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COMPARISON OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRUALIC SYSTEM  Liquids exhibit greater inertia than gases.

There fore, in hydraulic systems, the weight of oil is a potential problem when accelerating and decelerating the actuators and when suddenly opening and closing the valves. In accordance with Newton’s law of motion, the force required to accelerate oil is many times greater than that required to accelerate an equal volume of air.  Liquids also exhibit greater viscosity than gases. This results in larger frictional pressure and power losses.  ince hydraulic systems use a fluid foreign to the atmosphere, they require reservoirs and a no!lea" system design. #neumatic systems use air which is exhausted directly bac" into the surrounding environment. $enerally, pneumatic systems are less expensive than hydraulic systems.  %ue to compressibility of air, it is impossible to obtain a precise control of actuator velocities in pneumatic systems. In applications where the actuator travel is to be smooth and steady against a variable load, the air exhaust from the actuator is normally metered.

 &hile pneumatic pressures are quite low due to the compressor design, hydraulic pressures are high. Thus, hydraulics can be used in high power systems whereas pneumatics are confined to low power applications. BASIC PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: In pneumatic systems, compressors are used to compress and supply the necessary quantity of air. 'asically a compressor increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume as described by gas laws. #neumatic systems normally use a centrali(ed air compressor which is considered to be an infinite air source. This pressuri(ed air can be piped from one source to the various locations. The air is piped to each circuit though an air filter, to remove contaminants which mighty harm the pneumatic components such as valves and cylinders. The air then flows through a pressure regulator which reduces the pressure to the desired level for the particular circuit application. ince air is not a good lubricant, pneumatic systems require a lubricator to in)ect a fine mist of oil into the air discharged from the pressure regulator. This prevents the wear of parts in the pneumatic components.

*ree air in the atmosphere contains varying amounts of moisture. This moisture can be harmful since it can wash away lubricants and thus cause excessive wear and corrosion. +ence sir dries are needed to remove this undesirable moisture. ince pneumatics systems exhaust air directly into the atmosphere, they are capable of generating excessive noise. Therefore, mufflers are mounted on the exhaust ports of air valves and actuators to reduce the noise. AIR FILTER The function of a filter is to remove contaminants from air before it reaches the pneumatic components such as valves and actuators. The main component of a filter is the filter cartridge, which is mostly made of sintered brass or bron(e and other materials. They remove

contaminants in the range of , to ,- microns. These elements have a large ratio of air to filter media and can thus hold a large amount of contamination on the surface without suffering any pressure loss. .ir flow entering the filter is directed downward with a swirling motion that force the moisture and the heavier particles to fall down. The deflector used in the filter element. The remaining finer foreign particles move along the air and pass through the cartridge where they are arrested.

In many cases. which could be manually opened to drain the accumulated water and the solid particles. there is an on!off drain valve. Larger the opening. The spring at the other side of the poppet acts as a dampening device to stabili(e the pressure. greater the pressure and vice versa. PRESSURE REGULATOR: The main function of this valve is to regulate the incoming pressure to the system so that the desired air pressure is capable of flowing at a steady condition. The valve has a metallic body with primary and secondary openings. the valve has two vent hole openings through which the compressor air is let out into the atmosphere in case the secondary pressure increases to a level not desirable to the system. thereby creating an opening to allow air to flow from the primary to secondary side. The pressure regulation is obtained by opening the poppet valve to a measured amount for achieving the desired pressure level..t the bottom of the filter bowl. This is done by an ad)ustable screw. The ad)usting screw will move the diaphragm upward and thus will ma"e the poppet to unseat. The opening of the valve and thereby the pressure of air flowing through it will be directly proportional to the compression of the spring underneath the diaphragm. .

PNEUMATIC VALVES: To control pneumatic actuators. stop and regulate the direction of air flow and to help in the distribution of air in the desired line. the air energy has to be regulated. a supply port and an exhaust port. These are done by pneumatic valves. The main functions of these valves are to start. Direction Control V l!e": %irection control valves are used to direct the flow of the pressurised fluid in the desired direction. The different types of direction control valves are spool type. . controlled and reversed with a pre!determined sequence. The normally closed valve bloc"s flow in its normal position and permits flow when actuated. seat type etc. #$ T%o&% ' ! l!e: This is an on!off type of device. . This valve is usually provided with two external flow ports. poppet type. normally open two!way valve permits flow in its normal or in its rest position and bloc"s flow when actuated.

This permits the use of either dual supply or dual exhaust. &hen the valve is shifted. . These valves may be used to control single acting cylinders or in pairs to control double acting cylinders. It may be used alternatively to pressuri(e one port and exhaust the other port. the flow paths are reversed. *$ Fo+r&% ' ! l!e: *our!way valves have two wor"ing ports. five ports are preferred instead of four ports. one flow port is connected to either of the other two ports. .($ T)ree&% ' ! l!e In this. a supply port and an exhaust port. five port version provides the same basic control of flow paths as a four port version. In one position the valve allows air to flow from the supply source to one of the wor"ing ports.$ Fi!e&% ' ! l!e: in certain designs of direction control valves. imultaneously air is allowed to flow from the other wor"ing port to the exhaust. . These valves can be used as a pilot relay to operate the other valves.

In addition. dual supply ports permit the use of different pressure for the cylinder movement. flow control valve has a spring loaded dis" which allows a free flow in one direction and an ad)ustable or controlled flow in the opposite direction.tic C)ec. Pne+. *low ad)ustment is performed by a tapered brass stem that controls the flow through the cross hole in the dis". &hen the pawl is in the up position. &hen the pawl is at 0-1 to the "nob is free to rotate. Flo% Control V l!e: . it creates a friction loc" on the valve bonnet and the "nob cannot rotate. %ual exhaust enables easy exhaustion of the valve. V l!e: .The ad)ustable "nob contains an unique loc"ing device that consists of a plastic metering "nob and a thumb latch pawl. . /ounting in any position will not affect the operation. /etal body or light weight plastic body designs with suitable fittings are available. chec" valve shuts off against reverse flow and opens at a low crac"ing pressure in the forward direction. The valve bonnet is inscribed with graduation to serve as a position indicator for the stem.

If different pressures are present.t one end of the spool’s travel. the valve spool moves towards 7. an output is produced if both the input signals are fed. when signals is fed first to 6.. the lower pressure is switched to outlet . then spool remains in its acquired position and air may pass to . if air is fed simultaneously to 6 and 7. the output appears. .tic S)+ttle V l!e or /OR0 T'1e V l!e The pneumatic shuttle valve automatically selects the higher of the two input pressures and connects that pressure to the output port while bloc"ing the lower pressure. This valve has two input ports and one output port and employs a free floating spool with an open centre action. the reverse ta"es place if air is fed first to 7.. /AND0 T'1e or T%o&Pre""+re V l!e in this valve. o the 234’ type valve delivers an output when one inptut is present or when both are present. closing the air passage from 6 to .Pne+. .t the other end of its travel. it connects the second input with the output port. This has two inlets 56 and 78 and one outlet 5.8. from both 6 and 7. it connects the second input ports. .

'ut the return air from the cylinder will exhaust through .2+ic. +ere. which means that the speed of the actuator may be reduced from its normal speed. the air flowing to the cylinder from the %9: will pass to port 2#’ of the quic" exhaust valve and from here to the port . 'ut this valve is used to induce a higher speed in a cylinder by allowing the exhaust air to pass through the direction control valve 5%9:8 from the cylinder. . the actuator speed is controlled. E3) +"t V l!e: 'y using a flow control valve in a pneumatic circuit. of the valve and then to the cylinder. o the resistance to piston movement is eliminated to some extent and speed of the cylinder is accelerated proportionally to the amount of reduced resistance. the air in the rod end of the cylinder exhausts to the atmosphere quic"ly by using this valve. &hen air is fed to the piston side of the cylinder. so that the air energy can act quic"ly. and 4 to the atmosphere without traveling through the port 2#’ and thus avoids the %9:.

the pilot spool of the .<= %9 valve. The air from the reservoir gets exhausted and the spool returns to its original position. The time required to build!up pressure in the reservoir is the amount of delay time offered by the time delay valve and with further increase of pressure. This valve is used in the pneumatic system to initiate a delayed is accumulated in the in!built reservoir of the valve from the pilot control port 2>’. &hen the pressure needed to push the spool is built!up in the reservoir.Ti-e Del ' V l!e The time delay valve consists of an in! built air reservoir. . an in!bait non!return flow control valve and a pilot controlled spring return . thus opening port 2#’ of the main valve . the control passage of the same being controlled by the needle of the in!built throttle valve. .’ from 2#’. and closing 24’.<= direction control valve shifts. as this is bloc"ed by the spring actuated spool. it prevents the air from flowing to port 2. the in!built chec" valve opens. #ressure starts building up here. &hen the compressed air is supplied to port 2#’ of the valve.

PNEUAMTIC ACTUATORS #neumatic systems ma"e use of actuators 5linear and rotary8 in a fashion similar to that of hydraulic systems.. Pne+.tic C'lin4er: The pneumatic power is converted into straight!line reciprocating motions by pneumatic cylinders. . The various industrial applications for which air cylinders are used can be divided duty!wise into three groups@ light duty. the piston extends. #neumatic cylinder construction ma"es extensive use of aluminum and other non!ferrous alloy materials to reduce the weight and corrosive effects of air and to improve heat transfer capabilities. 'ut these differ very little from the hydraulic applications because air is used rather than hydraulic oil? pressures are either low or medium and a lighter construction is encountered. air cylinders can be classified as follows. medium duty and heavy duty. Sin5le ctin5 c'lin4er: It has a single air inlet line. &hen this line is pressurised.ccording to the operating principle.

The advantage of a single acting cylinder lies in its reduced air consumption. the stro"e length is unlimited.The return movement of the piston is affected by a built A in spring mounted on the rod side of the piston or by application of an external force li"e gravity. . since air is not wasted while retracting the piston. because the spring force that must be overcome while extending increases with the stro"e. In principle. The double acting cylinder produces less force during retraction. although buc"ling and bending must be considered before we select a particular si(e of piston diameter. ingle acting cylinders with a return spring are limited in stro"e. Do+6le ctin5 c'lin4er: The force exerted bye compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double acting cylinder. They are used particularly when the piston is required to perform wor" not only on the advance movement but also on the return movement. rod length and stro"e length. because the piston rod’s cross!sectional area is subtracted from the piston area under pressure.

the stro"e length is unlimited in a double acting cylinder. but a single cylinder with a larger diameter cannot be accommodate. the stro"e is limited by the compressed length of the spring. so they perform wor" in both directions. . +ence. 'ut this problem is not present in a double acting cylinder. this design is useful when larger forces are required. 'ut the compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double acting cylinder. the air has to overcome the pressure of the spring and hence some power is lost before the actual stro"e of the piston starts.A4! nt 5e" o7 4o+6le ctin5 c'lin4er o!er "in5le ctin5 c'lin4er$ • In a single acting cylinder. • In a single acting cylinder. ince the available force is doubled. the compressed air is fed only on one side. • &hile the piston moves forward in a single acting cylinder. this cylinder can produce wor" only in one direction. 'ut in principle. TANDEM CYLINDER: It consists of two pistons operating in separate sections along the same axis with a common piston rod.

This will ensure equal force and speed on both sides of the cylinder. 'y using the shortest possible stro"e needed for a given )ob. the retraction of the right piston is limited to an intermediate position which is determined by the ability of the right piston to retract fully. . AD8USTABLE STRO9E CYLINDER: The cylinder stro"e can be ad)usted by screwing the left hand piston in or out. except that the left piston rod is not connected to the right piston and the left cylinder is shorter than the right one. THROUGH ROD CYLINDER: +ere the piston rod extends to both ends of the piston.THREE POSITION CYLINDER: It is quite similar to the tandem cylinder. &ith the left piston extended. better rapid cycling is achieved and air consumption is reduced.

ir motors have been found to provide very high rotational motors are available in the mar"et from a very low to a very high "ilowatt rating. which sometimes may go up to B-. the inner cylinder acts as a piston and extends. TYPES OF MOTOR0S: .--.TELESCOPING CYLINDER: &hen pressure is applied to the left side. 3nce it reaches the end of its stro"e.-.revolutions per minute. The available stro"e is almost double when compared to a normal cylinder having the same retracted motors are of various designs. "&. an air motor is used. The most common ones are the piston type motors and the vane type motors. AIR MOTOR0S: To generate rotational motion in a pneumatic system. . the innermost piston begins to extend. . while the higher range is up to =-0"&. There are air motors manufactured with fractional "ilowatt as low as -. .

t least two pistons are on the power stro"e at all times.s pistons reciprocate in sequence. the stro"e of the pistons and the speed. the area of the pistons. . The smooth overloading of the power flow and the accurate balancing ma"e these motors vibrate less at all speeds. they actuate a wobble plate and this in turn imparts a rotary motion to the output shaft through a gear train. The five A cylinder design provides an even torque at any given operating speed due to the overlap of the five power impulses occurring in the stro"e revolution. . 4adial piston motors are low speed motors. . #iston type motors may have four. the number of pistons. .xial piston motors are low power =. the area of the pistons."& motors while radial piston motors give up to BC"&.PISTON TYPE MOTORS: #iston type motors may be of axial or radial type design. The operation of an axial piston air motor is similar to the piston type hydraulic motor.. The power developed by these motors is dependent on the inlet pressure. five or six cylinders.

agitators and mixers. hoists. In this type. air flows parallel to the shaft through the motor body to the end plates. . The push pins and the leaf springs are used to "eep the vane out. tool devices. bench enters into the rotor slot and pushes the vane out. APPLICATIONS OF AIR MOTORS: They may be used in con)unction with hydraulic power units. the air flows through the chambers to rotate the rotor. machine feeders. %epending upon the design of the vane type motor. there might be three to ten vanes. conveyor belts. vibrators and many others. pipe threaders. feeding devices. . The motors may be designed to give shaft rotation in one direction passes to the chamber through the drilled holes in the rotor and acts directly on the exposed portions of the vanes to turn the rotor.VANE TYPE MOTORS: :ane type air motors have longitudinal vanes and these vanes fit into the radial slots in the rotor. . In this type. It travels through both the end plates via a "idney shaped port.

BASIC PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT: The forward and return motions of the cylinder are controlled by the air pressure and hence a four way two position direction control valve is used. &hen the valve is not actuated. 3ne difference is that no return lines are used in pneumatic circuits because the exhaust air is released directly into the atmosphere.PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS: #neumatic circuits are similar to hydraulic circuits. the valve position is determined by the spring which ma"es the air to move to the rod side of the cylinder. in a manually controlled system. the cylinder is retracted.. clamps etc. air moves to the piston side as the cylinder advances. . This type of system can be applied in the shifting of simple )igs. This is depicted by a short dashed line leading from the exhaust port of each valve or by a smaller triangle. The input to the circuit is fixed at some conveniently located manifold which leads directly into the filter regulator lubricator 5*4L8 unit. &hen the push button of the D<= %9 valve is operated. . Thus.lso no input device is shown because most pneumatic circuits use a centrali(ed compressor as their source of energy.

. 9enter bolt threads designed for less effort to apply high torque. .. a pilot control system is preferred. T!handle loc"s )aw opening precisely where you set it. or breath. INDRODUCTION OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS : Le rnin5 O6:ecti!e: Explain the operating principles of a pneumatic system. =.+owever. uch systems used for material handling are described below. The word pneumatics is a derivative of the $ree" word pneumatic. solid contact and superior safety. #neumatics can be defined as that branch of engineering science that pertains to gaseous pressure and flow. . wind. Nut recessed to avoid mushrooming and disfiguration from impact. Leverage up front for vice!li"e power and no slippage . which means air. D. Fe t+re": B. controllability and flexibility in operation. Identify operational characteristics and service procedures applicable to heavy!duty compressors. 9age to guide )aws for fast set up. to have more versatility.

. consider the container shown in figure . pneumatics is the portion of fluid power in which compressed air. This section discusses the basic principles of pneumatics. 9inetic T)eor' o7 G "e" In an attempt to explain the compressibility of gases. . some molecules are moving in one direction.!D0 as containing a gas. is used to transmit and control power to actuating mechanisms. and other deformable ob)ects whose shapes are maintained by compressed air.. heavy!duty air compressors.s used in this manual. Co-1re""i6ilit' n4 E31 n"ion o7 G "e" $ases can be readily compressed and are assumed to be perfectly elastic. methods of controlling contamination. It also discusses the ha(ards of pneumatics. or other gas. tennis balls. and some may be in a state of rest. characteristics of gases. These are the properties of air that is used in pneumatic tires. and air compressor maintenance. This combination of properties gives gas the ability to yield to a force and return promptly to its original condition when the force is removed.t any given time. and safety precautions associated with compressed gases. some are travelling in other directions.

air that normally occupies a specific volume is compressed into a smaller volume inside the tire. . Bo'le0" L % &hen the automotive tire is initially inflated. This increases the pressure on the inside of the tire. more molecules are available to bombard the walls. . &hen you ta"e a long drive on a hot day. the molecules move faster. causing an increase in pressure. 9onsidering the automobile tire can show this.The average effect of the molecules bombarding each container wall corresponds to the pressure of the gas.s more gas is pumped into the container. thus the pressure in the container increases. the pressure in the tires increases and a tire that appeared to be soft in cool morning temperature may appear normal at a higher midday temperature. Increasing the speed with which the molecules hit the walls can also increase the gas pressure in a container. If the temperature of the gas is raised.

9harles 'oyle. he could decrease the volume of the air by half 5fig. The relationship between pressure and volume is "nown as 'oyleFs law. the volume of an enclosed gas varies inversely with pressure. provided much of the foundation for modem "inetic theory of gases. providing the pressure remains constant. a *rench physicist. In actual situations this is rarely the case. Temperature is a dominant factor affecting the physical properties of gases. and by doubling the force exerted on the air. . the experiment must be performed at a constant temperature." L % Gacques 9harles. Therefore. 'oyle’s law assumes conditions of constant temperature. he found that all gases expand and contract proportionally to the change in absolute temperature. %uring an experiment when he compressed a volume of air.!. was among the first to experiment with the pressure!volume relationship of gas.-8. . Temperature changes continually and affects the volume of a given mass of gas. It is of particular concern in calculating changes in the state of gases. an English scientist. Through experiments. C) rle". 'oyleFs law states when the temperature of a gas is constant. he found that the volume decreased as pressure increased.

.The relationship between volume and temperature is "nown as 9harles’s law. Therefore. PNEUMATIC GASES $ases serve the same purpose in pneumatic systems as liquids serve in hydraulic systems. many of the same qualities that are considered when selecting a liquid for a hydraulic system must be considered when selecting a gas for a pneumatic system. 9harles’s law states that the volume of a gas is proportional to its absolute temperature if constant pressure is maintained.

Therefore. *or example. Co-1re""e4 Air 9ompressed air is a mixture of all gases contained in the atmosphere. we will only discuss compressed air. ince nitrogen is used very little except in gas!charged accumulators. $ases that have these desired qualities might not have the required lubricating power.2+ litie": The ideal fluid medium for a pneumatic system must be a readily available gas that is nonpoisonous. in this manual it is referred to as one of the gases used as a fluid medium for pneumatic systems. and nonflammable. some air compressors are provided with a lubricating system. It should be a gas that will not support combustion of other elements. Two gases meeting these qualities and most commonly used in pneumatic systems are compressed air and nitrogen. lubrication of the components must be arranged by other means. +owever. in some cases? lubrication is introduced into the air supply line 5in! line oilers8. chemically stable. The unlimited supply of air and the ease of . free from any acids that can cause corrosion of system components. some components are lubricated upon installation or.

lthough moisture and solid particles must be removed from the air. . /oisture separators and air dryers are installed in the lines to minimi(e or eliminate moisture in systems where moisture would deteriorate system performance.n air compressor provides the supply of compressed air at the required volume and pressure. 9ompressed air has most of the desired characteristics of a gas for pneumatic systems. This condensed moisture can be very harmful to the system and may free(e the line and components during cold weather. The most undesirable quality of compressed air as a fluid medium for a pneumatic system is moisture content. it does not require the extensive distillation or separation process required in the production of other gases. The atmosphere contains varying amounts of moisture in vapor form. which supports combustion.9ompression ma"es compressed air the most widely used fluid for pneumatic systems. . . 9hanges in the temperature of compressed air will cause condensation of moisture in the system. It is nonpoisonous and nonflammable but does contain oxygen.

phis /edium!pressure 5/#8HB.--. Their operating pressure categori(es compressed air systems as follows@ +igh! pressure 5+#8H..In most systems the compressor is part of the system with distribution lines leading from the compressor to the devices to be operated..phis and below HEAVY-DUTY AIR COMPRESSORS ..--phis Low!pressure .B to B.

air flows into the cylinder through the inta"e valve. The engine and compressor are separate units. They may be air! or liquid! cooled. or screw design. .= shows an end.9ompressors are used in pneumatic systems to provide requirements similar to those required by pumps in hydraulic systems. These vanes slide in and out of the slots. The reciprocating compressor is similar to that of an automotive engine. They are governed by a pressure control system that can be ad)usted to compress air to the maximum pressure. . The reciprocating compressor is normally connected to the engine through a direct coupling or a clutch.s the pistons move up and down. at which time the discharge valve opens and the compressed air is forced into the air manifold 5fig.s the piston moves upward. *igure .B8. as the rotor rotates. .! . the inta"e valve closes and traps air in the cylinder. They furnish compressed air as required to operate the units of the pneumatic systems. . The rotary compressor has a number of vanes held in captive in slots in the rotor. Even though manufactured by different companies.!. most compressors are quite similar. The trapped air is compressed until it exceeds the pressure within the collecting manifold. Co-1re""or De"i5n The compressor unit may be of the reciprocating. rotary.

!. as the rotor turns.= the variation in the clearance between the vanes and the bottom of the slots. Notice in figure . as the rotor revolves. 9entrifugal force acting on the rotating vanes maintains contact between the edge of the vanes and the pump casing.:iew of the vanes in the slots. This feature causes the vanes to slide in and out of the slots. The vanes divide the crescent!shaped space between the offset rotor and the pump casing into compartments that increase in si(e. and then decrease in si(e. as the rotor . The rotor revolves about the center of the shaft that is offset from the center of the pumping casing.

. This air is carried around in each compartment and is discharged at a higher pressure due to the decreasing compartment si(e 5volume8 of the moving compartments as they progress from one end to the other of the crescent!shaped space. 3il is in)ected into the compressor unit and mixes directly with the air.. the rotors provide positive!displacement internal compression smoothly and without surging.8.!. The compressor is lubricated by oil circulating throughout the unit.s a coolant. *ree air enters each compartment as successive vanes pass across the air inta"e.rotates. The screw compressors used in the N9* are direct! drive. T)e oil ) " t)ree 1ri. as the rotors turn compressing the air. it controls the rise in air temperature normally associated with the heat of compression.ll oil is removed from the air by an oil separator before the compressed air leaves the service valves. two!stage machines with two precisely matched spiral!grooved rotors 5fig. . . .r' 7+nction": B.

It acts as lubricating film between the rotors allowing one rotor to directly drive the other. which is an idler. .=.ll large volume compressors have protection devices that shut them down automatically when any of the following conditions develop@ . The oil that mixes with the air during compression passes into the receiver!separator where it is removed and returned to the oil cooler in preparation for re!in)ection. It seals the lea"age paths between the rotors and the stator and also between the rotors themselves. .. .fter the air<oil mixture is discharged from the compressor unit. the oil is separated from the air.

. The engine coolant rises above a predetermined temperature. . =. . D. The compressor discharge rises above a certain temperature. 3ther feature that may be observed in the operation of the air compressors is a governor system whereby the engine speed is reduced when less than full air delivery is used. .ny of the protective safety circuits develop a malfunction..B.n engine and compression control system prevents excessive buildup in the receiver. The engine oil pressure drops below a certain point.

M int in con"t nt 1re""+re$ . .ccumulators that maintain constant pressure are always weight!loaded types that place a fixed force on the oil in a closed circuit. this accumulator "eeps the same gravity pressure on the system. &hether the volume of oil changes from lea"age or from heat expansion or contraction.

. . the gas expands. . and spring!loaded. &hen oil pressure drops. or resistance to compression. $as and oil occupy the same container.=8. The ma)or types of accumulators are as follows@ pneumatic 5gas!loaded8. a bladder 5fig. forcing oil out. In most cases. &hen the oil pressure rises.!.. or a diaphragm 5fig. fluid is any liquid or gas 5vapor8.B8. incoming oil compresses the gas.8. #ressure can cause an expansion. their use in a system is limited to only one. PNEUMATIC ACCUMULATORS: In the pneumatic accumulators. *orce is anything that tends to produce or modify 5push or pull8 motion and is expressed in #ounds.!. . of a fluid that is being squee(ed. #$#$ Pre""+re n4 Force$ #ressure is force exerted against a specific area 5force per unit area8 expressed in pounds per square inch 5phi8. .&hile most accumulators can do any of these things.!. this prevents mixing of gas and oil. "eeping gas out of the hydraulic system. weight!loaded. the gas is separated from the oil by a piston 5fig.

Equal pressure throughout a confined area is a characteristic of any pressuri(ed fluid. more air is squee(ed into it than it can hold. reciprocating motor.n actuator can be linear or rotary. #neumatic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to mechanical force and motion.n example of pressure is the air 5gas8 that fills an automobile tire. It is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram. Pne+. . . The air inside a tire resists the squee(ing by pushing outward on the casing of the tire. .$ Pressure. rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion. . a tire would be pushed into odd shapes because of its elasticity.s a tire is inflated. The outward push of the air is pressure. It is more commonly called a #neumatic motor . . or linear motor. If it were not. linear actuator gives force and motion outputs in a straight line. *or example. in an inflated tire.tic Act+ tor": . the outward push of the air is uniform throughout.

. 9ylinder housing is a tube in which a plunger 5piston8 operates.. a ram actuates a load directly. &hen oil is pumped into a port. a reversing directional valve of a single!acting type controls flow to and from a single!acting cylinder. plunger returns either because of the weight of a load or from some mechanical force such as a spring. thus extending it. In a piston cylinder.&#$ C'lin4er"$ . a. This cylinder 5*igure D!B8 only has a head!end port and is operated pneumatically in one direction. Sin5le&Actin5 C'lin4er. The opposite end is a head end. cylinder is a #neumatic actuator that is constructed of a piston or plunger that operates in a cylindrical housing by the action of liquid under pressure. oil must be released to a reservoir. *igure D!Bshows the basic parts of a cylinder. a piston rod is connected to a piston to actuate a load. In a ram! type cylinder. The #neumatic connections are a head! end port and a rod!end port 5fluid supply8. In mobile equipment. it pushes on a plunger. . To return or retract a cylinder. .n end of a cylinder from which a rod or plunger protrudes is a rod end.

To retract a rod. and a head!end port is connected to allow return flow. 3il from a pump goes into a rod end. #umping air into the head end moves a piston to extend a rod while any oil in the rod end is pushed out and returned to a reservoir. page D!=8 must have ports at the head and rod ends. The flow direction to and from a double!acting cylinder can be controlled by a double!acting directional valve or by actuating a control of a reversible pump. flow is reversed. . This cylinder 5*igure D!=.6$ Do+6le&Actin5 C'lin4er.

. a full piston area is available for applying pressure. . 3n a head end.t a rod end. .c$ Di77erenti l C'lin4er$ In a differential cylinder. and what space it does ta"e up reduces the volume of oil it will hold. the areas where pressure is applied on a piston are not equal. rod’s area is not a factor. only an annular area is available for applying pressure.