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A new image for the Stuart Family The Tudor dynasty’s time ended when Elisabeth the 1st

past away. Throughout her life she has maintained a very strict distance between England and Europe. Her successor Jacob Stuart the 1st (1 ! "1#$%&' on the other hand' rebuilt the bond. Elisabeth’s son (arol the 1st (1 ! "1#$%& married Henriette")aria' daughter to Henric the $th of *rance. +oth rulers were certain the power they held had a divine source. The right to rule had become the most important aspect in the lives of the Stuart *amily sovereigns. The art and architecture that were neglected by Elisabeth were now considered to be manifestations of prestige and lu,ury' once more. Jacob the 1st spent over -. /// pounds in three years on edifices only. 0n the year 1#1 ' 0nigo Jones' whom possessed a copy of the 1alladio treaty and had travelled to 0taly was named royal architect. The +an2ueting House(1#1%"1#!!& was made by him for Jacob the 1st and was part of the grandiose pro3ect to e,tend the royal palace of 4hitehall. (arol the 1st followed the e,ample set by the other royals and entrusted 5ubens with decorating the ceiling using the apotheosis belonging to Jacob the 1st. This new geometric tendency was clearly related to the new design of the (ovent 6arden (ommercial (entre for which Jones was employed. 0t was symmetrical and balanced while introducing a whole new concept to England and most of the world7 urban planning. 0nigo Jones is now 8nown for introducing the (lassic style to the English architecture of the time. 9uring a visit to 0taly(1#1."1#1$&' in the company of lord :rundel who was a well" 8nown protector and admirer of the (lassical arts' 0nigo had the opportunity to study 1alladio(1 /;"1 ;/& and get to 8now <incen=o Scamo==i(1 !!"1#1#&' whom was entrusted with completing a 2uite large number of structures. :fter his return (1#1 & he receives the title >royal architect?. Jones used 1alladio’s wor8 for inspiration while 8eeping with the wishes of his employers. *ine e,amples of his interesting ta8e on older concepts are the @ueen’s House in 6reenwich (1#1#"1#. & and the +an2ueting House (1#1%"1#!!& which was intended as part of a more grandiose 4hitehall 1alace where the 1alladio influences are most visible in the arches and classic touches. Jones’s ideas and concepts have had a truly tremendous impact on the building style of eighteenth century England and of what had come later. The fire that destroyed Aondon in 1### brought with it the opportunity to change historical structures as they were restored. Bne of these structures was St. 1auls cathedral (1##;"1-11&' the first protestant church. 4ren had prepared a wooden model displaying the cathedral and the changes he wanted to bring to it. The changes were considered to be inacceptable and seen as being from an aesthetic point of view closer to a temple than a church. The classic influence was visible at the entrance and it resembled the catholic cathedral of San 1ietro of 5ome' the symbol of (atholicism itself. 4ren had to compromise.

ury or to be the symbol of absolute power. Even though most artefacts have been lost we can still recognise elements of olmec art such as the large sculpted heads called cabe=ones that may have had religious significance' or the 3ade figurines made to loo8 li8e disfigured men or children that probably had esoteric significance. The dDcor tries to highlight +ritain’s military power against *rance’s.ican 6olf' The Blmec are considered to be the oldest culture that inhabited (entral :merica. The baro2ue residence of the du8e of )arlborough' the +lenheim 1alace tells another story.pensive campaigns that invested in the research of archaeological sites. Pre-Columbian Art There was little 8nown in the E0E century Europe about :merican population that lived on the continent before the Spanish con2uests. )any of the treasures were simply melted so that the gold and gems could be used once more.ico.The last members of the Stuart family were protectors of the arts and that is why in the last years of the Stuart rule they tried to promote good taste above all. 9igging has helped shed some light upon the order in which the different civili=ations lived on the :merican continent before the European con2uests too8 place. The lac8 of written information and the more recent 2ua2ueros' more commonly 8nown as treasure hunters eventually lead to the loss of this great culture' some of which has only been discovered not long ago through tireless and e.pression was enriching human statues or faces by adding feline li8e features. The information the Spanish con2uistadors were bringing covered only small parts of the :=tec culture while the treasures sent by Herman (orte= to (arol the th of Spain were only valued considering the precious metals and stones it contained and not at all the cultural and artistic meaning it had. The Blmec civili=ation was 2uite advanced during the th and #th century' being considered the >mother? of all the other great cultures of the ancient )e. This construction had a meaning and purpose that is 2uite evident if one ta8es a loo8 at the decorations used. 0t was here that 6lyph writing was first used and it is also the culture that is responsible for the presence of human sacrifice' religious use and building of pyramids and religious use of calendars in the later :merican cultures. The manner the space is used reminds the visitor of <ersailles but that is all the two noble residences have in common. The bric8 built edifice is not at all lavish but rather modest' not being meant to radiate lu. Their name comes from the word olman which means >rubber land?. . : very common means of e. The 5oyal Caval Hospital in 6reenwich was built at the re2uest of 4ilhelm and )aria and it is without doubt most impressive' some would even consider it more grandiose than the 5oyal 1alace in Hampton (ourt' build by 4ren for the same sovereigns. The Olmec Civilization +ased on the coast of the )e. )ost money were sent towards public edifices and charity.

(. Teotihuacan was spread over !! s2uare 8ilometres and consisted of a temple nucleus called >citadel? surrounded by the priests’ homes or living 2uarters which formed a ring around the temple' underlining the social importance it had. These were important administrative centres and official religious grounds. Fnder the protection of the god of war or (ama.ili' they were under the rule of the uetlatoani whom had the responsibility of provo8ing the so called flower wars which were raids that provided the priests with their ne. The Maya population : little bit to the south' between the Gucatan peninsula and Honduras' starting with the fourth century +. The great pyramids dedicated to the Sun and )oon dominated the scenery. This belief was the foundation for the bloody cult that is so present in civili=ations in this area.' there lived the )aya people. The @uet=al"coatl or >birdsna8e? god and the rain god both had similar yet smaller edifices dedicated to them. The Aztec culture 9uring the 1!th century warrior another tribe reached the Te.The great theocratic civilization 4e 8now a little bit more about the classic era that too8 place between the third and the fith century +.planation of life and the world in general. They’re society had a socio"religious basis. They believed that the source for the god’s strength was human blood which the god needed to continue his 3ourney across the s8y. 1riests had the power and 8nowledge to manage very advanced agricultural technology and to develop new philosophical and religious systems structured in a way that would enable the e.(. meters and had a bridge li8e structure connecting it to the )oon pyramid. 0n 1. That meant that priests were as advanced as it gets' from a social' economic' and educational standpoint. . 0t is during this era that the great city states are created.ico' Teotihuacan' meaning the birthplace of the gods' an important religious centre which will later name a civili=ation spread throughout (entral :merica.coco lagoon. They came from the mythical :=tlan and they had a very rigorous military administration.ico. Bnly behind those homes were there built homes for the ordinary inhabitants of the city. : bit north of (iudad de )e.t human sacrifices dedicated to the Sun 6od.-/ they but down the foundations for their most beautiful and enchanting city7 Tenochtli' the current (iudad de )e. The Sun pyramid had a terrace on top of it. The bird"sna8e mythical creature is often represented through rituals or temples in the (entral :merican cultures. The terrace was as high as #. 0t stands for the cosmic principle of duality7 a creature that can crawl and one that can fly are united to create one symbol that is responsible for the creation of humanity. These two were not the only pyramids in the city but they were the most important.

nglish art in the !"th century The death of @ueen :nne in 1-1$ mar8ed the end of the Stuart era and the beginning of a time of prosperity. The 4hig aristocracy had investing significant capital in agriculture' commerce and ban8ing' this in turn led to a strong economic development. 1arliament limited the 8ingIs powers using a constitutional system (1#. *or con2uistadors' these buildings symboli=ed the supremacy of the Spanish technology and intellect while emphasi=ing the inferiority of indigenous cultures and the power of the new regime. The new dynasty' in turn' did not try in any way to impose authority. Bften raised on the foundations of ancient temples' they were always in a dominant position..ico was developed for almost three millennia.& and to the discovery of new techni2ues for treating ferrous minerals' techni2ues considered by many the . The )aya architecture has two fundamental structures7 one is rectangular' situated on a large landscaped foundation stage as royal residence' the other in the shape of a nest. Trade with :merica' the 4est' the 0ndies' :frica and especially 0ndia have 2uic8ly turned England in the richest nation in Europe.mal' Habah and labne :rita Gutacan 1eninsula and in addition' Fa. :s in the Cetherlands' :merican (hristianity has been the centrepiece of Spanish domination. Fn8nown before the Spanish con2uest' these new ways have replaced the old conventional construction techni2ues. The Spanish colonies in America (onfident in their cultural superiority' the Spanish con2uistadors imposed their models to the indigenous :merican through politics' economics and especially religion. The con2uest meant the destruction of pagan temples and building (hristian churches. Enthronement of a distant cousin of the deceased sovereign' 6eorge the *irst 1-1$"1-!-&' Elector of Hanover' a 1rotestant sovereign country placed the religious conflicts that had dominated political life of England in the last two centuries at last in the bac8ground ma8ing these less important. The developments of scientific methods for artificial selection in sheep lead to a revolution in English agriculture.Their culture' by far the most comple.%&. These centres’ culture was profoundly influenced by the Blmeca and teuotihuacana tribes ' this being visible in all the buildings and spaces and in the fact that the cities have the same function of cities of ceremonies7 they all had built within them the high vast pyramid temples' courtyards' places for clergy and large mar8ets for collective ritual celebration. and original of the present in ancient )e. :t the same time manufactures increased productivity which led to the invention of mechanical spinning wheel (1-. These buildings brought with them a new architectural style to :merica.atun' Ti8al' (opan and 1alen2ue' located in the vast central plains and the 5io +ec (hampeche region. Fsing the new cultivation techni2ues have considerably increased agricultural production which was done by introducing crop rotation to help to feed their animals during winter but also to help preserve the 2uality of the land while raising productivity levels. )aya society was based on a series of city"states' of which the most important are for F.

He employed the Scottish architect (olin (ampbell who published +ritanicus <itruvius (1-1 "1-! &' a collection of engravings and drawing of important buildings using classic designs' many of which were built by 0nigo Jones. The fascination for Palla#io Even without ta8ing into account (arolIs e. Sometimes the designer was inspired by classical literature7 the <irgilian garden at Stourhead' for e. The 3ourney was dedicated to the architects who were studying 1alladin.teenth century. $ar#en Architecture : new approach to this style has brought with itself one of the most 8nown trends7 the English garden. Cow the English aristocrats have resumed this theme to e.ample' evo8es the spirit of classicism through inscriptions' cave dwellings and small temples set so as to create . 1alladio wor8ed mainly for <enetian patricians' constrained by the reduced sea trade to invest their considerable resources in agriculture.ample it is not by chance that this type of architecture had such an impact on the eighteenth century English art. Bnce home he commissioned a new facade for his Aondon residence. Bn and artistic level' these events have contributed to the appearance of a typical +ritish style. Bn his return to England' he had all the resources needed to start the radical changes in style which he wanted and e.ury and e.travagance. Aord +urlington' the main contributor to the generali=ation of the classical style' was a very wealthy 4hig aristocrat who visited 0taly in the mandatory 6rand Tour (1-1$"1-1 &' the second trip he made to the peninsula was decisive (1-1%&. The idea that good taste would be synonymous with classical culture was already present in the achievements of 0nigo Jones' the architect of the (ourt of (harles the *irst' who had developed a style inspired by 1alladioIs achievements in the si. He later on became very successful in his field than8s to his ta8e on the English countryside buildings. )a8ing improvements aimed at increasing efficiency and innovation' the aristocrats of the time were contributing not only to their own welfare' but also to the prosperity of the entire nation.press their view upon their newly ac2uired wealth and power.teenth century <enice' eighteen century +ritain obtains most its income from the land. He brought bac8 with him the first copies of the four boo8s of architecture by :ndrea 1alladio (first published in 1.cause of the industrial revolution. Hidden ditches 8ept animals from getting too close to the owner’s residence' while flower beds and bushes seem to have a natural placing./& and detailed drawings of buildings of significant value to the art of architecture.pected. +ritish gardeners have abandoned +aro2ue formalism with its geometric labyrinths and neatly trimmed hedges' in the favour of a free space that seemed at first sight' unplanned. Just as si. 9uring the time spent there +urlington dedicated himself to his studies and to ta8ing notes. The <enetian villa basic elements of that time were symmetrical and rational' and the temple facade proportions and an interpretation of the classic style were obviously in contrast with the baro2ue and rococo redundant lu. +aro2ue and rococo' famous and appreciated in the rest of Europe' did not seem to catch up here' as the English believed these to be lin8ed to 5oman (atholicism and monarchical absolutism.

4ith his rustic scenes' 6ainsborough achieves visual results that remind us of 4atteau' the *rench rococo maestro.a series of contrasting views.pressed through poetry' an attitude of sad nostalgia for a lost and intangible paradise came through the lovely scienery wheather it was painted or described. 0t can be considered a three"dimensional version of the classical landscapes created by (laude Aorrain. 9uring the same period' landscape painting became a great succes in England.ation' these images'that were also e.urious mind"set and of inducing rela. 0nstead of reflecting a lu. .