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2005 - 2009

P.O. Box 63154 Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania Tel: 255 22 -2134603 Email: Website:

Prepared by the National Environment Management Council (NEMC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................ 4 FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................... 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................. 7 1.0. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 8 2.0. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE TANZANIAN CONTEXT .......... 9 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (EE) ........................................................9 GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF EE ............................................................................................ 10 PRINCIPLES GOVERNING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION............................................... 10 STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN TANZANIA ............................................... 11

3.0. RATIONALE FOR AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGY (NEECS) .................................................................. 13 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ......................................................... 13 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND STRATEGIES ......................................................................... 13 GROWTH, POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................... 15 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES .......................................................................................................... 16 GAPS AND CHALLENGES ........................................................................................................ 19 INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS............................................................................................ 19

4.0. THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN (NEECS) ............................20 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. VISION, MISSION AND GOAL ................................................................................................ 20 OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES .............................................................................................. 20 STRATEGIES, ACTIVITIES AND ACTION PLAN FOR THE (NEECS) .................................. 23 PRIORITY ISSUES ADDRESSED BY THE NEECS.................................................................. 32 POTENTIAL RESOURCES FOR STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION ........................................... 34 COORDINATION OF STAKEHOLDERS ................................................................................... 34 MONITORING AND EVALUATION......................................................................................... 36

5.0. CO-ORDINATION OF THE NEECS ....................................................................32

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................36 APPENDIX 1:EE RELATED POLICIES, ACTS AND STRATEGIES ..........................38 APPENDIX 2:KEY STAKEHOLDERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION .......39 APPENDIX 3: LIST OF INDIVIDUALS/ORGANIZATIONS PARTICIPATING IN PREPARATION OF NEECS............................................................................................ 41


Word used BCS CBS CSOs COSTECH Disadvantaged groups EE IKS IPP IUCN JET LGA LMS MAFS MDGs Media MNRT MoEC MSTHE MKUKUTA NACTE NEAP NECTA NEECS NGOs NEMC NEP NSGRP OUT Outreach PAs Personnel PRSP Private Sector PA PORALG SUA TAFIRI TAFORI TANAPA TIE Training Institutions UCLAS UDSM UNCED URT VPO WCED WSSD WWF Meaning Biodiversity Country Study Report of 1998 Country Biodiversity Study Civil Society Organizations (include local and international NGOs, as well as CBOs, groups of peoples organized for special purpose, and faith based organisations) Commission for Science and Technology Women, communities in unplanned habitations, nomads and small scale livestock keepers, artisanal fishermen and miners, people with micro-projects/activities Environmental Education Indigenous Knowledge Systems Industrial Productivity Promotion International Union for Conservation of Nature Journalist Environmental Association of Tanzania Local Government Authorities Learning Support Materials Ministry of Agriculture & Food Security Millennium Development Goals Journalists, televisions or television channels, radios, newspapers, magazines, information bureaus Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism Ministry of Education & Culture Ministry of Science, Technology & Higher Education Mkakati wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kuondoa Umaskini Tanzania ( second PRS NSGRP) National Accreditation Council for Technical Education National Environmental Action Plan National Examination Council of Tanzania National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy Non Governmental Organizations National Environment Management Council National Environment Policy National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (second PRS) Open University of Tanzania Extension activities agriculture, forestry, beekeeping, community development, & social welfare Staff working in game and national parks, marine parks, game reserves, zoo, sanctuaries, forest reserves, Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (for Tanzania) now replaced by NSGRP or MKUKUTA Industries, construction, trade, transportation, large scale farming, ranching, energy, fishing, mining, mama lishe, small-scale industries, etc Protected Areas Presidents Office Regional Administration and Local Government. Sokoine University of Agriculture Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute Tanzania Forestry Research Institute Tanzania National Parks Tanzania Institute of Education Universities; Institutions for training health, energy, agriculture, livestock development, forestry, fisheries, wildlife, rural development, technical and engineering, financial, social services, community development, etc University College of Lands and Architectural Studies University of Dar Es Salaam United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992 Rio Brazil) United Republic of Tanzania Vice Presidents Office. World Commission on Environmental and Development World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002 Johannesburg, South Africa) World Wide Fund for Nature

FOREWORD The Vice Presidents Office (VPO) in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and Culture is honoured to present to you the National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy (NEECS). This Strategy has been developed to harmonize and facilitate effective implementation of Environmental Education (EE) and communication processes with policies and strategies that focus on sustainable utilization of natural resources as well as sound environmental management in Tanzania. The new National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP), better known by its Kiswahili acronym MKUKUTA, has recognised this and includes environmental interventions to help achieve sustainable growth and poverty reduction. This includes the implementation of the new Environmental Management Act (EMA 2004) which provides statutory direction regarding environmental awareness, education and public participation in environmental decision making. The need and importance of Environmental Education and communication has been emphasized in various national policies and strategies, as well as various pronouncements from international fora including the International Conference on Environment in Stockholm 1972, UNESCO`s International, Environmental Education Conference in Tbilisi 1977, Brundtland report of 1987, Rio Earth Summit of 1992 commonly known as the UNCED and the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development of 2001. The NEECS is aimed at complementing the implementation of several national policies, strategies and international commitments and opening up avenues for EE practitioners throughout the country to share experiences. The NEECS has been positioned to support the implementation of the MKUKUTA communication strategy in sharing knowledge and experiences on poverty-environment linkages. The NEECS is also expected to assist in sharing the successes and exposing problems encountered in the implementation of EE processes and increase networking among various key players in education and environmental management. EE is one of the tools for improving the quality of life of Tanzanians and achieving the medium and long term national development goals and targets spelt out in Vision 2025, the Millennium Declaration, and MKUKUTA as it provides knowledge which contributes to change of attitude and practice of individuals and the society at large. Development of this strategy has concided with the declaration of UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (2005 2015). It is hoped that it will play a major role in marking this

decade with a success in showing best practices from our country showing on how EE has contributed to developing programmes which promote sustainable development principles. It is our sincere hope that this Strategy will be effectively used for facilitating, environmental management as well as opening up new avenues for networking and exchange of experiences among EE practitioners in this country. We need a healthy environment to survive and therefore sustainable management of our environment and natural resources is our fundamental responsibility.. The key to effective management and conservation of natural resources lies in the commitment and participation of all people. As individuals or groups we must make environmentally sound decisions and adapt environmentally sound practices. The Environment Management Act number 20 of 2004 spells explicitly that environmental education is a statutory requirement for bringing about sound environmental and natural resources utilization in Tanzania. Each one of us should strive to live in a healthy and well conserved environment and participate in planning and following up the implementation of various environmental programmes. This strategy proposes a number of programmes and mechanisms on how to bring about an environmentally informed society with ethical values and strives to live in a clean and healthy environment. Environment is heritage for all generations.

Mrs Mary Mushi Permanent Secretary, Vice Presidents Office, P.O. Box 9121, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Dr Naomi Katunzi Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture, P.O. Box 5380, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) would like to thank the National Environmental Education Committee, Government Ministries, Agencies, Academic and Training Institutions, NGOs and individuals who participated in the [preparation of this strategy. The collaborative and participatory development of this Strategy is a milestone in an effort to enhance, stimulate and harmonise EE practitioners activities to support national efforts to sustainably utilize natural resources for attaining improved quality of life of present and future generations The Council extends its appreciation and gratitude to all government departments, government agencies, non-governmental institutions and all EE practitioners who contributed financial and material resources which made preparation of this strategy a reality. The VPO and the National Environment Management Council salutes the SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme (SADC-REEP) for funding the preparation of this strategy and its continued support in enhancing environmental education processes in the region and Tanzania in particular. We would also like to thank UNDP (through the Poverty Environment Programme) for providing funds for finalization and printing of this document. We are also indebted to the facilitators Mr. Stephen Mariki of WWF and Mr. Bernard Bakobi of SADC-REEC who facilitated the first and second national consultative workshops respectively as well as all reviewers who reviewed various drafts of this document. All members of the National EE Committee and several other EE practitioners who participated in various meetings are acknowledged for their inputs. Special thanks are extended to all staff of the Directorate of Environmental Information, Communication and Outreach (DEICO) of NEMC for their tireless efforts in organizing all meetings and workshops as well as word processing and editing all drafts of this strategy It is not easy to mention all those who in one way or the other contributed to the realization and production of this strategy, their efforts and inputs are highly acknowledged and appreciated.

Dr M.A.K. Ngoile Director General - NEMC



The United Republic of Tanzania (URT) covers an area of 945,000km2. The countys diversity is not only in terms of its physiographic, climatic and biodiversity endowments but also cultural, social and economic endeavours. Tanzanias wildlife resources are among the richest in the world. The protected area (PA) networks (national parks, game reserves, Conservation Area and forest reserves) cover about 40% of the total land area, and they are potential generators of national income from tourism, hunting, fishing and other activities2. The economy of Tanzania is wholly dependent on the countrys environment and natural resources.. Over 66% of the GDP is realised from agriculture, forestry, , fisheries, livestock, water, energy, tourism and mining activities. Vulnerability from natural environmental risks such as drought and floods affect many people in the country. Likewise poor environmental sanitation, waste management and pollution impact on many communities, and affect the poorest and most vulnerable sections of society. . Education and awareness on these issues is essential. In terms of culture, Tanzania is unified by the national language Kiswahili and the cultural interactions existing among the people. However, the existing diversity in culture is a manifestation of community ethnicity most of whose livelihoods still depends on nature and its natural resources. The development of NEECS and its Action Plan should be seen as an endeavour to enhance, stimulate, harmonise players activities and consequently facilitate a national effort to utilise and maintain the natural resources for future generation while increasing and sustaining the national development motive. NEECS provides a stimulus for positive engagement. It:Defines and sets goals, objectives and principles of carrying out EE in Tanzania Identifies and categorizes the key players in EE Delineates key mechanisms for achieving the objectives of the NEECS

URT, 1998, CBS

Provides an operational framework for the NEECS Identifies and recommends institutional arrangements Provides a foundation for the general Action Plan and players implementation plans Promotes sustainable development and reduction of poverty in Tanzania 2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE TANZANIAN CONTEXT

In Tanzania education in its broadest sense is recognized as a pre-requisite for individual and national development and as an important tool for maintaining and/or transforming the status quo. Education is a life-long process that leads to an informed and involved citizenry having the creative problem-solving skills, scientific, economic and social literacy in order to attain sustainable development initiatives. Education enables one to develop commitment to engage in responsible individual and cooperative actions that will ensure an environmentally sound and economically prosperous future. 2.1 Definition of Environmental Education (EE)

EE is a constantly evolving field of study with no universal definition. Experts have agreed to refer to Environmental Education Processes rather than EE as an entity. The processes concept draws attention to the multiple forms of EE, the evolving fluidity of the concept and the openendedness of EE aims and methods3. In the context of Tanzania, EE could be viewed as: A life-long process whereby individuals and the whole Tanzanian society acquire knowledge, develop ethics and become environmentally aware/conscious, responsive and acquire relevant skills in identifying, managing, monitoring, evaluating and solving environmental issues and problems. Environmental Education as a paradigm EE has been developed on the five hinges: behaviourist perspectives (seeking to change behaviour and making people aware);

experiential learning perspectives (seeking to educate/learn through experiences in nature); constructivist perspectives (whereby learners create or construct meaning for themselves); socially critical perspectives (the concern is the social processes in creating knowledge and critical intervention for change) and

Le Roux 1997

outcomes-based education (where the focus is on outcomes and managing education for societys economic development). 2.2 Goal and Objectives of Environmental Education and Communication (EE and C) that is

The overall Goal of EE and communication is to develop an informed citizenry

environmentally conscious and motivated to actively participate in managing and sustainably utilizing its environment. The Objectives of EE and communication are several depending on different situations. However, for the purpose of NEECS the objectives are to ensure that: The society is aware and conscious of the environmental concerns and take the

necessary actions/measures to resolve them Resources are identified and mobilized to initiate and support self-sustaining EE initiatives Knowledge, methods and skills are acquired to facilitate informed and environmentally sound decision for judicious utilization of resources. Environmental knowledge and information is timely properly packaged and disseminated /communicated to target audiences for facilitating informed decision making using appropriate communication channels The society is motivated to voluntarily make environmental sound decisions.


Principles Governing Environmental Education and Communication:

Due to the dynamics of environmental and development aspirations, various principles have been developed. The NEECS: (1) Should promote a clean and safe environment as a basic right for all people (because we are all users and consumers) based on meeting everyones needs regardless of locality, economic status, political bias, gender, age, belief, physical or mental differences (2) Should develop local and national citizenry which is conscious of concerns for developmental endeavours without compromising the environment4 (3) Should create mutual avenues or consolidate partnership and networking at all levels (4) Should take a holistic approach with an interdisciplinary focus on the needs of human beings, and the nature at large while safeguarding the resource base.

Brundtland Report, 1987


(5) Should recognize, respect and utilize indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) as well as promote cultural and ecological diversities (6) Should recognize the great role played by the mass media as the main channel for disseminating information to the greater audience of Tanzania. (7) Should recognize the process of changing attitudes and behaviour as a key factor towards rational utilization of environmental resources.. (8) Should value all different forms of knowledge. Knowledge is diverse, cumulative and socially produced and should not be patented or monopolised (9) Should treat local, national and cross-border issues, their primary causes and interrelationships in a systematic approach within the historical, cultural, and socio-economic settings. 2.4 Status of Environmental Education in Tanzania

EE has a long history in Tanzania. In 1967, when the Arusha declaration was pronounced by the late Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere it had a strong bias on education for self reliance. It had a motive of education for production and schools were supposed to be centres of production including farming and other artisanal skills. Environment and natural resources management was not given the emphasis it deserved. For many years, however EE has been implemented through sector-orientedprogrammes including agriculture, forestry and community development outreach or extension programmes. The current EE initiatives began in the early 1990s through the programmes launched by NEMC, Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT) and the World Wide for Nature (WWF) Tanzania. The overall goal of these programmes was to use education to bring about attitudinal change and environmental stewardship d rational utilization of natural resources for eradicating poverty and bringing about sustainable development.. The initiatives began with awareness raising programmes for officials of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), school inspectors, teacher educators, heads of schools and a few teachers. Thereafter the Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE) incorporated elements of EE in the primary and secondary school curricula. There were also initiatives to introduce environmentally related subjects at the University of Dar es Salaam some of which to datehave become full fledged degree programme. Examples include courses on environmental engineering and management of natural resources at the University of Dar Es Salaam (UDSM), and environmental related disciplines as well as short and long-term courses at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and the Open University of Tanzania. (OUT).


Figure 1: Procession during World Environment Day Celebrations (5th June 2001) in Dar es Salaam

There are also more than one hundred NGOs which implement environmental awareness raising programmes in the country. These complement government efforts towards bringing about enlighten the society about the importance of environment and natural resources management . Communicating about environmental issues through media cannot be underestimated. In recent years (late nineties), a number of environmental programmes were prepared and aired by media houses through radio, television and print media.. Some of such programmes include Mazingira yetu by ITV and Urithi wetu by the Tanzania proadcasting corporation and an environment page in the Guardian daily newspapers. Many people have regarded the radio as the cheapest and effective channel for communicating environmental information. To date there are a number of radio and TV environmental programmes, which are either sponsored by media owners or environmental institutions. Introduction of a degree programme for mass communication at a constituent college of the University of Dar es Salaam (the former Tanzania School of Journalism) is a positive and commendable decision towards communicating the environment effectively. In general, the Tanzanian community has become more environmentally aware during the last three decades. There has been several incidences where the public comes out clearly to demand explanations on why certain issues like sanitation, polluting factories or industries and other environmental issues affecting them are either not addressed. In some cases, the public has gone to the extent of suing the government. The case of Dar es Salaam (Vingunguti) and Moshi and Tanga residents suing the Government on issues related to dumpsire location, location of pesticide plant near residential areas and dumping of waste (respectively) are some of the cases showing increased level of environmental awareness and recognition of their right to clean and safe environment. The United Nations has pronounced that years 2005 to 2015 as the UN decade for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). EE is one of the tools for realizing sustainable utilization of


environmental and natural resources. Thus the operationalization of this strategy is one of the ways for marking the UN decade for ESD 3.0 RATIONALE FOR AN ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY (NEECS) EDUCATION AND

Formulation of NEECS is a response to a number of factors. First, the dynamism, diversity and complexity of environmental issues and problems are a prime element to reckon with. Second, government pronouncements, international obligations, decrees and agreements, and the necessity for bringing key players and target audiences closer. Third, the multitude of players over and above the existing gaps, overlaps, and duplications coupled with the indeterminate means for sharing or utilizing meagre resources, the necessity to create or enhance partnerships and networks, and other factors for wide-ranging conservation of the environment. Some of the major factors, which are critical in our country, are discussed briefly below. 3.1 Environment and sustainable development

According to the National Environment Policy (NEP) Tanzania is faced with six major environmental problems. These are: 1) Land degradation; 2) Lack of accessible, good quality water for urban and rural inhabitants; 3) Loss of wildlife habitats and biodiversity; 4) Deterioration of aquatic systems; 5) Deforestation; and 6) Environmental pollution The NEP as a framework policy document addresses environmental challenegs facing our country and provides the platform for making fundamental changes that are needed to bring environmental considerations into the mainstream of decision-making. It also provides policy guidelines, plans, and the determination of priority actions, as well as monitoring and regular review of policies, plans and programmes. Furthermore it provides for sectoral and crosssectoral policy analysis in order to achieve compatibility among sectors and interest groups and therefore exploit synergies among them. The NEP has now led to the development of the Environmental Management Act of 2004, which provides a legal framework for the promotion of sustainable development and establishment of environmental units in all sectors and ministries as conduits of linkages and collaboration in spearheading rational utliziation of environmental and natural resources. Thus one of the central objectives of this education strategy is:

To raise public awareness and understanding of the essential linkages between environment and development through incorporating EE in education system and to promote collective and individual action
3.2 Some of the Government policies and strategies related to EE

Since the Stockholm Conference on environment in 1972, the Government has prepared a number of policies, enacted a number of legislation and initiated several programmes which address environmental and natural resources management. In 1983, the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) enacted the NEM Act in 1983 in order to streamline and enhance environmental management in the country. One of the objectives for establishing NEM Act was to create an enlightened Tanzanian society by undertaking awareness


and sensitization programmes, acquisition and dissemination of information, and training. There are also several sectoral legislation like forestry, wildlife, land, water and many others which address sectoral environmental; components. The recent enacted Environmental Management Act (EMA 2004) has further strengthened the focus on environmental education and the need for increased participation by the people of Tanzania in environmental decision making and programmes development and implementation. EMA 2004 has clearly spelled out that EE and information are key tools in environmental decision making and management. Some of the National policies and Policy documents which address EE and awareness issues are: Education and Training Policy (1995), National Higher Education Policy (1999) and Science and Technology Policy (1996 The policies in the education sector include Education and Training Policy (1995), National Higher Education Policy (1999) and Science and Technology Policy (1996). The provisions of these policies form an overall goal of the education sector, which is to ensure provision of quality education. They also address issues of access and equity at all levels of education. One of the aims of the Education and Training Policy among others , is to

enable a rational use, management and conservation of the environment 5.

National Forest Policy (1998) The National Forest Policy (1998) focuses on the conservation and development of the forest sector in the country. The policy acknowledges that public participation and education and environmental management must be everybodys responsibility 6. It further expounds7: To ensure

increased awareness and skills amongst the people on conservation, management and utilization of forest resources, the capability of the forest extension services will be strengthened.
National Beekeeping Policy (1998) The National Beekeeping Policy (1998) concentrates on enhancing sustainable contribution of the beekeeping sector for socio-economic development and environmental conservation. Like the above policy it articulates trained extension services to increase awareness and skills National Land Policy (1995) The purpose of the National Land Policy (1995) is to promote sound land management.

Protect land resources from degradation for sustainable development.

National Fisheries Sector Policy(1997) The EE components in the National Fisheries Sector Policy and Strategy Statement (1997) include training and education, community participation and fisheries information management. Wildlife Policy of Tanzania (1998) Although the Wildlife Policy of Tanzania (1998) and Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) Act centre on wildlife protection, the management approach for protected areas (PAs) in Tanzania is the involvement of communities, private sector and other stakeholders through environmental education.
6 7

Ministry of Education and Culture, 1995, p.2

National Forest Policy, 1998, p.5 Ibid, p.45


Agriculture and livestock sector policies While the agriculture and livestock sector policies address extension services, the population, water, mining, energy, industrial, transport and health policies promote awareness and sensitization on various environmental issues Tanzania Development Vision 2025 One of the elements to achieve A Strong and Competitive Economy by 2025 is stated by The Tanzania Development Vision 2025. It is envisaged; inter alia, that fast growth will be pursued while effectively reversing current adverse trends in the loss and degradation of environmental resources and the accumulation of hazardous substances 8. It accentuates that development mindset and empowering culture will be realized inter alia by education as a strategic change agent. (1) Integration of EE topics in primary and secondary school curricula done by TIE and MoEC as well as the incorporation of environmental topics in tertiary and higher institutions of learning, are part of the many efforts made by the Government of Tanzania that have to be borne by the NEECS. (2) In order to address environmental issues, several programmes and strategies such as Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP) and Public Service Reform Programme (PSRP); and The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) require inputs from NEECS.

Figure 2: Afforestion is one of the major activity of NGOs, CBOs and local level institutions like schools schools as seen in the picture taken from one of the schools in Udzungwa. This has been one of the main school activities after several awareness raising campaigns and training


Growth, poverty and environment

A key recent development has been the preparation of the MKUKUTA (the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty). This has mainstreamed environment in this important strategy that sets the overarching framework on national efforts from 2005 to 2010 on achieving

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025, 2000, p. 14 & 19


higher and sustainable levels of growth and reduction of poverty. Poverty9 is a widespread phenomenon and has marked effects on environmental and EE. NEECS is expected to contribute to the MKUKUTA through increased awareness and understanding on the links between poverty and the environment. Poverty is perceived by many as both a cause and consequence of environmental degradation. People who lack adequate resources have little alternatives and are likely to over-use their environment. Therefore, the issue is how poverty

impacts the environment and how a degraded environment reinforces poverty are two mutually interrelated processes. The current thinking of Education for Sustainable
Development (ESD)10 embraces EE as one of its components which sensitizes people to refrain from depleting natural resources and to reclaim and restore degraded areas. Cross-cutting issues Environmental issues and problems cut across all disciplines and sectors of human life. The broad sectors are culture, socio-economic issues, politics, education, IKS and many others. In the Tanzanian perspective poverty impacts negatively on the quality of life and thus its eradication, is of paramount importance. Without education for the populace to make informed decisions in use of environmental and natural resources, the fight to eradicate poverty would be futile. Other crosscutting issues include health particularly HIV/AIDS, water, gender, energy, science and technology, population, politics and democracy and empowerment through participation. 1) Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) the IKS are not simply handing down customary wisdom or passively accumulated knowledge that has been collected throughout generations in the course of arbitrary variations of trials and error but is a considerable proportion which comes out of experiential changes, adaptation and local testing. In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) proclaimed that indigenous people were repositories of accumulations of traditional knowledge and experience. The EE should thus take cognizance of IKS as a body of knowledge and a component of social processes of linking humanity with its ancient origins carrying forward the treasure of knowledge to enhance and facilitate rational utilization and conservation of natural resources. 2) Health the standard of living of any society is influenced by the health of its people. The occurrence of diseases, especially those directly associated with the environment, is a sign of low knowledge on environmental issues. Diseases like cholera, malaria, sleeping sickness, dysentery and schistosomiasis are related to environmental sanitation. EE should be able to assist people by raising their awareness on how to control such diseases and avoiding the future occurrence. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a global problem that has so far failed to get effective cure. It is associated with ill health and burden to care for the sick and ophans which in some cases lead to the affected resorting to income generating activities which degrade the environment. It also reduces manpower in all sectors including environmental educators thus intensification of poverty. The consequences lead into a hoop of huge number of problems worsening efforts to take care of the environment. 3) Water the non-availability of quality water for various uses is an issue that affects health and development activities. Moreover the non-availability of water for various

Poverty alleviation and eradication has been given prominence by many forums e.g. Agenda 21 (1992), Millennium Development Goals, WSSD the Johannesburg Declaration and Plan of Implementation (2002), World Conference on Education for All and the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All 10 ESD is a new thinking that emanated from the World Conference on Education for All, Jomtein, Thailand (1990) and endorsed by The Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All


developmental activities is a problem affecting social, agricultural and industrial production. EE provides skills for conservation of water resources and facilitate search for alternative means of getting more water and related use related technologies like water harvesting and storage, water values for habitats, biodiversity and species promulgation as well as keeping water clean and safe. 4) Gender traditionally in many Tanzanias communities, women are still responsible for most of the household chores. Gender roles subject women to activities like fetching water, fuel-wood and collection of vegetable, herbs and fruits thus interacting with teir environment and natural resources more often than men. This creates special need for women to be knowledgeable on sustainable utilization of natural resources and their environment Furthermore, most ownership of natural resources such as land in most parts of our country is a man dominated according to customary setting. Although this is slowly changing, there is need for long term awareness raising so as to make conservation issues more effective. For example planting trees done by women on a piece of clan land needs to get a blessing for the owner of that piece of land. Thus, EE is expected to take on board gender equity and expose different gender groups and how they can contribute to development and conservation of resources and environmental management in general. 5) Energy generation and use of energy is affecting many sectors. Energy is essential for household survival, in industrial production, communication, hospital processes, schools and many other developmental activities. Conversely energy sources, generation and use processes can have devastating impacts on the environment if not well planned and mitigation measures are not well thought to minimise the impacts. Then the role of EE in energy processes cannot be underrated as a crosscutting issue in addressing the negative impacts related to energy generation and use of energy resources. Population understanding population dynamics and their impacts on socio-economic development and natural resource base quality is a prerequisite for attaining balanced sustainable development of any given country. Tanzania mainland has about 34.5 million (2002 census)). About 75% of the population lives in rural areas where poverty is widespread. Also poor social services and poor production technologies in rural areas lead to rural urban migration. There is a direct correlation between population growth and resources consumption. The higher the population the more the demand for resources (both natural and man-made). Increased The place of EE in enhancing the quality of peoples life, to provide knowledge for strengthening rational resources utilization and conservation efforts at grass-root level to reduce environmental degradation 7) Politics and democracy Tanzania cherishes good governance and the rule of law in the processes of development and social welfare of the people. However, conservation of the environment in its holistic terms is a new paradigm that is yet to be fully comprehended. There are important issues to consider in terms of environmental governance namely: Full articulation of environmental concerns by all Tanzanians Political will at all levels from the lowest planning level (village and hamlet) to national apex to embrace rational resources use and environmental management principles during decision making, planning and implementation of developmental activities.



Involvement and participation of people in all matters pertaining to environmental management Availing and providing knowledge through information, development of skills and environmental values Sensitize all Tanzanians to understand and use their right to demand for any information so that they can make informed decisions (e.g query on any activity taking place within their areas whether it will have an impact on their lives be it positive or negative) . 9) Empowerment through participation the notion of community empowerment ia articulated in most of the national policies. Thus, for people to attain power over their natural resources and get actively involved in environmental management they should participate in planning, execution and evaluation of actions performed in their environment. Effective environmental management and change of peoples livelihoods will require life long EE. Before people can actively participate in any activity they must have the knowledge and skills (EE) which will facilitate them to change of the attitude (which EE does) so as to play a active role in implementing the desired activities. Environmental education plays a major role in this aspect.

Figure 3: Soil Erosion as seen in Isimila in Iringa Region. Environmental education is geared towards imparting knowledge which should lead to changing attitudes in the way we use our natural resources


Science and technology Tanzania is living in a technological changing world. In every field of life there are always new technological inventions, studies and researches coming up with new findings and the dynamic nature of the environment. The NEECS is expected to sensitize the society on the new discoveries for keeping abreast with the world and utilizing them to hasten developmental processes. Transfer of technology and knowledge on best practices in natural resources use and increased for sustainable development of our country

Adapting international pronouncements and agreements into the Tanzanian Context There are a number of international commitments and agreements to which Tanzania is a party to. In efforts to domesticate and operationalize these agreements, there is need for senstizing the society on how they will benefit through implementing these agreements. Issues like ratifying and developing programmes to implement such agreements require aggressive awareness raising to



increase the understanding and hence participation of the society in fulfilling national and international obligations in relation to such agreements. 3.4 Gaps and challenges

a. Fragmented approaches elements of EE have many players with different approaches so creating fragmentation in its delivery. There are several government ministries and NGOs which are implementing environmental management programmes. There are also several training institutions(universities and colleges) with environmental training. Overseeing and coordinating the implementation is important to ensure complementarity rather than duplication of efforts. b. Inadequate resources resources allocation for EE and communication in a number of ministries and agencies are limited. The constraints embrace inadequate financial, human and technical resources. However formation of working groups can facilitate formation of network(s) and database(s) which can solicit for resources to undertake training and project wrte ups and lobbying groups getting adequate budgetary allocations for the desired activities . c. Ineffective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms various players carry out a number of EE initiatives. However, monitoring and evaluation of such initiatives have been limited and wher they are done they are limitedly disseminate to inform other initiatives. There is need to form networks for communicating experiences of different EE programmes 3.5 International obligations

Tanzania has been actively involved in international fora whose foci have bearings on EE. Some of these have come up with agreements that states have committed themselves to undertake. Important agreements and fora include the Belgrade Charter of 1975, Tbilisi Principles of 1977, the NGO Forum Principles, Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 (1992), various agreements on sustainable use of natural resources Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Climate Change, Ramsar etc, SADC EE Policy Initiative (EEPI) of 1995 and the WSSD the Johannesburg Declaration and Plan of Implementation (2002) the framework for action to implementation of Agenda 21. The international forums on education also have strong focus on a better environment. For example, the Millennium Development Goals address, inter alia, eradication of poverty, ensuring environmental sustainability, and promotion of gender equality. The World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtein, Thailand (1990) that was endorsed at the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, focuses on education for sustainable development (ESD). The themes for the UN Declaration on ESD (UNDoESD) include, inter alia, overcoming poverty, gender equality, environmental conservation and protection and health promotion. In all forums the requirements for formulation of educational strategies and action plans were discussed and agreed upon. This NEECS is one of the strategies for operationalising the imp[lamentation of such agreements.




a. Vision Create an environmentally conscious Tanzanian through provision of knowledge and skills to facilitate environment management and sustainable development b. Mission Harmonized implementation of EE processes commensurate with operational environmental related policies and legal frameworks focusing on sustainable resource utilization. 4.2 Objectives and Strategies

Objective 1: Develop and Enhance Environmental Knowledge and Skills

of EE practitioners
Strategies: (1) Analyse critical environmental education issues and categorise them (1) Prepare a database of all EE practitioners and areas/fields of their activities (2) Plan and develop training of trainers programmes according to different EE fields (formal, non formal, communication etc) (3) Build the capacity of key players in implementation of EE activities (knowledge competency and skills ) (4) Plan and initiate new EE activities

Objective 2: Enhancing and Improving Awareness and Sensitization of the

Public at Large on Environmental Issues

Strategies: (1) Update the state of EE activities in the country and prioritize environmental issues problems and links between poverty and environment. (2) Identify and categorize target audiences (3) Design and formulate relevant EE programmes for specific target audiences (4) Identify programme implementing agencies and lobby for their implementation (5) Define communication channels to be used to be used to disseminate relevant information

Objective 3: Developing and Improving Human Resources on

Environmental Education Management

Strategies: (1) Identify EE facilitators and categorise them (2) Assess and identify the training needs of EE facilitators (3) Develop training programme for EE facilitators


(4) Train facilitators based on their categories and channels to be used (5) Train media personnel on basic environmental knowledge

Objective 4: Enhancing Support and Commitment in Environmental

Strategies: (1) Identify potential support system on environmental management (e.g. politicians, communities, schools, faith based organization, NGOs, CBOs etc) s (2) Identify the contribution of each group to EE and environmental management (3) Develop awareness raising and sensitization programme for different identifies systems/groups (4) Support development of their EE programmes

Figure 4: Water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria is one of the major challenges for conservation in Tanzania

Objective 5: Institutionalise EE in the formal and non formal EE

Strategies: (1) Identify environmental related policies and programmes (2) Appraise the state of affairs implementing institutions which institution implement which policy and how (3) Work with institutions to integrate environmental issues/EE within their programmes e.g school curricula etc (4) Develop guidelines for implementing EE in relevant institutions. (5) Disseminate the guidelines to different institutions (6) Determine and initiate suitable coordination frameworks for implementing EE activities

Objective 6: Monitor the implementation of EE in different institutions

Strategies: (1) Develop EE monitoring tools.


(2) (3) (4) (5)

Train facilitators on how to use the tools Use the tools to collect data on EE implementation Monitor , document and disseminate results on EE implementation in the country Communicate the environment using all available and appropriate media

Objective 7: Impact Assessment , Monitoring and Evaluating EE activities

in the country
Strategies: (1) Develop impact assessment tools (2) Carry out assessment of EE activities in relation to environmental management in the country (3) Analyse the findings and draw out success stories, best practices and lessons learnt (4) Use the results to improve EE strategies.



Strategies, Activities and Action Plan for the (NEECS) Strategy Implementing mechanisms* Audience Key Executor(s) MoEC, MSTHE, NGOs, VPO, NEMC, PORALG Time span Start End 2005 2006

Objective 1: Develop and Enhance Environmental Knowledge and Skills of EE practitioners Government Ministries, , Training 1.1 Analyse critical 1) Identify environmental issues in relation to environmental issues formal, informal (awareness) and non formal Institutions, NGOs, Private and categorise them education Sector, Media, Protected Areas 2) Identify training needs of key players (PAs) personnel; Outreach 3) Prepare proposals for soliciting resources for personnel training Government Ministries, Schools, 1.2 Prepare a database 1) Design and develop database of institutions Training Institutions, NGOs, of all EE practitioners and personnel working / implementing Private Sector, Media, Protected and areas/fields of formal, non formal and informal Areas (PAs) personnel; Outreach their activities environmental programmes personnel , media 2) Identify gaps in terms of issues and capacity 3) Develop programmes to fill gaps (e.g developing Training Manuals, training of trainers 4) Acquiring and distributing effectual materials 5) Linking and disseminating developed databases to other developmental initiatives and programmes 1.3 Plan and develop 1) Prepare and Develop detailed training and Government Ministries, Schools, training of trainers awareness raising programmes for targeted key Training Institutions, NGOs, programmes players Private Sector, personnel; according to different 2) Facilitate development of their EE and Outreach personnel, Media EE fields (formal, non environmental management programmes formal, informal, communication and outreach) 1.4 Plan and initiate new 1) Identify EE research and activity areas Government Ministries, Schools EE activities 2Lobby for partnerships with training and and Colleges, Tertiary Training research institutions and Research Institutions, Private 3) Publicize research findings on EE and Sector, Media environmental management through media,networks etc.

NEMC, MoEC, , MSTHE, NGOs, VPO, various national and local level programmes






NEMC, MSTHE, MoEC, COSTECH< Research and Training Institutions




Implementing mechanisms*


Key Executor(s)

Time span Start End

Objective 2: Enhancing and Improving Awareness and Sensitization of the Public at Large on Environmental Issues
2.1 Update the state 1) Consulting documents, institutions and of EE activities in organizations, including MKUKUTA for EE the country and actions on poverty-environment linkages. prioritize 2) Verifications through surveys and sector specific environmental issues forums on how environmental issues are problems and links examined and assessed in the formal education between poverty and system environment 3) Categorization and prioritization of environmental issues to be addressed in different institutions 4) Periodical documentation of the State of Environment Education Activities and contribution of different groups to environmental management and poverty eradication 5) Documenting and disseminating EE reports and policy briefs 2.2 Identify and 1) Studies and inventories of target audiences and categorize target their EE and poverty information needs in audiences relation to the implementation of the materials MKUKUTA communication strategy. information and 2) Consultations with sector specific institutions awareness needs and organizations on how they implement their sector specific awareness and extension 3) Categorize their sector specific awareness raising target specific needs 4) Faciliate programmes development MDAs, Agencies, NGOs, Private Sector VPO, NEMC,MoEC, PORALG, NECTA and Examining Bodies 2005 2007

Sector Ministries, MDA, Private sector and Civil society

VPO, NEMC, Sector Ministries PORALG




Strategy 2.3

Implementing mechanisms*

Audience MDAs, communities, civil society

Key Executor(s) VPO, NEMC, Sector Ministries, NGOs, Local Governments, NACTE, NECTA

Identify 1) Facilitate development of EE programmes and programme implementation plans in key institutions implementing 2) Organize workshops for designing guidelines agencies and and manuals on developing EE and lobby for their communication awareness programmes implementation 3) Identification of best practices in dissemination and Define of EE and awareness information and communication publishing these as learning materials and channels to be distribute them to dissemination centres (e.g. used to be used Farmers Training Centres, Teacher Resource to disseminate Centres (TRC) Community Centres and Ward relevant Libraries, and media ) information Propose, test and document selected effective communication channels to be used in different localities/zones within the country

Time span Start End 2006 2007


1) Identify various communication channels in Government Ministries schools, Training institutions, NGOs, different localities in the country Private Sector, , Media. 2) Assess the effective communication channels and how they fit in local context 3) Publish and disseminate inventories of different communication channels for dissemination of environmental information to the different target audiences in different localities in Tanzania. 4) Identify, designate special environmental days of the years and put up mechanisms for commemorating them (nationally, regionally and at local levels)

2005 NEMC, PORALG, UDSM (Mass Comm.) NGOs, MoEC, VPO



Strategy 2.5 Raise awareness of different decision makers on available poverty and environmental information and how to access it.

Implementing mechanisms* 1) Training forums using various methods (seminars, workshops, study visits, projects, meetings, demonstrations, etc) 2) Promotion and support to conservation Clubs (e.g. youths, schools, action projects etc) 3) Facilitate organization of different Exhibitions, and periodic events 4) Dissemination of EE and poverty information through media 5) Facilitate preparation and disseminate a booklet on national and international special environmental days calendar of events (e.g. World Environment Day, National tree Planting Day, World Wetland Day)

Audience General public, resource use groups and associations, faith based groups, civil society

Key Executor(s) NEMC, VPO NGOs, NEEC, Media, PORALG, MoEC

Time span Start End 2006 2009

Objective 3: Developing and improving human resources on environmental education management 3.1 Identify EE 1) Identifying and categorising key players in formal, no Sector ministries, NECTA, facilitators formal and informal education systems NACTE, Financial institutions, and - Soliciting funds for training them in advocacy and Private sector, Media categorise lobbying, environmental marketing skills them and 2) Develop programme for advocacy amnd train them mobilization of funds

VPO, MoEC, NEMC, MoHEST, Media, Private Sector, UDSM (Mass communication)




Strategy 3.2 Develop framework training programme for EE practitioner s

Implementing mechanisms* 1) Identification of different groups /targets to be trained (as per needs assessment) 2) Formulation of curricula/programmes 3) Developing training materials 4) Testing materials 5) Developing environmental award schemes for different /sector or group (eg schools, municipalities, colleges etc) specific zones with specific/similar environmental issues 6) Inventory of type of environmental questions examined over a decade in selected school subjects in primary and secondary school Examinations (practical and theory). 7. Inventory and documenting Print and electronic media programmes/articles on environment from selected media houses 8) Identify and disseminate available information on EE and poverty eradication learning centres like botanical gardens, nature and parks and reserves, herbaria, 1) Identify EE facilitators in MDAs, and other institutions. 2). Categorise them based on their training needs 3) Develop training programme for EE facilitators 4) Organize periodic training

Audience Teachers, School Inspectors, tutors and trainers, School Committees, Extension staff and Outreach personnel; Journalists; Personnel from industries, big farms and other enterprises, NACTE and NECTA

Key Executor(s) VPO, MoEC, NEMC, Sector Ministries, TIE, NEEC , Local Governments Private Sector, NECTA, NACTE and Examining Institution/bodies

Time span Start End 2005 2009

3.3 Develop training programme for EE facilitators and train them based on their categories and channels to be used

MoEC, faith based groups, TIE, Adult Education, NGOs, Resource use associations, District Environmental coordinators, Media

VPO, MoEC, NEMC, Sector Ministries, TIE,




Strategy 3.3 Train Media personnel on basic environmen tal reporting

Implementing mechanisms*


Key Executor(s) JET, NEMC, NGOs, CBOs, NEEC. Tanzania Media Council, UDSM

Journalists and Media houses, 1) Identify training needs for media media editors (gate keepers) 2) Develop training programme for media 3) Organize Environmental reporting skills training seminars and workshops 4) Sensitization processes 5) Environmental reporting competitions and awards for best environmental reporters Collaborate with media Houses to develop and air media programmes 1) Identification and prioritization of the critical segments in the political, social and economic arena 2) Assess contribution of each group to environmental management 3) Designing and formulation of suitable programmes for EE faciliators in lobbying key officials and those who matter e.g. political and government officials, members of parliament, councillors etc 4) Identification of ideal venues and for a for sensitizing them and lobbying 5) Identification and prioritization the critical audiences to be sensitized 6) Implementing strategic and target specific awareness raising activities Politicians , Parliamentarians, Councillors, parties affiliated organizations, Ministers, Permanent, Secretries

Time span Start End 2006 2009

Objective 4: Enhancing Support and Commitment in Environmental Management

4.1 Identify potential support system on environmental management (e.g. politicians, communities, schools, faith based organization, NGOs, CBOs etc) s VPO, NEMC, NGOs, donors 2005 2009


Identify the 1) Organizing Advocacy and Lobbying for contribution of identified issues relevant for furthering EE each group to EE processes and environmental 2) Preaprte policy briefs and technical; reports management and disseminate them using appropriate channels

MDAs, Civil society




Strategy 4.3 Support development their programmes

Implementing mechanisms* 1) Identification of knowledge gaps in curricula of of formal and non formal systems EE 2) Work with relevant institutions to fill in identified gaps

Audience Head of schools, Inspectors, colleges and institutions heads

Key Executor(s) MoEC, Min of Higher Educ, Science and Technology, TIE, VPO, NEMC, Ministerial Units NGOs, PORALG,

Time span Start End 2005 2009

Objective 5: Institutionalise EE in the formal and non formal EE 5.1 Identify environmen tal related policies and programme s and appraise on their implementa tion Determine and institutional ize coordinatio n mechanism s for coordinatio n of EE activities 1) Conducting survey of policies, policy documents and programmes relevant for EE 2) Documentation of available policies and programmes and gaps and prepare briefs to disseminate to relevant decision makers 3) Dissemination of the findings and recommendations on how to fill in gaps 4) Develop guidelines on how to integrate environmental issues in programmes 5) Disseminate the guidelines widely 1. Commission study to Propose framework for coordination of EE activities 2) Organize consultations to discuss coordination mechanisms 3) Institutionalize and Operationalize coordination mechanisms

VPO, NEMC, 2005 Ministerial Units, Local Governments, MoEC, GOs, TIE, training institutions, 2009

Training institutions; NGOs; Private Sector; Sector Ministries, R & D Institutions and private sector


MoEc, VPO, NEMC, Poralg

VPO, NEMC, Units of Environment in Ministries, Local Governments, MoEC, NGOs and Training Instititons



Objective 6: Monitor the implementation of EE in different institutions


Strategy 6.1 Develop EE monitoring tools 6.2 Train facilitators on how to use tools

Implementing mechanisms* 1) Organize workshop to develop EE monitoring tools 2) Pilot Test developed tools 1) Organize training workshop on how to to use tools 2) Facilitate data collection for monitoring EE activiteies and reporting 3) Analyse data collected and prepare policy and technical briefs 4) Disseminate briefs to relevant institutions 1) Conduct periodic monitoring of NECCS implementation 2) Produce reports 3) Document best practises and publish them in scientific journals 1) Dissemination of research findings 2) Availing information through electronic and print media s 3) Utilization of media for Environmental reporting and outreach 4) Facilitating organization of various forums for information dissemination 5) Developing mechanisms for use of available information outlets for dissemination of environment and poverty information ( teachers resource centres, folk development colleges etc)

Audience The public; NGOs; Tertiary academic and research institutions; Private Sector; Sector Ministries Selected Tertiary institutions;, MoEC, VPO, Sector Ministries, NEMC, PORALG The public; NGOs; Tertiary institutions; Private Sector; Sector Ministries; Media

Key Executor(s) NEMC, VPO, MoEC MoEc, NEMC, VPO

Time span Start End 2005 2007



6.3 Monitor, document and disseminate results on EE implementation in the country 6.4 Disseminate information on best environmental management practices and lessons learnt




The public; NGOs; Tertiary and research institutions; Private Sector; Ministries, Agencies, Media

NEMC, Media, , NGOs, NEEC, information networks, Libraries



Objective 7: Objective 7: Impact Assessment , Monitoring and Evaluating 7.1 Develop 1) Organize training workshop for development of impact assessment tools statement tools 2) Pilot test developed tools

EE activities in the country

VPO, NEMC, MoEC, 2006 2009

EE Stakeholders and practitioners


Strategy 7.2 Carry out assessment of EE activities in relation to environmental management in the country 7.3 Analyse finding and prepare best practice reports and draw success stories and lessons learnt 7.4 ) Use the results to improve EE strategies

Implementing mechanisms* 1) Collect data on impacts of EE programmes on environmental management


Key Executor(s)

EE Stakeholders and practitioners VPO, NEMC, MoEC, Ministries, NGOs, Private sector, NEEC

Time span Start End 2006 2007

1) Analyse data and use finding to sieve our best practices and lessons learnt 2) Use lessons learnt to prepare policy briefs, and article for publishing in scientific journals

EE practitioners and decision makers

VPO, NEMC, MoEC, Umbrella NGOs NEEC VPO, NEMC, MoEC, Universities and other training and research institutions



1) Review implementation of EE activities in the country EE practitioners and researchers 2) Evaluate the implementation of NEECS after 2005 3) Update NEECS after 2009 4) Organize periodic scientific conference on contribution of EE to environmental management and developmental processes in Tanzania




Box 1: Environmental Education Approaches Interactive/Participatory debates, discussions, meetings, role play, drama, theatre, music, story-telling/traditional folk tales, use of traditional leaders or well-informed people Large scale forums media (radio, television, newspapers), seminars, workshops, conferences, symposia; Practices demonstrations, projects, field study, exhibitions, surveys and researches, exchange programmes, laboratory work, sketching and drawing, tableaux, searching e.g. use of internet 5.0 5.1 CO-ORDINATION OF THE NEECS Priority Issues Addressed by the NEECS

The NEECS contains critical innovative features that consider the sectoral crosscutting nature of environmental education in the country. These include: a. Strengthening institutional framework for planning and implementing EE in the country with a focus on effective coordination, collaboration and networking which is critical in terms of having the roles, responsibilities, functions and resources available for various interventions. The strategy attempts to clarify the roles of different actors including research and training institutions, central and local government and the public. The development partners including multilateral and bilateral organizations and agencies supporting EE through different government and community programmes will have an important role to play. The financial and technical assistance provided under the Tanzania Assistance Strategy (TAS), and the move towards Basket Funding/ Sector-wide approaches and direct budget support favours EE programmes in light of the cross cutting nature of the EE. b. Capacity building and governance of actors in EE especially the local government and the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) to effectively participate in EE processes is crucial. Inadequate human resources in all sectors remain to be a major constraint in planning and implementing EE interventions. Issues to be looked at community levels will include improving knowledge on access to land, water and other natural resources which dictate their livelihoods and hence the way to manage their environment. Improving on knowledge and skills will also build on their indigenous knowledge and desirable practices.). CBOs such as farmers and livestock keepers associations are instrumental at local levels. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) are important players at local levels. Most of these are involved in lobbying and advocacy for policy changes and development, mobilizing resources for community-based interventions and providing services in terms of implementing community based programmes such as EE . However, most of them face a number of challenges including limited resources (financial and technical) and they are not well coordinated. Strategic interventions are necessary for improving the capacity of the private sector and CSOs to be actively involved in environmental management The role of the media is crucial for information dissemination and public education. The training of journalists has been either discipline-specific or generalized. On the other


hand when practising they usually find themselves tackling a number of issues including the environment. Sometimes it becomes difficult to address many issues at the same time otherwise they decide to leave out un-newsworthy information. Moreover the tendency of screening information in the news rooms coupled with inadequate knowledge on scientific and environmental issues has left media entrenched more in political arena than other fields. The NEECS has a great responsibility in impressing media barons, editors and journalists on environmental problems and providing them with appropriate methods for reaching the public. c. Strengthening capacities for monitoring of EE processes is currently not effected properly within the framework for Assessing EE Performance. The NEMC in partnership with other institutions and organizations will play a leading role in providing the technical input in developing on EE monitoring framework. Providing the necessary skills and facilities for proper monitoring of EE cannot be overemphasized. d. Mainstreaming EE in planning processes for development initiatives in other sectors is of prime importance. This has been recognised in the MKUKUTA which sees environmental issues as intertwined with livelihoods especially in the rural areas this requiring all sectors have to focus on sustainable development. Environmental education is strongly on interplay of varied stakeholders with different interests, priorities and approaches. Hence, the mandate for executing EE falls outside the lead sectors i.e. Education and Environment. Mainstreaming EE in the sectoral initiatives particularly in the district development plans will be a critical entry point to ensure ownership of roles and sustainability, and will go hand in hand with the focus on environmental mainstreaming given by the MKUKUTA. e. Information development: EE is a process, which demands a high degree of accurate information flow at local, national and international levels. Access to information on the environment, current practices inside and outside Tanzania, existing environmental or EE activities will be important for the effective and efficient implementation of EE for sustainable development. The focus will be put on collection; packaging and dissemination of environmentally related data.. An Information, Communication and Technology Working Group will be set up to coordinate research, information development and dissemination to respective target groups and key stakeholders. Strategic interventions will involve strengthening and mainstreaming data collection and dissemination in sectoral ministries, other institutions, NGOs and primarily the LGAs in order to establish and manage databases. These will facilitate training and monitoring of EE programmes and putting in place mechanisms for networking and access to information managed by sectors and institutions. f. Mainstreaming gender in the NEECS: As mentioned earlier gender issues and in particular womens roles in the overall social-economic development is characterized by a traditional gender imbalance. Creating an enabling environment for women and men and marginalized and disadvantaged groups to fully play their roles in the EE is the focus of this strategy. This will include identifying key problems and opportunities for an effective participation of all members of the society in EE processes especially in relation to the management of resources and their utilization in addressing incomes, eradicating poverty and improvement of the living standards.


The Gender Development Policy of the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children (MCDWC), provides for a strong basis for coordination and collaboration with other sectors. In the NEECS, gender issues will be integrated in all interventions. Development of special programmes targeting women, youth and disadvantaged groups will have a preference. g. Strengthening EE and management practices. A critical issue threatening sustainable development for which environment plays a leading role is unsustainable agricultural production, depletion of natural resources and economic development. High and ever growing human and animal populations have resulted in craving additional land for agriculture and livestock development. Unsustainable practices have lead to increased soil erosion, deforestation and soil, and water contamination. Some of the cases at hand were spelt out in the NEP, NEAP and MKUKUTA. These include the Usangu plain water shortages, Dodoma and Shinyanga land degradation cases which led to the formulation of soil and water conservation programmes of HADO and HASHi respectively. Based on such cases this strategy attempts to redress the situation through the education window. The NEECS therefore draws synergies from the provision made in NEM Act of 1983, EMA No. 20 of 2004 and other sectoral policy and legal provisions including strategies and programmes. Partnerships and networks are important in carrying out EE programmes. Areas that require closer collaboration include research and environmental assessment, developing new EE themes and methods, monitoring and assessment, integrated programmes, planning and implementation of issues related to extension and outreach activities. 5.2 Potential Resources for Strategy Implementation The overall resources required for the Strategy implementation include human resources, technical support and finances. The Strategy will run for 5 years and the resources indicated draw from envisaged programmes, which will be executed in many sectors and institutions. Its successful implementation will depend on a number of issues including Commitments of key players to using it to develop programmes and implement them. Nature of EE programmes which will be developed Geographical areas to be covered, Resources (financial, technological and human) availability 5.3. NEECS Structure The structure of NEECS will comprise the Inter ministerial Steering Committee (IMSC) which will comprise of Permanent Secretaries from key ministries. It will be responsible for overseeing and guiding the implementation of NEECS. The National Environment Management Council and the Ministry of Education and Culture will be the secretariat which will be dealing with technical issues related to programmes development, facilitating sectors and districts to mainstream EE in their plans and programmes. It will also be responsible for soliciting funds organizing national EE training sessions There will also be the technical committee which will be made of made of technical staff nominated by line ministries, agencies, NGO and private sector representatives, two members from the National Environmental Education Committee and any other relevant co-opted members. The Technical Committee will work closely with the Dissemination, Sensitization and Advocay working group of the Poverty Monitorign System which is responsible for the MKUKUTA communication strategy. These will form technical


working groups on EE based on identified education and communication systems issues to be addressed(formal, non formal, informal, print and electronic media etc) The districts environmental coordinators will develop programmes and projects in collaboration with the technical committee. They will also facilitate local level organizations to prepare and implement local level EE programmes.

Figure 2: NEECS Organogram

Inter-ministerial Steering Committee (IMSC)

NEECS Seccretariat NEECS Technical Committee Technical Working Groups District NEECS Working Groups (Projects and Programmes )

Village and CSOs Working Groups



Monitoring and Evaluation

TC will monitor the implementation on the daily basis and report to the SC accordingly. Standing Committees responsible for Environment/education at district level will be responsible for monitoring the implementation of district programmes supported by the Regional Secretariats in their respective regions. Emphasis will be on data and information generation in line with other monitoring frameworks such as Poverty Monitoring Master Plan, National Environment Strategy, the Sector Wide Processes and other relevant performance based monitoring frameworks related to EE at all levels. Key aspects of the monitoring system will include tracking performance based on the logframe and annual work-plans based on the implementations schedule and resources committed. For this to happen, a monitoring framework meeting the basic components for the respective stakeholders, national development goals and priorities will be paramount. Each programme or activity developed based on NEECs will produce annual reports which will be forwarded to the technical committee for review and onward submission to the IMSC. The reports will also form reference materials for An Annual Stakeholders Consultative Forum (ASCF) involving all key stakeholders organized as part of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of NEECS. An Annual Stakeholders Consultative Forum (ASCF) involving all key stakeholders organized by NEMC and MoEC. The forum will review progress in implementing the NEECS and its path in achieving objectives. Emphasis will be reviewing stakeholders participation in implementing respective roles Likewise a Scientific Conference will be organized biannually, the output of which will be a publication for informing stakeholders especially the policy and decision makers. The forum will also review progress in implementing the NEECS and its path in achieving objectives. Emphasis will be reviewing stakeholders participation in implementing respective roles. Technical reports will be analyzed to facilitate production of technical and policy briefs. Feed back mechanisms between data and information sources and users will be worked out to facilitate information flow between and among the players and other users. NEECS LOGIFRAME Different Players and organizations dealing with EE will select issues and develop their programmes and projects and implement them basing on the proposed Log frame. The technical committee will be convened periodically to review and endorse proposed joint activities. However, a national Log frame of five years for implementation of NEECS is proposed with a mid term review after two years of implementation. The committee will propose publishing of selected EE publications and reports as part of sharing best practices and lessons learnt on Tanzania EE experiences. These will be subjected to peer review before publishing the same in selected scientific journals or printed ads booklets. REFERENCES Kamukala, G.L. and Crafter, S.A. (1993). Wetlands of Tanzania: proceedings of a seminar on wetlands of Tanzania. IUCN Ministry of Environment and Tourism (2002). Zimbabwe National Environmental Education Policy and Strategy Recommendations (Draft two)


Ministry of Environment, Women and Youth (1998). National Environment Policy for Lesotho (Revised). Maseru Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs (1996). National Environmental Education and Communication Strategy; 1996-1999? SADC & IUCN (1999). Enabling EE Guidelines for EE Policy and Strategy Processes in the SADC States The Ministry of Education and Culture (1995). Education and Training Policy United Republic of Tanzania (1998). Tanzania: Country Study on Biological Diversity. UNEP, Nairobi Kingdom of Swaziland (1999) National Environment Conservation Strategy.


APPENDIX 1:EE RELATED POLICIES, ACTS AND STRATEGIES 1. Agricultural Policy, 1997 2. Agricultural Sector development Strategy, 2001 3. Country Study on Biological Diversity, 1998. 4. Decentralization of Government Administration (Interim Provision) Act, 1972. 5. Education and Training Policy 1995 6. Energy Policy, 1992 7. Forest Act, 2002 8. Forest Policy of Tanzania, 1998 9. Guidelines for Participatory Land Use Management in Tanzania, 1998. 10. Industrial Policy, 1991. 11. Land Acquisition Act, 1967. . 12. Land Act, (Act No. 6 of 1999, 1999 13. Livestock Policy, 1997 14. Local Government (District Authorities) Act, (Act No. 7 of 1982), 1982. 15. Mining Act No.5 of 1998, 1998. 16. National Beekeeping Policy, 1998 17. National Environmental Policy, 1997 18. National Forest Programme, 2001 19. National Land Policy, 1995. 20. National Parks Ordinance, 1974 21. Population Policy, 1992 22. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, 2000 23. Regional Administration Act No.19 of 1997, 1997. 24. Report on Terrestrial Eco-regions of Africa and its Islands (WWF), 2001 25. Sustainable Industrial Development Policy 1997-2020 26. Tanzania Assistance Strategy, 2000 27. Tourism Policy, 1997 28. Transport Policy, 1987 29. Village Land Act, (Act No. 7), 1999 30. Water Policy, 1991 31. Wildlife Conservation Act, 1974 32. Wildlife Policy of Tanzania, 1998 33. National Science and Technology Policy 1996 34. Women and Gender Development Policy, 2000


APPENDIX 2: SOME OF THE STAKEHOLDERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND THEIRE RESPONSIBILITIES IN IMPLEMENTING NEECS Stakeholder Main roles and functions Vice Presidents Office - Division of Overall Authority on Environmental Policy Framework Environment Facilitate NEECS approval Oversee and facilitate implementation of NEES Ministry of Education and Culture Authority on Education and Training Policy Implementation of NEECS Monitor and evaluate NEECS implementation Approve Education/training materials Develop Materials for schools and Teachers College Develop and implement Training Programmes Undertake research on Environmental Education Disseminate information on Environmental Education TIE Curricula development Undertake Training Monitor and undertake research Identify and develop training materials NECTA & NACTE Examine Environmental Education Monitor and evaluate Environmental Education National Environment Management Facilitate NEECS preparation Council Coordinate NEECS implementation Implement NEECS Training Disseminate the NEECS Monitor and evaluate Environmental Education implementation Resource mobilization for NEECS implementation Facilitate networking on the NEECS Clearing house for EE materials received from outside the country Prepare Environmental Education materials Undertake Research on Environmental Education Line Ministries: Harmonize Environmental Education related policy Ministry of Natural resources and proclamations Tourism Develop and implement sector specific EE related Ministry of Energy and Minerals activities Ministry of water and Livestock Development Ministry of Health Ministry of Lands and Human Settlements Development Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Ministry of Higher Education Science and Technology Presidents Office, regional


Stakeholder Administration and Local Government Ministry of Community development, Women and Children Research and Training Institutions: (SUA, UDSM, UCLAS, OUT, MUC, TAFIRI, TAFORI, COSTEC).

Main roles and functions

Civil Society (CBOs, NGOs, Influential people)

Development Partners Private sector


Politicians and decision maker

Schools/Teachers colleges

Undertake research and training Monitor and evaluate Environmental Education Disseminate best practices Develop Environmental Education materials Documentation of research findings Undertake research and training Implement Environmental Education activities Monitor and evaluate Environmental Education practices Carry out Lobbying advocacy work Documentation of research work Identify/develop and share best practice Disseminate Environmental Education materials Resources mobilization Mobilize and participate in Environmental Education related activities Resources provision (Technical and Financials) Provide resources for implementation of Environmental Education activities Facilitate/implement EE activities Facilitate sustainable use of resources Rehabilitate/Restore degraded environment Implement Environmental Education activities in their respective areas Manage natural resources Contribute information/ knowledge Indigenous technical knowledge manages and executors of best practices Monitor and evaluate EE activities in their localities Formulate and enforce environmental related laws in their areas Network with other players in Environmental Education Facilitate publicity and dissemination of Environmental Education Mobilize communities involvement in Environmental Education Approval of policies and legislation Resource mobilized Learning centres Change agents Undertake Environmental Education publicity Implementers of Environmental Education


APPENDIX 3: LIST OF INDIVIDUALS/ORGANIZATIONS PARTICIPATING IN PREPARATION OF NEECS NO. 1. NAME AND ADDRESS Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Ms. Mary Kivaria Commissioners Office Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Prof. Karafunja Osaki, Director, Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE), Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. Stephen Mwinuka Programme Coordinator, Tanzania EE Programme, (WWF) Attn: Ms. Mary Shuma Director of Environment, Vice Presidents Office, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. Mganga Majura Co-ordinator, Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Ms. Anethi Mwakimi Director General, COSTECH, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. D. Mafunda Executive Secretary, National Examination Council of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Ms. Janeth Kitosi Chairman, Tanzania Environmental Education & Communication Association, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. Pancras Ngalason. Coordinator, Jounalist Environmental Association of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Ms. Secelela Balisidya Tanzania Coastal Management Programme, TCMP, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. Glatian Luhuikua Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism, Attn: Mr. Nurdin Chemuya Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Extension Department,



4. 5.




9. 10.

11. 12. 13.



15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.






Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mr. S. Mangasin, Chief Education Officer, Ministry of Education and Culture, P.O. 9121, Dar es Salaam Director of Environment, Vice Presidents Office, Dar es Salaam. Commissioner (Planning) Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MSTHE), Dar es Salaam. Director (Planning), Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. Director (Planning), Ministry of Lands, Settlement and Housing, Dar es Salaam. Director (Planning), Ministry of Water and Livestock Development, Dar es Salaam. Commissioner (Planning), Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Dar es Salaam. Director of Policy & Planning, PORALG, Dar es Salaam. Director (Planning), Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Dar es Salaam. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture. Dar es Salaam. Attn: Mwajuma Nyiruka - Inspectorate Education Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture. Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director, Primary Education. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture. Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director, Secondary Education. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Culture. Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director, Teachers Training College. Institute of Continuing Education, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Attn: Dr. Gerald G. Kimbi Principal, Morogoro Teachers College, Morogoro.


29. 30.



33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Attn: Ms. Lydia Kimaryo CIDA, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Ms. Victoria Mushy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director of Tourism. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director of Wildlife. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. Attn: Director of Forestry. Zonal School Inspector, Eastern Zone, Dar es Salaam. Zonal School Inspector, Northern Zone. Moshi. Zonal School Inspector, Southern Highland Zones Mbeya. Zonal School Inspector, Western Zone Tabora. Zonal School Inspector, Southern Zone, Mtwara. Zonal School Inspector, Lake zone, Mwanza. Zonal School Inspectors, Central Zone, Dodoma. SIDA Dar es Salaam. FINIDA Dar es Salaam. Resident Representative, UNDP, Dar es Salaam. Headmaster, Mzumbe Secondary School, Morogoro. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Water and Livestock, Dar es Salaam.


45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

52. 53.

54. 55. 56. 57.



District Education Officer Mufindi District, Mafinga. Attn: Mr. Lucian Tweve Ward Education Officer SPW- IRINGA Mkuu wa Chuo, Chuo cha Mipango Dodoma, Dodoma. Director General, Land Use Planning Commission, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania Media Council, Dar es Salaam. Permanent Secretary, Presidents Office, Regional Administration and Local Government. Dr. S. Bisanda, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Dr. M.A.K. Ngoile, Director General, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Mr. C. Mbuta, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Ms. Anna Maembe, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Mr. B.D. Tarimo, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Mr. S. Heddi, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Dar es Salaam. Mr.M.S. Ngetti, ICE-Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro. Ms. Edna Lutanjuka, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Ms. Deonciana Laurent, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Ms. Janeth A.D. Kitosi, National Examination Council of Tanzania (NECTA), Dar es Salaam.


60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

Ms. Rose Hogan, WWF, Dar es Salaam. Mr. Julius M.S. Shilungushela, National Land Use Planning Commission, Box 76550, Dar es Salaam. Rose Ambrose (For DP MEM), Ministry of Energy & Mineral, P.O. BOX 2000, Dar es Salaam. Jydayisaba J.N. (For DP Molyds), MOLYDS, P.O. Box 1422, Dar es Salaam. E.K. Kwelukilwa, (for DP), MLHSD (Ardhi), P.O. Box 212194, Dar es Salaam. S.M. Ushiwa, MCDGC, P.O. Box 3448, Dar es Salaam. B.J.M. Mwijarubi, Ministry of Science, Technology & Higher Education, P.O. Box 2645, Dar es Salaam. E.Tagora, MCT, P.O. Box 9144, Dar es Salaam. M.M. Ndimbo, (for DPP), Ministry of Water & Livestock Development, P.O. Box 9153, Dar es Salaam. Lydia Laurent, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam. Ruzika N. Muheto, National Environment Management Council, P.O. Box 63154, Dar es Salaam.