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AN1731 APPLICATION NOTE

EMERGENCY LIGHTING APPLICATIONS
G. Consentino

1. ABSTRACT This application note shows the topologies implemented in the Emergency Lighting Applications and the STMicroelectronics’s power bipolar transistors used. Today, the Emergency Lamps market has grown considerably due to the new improved safety rules. In fact, the Emergency Lamps are used in all public places and, also, in private homes replacing the traditional lighting applications. 2. STSA851 DESCRIPTION The STMicroelectronics's power bipolar transistor STSA851 is housed in the TO-92 package. This device is manufactured in NPN planar technology using a 'Base Island' layout that involves a very high gain performance and a very low saturation voltage. The main characteristics of the STSA851 device are: 1) Vceo ≥ 60 V; 2) Vces ≥ 150 V; 3) Vebo ≥ 7 V; 4) Ic = 5 A (continuous current); 5) Ib = 1 A (continuous current); 6) Vce(sat) = 140 mV (typ) @ Ib = 50 mA @ Ic = 2 A (typical conditions); 7) Hfe = 270 (typ) @ Ic = 2 A @ V ce = 1 V (typical conditions). 3. HIGH EFFICIENCY DC-AC CONVERTERS The part of the circuit used to drive the emergency lamp is composed of DC-AC converters. The DC-AC converters transform the low DC input voltage in high AC output voltage required by the fluorescent tube. Fluorescent tubes are employed in these applications because they are much more efficient at converting electrical energy into light than conventional incandescent bulbs increasing the battery life. Usually, DC-AC converters used in these applications are the Push-Pull switching converter forced to run in synchronized mode by the inclusion of a supply inductor, and the Forward converter. Mainly, the DCAC converters have suitable transformers that increase the output voltage and allow the electrical isolation between the secondary and primary of the transformer, and suitable switches. Usually, the switches are power bipolars driven by a third winding magnetically coupled to the transformer, like in the PUSH-PULL current FED converter.

February 2004

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AN1731 - APPLICATION NOTE The power bipolar transistor collector current Ic depends on the load, turns rapport
K= N2 N1 2

(3.1)

where N2 is the secondary turn number and N1 is the primary turn number of the transformer, and it also depends on the battery voltage. Usually, in these applications the lamp power is in the range of 8-24W, and the turns rapport
N2 N1 2

(3.2)

is about 30, the current Ic is in the range of 1.5-3.0A. Furthermore, usually, the emergency lighting boards are powered with an input voltage in the range of 3.6-6.0 V dc so that the typical Vce_max is around 10-20 Vdc . The voltage and current values ranges, Vce_max and Ic, are inside the SOA of the STSA851 so that these devices can be used in all emergency lighting applications. The emergency lamp applications drive a lamp up to 58W. Usually, these emergency lighting applications do not supply such output powers but only 10-20 % of the nominal lamp power. Sometimes, such applications are used to power lamps that commonly light up rooms. When the net voltage disappears the emergency lamp switches on supplying around 10-20 % of the nominal lamp power just to light up the room. 4. FLUORESCENT TUBE CHARACTERISTICS Fluorescent lamps are generally made with tubes filled with a gas mixture at a low pressure. The inner sides of the tubes are covered with fluorescent elements. When the net voltage disappears, before the tube lights on, the lamp has a higher resistance. In this moment, the electrodes voltage increases up to around 500V and the electrodes start to warm up and emit ions. Figures 1 and 2 show the V-time and Itime waveforms and the V-I waveform respectively before the start-up of a 24W tube. Figure 1: V-time and I-time Waveforms Before the Striking

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AN1731 - APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 2: V-I waveform before the striking

As shown above, to strike the fluorescent tube the electrodes voltage reaches up to 505V of peak. Furthermore, the current that flows through the lamp is very low, 56 mA, because the resistance before the striking is high (around 10 KOhm). When the fluorescent lamp lights on, the gas mixture inside is fully ionized, and an arc across the electrodes occurs. In this new condition, the lamp resistance drops to around 1 KOhm value (Figures 3 and 4 show the V-time and I-time waveforms and the V-I waveform after the striking. Figure 3: V-time and I-time waveforms after the striking

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the characteristic becomes flat because no ion can emit other radiations. after the striking. the gas mixture emits radiations that excite the fluorescent elements inside the tube producing the light in the visible spectrum. 4. In fact. the operation frequency is in the range of 25-30KHz. In this example. the waveform I-V has a linear behavior until the established voltage value is kept. as shown in Fig. after the striking. Usually. if the voltage across the electrodes overcomes this established voltage value.APPLICATION NOTE Figure 4: V-I waveform after the striking After the striking. Furthermore. 4/35 . the voltage across the electrodes drops from 505V of peak to 220V of peak and the current increases from 56mA of peak to 158mA of peak. in order to increase the lamp efficiency up to 15%.AN1731 .

14 ⋅ Vdc = 6 ≅ 9V 2 2 v 1max = (6.1) 5/35 . Figure 5: PUSH-PULL current FED converter schematic circuit The components values of capacitors. The resonance frequency of the PUSH-PULL converter is also due to LT. N 2 (secondary winding turns) and N 1/2 (half primary winding turns) rapport is around 60. the voltage v1max (the max voltage across the vice of the primary winding central point and the reference) can be written as: π 3.APPLICATION NOTE 5. The same primary winding has a central vice where the inductor L 1 is connected. while N1/2 and N3 (third winding turns) rapport is around 5. PUSH-PULL CURRENT FED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY INTRODUCTION As previously exposed. Usually the primary inductance LT of the transformer T1 is much lower compared to the inductance L 1. The secondary winding vices are connected to the load. and operation frequency. The primary winding vices are connected to the collectors of the NPN power bipolar transistors Q1 and Q2. During the Q2 on state. TRANSFORMER DESCRIPTION OF PUSH-PULL TOPOLOGY In figure 5 the transformer named T 1 has three windings. a topology solution for emergency lighting applications is the PUSH-PULL current FED converter topology. power lamp. The third winding vices are connected to the base of the transistors Q 1 and Q2 so that when the first is on. 6. and inductors are selected operation on the input voltage.AN1731 . resistors. the current flows through the same device and the respective half primary winding and vice versa. This topology solution has a Push-Pull switching converter forced to run in synchronized mode by the inclusion of a supply inductor. the second is off and vice versa. Considering a 6 V dc input voltage.

considering fig.3) As exposed above. it is necessary to consider the graph below. A is the core section and l is the core length. N3 and also with the other 6/35 .14 1 ⋅ Vdc 3 = 6 ∗ ≅ 2V N 2 2 5 1 2 (6.4) Φ is the magnetic flux and ℜ is the magnetic reluctance of the T1 core.APPLICATION NOTE v2max (the max voltage across the secondary winding vices) can be written as: v 2 max = N2 π 3.2) v3max (the max voltage across the vices of the third winding) can be written as: v 3 max = π N 3. Figure 6: Particular of T1 When Q2 is on. Q1 is off and vice versa. T1 switches on. When T2 switches off. it is highlighted N1/2 and not N1.AN1731 . In order to understand the reason of it. the current ‘I’ flows through the half primary winding 'b' and it generates a magnetic force (Hopkinson law): N1 ⋅I = ℜ ⋅ Φ 2 (6.Φ can be written as: N1 ⋅I Φ= 2 ℜ (6.6) µ is the core permeability. Such flux flows into the transformer core creating a link with N2. Now. 6 where T2 is on. the current flows through the other half primary winding 'a' and the flux Φ inverts its direction.14 ⋅ Vdc = 6 ∗ 60 ≅ 560 V N1 2 2 ( ) 2 (6.5) ℜ can be written as: ℜ= l µ ⋅A (6.

10) The output power can be written as: Aout = v 2 i 2 (6. 7). ∆t N ∆Φ v 1/ 2 = − 1 2 ∆t v 2 = −N 2 (6. 3 = 3 .APPLICATION NOTE turns N1/2.11) Considering an ideal transformer: v 2i 2 = v 1I (6. c2 = 2 N N v1 v1 v1 1 1 2 2 (6.9) In fact.8) Furthermore. or when the lamp is disconnected.AN1731 .7) v2 N v N v = 2 . i2 (the current that flows through the lamp) can be written as: N1 i2 = I 2 =I 1 N2 K (6. ∆t ∆Φ v 3 = −N 3 . Figure 7: Resonant Schematic Circuit Before the Lamp Strike 7/35 . the operation frequency (about 60 KHz) is due to the resonance between C2 and the primary transformer winding inductance LT (see fig.13) Before the lamp strike. the apparent input power can be written as: Ain = v 1I (6.12) N1 i 2 v1 1 = = 2 = N2 k I v2 (6. generating the voltages v 2 and v 3 (magnetic law-Lenz law): ∆Φ .

Figure 8: Ideal Schematic Circuit of the Transformer After the Lamp Strike The input apparent power can be written as: A in = v1i1 (6.15) Now it is possible to consider an equivalent circuit to fig. usually. where the apparent input power is equal.14) When the lamp is connected. 8/35 . the transformer circuit can be showed as in the graph below. after the lamp strike. the operation frequency is due to LT.AN1731 . 9. the resonant schematic circuit can be represented as in figure 10 where. C 2 and C1K2 (25-30 KHz).APPLICATION NOTE f = 1 2 ⋅ π LTC 2 (6. as in fig. 8. Figure 9: Equivalent Schematic Circuit of the Transformer After the Lamp Strike Furthermore.

21) and where: k 2 jω ⋅ C1 (1 + jCRLampω ) (6.16) v 1I i2 2 = (RLamp − j 1 V I v N2 v )= 1 = 1 = 1 k2 I ω ⋅ C1 i 2 i2 I (N1 )2 2 2 (6.20) (6.18) Where: RLAMP k2 (6. Now.APPLICATION NOTE Figure 10: Resonant Schematic Circuit of the Transformer After the Lamp Strike In this transformer equivalent circuit the output impedance has been transferred from the secondary winding to the primary winding. the equivalent primary admittance (Yeq1) can be written as: Yeq1 = −j k 2 jωC1 + jω ⋅ C2 + ω ⋅ LT (1 + jCRLampω ) (6.22) is the admittance of the series net RLamp k2 − C1k 2 (6.AN1731 .19) is the primary equivalent resistance and where: C1 K 2 is the primary equivalent capacitance. v 1I = v 2i 2 = i 2 (RLamp − j 2 1 ) ω ⋅ C1 (6.23) 9/35 .17) v1 1 1 = zeq1 = 2 (RLamp − j ) I k ω ⋅ C1 (6.

the current flows through L 1. However. even if the current oscillates around its average value.APPLICATION NOTE Considering RLamp k2 (6.27) When the board is powered. the half primary winding transformer T1 and Q2.26) f ≅ 1 2 ⋅ π LT (C2 + k 2C1 ) (6. it is possible to achieve the frequency that maximizes.25) deriving Yeq1 compared to the pulsation and equal to zero. Figure 11: PUSH-PULL Current FED Converter Schematic Circuit with the Theoretical Waveform 10/35 . The current ripple decreases increasing the inductance value L 1. in the permanent state.24) negligible compared to 1 ω ⋅ C1k 2 (6. and it increases as: tgα = v L 1 * ∆t L1 (6.AN1731 . the Yeq1 (such frequency is the resonance frequency of the application during the lamps on state). Figure 11 shows the PUSH-PULL current FED converter schematic circuit with the theoretical waveform of ‘I’. during the Q2 on state. there is a ripple of this same value.28) angular coefficient but. R 1 and R 2 enable Q 1 and Q2 and the lamp turns on. the current curves and it becomes flat. ω2 ≅ 1 LT (C2 + k 2C1 ) (6. after a while. After the lamp start-up.

11). and vt1b2 Theoretical Waveforms In the above graph. where v1 is the voltage between the vices of the central point of the primary winding of T1 and the reference. Figure 12: PUSH-PULL Current FED Converter Schematic Circuit with vc1. The voltage v1 is a half positive sine wave and this reaches the maximum value when Q1 or Q2 are on.APPLICATION NOTE After the strike. i2. v c2 is the voltage between the vices of the Q1 and Q 2 collectors. A this time. 13). while it drops to zero during the turn-off and the turn-on of the same transistors (see fig. 11/35 . the same i 2 can be written as: i2 = v2 RLamp (6. ‘I’ generates the current i2 and. the current i 2 inverts its direction and the capacitors C1 start discharging until the charge inside it becomes zero and the current i2 reaches its maximum negative value. vc2. Furthermore. Immediately after. The maximum value of such voltage is twice v1.AN1731 . C 1 gets charged and i2 decreases to zero until the voltage across C1 reaches the maximum value. at the beginning. also the voltage across the third winding inverts its direction so that Q2 switches off and Q 1 switches on and ‘I’ flows through the other half primary winding of the transformer T1 (see fig.29) because the capacitor C1 is discharged. when i2 inverts itself.

v1.AN1731 . and vL1 theoretical waveforms The figure above also highlights the vL1 voltage. This is the voltage across L1 and it is achieved considering the difference between Vdc and v 1. 14. Figure 14: v1 waveforms A1 can be written as: A1 = Vdc T 2 (6.30) 12/35 . it is evident that the area A2 must be equal to the area A1 because v1 and Vdc must have the same average value.APPLICATION NOTE Figure 13: PUSH-PULL current FED converter schematic circuit with vc2. Now focusing the attention on only one half-period of v1 as showed in fig.

31) = T 2π T V 1max [ − cos( )t ] = V1max T π 2π 0 T 2 considering: A1=A2 T T π = V1max ⇒ V1max = Vdc 2 π 2 (6.36) 13/35 .34) vc2max is also the maximum voltage value between the collector-emitter vices of Q1 or Q2. The theoretical voltages and the currents waveforms of Q1 or Q2 are shown below.32) V (6.AN1731 .35) Pout = RLamp ( I 2 max 2 ) 2 (6. Figure 15: Q1 and Q2 theoretical waveforms Ic1 and Ic2 can be written as: Ic1max = I 2 max N2 N1 2 (6.APPLICATION NOTE A2 can be written as: A2 = ∫V 1max sen( 0 T 2 2π )tdt = T (6.33) vc2max can be written as: V2 max = π ⋅ Vdc (6.

41) T is the period of vL1. Now focusing the attention on only one half-period of vL1: Figure 16: vL1 theoretical waveform detail After the lamps strike ‘I’ fluctuates around its average value: Imax − I = I − Imin = ∆I (6.43) (6.APPLICATION NOTE I 2 max = 2 Pout RLamp (6.37) Ic1max = N2 N1 2 2 Pout RLamp (6.AN1731 . vmed can be written as: v med = ( A + D − B − C) T (6.44) C = B.38) R1 and R 2 can be also used to adjust the I b1on and Ib2on.42) (6.39) because: v med = 0 (6. D = A 14/35 . A+ D = B +C A=B (6.40) where v med is the average value of L 1.

46) t' = T 2 arcsen( ) 2⋅π π ∆Imax I med (6.47) Considering that: ∆Imax % = (6.45) t' is the time when vL1 is zero: 0 = Vdc − π 2 ⋅π Vdc ⋅ sen( t' ) 2 T (6.51) During the time interval 0-t' I increases by: ∆Imax 2 (6.49) Considering the Lenz law: v med = L1min ∆Imax ∆t (6.AN1731 .54) L1min can be written as: L1min = 2 T 2 ⋅π {Vdc ⋅ t '− Vdc [1 − cos( t ' )]} ∆Imax 4 T (6.50) It is possible to achieve Lmin (the minimum L1 value that allows the established current ripple to be obtained) as: L1min = ∆t v med ∆ Im ax (6.52) vmed can be written as: v med = 1 1 π 2 ⋅π v L1 ⋅ dt = ∫ [Vdc − Vdc ⋅ sen( t )]dt ∫ t' 0 t' 0 T 2 t' t' (6.55) 15/35 .53) v med = 1 T 2 ⋅π {Vdc ⋅ t '− Vdc [1 − cos( t ' )]} t' 4 T (6.APPLICATION NOTE vL1 can be written as: π 2⋅π v L1 = Vdc − Vdc ⋅ sen( t) 2 T (6.48) ∆Imax % ⋅ I med = ∆Imax (6.

The graph below shows Ic. and Vce waveforms of the STN851 device when the lamp is connected. EXAMPLE OF AN EMERGENCY LAMP APPLICATION The following example takes into consideration a real emergency lamp application with a PUSH-PULL current FED converter topology using a 24W lamp and powered with 6 Vdc with STSA851. Ib. Figure 18: Turn-off of STSA851 16/35 . Figure 17: Steady state of STSA851 The following graphs show the turn-off and turn-on switch modes respectively.AN1731 .APPLICATION NOTE 7.

4A and that Ibon is around 70mA. 17/35 . two capacitors between the vices of the collector-emitter of both devices are connected. the negative I b spike during the turn-off switch mode is due to the storage charges extraction. in this example.AN1731 . that decelerates Ic decreasing. during the turn-off switch mode. The current and the voltage values measured on the power bipolar device are inside the STSA851 specifics.APPLICATION NOTE Figure 19: Turn-on of STSA851 In these graphs it is possible to see that the operation frequency is around 30KHz. The figure below shows the steady state of the STSA851 device without the lamp. Sometimes. the dissipated energy is due to a C2. Ic is around 2. The Ib spike during the turn-on switch mode is due to the collector-base junction charge. while. in order to decrease the turn-off dissipated energy. Furthermore. Figure 20: Steady state of STSA851 without the lamp In this case the operation frequency is around 60 KHz. discharging on the power bipolar device.

APPLICATION NOTE The next graphs show the vL1.AN1731 . ‘I’ and vc2 waveforms with and without lamp respectively. Figure 21: vL1 and I Waveforms With Lamp Connected Figure 22: vc2 Waveform With Lamp Connected 18/35 .

APPLICATION NOTE Figure 23: vL1 and I Waveforms Without Lamp Connected Figure 24: vc2 Waveform Without Lamp Connected 19/35 .AN1731 .

FORWARD VOLTAGE FED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY As previously exposed. the coils number of the both windings is the same. Vtr2 can be written as: Vtr 2c = Vdc N2 N1 (8. Figure 25: FORWARD Voltage FED Converter Schematic Circuit As shown in the PUSH-PULL current FED converter solution.1) I1eff. a suitable trigger circuitry. During the Q1 on state. 20/35 . another topology solution for emergency lighting applications is the FORWARD voltage FED converter solution that uses a transformer with three windings. At the same time. I2eff is the RMS of the lamp current and can be written as: I2eff = Vtr 2c Z eq (8. the components values of capacitors.2) where N 1 and N2 are the turn numbers of Vtr2a and V tr2c respectively. In particular. and inductors are designed in order to have an operation frequency of around 30 KHz.AN1731 . a voltage appears in the winding Vtr2c and a current flows through the same winding depending on the output impedance. after the lamp strike and before too. in order to supply the right voltages to the load before and after the lamp strike considering the voltage value of the battery. but no current flows through Tr2b because the diode D2 is disabled. resistors. enables Q1 and. in fact. usually consisting of a small signal bipolar transistor and a resistor. When the board is powered. The Vtr2c voltage depends on the input voltage battery Vdc by means of the N2/N 1 rapport. can be written as: I1eff = I2eff N2 N1 (8.3) where Zeq is the output impedance. the input battery voltage Vdc is applied to the Vtr2a vices winding and the same voltage appears in the vice of the second winding Tr2b. immediately after. a current flows through the Vtr2a primary winding of the transformer Tr2 and the same transistor.APPLICATION NOTE 8. the RMS of the primary winding current.

the capacitor value of C3 is higher compared to the same of C 2.AN1731 . the lamp resistance is very high and the equivalent circuit can be showed as in the figure below. so that the simplified schematic circuit can be showed as in fig. 27. before the lamp strike. Figure 26: Schematic Circuit Before the Lamp Strikes Usually. Figure 27: Simplified Schematic Circuit Before the Lamp Strikes 21/35 .APPLICATION NOTE At the beginning.

28 where the output impedance is transferred in the primary of the transformer.APPLICATION NOTE It is also possible to consider an equivalent circuit as in fig.7) 22/35 .AN1731 . ∂Zeq/∂ω = 0 ω2 = 1/L2C2 ⇒f = 1/ 2⋅π √L2C2 (8. Figure 28: Equivalent Schematic Circuit Before the Lamp Strikes The series net K2C2-L2/K2 can be written as: j ω ⋅ L2 1 ω2L 2C2 − 1 −j =j 2 2 K ω ⋅ K C2 ω ⋅ K 2C2 (8.5) Deriving Z eq from ω it is possible to obtain the resonance frequency.6) (8.4) The equivalent impedance can be written as: Z eq = j ? 3L 1L 2 C 2 − ? ⋅ L 1 ? 2 ⋅ C 2 (L 1K 2 + L 2 ) − 1 (8.

AN1731 .APPLICATION NOTE In order to know the resonance frequency after the lamp starts up. Figure 29: Schematic circuit considering a short circuit condition 23/35 . it is necessary to consider the schematic circuit with a short circuit condition.

31 shows the resonance frequency after the lamp start-up considering several loads.9) However. 30 transferring the output impedance in the primary winding. after the start-up. Figure 30: Equivalent Schematic Circuit Considering a Short Circuit Condition The resonance frequency in this condition can be written as: ?2 = 1 1 ⇒f= L1C 2K 2 2 ⋅ p L1C 2K 2 (8. the resonance frequency is almost equal to the resonance frequency before the lamp start-up.8) Usually.AN1731 . The resonance frequency after the lamp start-up has got a value which is between the frequency before the lamp start-up and the output short circuit frequency. it is possible to consider the equivalent schematic circuit as in fig. 24/35 . the resonance frequency considering the output short circuit condition is lower compared to the resonance frequency before the lamp start-up condition.APPLICATION NOTE Furthermore. Fig. 1 2 ⋅ p L 1C 2K 2 <f< 1 2 ⋅ p L 2C2 (8.

At the same time.D1.10) the sum of the input battery voltage V dc and the third winding voltage: Vtr 2a = Vdc (8. i2 is the same as Ib because this flows through the base of the power bipolar transistor.11) However. Tr2b and Tr2c windings invert their directions. 25/35 . instead. and Vce increases up to: Vce = 2 Vdc (8. after Q1 switches off. Resistance Load During the positive half-wave. during the negative half-wave. In order to avoid this effect. Q 1 switches off. an extra-voltage can appear across collector-emitter vices due to a quick decrease in the Ic that flows through the Vtr2a winding. when the current inverts its direction.APPLICATION NOTE Figure 31: Resonance Frequency After the Lamp Start-up vs. the voltages across Tr2a. Vtr2b enables D 2 and the current passing through it creates a magnetic force N3I3 opposed to N 1Ic (N 3 and I3 are the turn number and the current that flows through Tr2b). i2 flows through the net R1. Ic drops to zero.AN1731 .

The graph below shows the Ib.APPLICATION NOTE The graph below shows the output schematic circuit and the theoretical waveforms before the lamp strike. 25 is also described in the Italian Patent N. 26/35 .p. Figure 33: Q1 Theoretical Waveformsr Note: a circuit similar to the Forward Voltage FED Converter shown in Fig.1285621 in the name of Beghelli S. while vL2 (the voltage across L 2) is -90° out-phase compared to i2.A. vc2 (the voltage across C2) is +90° out-phase compared to the i2. Figure 32: Output Schematic Circuit Before the Lamp Strike and Theoretical Waveforms of the Main Output Electrical Parameter The voltage across Vtr2c generates an i2 having the same phase. Vce and Ic theoretical waveforms of Q1.AN1731 .

current flows through the turn N1 and a flux is generated. The primary winding vices are connected to the input voltage and the other vice to the collector of Q1. 34. TRANSFORMER DESCRIPTION The transformer has three windings. the current ‘I’ suddenly 27/35 . The voltage across the primary winding. Q1 switches off. The third winding vices are connected between the input voltage and the cathode of D 2. can be written as: v 1 = Vdc = −L m1 ∆I t on (9.3) However. equal to Vdc. Figure 34: Transformer Detailr The FORWARD converter works during the Q1 on state (in this graph the switch T1 is the equivalent component of Q1).4) Lm1 is the inductance of the primary winding and t on is the time during the Q 1 on state. v 3 = −N 3 ∆Φ ∆t (9.2) v 2 = −N 2 ∆Φ ∆t (9. When the secondary winding current inverts its direction. while output current flows through the secondary winding and the load.APPLICATION NOTE 9.1) This flux flows through the magnetic core of the transformer creating a link respectively with the turns N2 and N 3 and it generates the voltages v2 and v3.AN1731 . while the secondary winding vices are connected to the load. during the Q1 on state. Φ= N1I ℜ (9. no current flows through the third winding because the diode D2 is disabled. In such operation condition. The schematic of the transformer can be shown as in fig.

5) Figure 35: Transformer Detail When T1 Switches on It is important to highlight that the current ‘I’ is the sum of the currents Im and I' (see fig. Figure 36: Detail of the Transformer Highlighting Im1 and I' 28/35 . The extra voltage on Q1 is due to I m.AN1731 . during the Q1 switching off. a magnetic force appears across the third winding opposing the primary winding magnetic force and avoiding the extra voltage on Q1 (see fig. However. 36). 35).APPLICATION NOTE becomes zero and an overvoltage appears across the turn N1. N1I = N3I3 (9.

can be represented as in fig. it is necessary to choose a right N3 and duty cycle. 38. Figure 38: Theoretical B-H characteristic H can be written as: H= N1I l (9. B remains constant. In order to avoid the core saturation.AN1731 . the B-H characteristic. Figure 37: Theoretical Behavior of Im Involving the Transformer Core Saturation In fact. it is possible to have an increasing current Im and a saturation of the transformer core might occur.6) When 'I' increases then also H increases.APPLICATION NOTE In the FORWARD converter it is important to consider the right turn N3 and the right duty cycle. where B is the induction vector and H is the magnetic vector. and if H overcomes an established value even if H keeps increasing. The right limit 29/35 .

APPLICATION NOTE case is shown in fig.6 Vdc and using also STSA851 (when the application is powered with the battery the output power on the lamp is around 30% of the nominal power lamp).10) The Emergency Lamp applications using the FORWARD topology work in resonance mode and their duty cycle is.9) Usually. 10. 30/35 .AN1731 . N1 and N3 are equal so that the minimum duty cycle that avoids the saturation of the core is: δ= 1 2 (9. Figure 39: Theoretical Behavior of Im Considering the Right Limit Case In this condition. 39. In the graph below the steady state of Q 1.5. is showed. after the lamp strike.8) δ= t on = T 1 N 1+ 3 N1 (9. 0. obviously.7) N1 N3 t t T t on = ⇒ on = off = − t on t off N1 N3 N3 N3 (9. v1 and v3 can be written as: v 1 = v 3 = Vdc = −N1 ∆Φ ∆Φ = −N3 t on t off (9. EXAMPLE OF AN EMERGENCY LAMP APPLICATION WITH FORWARD TOPOLOGY The following example analyzes a real emergency lamp application with FORWARD voltage FED converter topology using 8W lamp and powered with 3.

AN1731 . Figure 41: Turn-off of STSA851 31/35 .APPLICATION NOTE Figure 40: Steady State of STSA851 The following graphs show the turn-off and the turn-on switch modes respectively.

AN1731 .APPLICATION NOTE Figure 42: Turn-on of STSA8511 The graph below shows the waveforms of V tr2a. Vtr2b and Vtr2c Windings1 32/35 . Vtr2b and V tr2c after the lamp strike. Figure 43: Voltages on V tr2a.

6 V) so that no noise is observed. Figure 44: Vtr2c. the voltage on Vtr2a is imposed by the battery (Vdc=3.AN1731 . Figure 45: i2 and Ib Waveforms 33/35 . VL2 and i2 Waveforms1 The graph below shows the lamp current and the current Ib waveforms.APPLICATION NOTE During Q1 on state. instead. Vc2. The next graph shows the waveforms of the electrical parameters considering the output impedance after the lamp strike. during Q1 off state noise is highlighted on Vtr2a and Vtr2b.

AN1731 . Figure 46: Steady State of STSA851 Before the Lamp Strike Figure 47: I2. Vtr2c.APPLICATION NOTE The graphs below show the steady state of Q1 and the electrical parameters waveforms of the output stage before the lamp strike. Vtr2a and VLamp Waveforms Before the Lamp Strike 34/35 .

the current Ic is about 1.China . In this last case. Such applications use fluorescent tubes and are powered with 3.Japan . Ibon around 70mA and the operation frequency. The ST logo is a registered trademark of STMicroelectronics.Belgium .6 Vdc or 6 Vdc input voltages. This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.Canada .Singapore .United Kingdom . before and after the lamp strike.All rights reserved STMicroelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia .Spain .6Vdc input voltage.Hong Kong .India .Malta . however. In the first solution.Morocco . CONCLUSIONS Today the Emergency Lighting applications are used in all public places and private homes due to new safety rules. However. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of STMicroelectronics.Brazil .Italy .Sweden . The main topologies used are PUSH-PULL current FED and FORWARD. the output power can be 8W or 24W but. STMicroelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of STMicroelectronics.Israel .Czech Republic . the applications supply only around 10-15% to the nominal lamp power. considering both topology solutions. the current Ic is about 2. the power bipolar device STSA851 can be used because the voltages and currents values are inside the SOA area.com 35/35 .st.Printed in Italy . However. Using the second topology solution and a 3.7A.France .Malaysia . Ibon around 80mA and Vcemax around 15V considering an input voltage of 6Vdc.AN1731 . STMicroelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.Finland . Vcemax 10V. the frequency before the lamp strike is about 60 KHz.Germany .Switzerland . Specifications mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice. Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. while after the lamp strike is about 30 KHz. Usually.5A. the Emergency Lamp applications can be used also to drive 58W fluorescent tubes.APPLICATION NOTE 11. is around 30 Khz.United States http://www. sometimes. All other names are the property of their respective owners © 2004 STMicroelectronics .