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Deangelo Jabido Timothy Koo Nathan Mejia Hocking Honors US History 24, October 2013 Primary Sources "1971: The

Attica Prison Uprising." Libcom.org. N.p., 10 Sept. 2006. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://libcom.org/history/1971-the-attica-prison-uprising>. The one picture on this site shows the prison mates unity, to join under one cause to fight their oppressors. They are tired of being treated lower than humans so they said, "if we can't live as men, we sure as hell can die as men." These prisoners used acts of violence in their rebellion, which included throat slashing of the prison guards who, prior to the uprising, harassed them. "American Experience." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/rockefellersattica/>. This site allows for an outside perspective view of what was happening at the time. This site explains dates times and actions of Rockefeller. Some other information contained in this site is the proof of cruel and unusual treatment towards the inmates. The guards also allowed this to happen out if sheer enjoyment of watching the prisoners suffer. "At Attica, the Bread Is a Saving Grace." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 21 June 1972. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40E1EFD345A137B93C3AB178DD 5F468785F9>. The following source states that the prisoners wouldn’t like their meals even if they’re gourmet. This is due to their distrust towards the guards, who treat them like feral savages. They also won’t like the food because their unhappiness towards the hindered rights within the prison. "Attica : We Are Not Beasts, and We Do Not Intend to Be Beaten or Driven as Such ..."Attica : We Are Not Beasts, and We Do Not Intend to Be Beaten or Driven as Such ... Young Socialist Alliance (U.S.), n.d. Web. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996000642/PP/>. This source conveys the cruelty bestowed upon innocent men held as prisoners. It shows how the rights and responsibilities of the prisoners were taken away by being treated as savage beasts rather than equal citizens. The picture depicts the horrid confinement of the prisoners.

Attica Prison Riot Information." 'commonground' N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.eppsconsulting.com/picyatn/Attica-Prison-Riot-Information.html>. From the pictures alone on this site you can depict the idea of the body count of the amount killed during and after the riot. Also you can see up close the inhumane living conditions of the prisoners. They were forced to live outside because of the lack of cells for every inmate. Alone from everything else you could safely assume that with the large amount of people within the walls, not all of the inmates were being fed. "Attica Prison Riot." Attica Prison Riot. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Attica+prison+riot>. The purpose of this site is to allow bits of each step toward, during, and after the riot to be noted. This site contains information about lawsuits, racial issues, the riot, the retaliation of the soldiers, etc. Mainly after the riot nothing changed instantly but over time the government did give 8 million dollars to the surviving inmates. "Attica Prison Riots." Attica Prison Riots. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.fact-index.com/a/at/attica_prison_riots.html>. This is a small yet a useful site. The web page is not long and may fit on half of a piece of paper but its usefulness is within the words. This site lists the soldiers who had passed away on September 13,1971, the soldiers who did not survive the rioters or the gunshots from the troops sent to recapture the prison. "Attica Timeline." Attica Timeline. Attica Is All of Us, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://atticaisallofus.org/?page_id=506>. This site is strictly a timeline, on the date of the uprising the timeline goes into specific details which contain times and the time the soldiers fought back, but the timeline goes from 1971 through 2001. The timeline explains what had happen between the days of the riots depicting small yet useful notes. "Attica." Project Attica. Project Attica, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://projectattica.org/attica/>. As a small website this has little to offer but this web page tells some major facts. The prisoners were given 1 roll of toilet paper a month, 56cents for their labor, and 1 shower a week. The situation for the prisoners could hardly get any worse, but between infectious diseases and poor living standards many lost their lives from starvation or diseases. Although many lost their lives the prisoners used that to fuel their internal fire to take over the prison.

"Break the Chains! : Join the Solidarity Day for African Prisoners of War, March 30-31, 1973, Jackson, Mississippi." Break the Chains! : Join the Solidarity Day for African Prisoners of War, March 30-31, 1973, Jackson, Mississippi. New African Productions, 30-31 Mar. 1973. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996000671/PP/>. The following source is a picture of several prisoners in Attica. It conveys the prisoners’ desire for freedom by exclaiming “break the chains”. "Massacre at Attica." The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C04E3DE1F3FE63ABC4C52DFBF6 838A669EDE>. This source depicts the suffering from the Attica prison riots. According to this source, 28 convicts and 9 hostages were killed during a 5 day rebellion. The rebellion was suppressed quickly by the authorities. However, they are burdened with the reputation of killing men who were simply fighting for their rights. Nonetheless, the rebels fought to earn what can’t be taken away. "Oral Histories ~ Attica Revisited." Interview by Joanne Van Pattern. Oral Histories ~ Attica Revisited. N.p., 18 June 1998. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.talkinghistory.org/attica/oralhistories.html>. This is an oral interview of one of the New York State Troopers by Joanne Van Pattern. He speaks of what the riot was like to him and how it was like from his point of view. The prison riot was not a pleasant experience for him and he believed, after seeing the riot, his actions should have been different. "Remember Attica." Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996000648/PP/>. This source is a political artwork where the inmates have their hands up because they are prisoners. They are lined up and some have their hands behind their head. Thus, the picture symbolizes the rights and responsibilities taken away from them. "We Vow to Avenge Attica." Loc.gov. NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fun, 1971. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996000414/PP/>. This source is a poster that propagates an action to fight against Attica mistreatment. With this proposition, the anger and hate within the prisoners is shown. Thus, revealing the magnitude of the abuse of civil rights.

“Attica Prison Riot Ends.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 13 Sept. 1971. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/attica-prison-riot-ends?catId=4>. This site states that governor Nelson Rockefeller ordered the attack on the prison. After the tear gas from a national security helicopter was dropped, he ordered the shooting to commerce. In all the confusion of smoke, barrage of bullets, flying body parts and more; 29 inmates were killed while 10 prison guards taken hostage were killed by the machine guns firing on the catwalk and on the courtyard. “Attica Prison Riot Film Collection.” Libcom.org. N.p., 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://libcom.org/blog/attica-prison-riot-film-collectio-12042012>. This site is a collection of videos. One being a video interview of a black survivor, who saw from the prisoner point of view the massacre of his fellow inmates, he saw the machine-guns tear peoples’ bodies apart and decapitate inmates. He even said to have seen inmates surrender and yet still be shot and killed. The extent of the racist guards’ fury was able to be released upon the inmates without question and without consequences. “Attica Prison Riot.” Attica Prison Riot. Democrat And Chronicle, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://roc.democraticandchronicle.com/section/attica02>. This source provides footage proof that there may have been tampering with the deceased bodies from Attica. The prisoners were said to have knives, swords, bats, pipes, and make-shift weapons but in the picture show, a prisoner was holding a sword by the blade in his deceased hand. Also the videos interview multiple survivors where there is proof that the state of New York purposely killed the inmates; although, there was a chance to work things out and settle the disputes peacefully. “Riot at Attica Prison.” BBC News. BBC, 9 Sept. 1971. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01g0nf9>. This site gives an 11 minute recording of an interview of a survivor and how he can’t trust people after what happened to him 40 years ago. He is mentally tormented by what happened. On the day of the uprising, he says that that day in particular felt different after he got out of the shower because he saw a prisoner driving a forklift toward a gate. “Riot at Attica Prison.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/riot-at-attica-prison>. This site states how the prisoners acquired multiple types of weapons. After they were released from their cells from the original rioters, most of the newly released prisoners joined the fight. The inmates attacked prison guards by beating them and taking their weapons. Out of all of the days, the prisoners only killed one guard, William Quinn. Working as a prison guard he was beaten up and thrown from a second story window.

“The Attica Prison Riot.” PBS. PBS, 8 Aug. 2006. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/18_attica.html>. This site offers footage from the riot and an interview with a survivor who describes the carnage from the rioters getting shot down by a countless number of state troopers and national security guards. The site also shows pictures of completely nude prisoners walking through the courtyard on dirt and glass. Aldo the site gives some quotes from news reports around the time of the rioting. Berry Michael Thomas. “Attica Prison Riot 1971.” Crime Magazine. CRIME Magazine, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.crimemagazine.com/attica-prison-riot-1971>. This site mainly gives a timeline of what happened within the four days of the riots and how the guards managed to capture ¾ of the prison and on the last 4th, courtyard D, the prisoners managed to keep that yard secure. The leaders of the riots wanted to meet with Rockefeller as a sign of good faith but instead Rockefeller ordered the attack on the last yard and on the prisoners. Buchanan, Michael. "Criminal Law Blog & News." Web log post. September 9, 1971, Inmates Riot & Seize Attica, New York Prison. N.p., 08 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.reasonabledoubt.org/criminallawblog/entry/september-9-1971-inmates-riot and-seize-attica-new-york-prison-today-in-crime-history>. This blog goes into detail about how the day of the riot began and the main outcome, but it also describes how the prisoners got back at the guards. Throat slitting was a commonly occurring to deal with the number of guards. However, not all guards were killed, some were taken hostage but it wasn't by the prisoners hands that they died. The recklessness of the prison and military forces called in to put down the riot caused more casualties then the rioters. Clines, Francis X. "12 INMATES NAMED IN ATTICA CHARGES; They Are Led Into Court in Shackles for Arraignment -- 2 Accused of Murder 12 Convicts Named in Charges Arising From Attica Rebellion." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 19 Dec. 1972. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00813F73F59107A93CBA81789D95 468785F9>. This passage reveals the charges committed in Attica rebellions that resulted from the injustice of Attica authorities. These charges are murder, kidnapping, assault, and attempted arson. Clines, Francis X. "Fischer Cautions Officials About Attica Statements." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 25 Sept. 1971. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F5081FFA3854127B93C7AB1782D85 F458785F9>. According to this source, Fischer warns Attica guards and police from saying “prejudicial” terms to prevent anger from prisoners escalating. It was revealed that these officials played a major contribution in the police assaults and uprisings.

Cundick, Ronald P. "Tragedies of Attica Explored." The New York Times. The New York Times, 08 Oct. 1971. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60D1EFD345B137A93CAA9178BD 95F458785F9>. According to this source, the tragedies of Attica prison riots are to be explored. Hopefully, this will reveal the horrid sights of the riots Democrat & Chronical. “Attica Prison Riot.” Democrat and Chronicle. Democrat And Chronicle, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://roc.democratandchronicle.com/section/ATTICA/Attica-Prison-Riot>. This site shows a video of riots and interview with a couple of survivors. The survivors explain to the interviewer how the memory of the massacre of the prisoners, their friends, haunts their minds. They are still tortured by the memory of the smell of the tear gas, the sounds of gunshots, and the fear of not surviving the barrage of bullets. Farrell, William E. "JUDGES APPOINT 9 TO STUDY UPRISING AT ATTICA PRISON; Panel Led by Dean McKay of the N.Y.U. Law School Includes Ex-Convict COURT HEARS INMATES 3 Charge They Were Beaten After Revolt -- 8 Guards Relieved as Unstable JUDGES APPOINT 9 TO STUDY ATTICA." The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Oct. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9401E7DA1338EF34BC4953DFB667 838A669EDE>. According to this source, 9 people have been sent to study and analyze the Attica uprisings where 32 prisoners and 10 hostages were reported to be killed during the uprisings. The 9 members must investigate all aspects of the uprisings. Also, they must investigate the treatment the guards have over the inmates; An example of an incident that should be investigated is when 3 inmates were beaten after revolt because they defied the guards’ authority. Farrell, William E. "ROCKEFELLER SEES A PLOT AT PRISON; ' Revolutionary Tactics' Led to Uprising, He Says -Investigation Planned Rockefeller Sees a Plot at Attica." ROCKEFELLER SEES A PLOT AT PRISON. The New York Times, 14 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9902E5DE1F3FE63ABC4C52DFBF6 6838A669EDE>. This source conveys the prisoners' strategic tactics used to rebel against the injustice of the authorities. These plans also show the risks the prisoners are willing to take to earn their rights that were taken from the Attica authorities. Though, these plans are uncovered by governor Rockefeller. Ultimately, it these plans display the result of having rights and responsibilities of all people taken away.

Feretti, Fred. "Amnesty Demand Is Called Snag in Attica Prison Talks; Demand for Amnesty Is Said to Stall Negotiations to End the Uprising at Attica." Amnesty Demand Is Called Snag in Attica Prison Talks. The New York Times, 12 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9807E0D61E3FE63ABC4A52DFBF6 6838A669EDE>. This source clarifies the negotiations the Attica State Correction Facility made with the rioters. They were willing to grant 1000 rioters their demands. Furthermore, negotiations have been stalled as a result of the amnesty demand. Feretti, Fred. "Attica Rioters, Holding Out, Ask Foreign Asylum; Attica Rioters, Holding Out, Ask Foreign Asylum." Attica Rioters, Holding Out, Ask Foreign Asylum. The New York Times, 11 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C03E2DB1330E73BBC4952DFBF66 838A669EDE>. This primary source displays the anger prisoners had that resulted from injustice within this prison. The extremity of the prisoners' anger is conveyed through this act of holding guards as hostages. As a result, the Attica State Correctional Facility decided to negotiate with the angry rioters in hopes to maintain peace. Ferretti, Fred. "ATTICA PRISONERS WIN 28 DEMANDS, BUT STILL RESIST; Hold Out for a Full Amnesty From Prosecution and for Superintendent's Ouster GOVERNOR STANDS ASIDE He Rejects Citizens' Plea to Join Talks and Rules Out Immunity for Convicts Rebellious Attica Prisoners Gain 28 Concessions, but Hold Out for Two More A FULL AMNESTY BARRED BY STATE Ouster of Superintendent Is Also Resisted Governor Declines to Intervene." ATTICA PRISONERS WIN 28 DEMANDS, BUT STILL RESIST. The New York Times, 13 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9902E2DD1F3FEF34BC4B52DFBF6 6838A669EDE>. According to this source, 28 out of 1000 demands have been granted. Thus, it shows that the Attica Correction authorities are willing to conform to some of their demands. Furthermore the source shows how the authorities sympathize with the prisoners' rights being taken away from them. Though, complete amnesty is being prevented by ouster superintendent, Vincent Mancusi. Ferretti, Fred. "Dunne Gets Convict Side Of Police Attack at Attica; Dunne Gets Convict Side of Trooper Attack at Attica." The New York Times. The New York Times, 21 Sept. 1971. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F2071FFF345B137A93C3AB1782D8 5F458785F9>. This source claims that a perspective of an Attica prison convict will be investigated to reveal an account of the police brutality towards the convicts. Furthermore, the perspective unveils the injustice within the Attica prison.

Ferretti, Fred. "LIKE A WAR ZONE'; Air and Ground Attack Follows Refusal of Convicts to Yield 9 Hostages and 28 Prisoners Die as 1,000 Storm Attica." The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9F02E5DE1F3FE63ABC4C52DFBF6 6838A669EDE>. This source depicts the lurid experience of the Attica riots, describing them as a “war zone”. 1,000 people have raided Attica with 28 prisoners and 9 hostages deceased. Furthermore, the prisoners’ rebellions have escalated into “warzones”, resulting from the atrocious treatment toward inmates. Goldstein, Tom. "SCOTTI ASKS COURT TO DROP ALL CASES ON ATTICA BUT ONE; He Says 'Lack of Fairness' in the State's Investigation 'Compels' Dismissals INDICTMENT OF 10 ENDED But Prosecutor Urges Trial of Escaped Inmate Charged With Intentional Slaying Scotti Asks Attica Cases Be Dismissed." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 27 Feb. 1976. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0615F83A58167493C5AB1789D85 F428785F9>. From the source, Scotti sought to drop all but one case to prioritize the most significant information. Although, this will result in the court forgetting many of the horrors of the Attica and undermining the severity of the prison riots. History. "Attica Prison Riot Ends." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/attica-prison-riot-ends>. This site helped with the confirmation of the total number of casualties within the riot and aftermath, where the military took back the prison. This site also referred to the tactics used in the storming of the prison and how the soldiers used tear gas to blind the inmates. The soldiers were swift and merciless shooting into a crowd of inmates after the gas had been dropped. Holland, Brad. "Attica." Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996001024/PP/>. Through this source, a picture of a corpse is shown with a key floating on top. The key symbolizes rights and freedom and the dead body symbolizes the deceased Kaba, Maraime. "Attica Primer." Attica Is All of Us. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://atticaisallofus.org/?page_id=511>. Within this site is a pdf file that contains brief information of the occurrences of the Attica Prison Riot. This PDF also contains a timeline listing the events of the prison riots to the gunman squads reconquering the complex. Although the prisoners had some hostages the military shot any and all targets within their line of fire.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Court Awards $1.3 Million to Inmate Victims of Attica Attack.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 Oct. 1989. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1989/10/26/nyregion/court-awards-1.3-million-to-inmate -victims-of-attica-attack.html?src=pm>. This website states how the government was responsible for damages caused by 7 of the prisoners who had taken no part in the rioting. It was also proven that they were given $1.3 million for injuries because the government used excessive force to tame the rioters. The site also states that the guards shot about 3000 or more rounds into the haze of tear gas, killing their own men who were taken hostage. Liman, Arthur L., and Steven B. Rosenfeld. "Rockefeller, Attica and Pardons." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 13 Sept. 1974. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20616FC355C1A7A93C1A81782D8 5F408785F9>. The following source reports 39 inmates and correction officers dead from the police assault. Though, immunity for the prisoners’ is prohibited since Rockefeller believes that it will abuse executive power for their part in the riot. Madden, Richard L. "U.S. Will Study Charges of Mistreatment at Attica." The New York Times. The New York Times, 21 Oct. 1971. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20914FE3B5C1A7493C3AB178BD95 F458785F9>. The Attica Correctional Facility has decided to study the cruelty and mistreatment toward the prisoners. Hopefully, they will understand the abuse endured by prisoners. Though, it is unknown whether side they will favor. Manos, Nick. “Remembered and Reclaimed.” Attica Prison Riot (1971) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. University of Washington, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.blackpast.org/aah/attica-prison-riot-1971>. This site explains how the terrible planning of the attack on the last courtyard could have been improved. The troopers and the prisoners alike were killed and there was little to no medical help for those who were injured. So many of the casualities could have been easily prevented or avoided. Although the guards beat and harassed the prisoners, who only wants better living conditions for humane reasons. They are men and expect to be treated as such. Nelson, Bryce. "Attica; The Official Report of The New York State Commission On Attica. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30917F93D5E127A93C4AB1782D85 F458785F9>. The source claims that the prison riots were “all quiet” but still “smoldering” to convey the terrible after math of the riots. Also, it reveals how the riots, fighr for inalienable rights, resulted in high amount of deaths. This questions whether the prisoners’ rights were worth that amount of suffering.

Photographs. 533 Pp. New York: Praeger Publishers. Cloth, $12.50. Bantam. Paper, $2.25. Attica -- My Story By Russell G. Oswald. Edited by Rodney Campbell. 418 Pp. New York: Doubleday & Co. $7.95. A Bill of No Rights Attica and the American Prison System. By Herman Badillo and Milton Haynes. 190 Pp. New York: Outerbridge & Lazard. $6.95. Attica." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 17 Dec. 1972. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10910F83F59107A93C5A81789D95F 468785F9>. The following source shows a full report that reveals the severity of prison riots to the public. Hopefully, many citizens will now know of the mistreatment and neglect toward Attica prisoners. Furthermore, the report unveils how the prisoners’ civil rights were taken away. Nevertheless, the injustice and cruelty taint their tastebuds and only make them detect the bad stuff. Pace, Eric. "12 Guards Said to Refuse Order to Let Attica Inmates Exercise." The New York Times. The New York Times, 27 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E03E5DC1F3FEF34BC4F51DFBF668 38A669EDE>. Through this source, guards are refusing to let the prisoners exercise. Perhaps they fear the prisoners plotting a rebellion to escape. As a result, the prisoners have to suffer the misery of the prison where they must continue to endure being treated as a feral animal. Pace, Eric. "All Is Quiet Now, But the Fuse Still Smolders; Attica:." The New York Times. The New York Times, 26 Sept. 1971. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. Shipler, David K. "Rahway and Attica; Cahill 'Would Not Compare' 2 Prison Revolts, but Some Note the Differences." The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Nov. 1971. Web. 04 Oct. 2013. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0613F63D591A7493C2AA178AD9 5F458785F9>. According to this source, Cahill won’t compare 2 revolts because he wants to emphasize the severity of both riots and because of the different conditions. Thus, the severities of both revolts are shown with devastating impacts that resulted from different conditions. WGBH American Experience. “Attica Prison Riot.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/rockefellersattica/>. This site explains the details of the beginning of the riots and how the inmates set several buildings on fire. The site also states that the prisoners just wanted more than one bar of soap, more than 1 roll of toilet paper per month, more showers than one for 2 weeks, and mainly just better living conditions in general. Explanations on how the riot first started was also given, like how a few of the prisoners managed to escape their cells and beat the guards in the nerve center of the prison.

Wicker, Tom. "' Unity!' A Haunting Echo From Attica; ' Unity!' A Haunting Echo From Attica." The New York Times. The New York Times, 15 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9903E0DF1038E23BBC4D52DFBF668 38A669EDE>. The word “unity!” seems to be a popular chant for the inmates. It seems to be used to encourage inmates to unite together against injustice. Therefore, the word is used to unite the inmates together against Attica authorities to gain their rights and responsibilities. Wicker, Tom. "ROCKEFELLER LAYS HOSTAGES' DEATHS TO TROOPERS' FIRE; But Fischer, at Attica, Says He Doesn't Know Who Fired How Many Shots or Why JUDGES TO NAME PANEL Citizen Unit to Investigate Riot -- Recount Shows 30, Not 32, Inmates Slain Rockefeller Lays Deaths to a Cross Fire." The New York Times. The New York Times, 17 Sept. 1971. Web. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9407E1DE1F3FE63ABC4F52DFBF668 38A669EDE>. It’s unknown, concerning whether who opened fire on the prisoners. Furthermore, the people who fought for their “natural” rights suffered the atrocious acts of the authorities. Thus, the prisoners displayed the privilege on individual rights and responsibilities; something we Americans take for granted. Yarrow, Andrew L. “71 Attica Prison Riot Recalled as Jury Prepares to Decide Suit.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 09 Jan. 1992. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/09/nyregion/71-attica-prison-riot-recalled-as-juryprepares-to-decide-suit.html>. This site says that the court cases dealing with the riots were in favor of the surviving prisoners because of brutality against the inmates. The sued guards also tried to cover up their brutality and tried to hide it from the judges calling it defense or saying it was slightly pushing nor beating as the prisoners claim. The prisoners started to cry as they informed the courtroom on the extend of the brutality. Zahavi, Gerald, and Mark Wolfe. "Liz Fink Collection Disc 2."Liz Fink Collection Disc 2. Ed. Susan McCormic. N.p., 2003. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <" Rel="nofollow" Target="_blank"http://www.talkinghistory.org/attica/index2.html>. This site helped me with a visual understanding of the inmates lifestyle within the walls of the prison. Many prisoners were wearing tattered clothing just to keep warm or no clothing at all. From disease alone, many lives were conquered, the poor living conditions were inhumane and unsanitary. Also prisoners had to make their own form of shelters due to the negligence of the prison warren and his staff.

Secondary Sources "American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website explains what Governor Rockefeller did the day during the riot. By cowardly hiding from the scene, the prisoners grew restless for a peaceful resolve. Instead, he ordered helicopter to drop gas bombs and to stop the uprising. "Attica Prison Riot » Freedom Press - The Home of Freedom Books and Freedom Newspaper." Freedom Press RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website descriptively explains how the riot was ended in a violent clash of tear gas and bullets. It also describes the limitations of the prisoners there. "Attica Prison Riot." Democrat and Chronicle. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website addresses how the prison riot at Attica was the worst in the history of America. This also includes a documentary of several people involved in the incident. "Attica Timeline." N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website is a timeline from the events rising up to the riot to after the uprising. From this timeline, one can infer that the immediate effects of the uprising was unfair. "Frontlines of Revolutionary Struggle." Frontlines of Revolutionary Struggle. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website explains how the public were enraged by this unjust riot. It also points out the key players of the situation: Nelson Rockefeller and Akil Al-Jundi. "People's World." Today in Labor History: Attica Prison Uprising Ends » Peoplesworld. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website includes information of the Attica Prison Riots. However, it also includes how American prisons are today. Private-for profit businesses are trying to take hold of prisons today, and the people are fighting against it. "Police vs. Prisoners: The Attack on Attica Resonates 40 Years after the Uprising." NY Daily News. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website tells of the violence of the Attica Prison Riot. It also tells of the "people's central committee" formed during the riot. It also explains how the victims after 40 years were paid.

"Prisoners Occupy Attica Correctional Facility for Just Treatment, 1971." Global Nonviolent Action Database. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website explains the events of what the prisoners of the prison did. It goes on to explain how the prisoners wanted a peaceful negotiation. However, they were violently dealt with, leaving many dead and injured "Truckloads of Attica's Agony." Times Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website tells of how the uprisings start in Attica. However, it also includes many photos of the artifacts from the uprisings. "Witness: Attica Prison Riot ." Witness: Attica Prison Riot. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website includes an exclusive interview of someone who witnessed the insurrection of Attica Prison. This witness tries his best to answer the reporter’s questions concerning the event that took place during the riot. "World Socialist Web Site." Forty Years since the Attica Uprising -. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website states the events of the riot, before and after the uprising. It also includes a telephone conversation from Rockefeller and Nixon, talking about how "beautiful" the operation was. “1971: The Attica Prison Uprising.” Libcom.org. N.p., 10 Sept, 2006. Web. 2006. Sept. 2013. This website includes an article written in 2006 about the events that took place during the Attica prison uprisings. The author of this article also points out the rights taken away from these prisoners. This website definitely describes how Attica was a struggle for equal rights. “Attica Prison Riot Ends.” History.com. A&E Television Network , n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This website tells the audience what happened during the last days of the Attica Prison Riot. The rights of these prisoners were still not met even after the riot; many were denied medical attention until hours after. Ultimately, this website reveals to the readers why Attica was so important for the rights and responsibilities of many. “Attica Revisited.” Attica Revisited. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This website includes the history and the importance of the Attica Prison Riots. It also shows and tells the readers how the rights of these poor prisoners were limited in these prisons. Also, it reveals Attica to tell the audience how this event changed history, both socially and culturally.

“Dorian Cope Presents On This Deity.” Dorian Cope Presents On This Deity. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept 2013. This website describes in detail what inhumane acts the prison guards committed towards the prisoners. It also explains why the prisoners revolted and how it came to be. The rights of these prisoners were pointed out by this website. “JetCityOrange.” Black Panther Party Attica Prison Riot. N.p. n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This website identifies what the Black Panther Party did during the Attica uprisings. It also describes the important members of this party and includes some photographs from Attica. This party fought for a peaceful negotiation with the restricted prisoners. “Law Student Connection.” “Behind The Walls And Barbed Wire: The Attica Uprising and Lessons Not Learned” by Benjamin Pomerance (). N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This website described the event of Attica and the effect afterwards. It also took the extra measure to explain how the inmates of Attica negotiated for a peaceful ending. This website also explains how the riot went on to affect the prison system. “NCJRS Abstract – National Criminal Justice Reference Service.” NCJRS Abstract – National Criminal Justice Reference Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This abstract goes on to explain what the black prisoners fought against and the consequence of the riot. It also explains what the black prisoners were suffering from in the prison. This event sparked the Prison reform movement in America. “On This Day: Attica prison Uprising Begins.” On This Day: Attica Prison Uprising Begins. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This article does not fail to mention the injustices the prisoners faced in Attica. The prisoners not only faced racial injustice, they also faced the iniquities of false accusations. The rights of the inmates were stripped away and many did not take proper responsibility. “Rebellion at Attica.” Daily News and Opinion from the Left. N.p., 26 Sept. 2013. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This website explains to the readers that Attica Prison Riots was a mass struggle for racial justice and liberation. The black prisoners of Attica were facing racial injustice from many of the guards. The rights of these black prisoners were restricted due to racial issues during this time.

“Survivors of Attica Prison Riots Getting Payout for Injuries.” Chicago Tribune. N.p., 03 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. This article reveals the history of Attica and how thirty years after the riots, the victims or their relatives were finally getting payouts from the injuries. The government take responsibility of the victims after 30 years. The rights of these victims were ignored until ignored until time had passed. Bandek, Asha. “After the Attica Uprising | The Nation.” After the Attica Uprising | The Nation. N.p., 9 Sept 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. In the online article composed by Asha Bandek, the events that occurred at Attica were described in detail. She also describes the effect that Attica had on America, even the present. She goes on to state that the history of Attica should challenge the injustices of mass incarceration. Cruel punishment of public nudity. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://jerzygirl45.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/attica-6.jpg>. This picture shows the unusual punishment of a public display of nudity through the prison yard. There are guards around the unclothed inmates presumably laughing and harassing the walking inmates. Either the guards forced the inmates to strip by making them choose between their lives or pride, or the prison didn't have enough clothes from them to wear. Fathi, David. "American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website explains how America is still continuing the fight for civil rights and prisoners' rights. The author of this article mentions Attica as the spark of a movement for liberty. The effects created by Attica still resonates through American history. Featherstone, Richard Andrew, “Purdue E-Pubs.” Purdue EPubs. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. In this article, Richard Featherstone evaluates the importance of the Attica Prison Riots. He explains how the Attica narratives were based on the racial issues of the time period. Due to racism, the Attica Prison riots also affected many that were outside of the prison. This brought awareness to many about the injustices of the Attica prison.

Gonnernman, Jennifer. “Remembering Attica.” – Page 1. N.p., 04 Sept 2001. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. Jennifer Gonnerman explains the events of the riots at Attica from her own experience. In this article as well, questions about Attica were answered by her personally. She also answers a question of how she was involved with the riots personally. The Attica Riots also affected many that were outside of the prison. This brought awareness to many about the injustices of the Attica prison. Jackson, Bruce. "Attica." Attica. N.p., 06 Sept. 1999. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. Bruce Jackson's article includes both the information about the Attica riot and what happened after the uprisings ended. It also includes a small section about a court case for four officers that never showed up for trail in 20 years. Kaba, Mariame, and Lewis Wallace. "San Francisco Bay View » Attica Prison Uprising 101, a Short Primer." San Francisco Bay View. N.p., 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This website includes information of the origins of the Attica rebellion. It goes on to describe the conditions of the prison through a series of interviews with a prisoner. It also explains the effects of the rebellion. Massive overcrowding in one of the Prison yards. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013. <http://binaryapi.ap.org/87ce3b5d195d4986b5b491ab5a8d3057/512x.jpg>. This picture shows the sheer overcrowding within the walls of the Attica Prison. The inmates within the yard look helpless and herded together. The inmates had little room and were almost always pressed up against another inmate from the quantity of the people within the walls. The numbers alone show the prisons incapability to house, feed, and tent to the group of people. Wicker, Tom. A Time to Die: The Attica Prison Revolt. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1994. Print. In this historical book, Tom Wicker goes on to explain the prison riot at Attica from his own experiences. A reporter during this time, Tom Wicker also expresses his thoughts about the racial issue during the riot.