variable (and likewise with the lowest scores).MX = 5.834) =√30. This relation is opposite that observed when the person was a man. When the person was a woman. Regardless of whether the person was a man or a woman. When the person was a man.833 MY = 2. The correlation indicates that a large positive relation exists between perceived trauma and perceived masculinity. this is a positive relation.
be sure to explain how you might operationalize these variables. having this belief. b. For example. these could be operationalized in many different ways. As this chapter is being written. Department of Education that standardized test scores were significantly higher among students in private schools than among students in public schools. parents’ education. For example. Some of these athletes also compete at the highest level in academics. and family income. There are a number of possible answers to this question. the difference between types of school disappeared when the researchers statistically controlled for related third variables including race. The researchers are suggesting that attending a private school causes a student to have better test scores. c.‖ 2006) cited a finding by the U. she may take note of traffic only when she is running late. leading her to believe that the amount of traffic correlates with how late she is. such as coincidence. with higher socioeconomic status causing both improved test scores and private school attendance. c. might explain her conclusion. superstition. Explain to your friend how other phenomena. Thus. It could be that those students who perform better on standardized tests tend to choose to go to private schools over public schools. the socioeconomic status of the student’s family may account for both better test scores and private school attendance. A friend tells you that there is a correlation between how late she’s running and the amount of traffic. She concludes that she’s cursed with respect to traffic. A New York Times editorial (―Public vs. gender. And when she has plenty of time. the traffic is sparser. reflecting a confirmation bias. Answer: a. the final championship series in college basketball in the United States. We could operationalize the amount of traffic as the number of minutes the car is being driven at less than the speed limit (given that your friend would normally drive right at the speed limit). March Madness. Of course. How could she quantify the relation between these two variables: the degree to which she is late and the amount of traffic? In your answer. Note that there are many possible third variables.S. a fair amount of research shows that athletes maintain decent grades and competitive graduation rates when . Private Schools. Furthermore. Although the stereotype of the dumb jock might be strong and everpresent. a. traffic conditions might be worse when your friend is running late. b. (Note: In the actual study. She tells you that this happens no matter what time of day she’s traveling or where she’s going. but that could be a coincidence. Because your friend is running late. she is likely more concerned about traffic than she otherwise would be. How could this correlation be explained by reversing the direction of hypothesized causality? Be specific. and the confirmation bias. is in full swing. a. There are many possible answers. 13-41. Whenever she’s going somewhere and she’s behind schedule. Answer: a. in the future she may think only of cases that confirm her belief that a relation exists between how late she is and traffic conditions. What are the researchers suggesting with respect to causality? b.13-39. How might a third variable account for this correlation? Be specific. we could operationalize the degree to which she is late as the number of minutes past her intended departure time that she gets in the car. b. Alternatively. 13-43. A more systematic study of the relation between your friend’s behavior and traffic conditions would be required before she could conclude that a relation exists. The national sports media and news media enjoy covering the games and including human interest stories about the young men and women who compete at this elite level. there’s a lot of traffic.
It appears that the data are somewhat positively correlated. Compute the Pearson correlation coefficient for these data. Create a scatterplot of these data and describe your impression of the relation between these variables based on the scatterplot. What would you need to do to make this an inferential statistic? Answer: a. including the GPA for each athlete and the average number of minutes played per game. b. Explain why the correlation coefficient you just computed is a descriptive statistic and not an inferential statistic.compared to nonathletes. a. Data are presented here for a hypothetical team. . c. Let’s play with some data to explore the relation between GPA and participation in athletics.
966 Step 2 is calculating the denominator: .b.54 MY = 2. Step 1 is calculating the numerator: MX = 16.86 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = 20. The Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated in three steps.
Answer: a.903 Step 3 is computing r: c. Did you know that sometimes you eat more just because the food is in front of you? Geier. Create a scatterplot of these data. such as people eat more M&M’s when they are dispensed using a big spoon compared with when a small spoon is used.899 = √(1279. an inferential analysis. Summarize your findings using Cohen’s guidelines. They discovered interesting things.117 = = 60. We computed the correlation for these data to explore whether there was a relation between GPA and playing time for the members of this team.Σ(X – MX)2 = 1279. soft pretzels and Tootsie Roll candies. Describe your impression of the relation between these variables based on the scatterplot.447)(2. Hypothetical data are presented below for the amount of candy presented in a bowl for customers to take and the amount of candy taken by the end of each day: a. Let’s explore this last phenomenon. They investigated this phenomenon with two other food products as well. d. b. 13-45. If we were interested in making a statement about athletes in general.447 Σ(Y – MY)2 = 2. . and Doros (2006) studied how portion size affected the amount people consumed. c. they are also valuable for restaurants and other reception areas where one might want to save money on the free candies offered by reducing customer consumption rates. Not only are their findings informative for individuals who might want to lose weight by reducing their food intake. we would want to collect more data from a random or representative sample and conduct a hypothesis test. Compute the Pearson correlation coefficient for these data.899) = √3709. Rozin.
These variables seem to be strongly positively correlated. c.b. Step 1 is calculating the numerator: MX = 76 MY = 32 Σ[(X – MX)(Y – MY)] = 4963 Step 2 is calculating the denominator: . such that small presentation sizes are paired with fewer pieces taken and large presentations are paired with more pieces of candy taken. The Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated in three steps.
829 = 5766.Σ(X – MX)2 = 16. . One might be able to save money on candy by always leaving just a small amount out for people to take.087)(2067) =√33. when a small amount of candy was presented.440 Step 3 is computing r: d. a smaller amount tended to be taken by people. in our data.861 is a strong correlation.251. we learned in the text that correlations of this magnitude are very rare in the social sciences. In fact. an r of 0. but when a larger amount of candy was presented. According to Cohen. a much greater amount tended to be taken. We can conclude that. Such a strong relation means that we could fit these data very well with a straight line.087 Σ(Y – MY)2 = 2067 = √(16.