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Bimasena Heribowo Christopher Kevinly Wednesson Lawijaya

1206292351 1206223846 1206230593

Date of Practicum

: Friday, November 15th 2013

Practical Assistant : Danu Irawan Date Approved Grade Signature : : :


Principal Theorem Cartography is a surveying activity which shows the vertical and horizontal aspects of the area measured. In short. The measurement of the plane can be done by some methods. In doing Cartography. Objective of The Practical Works: This practical activity is done in order to measure the area of GK field and the contour of its surrounding by using geometrical data on the ground to a flat plane with a specific scale. the object which is measured can be both natural and artificial object. photogrammetric or other methods. Photogrammetric mapping cannot be done without reference which is taken by terestrical measurement. Apparatus        Theodolite Pointer Umbrella Surveying staff Tripod Measuring tape Ruler 1 unit 4 units 1 unit (optional) 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 3.University of Indonesia 1. terestrical. Terestrical method is a method which uses theodolite as its instrument. which uses the following formula: ( ) 1|Cartography . while photogrammetric method is done by taking images from the air by using airplane or balloon. cartography can be stated as the measurement of horizontal and vertical aspects of a location or area which will be mapped. In this practical activity. 2. from setting the basic control point to scope determination. the determination of the distance between points measured is exactly the same with the previous practical activities.

the following formula applies: Where: A L W = area = length = width Note that there are two methods which are used in cartography: 1) Offset Method In this method. 2|Cartography . c and d can be determined.University of Indonesia Where: UC LC D = Upper Crosshair = Lower Crosshair = Distance measured While in order to determine the area of the building. the relative position of point a. b. The offset method is consists of two ways: i. then the angles by are measured measuring aa’. cc’ and dd’. Perpendicular Line method: Detailed points which are projected perpendicularly against the ruler line AB. the main apparatus which are used are measuring tape and a geometrical shaper which is used to create prism. bb’.

d”. Ba”. ii. Interpolation of random points This is done by determining random lines on the measuring line AB (point a’. Interpolation Method: The detailed points are ‘tied’ with straight lines on the measuring line. By measuring the distance of Aa’. a’a. Ac”. b and c can be determined. Ad’. and c’c”c are equilateral triangle or isosceles triangle. d’. Aa”. Bd’. the position of point a. Bd”. c’c. Side Elongation method: iii. There are two methods: i. d”d. c”c. Ad”. d’d”d. c’ and c”). Bc’. Bc”. a”a. Simple Trilateralization method 3|Cartography . Ba’. d’d. Ac’. Make sure that triangle a’a”a. a”.University of Indonesia ii.

With Azimuth and distance 2.  U shaped contour line indicates mountain’s back 4|Cartography . while a large distance between the lines indicates that the plane is relatively flat. contour lines are lines which connect points which possess a same elevation. This situation is based on the difference of height of every point. geometrical data can be gained from the field work. By definition.Angle measurement can be done from engineering principal point . Contour lines are not intersecting each other and not branching. the field situation can be determined. By using these contour lines. The drawing which is done is usually in form of contour map which forms contour lines. The properties of the contour line are as below:    A contour line indicates that all elements along the line possess a same elevation.University of Indonesia 2) Polar Method Apparatus: compass theodolite or repetition theodolite 1. these data will be expressed on a drawing media which possess right scaling. By using this geometrical data. The other name of the contour line is tranches line. Contour lines which are densely packed indicate that the area which is expressed possess step elevation.Plane distance measurement can be done by tape or EDM By doing cartography. With angles and distance .

\ Practical Activity: 1) Setting the theodolite rightly on its first measuring point. 2) Set the benchmark which will be used as measuring point. and then measures the height of the theodolite. These contour lines are used for many purposes.University of Indonesia  V-shaped contour line indicates a valley / canyon. 3) Prepare the apparatus which are wanted to be used 4) Measure the dimension of the field by using the measuring tape. GK field. in this case. such as:  Cutting and filling planning. By doing contour map. in this case. Practical Steps Preparation: 1) Make the sketch of the structure. the volume of cutting and filling works can be estimated. 5|Cartography . point A. The formulas which are used in this practical activity are: ΔT D ( ( = (HI-CC) = (UC-LC) [ ]) [ ]) Where: ΔT HI CC D UC LC = height difference between the theodolite and the measured plane = height of instrument = Center crosshair = distance between the theodolite and the measured plane = Upper crosshair = Lower crosshair 4.

5 -13 -4.18 DOptical (UC-LC) (m) 26.23 14. and then shoot point B.67% 1.9 24.5 cm) Point Measured B 2 1 4 D UC CC LC DField (m) 26.5 15.5 148. the lower crosshair and the horizontal angle of the point B.3 146.3 111 162.3 156. the middle crosshair.3 124.5 122.5 4 14.67% 23. 2.2 23. 1. and then shoot point A. 2. and C.8 23.9 3. 2. 1. 5) Move the theodolite to point D. 4 and D from point A.8 Relative Error 0. 4) Move the theodolite to point C.84% 0. 1. 3 and D. 3 and C 5.5 154 156 134. 2.2 98 150.5 6|Cartography . Experimental Data and Data Processing Situation Image: Experimental Data: Theodolite at point A: Apparatus Position A (Height of Instrument = 149.57% ΔT (HI-CC) (cm) 38. and then shoot point A.5 163.2 174. 3) Then move the theodolite to point B.8 152.23% 1.14 23. 3.University of Indonesia 2) Measure the upper crosshair.5 -6.

8 -51.4 Theodolite at Point D: Apparatus Position Point Measured A 1 4 3 C UC CC LC DField (m) 24.1 18.5 Point Measured D 3 UC CC LC DField (m) 30.5 -6.2 126.26% -15.2 168.5 cm) 2 B 143.7 174 158.46% 30.17 4.2 15.3 28 29.3 25.8 -45.4 98.1 3.94% ΔT (HI-CC) (cm) 6.5 155 166.9 -41.5 10.3 28.6 26.7 15.1 161 171 165 160.9 129.8 21.67% 4.18 21.7 27.57% 0.1 0.8 DOptical (UC-LC) (m) 17.1 Relative Error 0.9 15 17.3 10.06 DOptical (UC-LC) (m) 30.76 24.8 148.9 Relative Error 0.9 122.1 152 146.67% 2.5) 172.1 74.4 177.6 172.5 165.1 153.6 171.6 DOptical (UC-LC) (m) 23.47% 1.2 36.8 Relative Error 1.5 161 158.5 30.5 147 144 7|Cartography .2 cm) Point Measured C 3 2 1 A UC CC LC DField (m) 17.9 Theodolite at point C: Apparatus Position C (Height of Instrument = 120.8 -41.7 84 128.61% ΔT (HI-CC) (cm) -8 -13.8 175 173.5 176.3 3.1 166.3 D (Height of Instrument = 152.1 -19 -8.12% ΔT (HI-CC) (cm) -38.75% 2.8 160.94% 0.3 176.00% 1.3 114.98% 3.58% 0.3 149.1 124.6 4.2 93 135.4 -3.University of Indonesia Theodolite at Point B: Apparatus Position B (Height of Instrument = 119.5 169.1 15.

University of Indonesia Horizontal angles: Point A Point Measured B 2 1 4 D Point Measured C 3 2 1 A Horizontal Angle 0o00’00” 6o46’55” 58o13’35” 84o45’50” 98o33’15” Horizontal Angle 0o00’00” 10o27’15” 40o18’30” 83o29’50” 89o52’15” Horizontal Angle 0o00’00” 58o54’50” 92o49’45” 101o49’45” Horizontal Angle 0o00’00” 5o23’05” 20o34’30” 63o14’15” 69o57’00” Point B Point C Point Measured D 3 2 B Point D Point Measured A 1 4 3 C 8|Cartography .

75 23.2 m 6.45 -4.34 15.30 The area and the perimeter of the field is: A = 12. Contour Map Elevation differences between lines: 4 cm 9|Cartography .University of Indonesia By using point A as the benchmark (point [0.31 1.5 -12 -0.8 -4.71 23.78 1.46 -3.8 2.1×2 + 22×2 = 68.72 14. 0]): Point A B C D 1 2 3 4 Elevation (average) 0 39.1 × 22 = 266.14 26.1 8.65 Xn 0 0 18.88 2.74 3.53 23.2 m2 P = 12.84 Yn 0 26.

2. 1 and A. 2. 3 and D. This is done so that the calculation can be simplified and the relative error can be calculated. Analysis 1) Practical Analysis This cartography practical activity is done in order to collect the geometrical data on the field and then combine all the data gained into a drawing plane by using a certain scale. in point B. the theodolite is then moved to point D. Note that every single point which is measured. so that the data which is gained can be represent the real situation on the field. draw a simple sketch which represents the area which is measured. After gaining all the data which is need to be calculated. the theodolite is meant to measure point A. In this practical activity. the contour map of the area can be determined. the points which are measured are point B. where the benchmark is. Then the theodolite is set at point A. note that in point B. where it measures point C. In this point. the three crosshairs and the horizontal angles should be noted. set four points where the theodolite will be erected. Point 4 cannot be measured due to the presence of a tree between point C and point 4. 2. 4 and D. After that. the GK building is chosen as the area which is measured. All the positions also should possess different elevations. The theodolite is then moved to point B. 4. 3 and C. so the theodolite setting took some extra effort. After doing the measurement at point C. measure the real distances of the points which are measured before. After measuring from point B. 1. the terrain is high. Note that. After deciding the area.University of Indonesia 7. the next step is moving the theodolite to point C. This sketch will assist the practical activity and will make the measurement more organized. each set the theodolite should be able to aim for all the four side of the field and three other theodolite measurement points. After shooting point B. 1. 10 | C a r t o g r a p h y . The first thing which is necessary to be done is to determine the area which is wanted to be measured. if possible. 3. After that.

the elevation of point B is 39.8 cm lower and point D is 4.23. 11 | C a r t o g r a p h y .84. which indicates that settlement had happened on the field.74.1. which is done in order to ensure accuracy. the coordinate of each points which are measured can also be determined. B(0. 3(15.6051 m2 for area and 68.24). Note that all the points on the field (point 1.0). This makes the contouring drawing can be done more easily. Setting the AB as the Y axis is done in order to simplify the calculation. the contour map can be drawn by using the elevation data.30).75).26. since the area around point B is higher than its surrounding.26. point C is 2. it is revealed that in respect to point A as the benchmark. This value resembles the area and the parameter which is manually calculated (266.2734 m for the parameter. 2(3.71).1 cm higher. This result is proven. The coordinates are in respect to point A as the benchmark and line AB as the Y axis. which indicates that the plane is relatively flat.45 cm higher.-3.65 cm lower.8 cm higher relative to point A. the distances between contour lines are a bit far.2 m for the parameter).88.78). By doing cartography. Note that the highest point measured on the field lies on point B. 1(2.53. with an elevation of 39. point 3 is 0. Note that these coordinates are gained from the manual measurement data by using measuring tape. In this contour map. point 2 is 12 cm lower. The software is also capable in calculating the area and the parameter of the field.2 m2 for the area and 68.1. point D is 8.23. At point C and D. point 1 is 4. C(18.32) and 4(14. The coordinates are: A(0.72. 2. The distance in the contour map uses the real distance which is gained by using the measuring tape. which are 266.34. the geometrical data which is gained are plot on Autocad software. not the data which is gained from the theodolite. 3 and 4) are relatively lower than point A.8 cm higher. D(23.University of Indonesia 2) Result Analysis From the data which is gained from the field. In this practical activity.46).5 cm lower.

But this problem was solved by giving extra tension when measuring distances with the tape 12 | C a r t o g r a p h y . The only problem of the apparatus which may impair the measurement was the tape which was used had been bended before. Some of the errors are quite disturbing. There are several errors which are able to be identified:  Personal Error This type of error is caused by the practicants of the practical activity. but the data which is gained is still considered usable. Luckily. In this cartography surveying practical activity. so the amount of error of these two measurements was high.University of Indonesia 3) Error Analysis In this practical activity. the tension given by the practicants was too large. Another personal error which was done by the practicants was when measuring point 2 from point B and when measuring point 1 from point A. and the problem was identified a little too late. The relative error of this practical activity is ranging from 0% to 30. the most significant personal error was when determining the measuring points of the theodolite. so point 4 was not measured from point C. there are errors which had occurred. The next personal error was when measuring the distances by the tape. which shorten its measurement.  Apparatus error The apparatus error which happened during the practical activity can be considered as minimum.7%. The practicants are not aware by the presence of a tree between point C and 4. the staff which was held was tilted. the deformation of the tape may not be significant. which may cause the tape to deform.

C(18.46).]  The area and the parameter of the GK field can be determined (area: 266.0). 13 | C a r t o g r a p h y . References Surveying Practical Assistant Team. 1(2.75).34. Faculty of Engineering.1. The parallax error that may happen during this practical activity was that the theodolite was not read precisely. Pedoman Praktikum Ilmu Ukur Tanah. B(0.University of Indonesia  Parallax error The parallax error is the error which caused by the misreading of the apparatus. 2(3.78). the data can be expressed on a drawing plane with a certain scale.  By reading the contour map.-3.84.72. University of Indonesia.23.26.  The coordinates of each points can be determined [A(0.32) and 4(14. Depok.71). it is known that the area around point B is higher than the majority of the area. Laboratory of Surveying and Mapping.2734 m) 9.30).23. D(23. parameter: 68.  From the height difference of the plane.53.24). which may cause the data to be less accurate. the contour map can be drawn. 8.26. Conclusion  By doing cartography and collecting geometrical data on the field.88. 3(15.1.6051 m2.74.

University of Indonesia 10. Attachment GK Field. seen from Point B 14 | C a r t o g r a p h y .