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ENGLISH GRAMMAR

IN SIGNS
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR in SIGNS
CONTENTS

ENGLISH TENSES GUIDE ................................................................................................................................... 3 ENGLISH TENSES – TABLE ..................................................................................... 4 PASSIVE VOICE ......................................................................................................16 WORD ORDER .........................................................................................................21 THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES ................................................................................25 CONDITIONALS ......................................................................................................27 REPORTED SPEECH ..............................................................................................33 REPORTED SPEECH IN SIGNS .............................................................................35 THE INFINITIVE AND THE -ING FORM................................................................................................ 38 THE -ING FORM / GERUND ................................................................................41 INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ..................................................................................41 NOTES

TABLES
PAST SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PRESENT FUTURE FUTURE IN THE PAST

X X X X
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X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

ENGLISH GRAMMAR in SIGNS
ENGLISH TENSES GUIDE
Sooner or later most of the students learning the English language begin to feel depressed facing difficulties in understanding and using the seemingly complicated English tense system. The main task of the teacher is to show them what the English have so many tense forms of the verb for. Unlike as in many modern European languages that are inflected, in English, the word order is essential to the meaning of a sentence. Thus, we have to distinguish carefully between the subject and the predicate of the English sentence and remember that the change in word order brings with it a fundamental change in meaning. The suggested system of signs was designed to help students understand how, when and what for English tense forms are used. First appeared about 20 years ago our Grammar in Signs has been successfully applied in the teaching of English with hundreds of beginners and senior students both in this country and abroad. This Grammar Guide may seem to be oversimplified, but it is aimed to help the learners at the beginners’ level understand the basic rules of the English language and its tense system. Grammar varies with circumstances but something about it always remains constant. Tense in English as a rule means “time”. English verbs tell us what action is and when it is occurring. The core of the whole system is the combination of these three signs:  - stands for the subject of the sentence

 - its predicate / or main verb form
 - help verb The next step is to make sure that students realize the main rules of the English sentence construction, i.e. word order. These rules could be shown by the following structures: 1. (+) affirmative 2. ( - ) negative

3. (?) interrogative - help verb (as a rule) stands before the subject (See also : WORD ORDER section, page 10) Then comes the most difficult task for the teacher – to explain the students the necessity of existence of the sixteen tense forms in English. The following table might be of great help. When the students get used to implementing this table it is, as a rule, much easier for them to find the appropriate tense form of the verb and use it correctly.
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… . 2.   not … . 3.   … ?
1.  ()

subject comes first

ENGLISH TENSES
PAST INDEFINITE / SIMPLE DID 1.  PRESENT FUTURE

TABLE 1
FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST

DO (DOES)

WILL / SHALL*

WOULD / SHOULD*

… …  …?
to have* (had) 1. I had … 2. He had not … 3. Had you …?

2.  did not 3. did

 (-s) … 2.  do not … 3. Does …?
1. 
to be (am, is, are) 1. I am … 2. He is not … 3. Are you …? to have* (has) 1. I have… 2. He has not … 3. Have you …?

… 2.  will not … 3. Will / Shall  …?
1.  will
I We  shall* you they she, he, it  will

… 2.  would not … 3. Would / Should ..?
1.  would
I we  should* you they  would he, she, it

to be (was, were) 1. I was … 2. He was not … 3. Were you …?

PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS

yesterday, last year, ago, WHEN WAS / WERE  ing

every day, always, usually, generally + AM / IS / ARE  ing

tomorrow, next week, in a month SHALL* / WILL BE  ing

the next day, the following week SHOULD* / WOULD BE  ing

1.  were ing 2.  was not  ing 3. Were   ing ?
I he she it  was we you  were they

1.  am ing 2.  is not  ing 3. Are   ing ?
I - am he she  is it you we they  are

1.  will be  ing 2.  will not be  ing 3. Shall  be  ing ?
shall not = shan’t will not = won’t

1.  would be  ing 2.  would not be  ing 3. Should  be ing ?
should not = shouldn’t* would not = wouldn’t

at that time, at 5 p.m. yesterday HAD

now, at the moment, tonight* STATIVE at 4 p.m. tomorrow, from 7 till 9 tomorrow HAVE (HAS)

WILL / SHALL* 1.  will have

HAVE

WOULD / SHOULD* HAVE

PERFECT

… 2.  had not … 3. Had  …?
1.  had
by that time, by 5 o’clock yesterday

… 2.  has not ... 3. Have  …?
1.  have
I we  have you they he she  has it

… 2.  will not have … 3. Will  have …?
by 4 o’clock tomorrow, before, by then

… 2.  would not have … 3. Would  have …?
1.  would have

recently, already, just, never, ever, yet

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

HAD BEEN

-ing

HAVE BEEN

-ing

WILL HAVE BEEN
1.  will have been  ing 2.  will not have been  ing 3. Will  have been  ing?
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-ing

WOULD HAVE BEEN
1.  would have been  ing

-ing

1.  had been  ing 2.  had not been  ing 3. Had  been  ing ? for the last two days, since, for

1.  have been  ing 2.  has not been  ing 3. Have  been  ing ? for, since, how long, lately, all day

2.  would not have been  ing 3. Should  have been  ing ?

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two days ago. In most cases a lot of sample sentences would help .For the usage of to be in the past see: Past Continuous Table .  did not  … 3.Infinitive / the first form () of the main verb is used in negative and interrogative sentences.past tense form . Some peculiarities of use: .help verb  . were) 1. in negative and interrogative sentences in the Past Indefinite. INDEFINITE / When this form should be used. I had … 2. did  …? to be (was.No help verb! And the only case when the second form () of the English verb is used. 6 ▲ . WHEN  DID . Let’s take for instance the first tense form in the table: Past Indefinite / Past Simple.  … SIMPLE 2. PAST DID 1. He had not … 3. I was … 2. . etc. Had you …? yesterday.Too complicated? We don’t think so. He was not … 3.The teacher should explain here how to use such wordcombinations as “to have a bath”. Teachers using this table do have to explain certain peculiarities of the use of practically every tense form. Were you …? to have* (had) 1. last year.

2. They had not any money then. They had a lot of money . 1. I was at home when she came. ( + )   …. He did not go to the library yesterday. * She did not have a bath yesterday. ( -. We played chess last Sunday. ▲ 7 .)  did not  … . I was not at home at that time. She had a bath two hours ago . He went home after school yesterday. We didn’t play chess on Monday.g.SAMPLE SENTENCES e. ( ? ) did   …? But : Did he go to school yesterday ? What did they do last Sunday ? When did she have a bath? Were you at home when she came ? Had you many friends at school ? * Who was at home …? Who had a bath …? Who went to school on Monday? etc. 3.

the Past: 1. He will do it tomorrow. Will you be doing it from 5 till 8 next Sunday? Future Continuous-in-the Past : 1. 6. 3. He was doing it when she came in. 3. She will not be doing it then. He said he would do it the following week. They will not do it next month. 2. 3. We do it every day.Some more examples NOTES 1. Do you always do it? Past Indefinite: 1. 3. 2. We were not doing it at that time. 3. 7. He said she would not be doing it at 5 p. Did they do it two days ago? Future Indefinite: 1.m. 3. He does not usually do it . I am doing it at the moment. He is not doing it now. She did not do it last week. 1. We did it yesterday. tomorrow. 2. 8. He said he would be doing it at that time. 2. Shall we do it in a month? Future Indefinite-in. Was she doing it at 5 p. 4. 5. Would you do it if you had time? Present Continuous / Progressive : 1. They will be doing it at 5 p. 2. Are you doing anything special tonight? Past Continuous / Progressive: 1. Present Indefinite / Simple: 2. 3. 2. 3. Would you be doing it if you were free at 4? 8 . yesterday? Future Continuous / Progressive : 1. 2. She said she would not do it that evening. 2. 3.m.m.

Would you have done it if you had had a chance? 13. Future Perfect-in. 2. Had you been doing it for a long time when I came? 15. 3. 3. Had she done it before you arrived? 11. He said he would have done it before we returned. 2. I have been doing it since 1989. 3. 2. Future Perfect Continuous: 1. 9 . He will not have done it by then. Past Perfect Continuous: 1. Will you have done it before we return home? 12. He was sorry he had not done it by that time. 3. He has not been doing it lately. He said he had been doing it since 1998. 3. Future Perfect Continuous-in-the Past: He said he would have been doing it for two hours by the time we arrived the next day. She will not have been doing it for a long time by then. I’m afraid. Future Perfect: 1. Will he have been doing it for 3 hours before I come back? 16. 2. They will have done it by 6 o’clock tomorrow.the Past : 1. She said she had not been doing it for the last two days. I would not have done it if you had not told me to. He will have been doing it for two hours by 5 p. Present Perfect : 1. Have you done it ? 10.m. Have you been doing it all day? 14. 2. 2. He has not done it yet.9. I have already done it. Present Perfect Continuous: 1. Past Perfect: 1. 2. 3. 3. She said she had done it two days before.

Will  have …? FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST 1.  will have  … 2. Will / Shall  …? 1.  would not … 3.  will be  ing … 2.  had … PERFECT PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS 2.  am ing … 2. Will  have been  ing? 3.  have  … 2. Were   ing ? 1.  would not have been ing 3.  will not … 3. Should  have been  ing ? SEE ALSO HERE 10 .  was not  ing 3. Should  be ing ? 1.  would  … 2. TABLE 2 PAST INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PRESENT 1.  will not be  ing 3.  would not have … 3. 2. Would  have …? PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1.Of course.  did not … 3.  has not been ing 2.  will not have been ing 2.  have been ing… 1. Shall  be  ing ? 1.  has not .  would have been  ing… 2.  will  … 2.  do not … 3.  will not have … 3.  had been ing… 2. Had  …? 1. the sophisticated table from pages 4-5 could be reduced to a somewhat simplified one (see below) but our students seem to prefer to use TABLE 1.  will have been  ing… 1.  would be  ing … 2.  … 2.  were ing…. Would / Should  ? 1. Are   ing ? 1.  had not … 3.  would not be  ing 3. Have  …? FUTURE 1.  would have  … 1. Does  …? 1. did  …? 1.  had not beening 3.  is not  ing 3.   (-s) … 2. Have  been  ing? 3.. Had  been  ing ? 2. 3..

there are some more signs used in the table:  -ing - Present Participle \ Participle I   - Past Simple form - Past Participle (the third form of the verb) \ Participle II These signs help us explain such English tense forms as Continuous or Progressive. ▲ GRAMMAR PRESENTATION: ENGLISH TENSES IN SIGNS 11 . etc. Perfect. structures with PASSIVE VOICE. REPORTED SPEECH.As you can see. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

 have  … 2.  had not beening 3.  had been  ing… 2. Did  …? 1.  is not  ing 3.  wouldn’t have been ing 3. Would  ? 1.  will  … 2.  would not have … 3. Would  be ing ? 1.  will have been  ing… 3.  will not be  ing 3. 3.  am  ing … 2. Will  have been  ing ? 3.  will have  … … 2. Does  …? FUTURE 1.  do not … 3. Have  been  ing? 1.  would not be  ing 3.  would  … 2.  will not have … 3.  have been  ing… 2.  had … 2. Will / Shall  have …? 1.   (-s) … 2.  would have been  ing… PERFECT CONTINUOUS 2. Were   ing ? PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS ) 1..  was not  ing 3.  has not .  were  ing … 2. Would  have …? 1. Are   ing ? PERFECT 1. Had  been  ing ? … 2.  would not … 3.  would be  ing … 2. Have  …? 1.GRAMMAR PRESENTATION ENGLISH TENSES IN SIGNS TIME OF ACTION PAST INDEFINITE ( SIMPLE ) PRESENT 1.  had not 1.  will be  ing … 2. Had  …? 1. Will / Shall  …? 1.  will not … 3. Will / Shall  be  ing ? FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST 1.. Would  have been  ing ? ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg 12 .  has not been ing 3.   … 2.  will not have been ing 2.  did not … 3.  would have 1.

Does  …? FUTURE 1.  has not .  will not … 3.  would  … 2.  had … 2.  would not have … 3.  will not be  ing 3.   (-s) … 2. Have  been  ing? 1.  will have been  ing… 3.  will be  ing … 2.  were  ing .  had not beening 3. Were   ing ? 1. Did  …? PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS ) 1. Will / Shall  have …? 1.  would have 1.  have been  ing… 2.  will not have … 3.  will  … 2. 3. Will  have been  ing ? 3.. Will / Shall  …? FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST 1.  do not … 3.  had been  ing… 2. Will / Shall  be  ing ? 1.  would be  ing … 2.  is not  ing 3.  have  … 2.  will not have been ing 2.  wouldn’t have been ing 3.  did not … 3.  would have been  ing… PERFECT CONTINUOUS 2. Would  have been  ing ? ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg 13 .. Would  have …? 1. Would  be ing ? PERFECT 1. Are   ing ? 1.  … 2.GRAMMAR PRESENTATION ENGLISH TENSES IN SIGNS PRESENT TIME ACTION PAST INDEFINITE ( SIMPLE ) PRESENT 1..  was not  ing 3.  had not 1. 2. Would  ? 1.  am  ing … 2..  has not been ing 3. Had  …? 1.  would not … 3. Have  …? 1.  will have  … … 2.  would not be  ing 3. Had  been  ing ? … 2.

Will  have been  ing ? 3..  were  ing . Would  have …? 1.  would have 1. Had  …? 1. 2. Will / Shall  be  ing ? 1.  would be  ing … 2. Were   ing ? 1.  will  … 2.  will not be  ing 3.. Would  be ing ? PERFECT 1.  … 2.  would not have … 3.  wouldn’t have been ing 3..   (-s) … 2. 3.  am  ing … 2.  will not … 3.  have been  ing… 2. Did  …? PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS ) 1.  do not … 3..  would not … 3.  had not beening 3. Are   ing ? 1. Had  been  ing ? … 2.  has not been ing 3. Have  …? 1. Does  …? FUTURE 1.  will not have been ing 2.  will be  ing … 2.  has not . Have  been  ing? 1.  will have  … … 2.  did not … 3. Will / Shall  have …? 1. Would  ? 1.  had not 1.GRAMMAR PRESENTATION ENGLISH TENSES IN SIGNS PAST TIME ACTION PAST INDEFINITE ( SIMPLE ) PRESENT 1.  had been  ing… 2.  would not be  ing 3.  would  … 2. Would  have been  ing ? ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg 14 .  would have been  ing… PERFECT CONTINUOUS 2. Will / Shall  …? FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST 1.  will have been  ing… 3.  had … 2.  will not have … 3.  was not  ing 3.  have  … 2.  is not  ing 3.

 will not be  ing 3.  would  … 2.  would be  ing … 2.  will have been  ing… 3.GRAMMAR PRESENTATION ENGLISH TENSES IN SIGNS FUTURE TIME ACTION PAST INDEFINITE ( SIMPLE ) PRESENT 1. Does  …? FUTURE 1.  would have 1. Have  been  ing? 1.  would not be  ing 3.  had been  ing… 2. Would  ? 1.   (-s) … 2.  am  ing … 2.  … 2. 3.  will not have been ing 2.  will not … 3.  had not 1.  has not been ing 3. Are   ing ? 1. Would  have been  ing ? ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg 15 ..  would not have … 3. Will / Shall  …? FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST 1. Will  have been  ing ? 3.  have been  ing… 2.  was not  ing 3.  were  ing … 2.  did not … 3. Did  …? PROGRESSIVE ( CONTINUOUS ) 1.  had not beening 3. Would  be ing ? PERFECT 1.  would not have been ing 3.  will be  ing … 2.  have  … 2.  will not have … 3. Have  …? 1.  had … 2.  would not … 3.  is not  ing 3..  has not .  will have  … … 2.  will  … 2. Will / Shall  have …? 1. Would  have …? 1. Will / Shall  be  ing ? 1. Had  been  ing ? … 2.  would have been  ing… PERFECT CONTINUOUS 2. Were   ing ? 1. Had  …? 1.  do not … 3.

In the active. and it occurs only with the verbs which are transitive /i. The students are usually a bit relieved when they are told that in Modern English not all the Active Voice tense forms are used in the Passive. verbs that can be followed by an object /. And we should bear in mind that many verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively.e. Then we may proceed with the explanation of the PASSIVE TENSE FORMS using the following table: 16 .g. its THIRD form. In English the passive is used very commonly. the subject of the sentence is the person or the thing doing the action / the doer/ but in the passive the action is done to the subject. e.e.PASSIVE VOICE ▲ Active Voice and Passive Voice refer to the form of the verb. and the form of the main verb /i. The door was opened (by somebody). or Participle II / always remains unchanged. though it is not a mere alternative to the active. The basic formula to be remembered is this: to BE +  In this structure the only element which changes its form is the help verb to be. The door opened (by itself).

to BE as a help verb AM / IS / ARE WAS / WERE WILL BE SHALL AM / IS / ARE BEING WAS BEING WERE HAVE BEEN HAS HAD BEEN WILL HAVE BEEN +  PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 9. WOULD BE 11. 6. WOULD HAVE BEEN 17 . 2. 4. FUTURE-IN-THE PAST FORMS HAS BEEN BEING HAVE 10. ▲ . 5. 8.g.TABLE 3 PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PAST INDEFINITE FUTURE INDEFINITE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT e. 1. 3. 7.

2. PAST CONTINUOUS ACTIVE : PASSIVE : They were watering the flowers when I came in. PASSIVE : Every day English texts are translated by our students. 5. 4. FUTURE INDEFINITE ACTIVE : The boy will read the book next week. 3. e. PASSIVE : The window is being cleaned by her now.g. The flowers were being watered when I came in. PRESENT CONTINUOUS ACTIVE : She is cleaning the window. students understand the material much better if they are given a lot of tasks involving voice and tense transformation. PASSIVE : The book will be read next week by him. PRESENT INDEFINITE ACTIVE : Our students translate English texts every day. PAST INDEFINITE ACTIVE : PASSIVE : We wrote this exercise yesterday. 18 .As a rule. This exercise was written yesterday. 1.

6. PASSIVE : She said the work would have been finished by 7 p. FUTURE-IN THE. carefully explaining the reason for the use of this or that tense/voice form of the verb. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ACTIVE : She has been telling me for ages that you are leaving. By Monday the work will have been finished by him.PAST PERFECT ACTIVE : She said she would have finished the work by 7p. They had cleaned the room before she returned. PRESENT PERFECT ACTIVE : PASSIVE : 7.m. The room had been cleaned before she returned. This task has already been done by us.m. PASSIVE : They said the work would be finished the next day. 11. PAST PERFECT ACTIVE : PASSIVE : 8. He will have finish the work by Monday.PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE : They said they would finish the work the next day. FUTURE-IN THE. 9. Very often you have to translate the sentences / both in the active and the passive / into your pupils’ mother tongue. 19 ▲ . PASSIVE : I have been being told (by her)for ages you are leaving. 10. that day. FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE : PASSIVE : We have already done this task.

I have been being told (by her) for ages about it. The book will be read next week by him.GRAMMAR PRESENTATION PASSIVE VOICE IN SIGNS to BE + PASSIVE PRESENT INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PAST INDEFINITE / SIMPLE FUTURE INDEFINITE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT  SAMPLE SENTENCES Every day English texts are translated by our students. The window is being cleaned by her now. They said the work would be finished the next day. The flowers were being watered when I came in. She said the work would have been finished by 7 p. The room had been cleaned before she returned.m. By Monday the work will have been finished by him. ▲ .to BE as a help verb AM / IS / ARE WAS / WERE WILL / SHALL BE AM / IS / ARE BEING WAS / WERE BEING HAVE / HAS BEEN HAD BEEN WILL HAVE BEEN  +  This task has already been done by us. This exercise was written yesterday. Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS HAS / HAVE BEEN BEING WOULD BE FUTURE-IN-THE PAST FORMS WOULD HAVE BEEN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS 20 .

(+) affirmative ( .  ….    …?  ( ) Students should always bear in mind these structures as they remain the same in all English tense / voice forms. the object(s) and the adverbs ( of manner. sometimes it is possible to put the adverb of time (and place) at the beginning of the sentence. 2.WORD ORDER As it has already been mentioned the core of the whole system of the Grammar in Signs are three signs (  . thus the main rule to be remembered is: In the affirmative and negative sentences the subject comes first. place and time). 3. then the predicate. 2.   not  … . 3. .) negative (?) interrogative 1. ▲ 21 .  ) and three basic word order structures: 1.

21. 8. 12.  () hardly… .negative INTERROGATIVE general alternative disjunctive special ? + ? !? -! EXCLAMATORY …! Let’s  … ! Do  … !! Will you  …. 9.   no …. 7.   not … . 17. 3. 20. 19. 2. 14. 4. 5.    ()  …. 10.WORD ORDER IN SIGNS DECLARATIVE TABLE 4 + affirmative .  not  ?   not  …. 11.   …?   … or … ?  ()  …. 16. -. 18.  ()  (whom) (what ) (how) (where ) (when ) . 13. 6. please ? Would you  … ? Let’s not  … ! Don’t …! What a lovely girl (nice weather) ! How beautiful it was there ! 22 IMPERATIVE .   ? When Where   …? Who (What) (-s)… ? 1.  () never … . 15.

She can hardly read English. Let’s go to the cinema ! 15. 4. She spoke English fluently at the lesson yesterday. Who has been to Paris ? 13. 3. . ….) negative 3. (?) interrogative INTERROGATIVE DECLARATIVE + affirmative 1. please?! 17. 5.  () hardly… . Let’s not go to the disco tonight ! 19. Don’t go there tonight !! 20. isn’t he ? 10.  () 2. You have never been to Paris. The boy is speaking English.   not … .    …?  … or … ?  ()  …. I have never been to Paris. 2.   no … . please ? Would you  … ? Let’s not  … ! Don’t …! What How a lovely girl (nice weather) ! beautiful it was there ! 23 Where have you been all this time ? 12.   …. Did she speak English or Russian ? 9.   not 3. 7. When did he go there? . He does not speak English fluently.negative general alternative disjunctive special  ()  (whom) (what ) (how) (where ) (when ). (+) GRAMMAR PRESENTATION affirmative 2.  () never … .   ?  ? When Where    … ? Who (What) (-s)… ? + IMPERATIVE !? ? - …! Let’s  … ! Do  … !! Will you  ….    ()  … . 6. ( . Did she speak English at the lesson yesterday? 8. What a pretty woman ! 21.WORD ORDER 1. not  ?   not  …. Go out ! You go out! 14. The boy has no friends at school. Would you go out and ask him to wait ? 18. …? 1. Do go out !! 16. Yesterday she spoke English fluently at the lesson. have you ? 11. Will you go out. How nice of you ! Copyright © 2009 by lanagreg ! EXCLAMATORY What nasty weather ! ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SIGNS .

aren't they ? Nobody has been told. 2. She spoke English fluently at the lesson yesterday. 3. please?! 17. What a pretty woman ! / What nasty weather ! EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES 21. 4. I have never been to Paris. have you ? BUT: Everyone is ready to go. He does not speak English fluently. She can hardly read English. aren't I ? Let's go home. will you / won't you ? Post this letter for me. have they? I am late. How nice of you ! / How beautiful it was ! ! + - 24 . Will you go out. Don’t go there tonight !! 20. Let’s go to the cinema ! 15. can / could / would / will you ? 11. in most cases we use a help or auxiliary verb before the subject and the main verb of the sentence stands after it. The boy is speaking English. For sure. Yesterday she spoke English fluently at the lesson. Go out ! You go out! 14. 5. The boy has no friends at school. some sample sentences would be of great help here as well. When did she speak English ? / Where have you been all this time ? 12.In the interrogative sentence inversion takes place. 6. Who has been to Paris ? 13. isn’t he ? 10. NOTES ON WORD ORDER DECLARATIVE SENTENCES AFFIRMATIVE + NEGATIVE - 1. Did she speak English or Russian ? 9. Did she speak English at the lesson yesterday? 8. Would you go out and ask him to wait ? 18. shall we ? Come in. Do go out !! 16. Let’s not go to the disco tonight ! / Don’t let’s go there! 19. You have never been to Paris. that is. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES (QUESTIONS): GENERAL ALTERNATIVE DISJUNCTIVE ? SPECIAL IMPERATIVE SENTENCES 7.

.g.. passenger car. rocking chair.g... but it is definitely important to learn the pattern of adjective order if it is not part of what you naturally bring to the language. wealthy.. ancient) V. round) IV. Most other languages dictate a similar order. a real hero.. French. new.g. red. Determiners — articles and other limiters. woollen. however. old. beautiful. You will find many exceptions to the pattern in the table below. a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e. Size and Shape — adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g. Age — adjectives denoting age (e. a pattern. Canadian) VII. II." The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. Material — denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e. but not necessarily the same order. pale) VI. metallic.. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. Colour — adjectives denoting colour (e. Purpose.g. book cover) ▲ 25 .. Use Qualifier — final limiter. American. large. because the order often seems quite arbitrary (if not downright capricious). black. often regarded as part of the noun (e.g. interesting) III.g. wooden) VIII. young.THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say "little brown house" and not "brown little house" or why we say "red Italian sports car" and not "Italian red sports car. THE RULE IS: GENERAL QUALITIES GO BEFORE PARTICULAR QUALITIES The categories in the table (page 19) can be described as follows: I. Subjective Observation (Qualities) — postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e. There is.g. Origin — denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.

26 NOUN General (Subjective) Qualities Physical Description Particular Qualities ▲ .between the two adjectives. Furthermore. and you will want to put a comma between them: the inexpensive. USE a four her big beautiful gorgeous old longstemmed red black Italian silk touring car roses hair short enormous young American several some delicious basketball players food hot Thai It would be folly. We could say these are "inexpensive but comfortable shoes. they become what we call coordinated adjectives." so we would use a comma between them (when the "but" isn't there). of course. When you have three coordinated adjectives.THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES (great) big DETERMINER QUALITIES little little SIZE AGE SHAPE to FLAVOUR COLOUR -ing ORIGIN  MATERIAL PURPOSE. but don't insert a comma between the last adjective and the noun (in spite of the temptation to do so because you often pause there): a popular. use a comma. to run more than two or three (at the most) adjectives together. comfortable shoes. The rule for inserting the comma works this way: If you could have inserted a conjunction . respected and good looking student. separate them all with commas.and or but . when adjectives belong to the same class.

second. third and zero conditionals. TABLE 5 TIME ALWAYS ACTION Universal Truth TYPE MAIN CLAUSE  if . 4. Subjunctive II. 6.   (-s)   (-s)  (-s) REAL condition FUTURE / PRESENT HALF-REAL condition I  will if  when unless as soon as  II would could might --  if  I wish   PAST UNREAL condition  III would have could have --   would have  MIXED  would have   would   will  27  if  had  I wish  had  if   (-s) if   if  had  if   12. 18. 9. In this section we are going to talk about the first. when they have realized the necessity of existence of 16 tense forms in English and know when and how these forms should be used. 8. 16.CONDITIONALS IN SIGNS For a scholar the following pages may seem to be at least too simplified if not totally grammatically incorrect. will understand the material better without knowing about Subjunctive I. 11. . 17. as a basis on which all other variations of conditional sentences are formed. 19. 1. 2.CLAUSE if  e.g. 5. And we dare say students. Suppositional and Conditional Moods as they are often named in grammar books. 13. 15. 14. 3. 7. 10.

She wouldn’t have said that if she knew you better. He would be better off now if he had had your parents. If she can’t fall asleep. I wish they would stop playing the music so loudly. she reads a book. I wish it had been warmer yesterday. If he was / were taller. We’ll go for a walk if the weather is fine. They will do it as soon as she arrives. He would have been rich by now if he is as clever as you think him to be. If she were here now. ALWAYS Universal Truth    (-s) if  if   (-s)  (-s) REAL condition FUTURE / PRESENT I  will  when unless as soon as HALF-REAL condition II  would could might --  if      I wish  I wish I knew her phone number.CLAUSE CONDITIONALS IN SIGNS My father gives me a lift if I get up late. She won’t be on time if she missed the bus. he would become a policeman. 28 UNREAL condition  would have PAST III could have --  if  had I wish  had MIXED   would have   would   would have  will  if  if if if  (-s)   had   . They will do it before she arrives. She would go abroad if she lost her job. she could be helping us. We would have saved time if we had gone by car.GRAMMAR CHARTS ACTION TYPE TIME MAIN CLAUSE if . They will do it when she arrives.

he would become a policeman. In these sentences If means when or whenever. a future verb form is not used as well. happens always) Only Present tense forms are used both in the main and if. 7. he will phone us. It makes me nervous. They will do it before she arrives. 6. She will go abroad if she loses her job. TYPE I 3.clauses. we can use another modal verb instead of would in the main clause. that it is not as we would like it to be we use wish-clause. of course) we can use I wish…would/wouldn’t.or time) clause. When we feel the imaginary consequences are less likely. He might tell us what to do if he knew the facts. Sometimes it is necessary to use other Present tense forms (not only Present Simple) in the time and if. They will do it when she arrives. she could be helping us. She would go abroad if she lost her job. My father gives me a lift if I get up late. 5. 4. Compare: 10. she reads a book. 11.NOTES ON CONDITIONALS TYPE O (used when talking about something that is usual. (used when we talk about something that is quite possible in the present or future) In the main clause we use Future Simple but only Present tense forms must be used in the subordinate (if. We’ll go for a walk if the weather is fine. If she can’t fall asleep. She could help us if she were here. universal. ▲ 29 . If she were here now. 9. as soon as. 8. until. When we want to say that we regret something. I’d go abroad if I had more money. he will be here soon. 1. I wish I knew her phone number. before. If it rains in the afternoon. As a rule would is not used in if-part of the sentence or after I wish but when we complain about something (in the present) or want something to change or somebody else to do something (in the future. TYPE II (used when we talk about imagined situations that might occur in the present or future) In the main clause we use would + Infinitive () and Past Simple in the if-clause (though the meaning of the whole sentence is definitely future or present). 2.clauses. If he has arrived at the station. He will come here as soon as he has arrived. I wish you wouldn’t drive so fast. I wish they would stop playing the music so loudly. I would telephone her if I knew her number. If he is arriving today. If he was / were taller. They will do it as soon as she arrives. In the time clauses beginning with when. they will stay at home.

.. We could have stayed at home if it had been raining this morning. type II if she missed the bus. ▲ In addition. type III if he had had your advantages. 18. type II He would be better off now ……. 13. MIXED CONDITIONALS 16. 30 . Do you wish you had studied languages instead of science? 12. here is one more table. 14.. this time for advanced learners. type I She won’t be on time ………….TYPE III (used when we talk about imagined situations / their outcome in the past) In the main clause would have + Participle II () structure is used. We would have saved time if we had gone by car. 19. if she knew you better. 17. type III type II She wouldn’t have said that ……. To say we regret something that happened or didn’t happen in the past we use the Past Perfect after wish: I wish it had been warmer yesterday. and Past Perfect in the if-clause. 15.. type III type I He would have been rich by now … if he is as clever as you think him to be.

 SHOULD It is necessary (that) he should go there at once. ніби” бажана дія.” малоймовірноздійсненне бажання     …but… But for … As if… I wish … 4. але бажана дія. The sky looked as if it would never clear… I wish she would come home.   Lest … It is ordered necessary important desirable recommended that… 1.   SHOULD / WOULD I wish you were here. що має відбутися згідно наказу. It is necessary (that) he go there at once. Subjunctive II „Час / Пора…” „наче. tell her to phone me. be done / He proposes requests advises that… Lest … Mary dreaded lest he come in. It was important that he remain at school. необхідна. прохання Action referred to PAST PRESENT FUTURE NOTES If … SHOULD SHOULD SHOULD HAVE  If you should meet her.щоб не” / рідко / нереальне бажання  / be. 2. He’d have bought a map but the shop was closed. Subjunctive I USA He demanded that we should be attentive..MOODS MOOD Suppositional GB TABLE 6 MEANING мала імовірність „щоб не” сумнівна. SHOULD WOULD HAVE Conditional „якби не. have.. If you hadn’t come we would never have met. She closed the door lest the children should catch cold. If I were you I wouldn’t think about it. He demanded that we be attentive. WOULD WOULD COULD 31 . бажана дія. But for the rain we would work in the garden today.. I wish … It’s (high) time we went home.. It’s time… As if … As though… They spoke as if she were not there. яка може відбутись . що суперечить дійсності нереальна дія нездійсненна умова дія не відбулася HAD 3. If only … If … If only he looked different. ніби.. I wish you could give it to me.” „наче.

Yesterday I would have said the same. Suppositional Mood ( GB ) Sample sentences 1. If only he looked different. If you should meet her somewhere. 3. I felt as if I were being sent home. 32 2. 1. I wish I had not told you about it. 2. Mary dreaded lest he come in. It is necessary that he should go there at once.NOTES on Moods 1. I should call on him but I have very little time. tell her to phone me. If you had been there I would have seen you. They spoke as if she were not there. It was important that he remain at school. It’s a pity I have no time. The sky looked as if it would never clear before morning. 2. But for the rain we would work in the garden today. I wish you could give it to me. Conditional Mood 1. I insist that you should consult a doctor. ▲ . If you hadn’t come we would never have met. 3. We would play chess. I wish I knew where you are. 4. Subjunctive I (USA) 1. 4. If only it could always be the spring. It’s (high) time we went home. It is necessary (that) he go there at once. If I saw him tomorrow I would tell him about it. 5. If I were you I wouldn’t think about it. I wish she would come home. I wish you were here. She suggested we should have eggs for breakfast. Subjunctive II 4. 2. He demanded that we be attentive. 5. She closed the window lest the children should catch cold. He looked as if he had never seen me before. 3. 3. She would have bought a watch but the shop was closed. 2. If I had met her I would have told her about it.

As a rule we use the Past Perfect form to report a statement which verb is in the Present Perfect. but we do not usually need to change the Simple Past in the direct speech into the Past Perfect unless we want to stress that one event happened before another.) may be in the present or. As a result. etc. A useful general rule is: PRESENT becomes PAST and PAST becomes PAST PERFECT These rules of Sequence of Tenses are not difficult to understand: Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Future Simple Past Simple Past Perfect        Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future-in the-Past Past Perfect Past Perfect The Past Perfect (as well as ‘past’ modals) is unchanged when reported.REPORTED SPEECH We use Reported (or Indirect) speech when we want to tell someone what another person says or said. tell. the tenses of the reported clause are ‘moved back’ (the so called backshift). 33 . which is more often. since no further backshift is possible. in the past (because reporting usually takes place in the past) and the tenses of the reported statement are often (but not always) affected by this. The reporting verb (say.

It is often necessary to make time and place changes in relation to the changes of verb tense forms in the reported clause of the sentences: place here this these    there that those           then. needn’t. ▲ 34 . might. had to would go take Such verbs as would. the following day the following week two days later before the day before. the previous day two days before time now today tonight this week tomorrow next week the day after tomorrow ago yesterday the day before yesterday can may must will come bring       verbs could might must. ‘perfect’ and ‘past’ modal forms remain unchanged in the indirect speech. immediately that day that night that week the next day. used to. ought to.

She told him she was going home.’ . ‘Let’s have a rest. I remarked that my door was being painted at the moment. She warned them not to walk on the ice as it wasn’t thick. 35  was ing  had He She Ann  would  should . He asked me to give him a hand.’ . (the informal use) We often use other words to express orders and requests. She complained the alarm clock had stopped the day before. He suggested that we should leave the town at once. He explained that the bus had broken down. STATEMENTS said told (me) pointed out exclaimed admitted ( that ) agreed hoped remarked explained complained suggested  Sample sentences     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 He said (that) he found the book interesting. Ann pointed out that I had made a mistake in my test.K. He said not to wait for him.REPORTED SPEECH IN SIGNS TABLE 7 REQUESTS.‘Thank you’ I offered her a cigarette and she accepted.’ She suggested having a rest and he agreed. They invited us to come in and look round. I have been told to wait for her.’ I suggested (him/his) asking them what they would like to do. ‘Ask them what they would like to do.‘O. He exclaimed with delight that he had passed the exam. Compare: ‘Have a cigarette. He begged me not to tell them the truth about the accident. ORDERS told asked She He warned begged invited advised reminded instructed me us to Sample sentences   not to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 She told him to call on her as soon as possible. She reminded me to switch all the lights. She hoped we would have a good time in the mountains.

He insisted on paying the bill. …she was going to be.‘No. whether …the apples in the orchard were ripe.Sometimes we may avoid complex sentences (with ‘that’ clause) and use other structures. Ann accused him of lying to her. We wished him many happy returns of the day. This is Miss White. QUESTIONS if asked (me) He Substitution table  () …. I offered him my torch but he refused. . …we had done our lessons.’ ‘We’ll kill the boy if you don’t pay.’ ‘You’d better wait in the car. She wondered what where Ann wanted to know why how who ▲ 36 . He refused to answer their questions. She apologized for being late.’ ‘I won’t answer your questions!’ ‘Many happy returns! ‘ . …the cold wind was still blowing. She promised not to tell anyone. he thanked us.’ ‘You may take my torch’. …they had been all that time.’ He introduced Miss Brown to Miss White. / She called him a liar. They threatened to kill the boy if we didn’t pay. COMPARE: STATEMENTS ‘Miss Brown.’ ‘I won’t tell anyone.’ ‘You are a liar!’ ‘You really must let me pay the bill. He advised her to wait in the car. …we didn’t want to go there. …she would go to Spain. No inversion in the ‘question’ clause of the sentence after a question-word.’ ‘I’m sorry for being late.‘Thank you. thank you. …had done the task.

I’ll buy you a car. We knew that Washington is the capital of the USA. Ann asked me whether I wanted coffee or tea. He said that he would have bought her a car if she had passed her exam. especially after ask. He said that the sun went round the earth. But in the case of Type II and Type III no change is needed. Type I ‘If you pass your exam.g. e. want to know.NOTES ON REPORTED SPEECH * When reporting general questions we may use if or whether. ‘If you passed your exam. He said he would buy her a car if she passed her exam. e. If we use past form in the ‘that’ clause it would mean that the fact is not true.’ he promised. He said that the earth goes round the sun. I would buy you a car. He said that he would buy her a car if she passed her exam. it was ridiculous. and it conveys slightly greater doubt.g. Type II Type III ▲ 37 .g.’ he said. but whether is preferred when there are alternatives.’ he said. wonder. * And in the end some notes on reporting Conditional statements. ‘If you had passed your exam I would have bought you a car. She wanted to know if / whether it was still raining. * Reporting permanent conditions and states we often use the simple present after a reporting verb in the past simply to show that they are matters of fact now. Changing Type I Conditional into indirect speech we have to backshift Simple Present to Simple Past and Future Simple to Future-in the-Past. He wanted to know whether or not we wanted dinner. e. We thought that the capital of the USA was Chicago. She wanted to know whether to phone them.

and in some cases by both. shall. a kind of noun) and sometimes as a present participle or a part of the predicate (in the Continuous). I want to be left alone. and after the expressions had better. (See: Table 8) +  e. ‘feel’.g. 38 He said he would read it later.g. But every English rule has exceptions.g. etc. She wants to go home now. ‘hear’. That is why we must use bare infinitive after modal (can. Would you help me (to) do it? You’d better give up smoking. THE INFINITIVE There are six forms of the Infinitive: ACTIVE PRESENT INFINITIVE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE INFINITIVE PERFECT / PAST INFINITIVE PERFECT /PAST PROGRESSIVE INFINITIVE PASSIVE (to) take (to) be taking (to) have taken (to) have been taking (to) be taken --(to) have been taken --- When we want to use an infinitive after the main verb-form of the sentence in most cases it is a to-infinitive.g. We must teach our students to distinguish it from the to-infinitive(e. take) often functions as a predicate or its part in the sentence // or as an Infinitive. would) verbs. must. He may be reading this book now. She made him read the book. to take) where to is always used in front of the base form of the verb. Since it is used without to this form is often called bare infinitive. after the verbs of perception such as ‘see’. I’d rather take a taxi. The -ing form of the verb (e. taking) sometimes functions as a gerund (i. would rather. would sooner.e. So. may. the general rule is:  + to  e. Let’s take a taxi home. Many verbs (as well as adjectives and nouns) can be followed by one or the other of these forms. might) and auxiliary (will. I saw her cross the street. .THE INFINITIVE AND THE -ING FORM In the English language the base form of a verb (e.g. after verbs ‘make’ and ‘let’ (and sometimes after ‘help’ and ‘dare’).

allow. long. watch. Let us study one more table. to let. apply.to express purpose (to / in order to / so as to) . manage. hesitate. report. OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX  + Noun / Pronoun + to  * want. direct. challenge. force. fail. remind. persuade. offer. instruct. know. cause. impel. ACTIVE VOICE * seem. teach. tempt  + Noun / Pronoun +  * verbs of perception: see. ask. seek. to dare c) verbs of perception (see. would sooner . consider. believe. let 3. know. wish. perceive ** make. expect. desire. have. make.) d) had better. refuse. observe.noun + to-infinitive 1. command. smell. notice. listen to. would rather. like. permit. ask. struggle 4. charge. etc. prove. oblige. drive. feel. believe *** advise. watch. prepare. bribe. force. etc. SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX / Nominative with the Infinitive / Noun / Pronoun +  to  PASSIVE VOICE * say. observe. permit. cause. urge. ** think. feel. hear. warn **** assist. get. hear. appear. WORD COMBINATIONS to be sure / to be certain / to be (un)likely to  39 . consider. request. find. chance. forbid. request. PREPOSITIONAL INFINITIVE COMPLEX for + Noun / Pronoun + to-infinitive 2. hear. encourage. shudder. invite. allow. TABLE 8 INFINITIVE  to    after: a) modal (except ought) & auxiliary verbs b) to make. **** order. intend ** think. happen. turn out ** aim. strive.as the object of the verb . recommend. tell. induce. press. hasten. find. sometimes to help. condemn. look at. compel. hurry. hate. order. entitle.Speaking about the INFINITIVE we can’t but mention the infinitive constructions or complexes. enable. feel. notice. suppose. decline.adjective + to-infinitive . *** see.

PREPOSITIONAL INFINITIVE COMPLEX Is it difficult for you to do this sum? 2. See also the next paragraph. He is believed to have been killed in the last battle. I had him paint the door. WORD COMBINATIONS WITH INFINITIVES Are you sure to have seen it? She is very likely to be coming today. OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX To-infinitive * She wanted the boy to clean the room. She is said to be well off.) Let me go out. BUT : They were made to clean the room. 4. ** He knew them to be honest. They were forced to surrender. SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX Active Voice Passive Voice * * ** *** **** He happened to have read the book. ** She made them clean the room. He was noticed to enter the building . 3. 40 . Bare infinitive * I heard him play the piano. *** They asked me to leave the room.NOTES ON THE INFINITIVE COMPLEXES 1. (If the main verb of the sentence is in the Passive we never use Bare Infinitive after it. I got them to do the job.

it means. pardon. practise. forgive. admit. endure. anticipate. postpone. escape. deny. resent. miss.THE -ING FORM / GERUND / Here is one more exception from the rule  +   +  ing When we use another verb immediately after the verbs given below. contemplate. dislike. never an infinitive. understand. excuse. love. keep (on). can’t help. report. suggest. finish. hinder. risk. recall. like. complete. imagine. prevent. tolerate. feel like. hate. prefer. mind. We should also remember that there are four forms of the  ing : PRESENT PERFECT ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE taking being taken having taken having been taken 41 present and future reference action referred to the past ▲ . celebrate. dispute. quit. we can only use an -ing form. enjoy. adore. avoid. mention. fancy. can’t stand. loathe. get through. recollect. discontinue. appreciate. give up. consider. recommend. detest. delay. explain. discuss.

in this case it has a passive meaning. 42 .g.g.g. * -ing form may be used after verbs of perception (instead of bare infinitive) to describe action in progress (but not a very short one). I’m sorry for interrupting. like.NOTES * Love. (made us…) * -ing form is used after such expressions as: to have trouble (in) doing sth to have difficulty doing sth to have a difficult time doing sth * When the first verb is used with the preposition / particle the second one should always be an –ing Form. She needs a lot of encouraging. prefer are sometimes used with to-infinitive. but -ing form is more usual and more general in meaning. e. We went sight-seeing yesterday. * We must use -ing form when speaking about sports and outdoor activities after such verbs as come and go.g. The fence wants repairing. * Keep has a different meaning when used with an object. BUT: I’m sorry to interrupt. I like watching TV. I watched him drawing a portrait.g. hate. Why don’t we go swimming? * The -ing form is also used after need and want. (doesn’t stop) He kept us waiting outside.g. e. adore. I like to wash up after breakfast (I think it is good). He keeps annoying us. e. e. I object to your going there. e. e.

Sometimes there is no change in meaning but sometimes there is.  + to   +  ingg Verbs + -ing or to-infinitive (with a change in meaning) Verbs + -ing or to-infinitive (with no change in meaning) attempt begin (can) afford can’t bear cease choose commence continue dread hate intend learn neglect omit start threaten doing to do raining to rain forget go on need prefer regret remember stop try doing to do See also: NOTES BELOW ▲ 43 .INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM Some verbs can be followed by either a to-infinitive or an -ing form.

etc. (But it was difficult) Try holding your breath to stop sneezing. I remembered to post the letter. (‘Experiment’) Don’t forget to ask him. He stopped to smoke. (‘past’ or ‘present’ reference) I prefer reading (to watching TV). I prefer to wait here. (if you don’t mind) ▲ 44 . (‘future’ action as seen from the past) Have you forgotten having met her? (refers to the past) Then we went on to read the text. (do something different) They went on talking till after midnight. He stopped smoking. (I have posted it) (I reminded myself to do it) (He gave up the habit) (He stopped and had a cigarette) She tried to get up early yesterday. BUT: I prefer to read (rather) than watch TV. I remember posting the letter. (continued without interruption) We regret to inform you that… (refers to future or present) She regretted having left / leaving him after only a month.NOTES -ing Form is not normally used after the progressive forms of start. begin.

(can't) conceive of consider* (can't) credit estimate* expect* feel* figure (AmE) find* gather* get it (= understand) guess* (AmE) hear* (= be told) hear about(= get to know) measure* merit number*(= reach total) own.NOTES NON-ACTION / STATIVE VERBS (verbs not used in the continuous) SENSES (verbs of perception) catch*(=understand) (can) distinguish feel (can) hear* (can) make out notice observe* perceive (can) see* (can) smell* (can) taste* FEELINGS & EMOTIONS hope* (it) impress* (it) interest* like* love* mean* mind* (it) please prefer prize regret* respect* (can't) stand swear by* trust value* OPINION & THINKING (dis)agree appreciate* assume* (dis)believe bet (informal) * (can't) comprehend. possess prove* (it) read* represent* resemble (it) result from (it) say hope* hear of (= know about) imagine (= think) * know mean presume*(= suppose) realize* recognize* recollect* regard * remember see (= understand) * see through* suppose* suspect* (can't) tell* think (= believe) * understand wonder seem signify (it) smell(of) * (it) sound(=seem) * (it) stand for* (it) suit (= be suitable) (it) taste (of) * tend* weigh * admire* adore (it) appeal to* appreciate* (it) astonish (it) attract* believe in care about dare* detest dislike doubt WANTS & PREFERENCES enjoy desire envy fancy esteem need fear prefer feel* require forgive want hate* wish OTHER add up (= make sense) (can) afford appear (= seem) * belong (to) chance* come about come from (origin) comprise (it)concern consist of constitute contain correspond to/with* cost* count* depend* deserve differ from equal exceed* excel in fit* happen to have / have got hold (= contain) * (it) include* (it) involve* keep –ing lack* look (= appear) * (it) matter (it) mean 45 .

we can use these verbs in the continuous when they describe actions. feel and some verbs of thinking (understand. We often use can and could with the verbs of perception see. e.g. WANTS AND PREFERENCES and other. for example. can be used in either the continuous or simple forms. not the continuous forms. understand) are normally used only in the simple forms. e.g. Above there are some of the most important verbs which are not normally used in the continuous forms.g. We could hear someone outside. I am feeling / I feel ill. feel. Some stative verbs* have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning. like. 2. ▲ 46 . 3. I can see you. hear. remember). FEELINGS & EMOTIONS. Some verbs (e. grouped into categories: SENSES (verbs of perception). OPINION & THINKING.STATIVE VERBS - VERBS NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS - NOTES 1. taste. ache and hurt. Verbs of physical feeling. smell. 4. My head is aching / My head aches.

Are you …? to have* (has) 1. generally + 47 . He has not … 3. He is not … 3. always.  do not … 3. Does  …? 1. are) 1. I have… 2. usually. to be (am. is.INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PRESENT DO (DOES)   (-s) … 2. I am … 2. Have you …?  every day.

m.   (-s) … We do it every day. The train leaves at 5 p.1. We never do it.  do not … He does not usually do it . Does  …? Do you always do it? What does he do for a living? 48 . 2. PRESENT INDEFINITE / SIMPLE 1. He often does it on Sundays. 3.

WHEN 49 . last year.  … 2. I had … 2. He was not … 3.INDEFINITE / SIMPLE PAST DID 1. Were you …?  to have* (had) 1.  did not … 3. were) 1. Had you …? yesterday. I was … 2. did  …? to be (was. He had not … 3. two days ago.

He didn’t go to school yesterday. ( ? ) did   …? Did he go to school yesterday ? What did they do last Sunday ? 50 . 3. ( -. 2. PAST INDEFINITE / SIMPLE 1. We didn’t play chess yesterday. We played chess last Sunday.)  did not  ….2. He went to school yesterday. ( + )   ….

I was not at home at that time. They had a lot of money.* They didn’t have any money. .* She did not have a bath yesterday. I was at home when she came. 51 2. They had not any money then. She had a bath two hours ago .BE / HAVE 1.

Were you at home when he came? Had you many friends at school?* Did you have many friends?* When did she have a bath? Who was at home …? Who had a bath …? Who went to school on Monday? 52 .BE / HAVE 3.

 will not … 3. in a month 53 . Will / Shall  …? I We  shall* you they she  will he it  shall not = shan’t will not = won’t tomorrow. next week.INDEFINITE / SIMPLE FUTURE * WILL / SHALL 1.  will  … 2.

She won’t be able to do it. I think we will (shall) do it in a week.3. Will / Shall  …? Shall we do it in a month? Will you do it tomorrow? Where shall we go tonight? 54 .  will … Maybe he will do it tomorrow.  will not … They will not do it next month. 2. 3. FUTURE INDEFINITE / SIMPLE 1.

INDEFINITE / SIMPLE FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST WOULD / SHOULD 1. Would / Should  . the following week 55 ..? I we  should* you they he  would she it the next day.  would not … * 3.  *  would  … 2.

She said she would not do it that evening.THE PAST 1. FUTURE INDEFINITE . . He said he would do it the following week. 2.4.IN . Would you do it if you had time? 56 3.

 is not  ing 3. at the moment.PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS PRESENT AM IS ARE 1. tonight* 57 STATIVE** .  am  ing  ing 2. Are   ing ? I  am he she  is it you we  are they now.

She is not coming next week. 2. 3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS / PROGRESSIVE 1. please. I want some water. We are leaving tomorrow. I am doing it at the moment.5. I don’t think you are right. He is not doing it now. Are you listening to me? What are you doing tonight? Do you hear me? 58 .

Were   ing ? I he she it  was we you  were they at that time.PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS PAST WAS WERE 1.  was not  ing 3. at 5 p.m.  were  ing  ing 2. yesterday 59 .

Was she doing it at 5 p.6. 3.m. He was doing it when she came in. We were not doing it at that time. PAST CONTINUOUS / PROGRESSIVE 1. yesterday? 60 2. .

PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS FUTURE SHALL* WILL 1.  will BE  ing be  ing 2. tomorrow.  will not be  ing 3.m. from 7 till 9 tomorrow 61 . Shall  be  ing ? shall not = shan’t will not = won’t at 4 p.

. FUTURE CONTINUOUS / PROGRESSIVE 1. She will not be doing it then.m.7. Will you be doing it from 5 till 8 next Sunday? 62 2. 3. tomorrow. They will be doing it at 5 p.

PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS FUTURE . Should  be ing ? should not = shouldn’t * would not = wouldn’t 63 .PAST SHOULD* BE  ing WOULD 1.in the .  would not be ing 3.  would be  ing 2.

.8.IN . FUTURE CONTINUOUS .THE PAST 1. 3. He said she would not be doing it at 5 p.m. He said he would be doing it at that time. Would you be doing it if you were free at 4? 64 2.

just. already.PRESENT HAVE (HAS) PERFECT  have  … 2.. I We you they  have he she  has it  recently. yet 65 .  has not  . Have   …? 1.. never. 3.

She has never been to Paris. . I have not finished it yet.9. I have already done it. Have you done it yet ? Where have you been? When did she go there? 66 2. He has not done it yet. 3. PRESENT PERFECT 1.

by 5 o’clock yesterday . 2. 3.   had …  had not … Had  …? 67 by that time.PAST HAD PERFECT 1.

He was sorry he hadn’t done it by that time. PAST PERFECT 1. 3. She said she had done it two days before.10. Had she done it before you arrived? 68 2. .

by then 69 .FUTURE WILL SHALL* HAVE  PERFECT  will have  … 2. by 4 o’clock tomorrow.  will not have … 3. Will  have …? 1. before.

. Will you have done it before we return home? 70 2. I’m afraid. FUTURE PERFECT 1. 3.11. He will not have done it by then. They will have done it by 6 o’clock tomorrow.

 wouldn’t have … 3.FUTURE . 71 .in the . Would  have …? 1.PAST WOULD SHOULD* HAVE  PERFECT  would have  … 2.

12. FUTURE PERFECT - IN - THE PAST

1.

He said he would have done it before we returned. I would not have done it if you had not told me to. Would you have done it if you had had a chance?
72

2.

3.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

PRESENT
HAVE BEEN

-ing

have been  ing 2.  has not been ing 3. Have  been ing ?
1. 

for, since, since when, lately, how long, all day
73

13. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

1.

I have been doing it since 1989. He has not been doing it lately. Have you been doing it all day?
74

2.

3.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

PAST
HAD BEEN 1.  2.  -ing

had been ing had not been ing  been  ing ?

3. Had

for the last two days, since
75

She said she hadn’t been doing it for the last two days. He said he had been doing it since 1998. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. . 3.14. Had you been doing it for a long time when I came? 76 2.

 2.  -ing will have been ing won’t have been ing  have been ing? 3.PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE WILL HAVE BEEN 1. Will 77 .

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. She will not have been doing it for a long time by then. Will he have been doing it for 3 hours before I come back? 78 2. He will have been doing it for two hours by 5 p.15.m. . 3.

-ing  would have been ing  would not have been ing Should  have been ing ? 79 . 3.PAST WOULD HAVE BEEN 1.in the .PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE . 2.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS .IN .16. 80 .THE PAST He said he would have been doing it for two hours by the time we arrived the next day.

81 .