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Killed Steel

Thanks for your response, but what actualy I do not need the defination, I know it, I need How we can confirm that the SA-516 GR 70 steel is killed steel if the certificate/test report does not mentioned that in direct words? What is the para raph in AS!" #ode can help $s? we need a formal and clear para raph like the para raph of %the fine a$stenitic rain si&e in SA-'0 that sa(s) When aluminum is used as the grain refining element, the fine austenitic grain size requirement shall be deemed to be fulfilled if, on heat analysis, the aluminum content is not less than 0.0 0! total aluminum or, alternately, 0.0"#! acid soluble aluminum.$ so if the certificate%test report does not mentioned that in direct words we can confirm by the aluminum !. killed steel *steel deo&idized, either by addition of strong deo&idizing agents or by 'acuum treatment, to reduce the o&ygen content to such a le'el that no reaction occurs between carbon and o&ygen during solidification. and I know more such as ( In practice, when a carbon steel contains a residual content of 0.10 Silicon in the chemical composition, it is considered as a Killed carbon steel. )&amples are *+T, specifications * #"- .r. -0, /0 01lates$,2 * "0- .r. 3, * 444 .r. - 01ipe$2 * "0#, * 4#0 .r. 56 0forgings$ etc. When killed steel is made, a material such as aluminum, silicon, or manganese is added to the steel before it is poured into the molds. This deo&idizes the steel, forcing the o&ygen out of the steel so that by the time it hits the mold, most if not all of the o&ygen is gone. +ome people say that the 7killed7 is a reference to the fact that the steel does not bubble in the mold once it is poured. 8illed steel has a 'ery e'en grain and te&ture as a result of the absence of carbon mono&ide bubbles. It is also 'ery dense, lacking the small holes found in steel which has not been killed, which makes it hea'ier than pieces of steel of the same size which ha'e not been sub9ected to this process. 8illed steel is sometimes sub9ect to shrinkage because of the density, which can be a concern in certain casting applications. This steel product:s strength and durability are increased by deo&idation, although factors can influence the qualities of a finished steel product. 8illed steel is steel that has been completely deo&idized by the addition of an agent before casting, so that there is practically no e'olution of gas during solidification. They are characterized by a high degree of chemical homogeneity and freedom from gas porosity. The steel is said to be 7killed7 because it will quietly solidify in the mould, with no gas bubbling out. It is marked with a 787 for identification purposes.;4< =ommon deo&idizing agents include aluminium, ferrosilicon and manganese. *luminium reacts with the dissol'ed gas to form aluminium o&ide. *luminium also

lea'ing an almost perfect 7rim7 of pure iron on the outside of the ingot. The e&tent of rimming action during the solidification of semikilled steel ingots must be carefully controlled by matching the amount of deo&idizer with the o&ygen . typically less than 0. as the name implies. and sulfurmo'e to the center of the ingot. the silicon content of the solid metal can also 'ary slightly from heat to heat. aluminum. typically less than 0. *luminumAkilled or 'acuumAdeo&idized steels require no silicon2 a requirement for minimum silicon content in such steel is unnecessary. has little. phosphorus. drawing. Thus. *n acceptable range of silicon content would be appropriate for these steels. silicon deo&idation is frequently used. restrictions on silicon content are not usually gi'en. but this requirement is not 'ery restricti'e2 for certain heats."0! may be enough of an addition to kill the steel. 8illed steels are fully deo&idized during their manufacture2 deo&idation can be accomplished by additions of silicon. *nother result is the segregation of elements2 almost all of the carbon. The e&tent of rimming action during the solidification of semikilled steel ingots must be carefully controlled by matching the amount of deo&idizer with the o&ygen content of the molten steel. * ma&imum permissible silicon content is appropriate for all killed plain carbon steels2 a minimum silicon content implies a restriction that the steel must be silicon killed. as required by the purchaser. also known as drawin +$alit( steel. pro'iding the manufacturer with adequate fle&ibility to compensate for 'ariations in the steelmaking process and ensuring a steel acceptable for most applications. +ilicon is intentionally added to some alloy steels. for which it ser'es as both a deo&idizer and an alloying element to modify the properties of the steel. as required by the purchaser. silicon. #! carbon. restrictions on silicon content are not usually gi'en.0#! +i. This gi'es the ingot an e&cellent surface finish because of this iron rim.>< ?immed steel. ?immed and capped steels are not deo&idized2 the only silicon present is the residual amount left from scrap or raw materials.has the added benefit of forming pin grain boundaries."# to 0. a silicon addition sufficient to lea'e a residue of 0. This causes small blow holes in the surface that are later closed up in the hot rolling process. * ma&imum silicon content of 0. a manganese content below 0. +pecifications and orders for these steels customarily indicate that the steel must be made rimmed or capped. but also form the most segregated composition. a range of 0.40! +i is often specified. which pre'ent grain growth during heat treatments.-!. +pecifications and orders for these steels customarily indicate that the steel must be made rimmed or capped. andtitanium. ?immed and capped steels are not deo&idized2 the only silicon present is the residual amount left from scrap or raw materials. or both. . 6or steels of the same grade a killed steel will be harder than rimmed steel. or by 'acuum treatment of the molten steel. Bue to the nonAuniformity of alloying elements it is not recommended for hotAworking applications.. The amount of silicon required for deo&idation may 'ary from heat to heat. This type of steel is commonly used for coldAbending. and is not alloyed with aluminum."0! is sometimes specified for semikilled steel. 3ecause it is the least costly of these methods.@< to no deo&idizing agent added to it during casting which causes carbon mono&ide to e'ol'e rapidly from the ingot.0#! +i. 6or siliconAkilled steels. coldAheading and.ost rimmed steel has a carbon content below 0. coldAforming.

$.content of the molten steel. The most common of these are silicon and aluminum2 howe'er. Killed steel is a type of steel from which there is only a slight e'olution of gases during solidification of the metal after pouring."0! may be enough of an addition to kill the steel. that has higher le'els than the a'erage of those elements. $."0! is sometimes specified for semikilled steel. 8illed steels are fully deo&idized during their manufacture2 deo&idation can be accomplished by additions of silicon. These steels are characterized by marked differences in chemical composition across the section and from the top to the bottom of the ingot 06ig. . no deo&idizing agents are added in the furnace. Thus. *n acceptable range of silicon content would be appropriate for these steels. +emikilled steels generally ha'e a carbon content within the range of 0. but this requirement is not 'ery restricti'e2 for certain heats. * ma&imum silicon content of 0. Semikilled steel is a type of steel wherein there is a greater degree of gas e'olution than in killed steel but less than in capped or rimmed steel. and sulfur than the a'erage composition of the whole ingot. or by 'acuum treatment of the molten steel. 6or siliconAkilled steels. and an inner portion."# to 0. and zirconium are sometimes used. +emikilled steels are characterized by 'ariable degrees of uniformity in composition. or core. the silicon content of the solid metal can also 'ary slightly from heat to heat. and steels for carburizing are generally killed. for which it ser'es as both a deo&idizer and an alloying element to modify the properties of the steel. 8illed steel is produced by 'arious steelAmelting practices in'ol'ing the use of certain deo&idizing elements which act with 'arying intensities. * ma&imum permissible silicon content is appropriate for all killed plain carbon steels2 a minimum silicon content implies a restriction that the steel must be silicon killed."# to 0. titanium. In the production of rimmed steels. +ilicon is intentionally added to some alloy steels. The amount of deo&idizer used 0customarily silicon or aluminum$ will determine the amount of gas e'ol'ed. 'anadium. forging steels. 3ecause it is the least costly of these methods. The typical structure of the rimmed steel ingot results from a marked gas e'olution during solidification of the outer rim. They ha'e an outer rim that is lower in carbon. silicon deo&idation is frequently used. phosphorus. Beo&idation practices in the manufacture of killed steels are normally left to the discretion of the producer. Rimmed Steels. pro'iding the manufacturer with adequate fle&ibility to compensate for 'ariations in the steelmaking process and ensuring a steel acceptable for most applications. *luminumAkilled or 'acuumAdeo&idized steels require no silicon2 a requirement for minimum silicon content in such steel is unnecessary. which are intermediate between those of killed and rimmed steels. The amount of silicon required for deo&idation may 'ary from heat to heat. a range of 0. +emikilled steel has a pronounced tendency for positi'e chemical segregation at the topAcenter of the ingot 06ig. *lloy steels. 8illed steels are characterized by more uniform chemical composition and properties as compared to the other types.40! +i is often specified. or both.40!2 they are used for a wide range of structural shape applications. a silicon addition sufficient to lea'e a residue of 0. aluminum.

and those ma&imums 'ary among producers. zirconium.Buring the solidification of the rim. +ilicon is somewhat less effecti'e than manganese in increasing asArolled strength and hardness. Buring solidification of the core. When added to steel in specified amounts. The gas entrapped during solidification is in e&cess of that needed to counteract normal shrinkage. In lowAcarbon steels. Capped steels ha'e characteristics similar to those of rimmed steels but to a degree intermediate between those of rimmed and semikilled steels. although there is a definite ma&imum amount that can be tolerated in such steels. and 'anadium are also effecti'e grain growth inhibitors2 howe'er. some increase in segregation occurs in the upper and central portions of the ingot. The structural pattern of the ingot persists through the rolling process to the final product 0rimmed ingots are best suited for steel sheets$. !echanicall( capped steel is cast in bottleAtop molds using a hea'y metal cap. #hemicall( capped steel is cast in openAtop molds. and this condition is more pronounced in lowAcarbon resulfurized grades. aluminum is the most effecti'e in controlling grain growth prior to quenching. resulting in a tendency for the steel to rise in the mold. ?immed steels do not retain any significant percentages of highly o&idizable elements such as aluminum. or titanium. and bars. ?immed and capped steels contain no significant amounts of silicon.-0! ma&imum. silicon is usually detrimental to surface quality. the amount of silicon present is related to the type of steel. The capping is accomplished by adding aluminum or ferrosilicon to the top of the ingot. The capped ingot practice is usually applied to steel with carbon contents greater than 0. these three elements may ha'e ad'erse effects on hardenability because their carbides are quite stable and difficult to dissol'e in austenite prior to quenching. strip. +emikilled steels may contain moderate amounts of silicon. the concentration of certain elements increases in the liquid portion of the ingot. for structural grades that are heat treated 0quenched and tempered$. The effects of titanium are similar to those of 'anadium and niobium. silicon. +ilicon has only a slight tendency to segregate. The technology of manufacturing rimmed steels limits the ma&imum content of carbon and manganese. Cf all the alloying elements."#! that is used for sheet. The top portion of the ingot is discarded. causing the steel at the top surface to solidify rapidly. Aluminum is widely used as a deo&idizer and for control of grain size. it controls austenite grain growth in reheated steels. . 8illed carbon steels may contain any amount of silicon up to 0. wire. Titanium and irconium. Titanium. but it is only useful in fully killed 0aluminumAdeo&idized$ steels because of its strong deo&idizing effects. * deo&idizer may be added to effect a controlled rimming action when the ingot is cast. Silicon is one of the principal deo&idizers used in steelmaking2 therefore. The capping operation limits the time of gas e'olution and pre'ents the formation of an e&cessi'e number of gas 'oids within the ingot.

killed steel represents the best quality a'ailable. for which high reductions from ingot to plate thicknesses minimize the structural and chemical 'ariations found in the asAcast ingot. semikilled steel. and rimmed steel. capped steel. Beo&idation can be achie'ed by 'acuum processing or by adding deo&idizing elements such as aluminum or silicon.$ is produced from killed steel to pro'ide impro'ed internal homogeneity.Dirconium can also be added to killed highAstrength lowAalloy steels to obtain impro'ements in inclusion characteristics. The steel used for plates is usually either killed or semikilled. killed steel is generally specified when homogeneous structure and internal soundness of the plate are required or when impro'ed lowA temperature impact properties are desired.enerally. the practice of controlling dissol'ed o&ygen in the molten metal before and during casting is an important factor in impro'ing the internal soundness and chemical homogeneity of cast steel. and from the 'iewpoint of minimum chemical segregation and uniform mechanical properties. Buring the steelmaking process. austenite grain size. 1reparing these steel slabs or ingots for subsequent forming into plates may in'ol'e requirements regarding deo&idation practices. +emikilled steel is commonly used for casting ingots because it is more economical than killed steel. . =ontinuously cast steels are normally fully killed to assure internal soundness. +ource( ?ef " Steelmakin! "ractices +teel plate is produced from continuously cast slabs or indi'idually cast ingots or slabs. +teels are classified by their le'el of deo&idation( killed steel. or ""F in. Beo&idation is also important in lowering the impact transition temperatures. Austenitic %rain Si&e."#E0. #eo$idation "ractices. When siliconAkilled steel is specified.illed steel is fully deo&idized. segregation of carbon can occur when carbon reacts with the dissol'ed o&ygen in the molten steel 0a reaction that is fa'ored thermodynamically at lower temperatures$. or cleanliness. When a fine austenitic grain size is specified. +teel plate specifications for structural and pressure 'essel applications may require a steelmaking process that produces a fine austenitic grain size. Therefore. Semikilled steel is deo&idized to a lesser e&tent that killed steel and therefore does not ha'e the same degree of chemical uniformity or freedom from surface imperfections as killed steel. hea'yAgage plate 0thicker than 4@ mm. . grainArefining elements are added during steelmaking. 8illed steel can be produced either fine or coarse grained without ad'ersely affecting soundness. . and%or secondary melting practices. a range of 0. particularly sulfide inclusions where changes in inclusion shape impro'e ductility in trans'erse bending.40! +i shall be supplied. surface. Therefore. This type of steel is used primarily on lighterAgage plate.

or specialAkilled. 0hanks for (o$r help GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG *sk right person to get the right answer. or electric furnace. 3ecause the pure iron skin characteristic of rimmed steel does not e&ist in aluminumAkilled steel. the steel is not sub9ect to strain aging. In addition. *luminum also aids the de'elopment of preferred grain orientations to attain high r 'alues in coldArolled and annealed steel sheet. are used in hi!h(stren!th low(allo* +. *s already mentioned. known as aluminumAkilled or drawingAquality specialAkilled steel. -ac$$m de assin is used to remo'e dissol'ed o&ygen and hydrogen from steel. +teels used in highAtemperature ser'ice normally contain only 'ery small quantities of aluminum because aluminum may affect strainAaging characteristics and graphitization. but adds to the cost of the steel. )longated grains of an appro&imate *+T. It also reduces the likelihood of internal fissures or flakes caused when hydrogen content is higher than desired. Aluminum is added to steel to kill the rimming action and thus produce a 'ery clean steel known as an aluminumAkilled. )anadium. possibly. 3ecause the aluminum combines with the nitrogen. Howe'er. * small cost premium is associated with the specification of 'acuum degassing. use of aluminum results in a 'ery clean steel. steels for !rain refinement durin! rollin! +see the article /. 3oth class " and class drawingAquality aluminumAkilled steels are produced. surface imperfections may occasionally be encountered on aluminumAkilled sheet. The steel for plate products can be produced by the following primary steelmaking processes( open hearth. 'ther !rain(refinin! elements. the addition of aluminum may be necessary for some highA temperature steels 0as well as most lowAtemperature steels$ requiring good toughness. . . final plate steel sulfur content can be reduced to less than 0. *luminum combines with both the o&ygen and nitrogen to stop the outgassing of the molten steel when it is added to the ladle or mold. such as niobium. and titanium.*luminum is effecti'e in retarding austenitic grain growth. with silicon..i!h(Stren!th -ow(Allo* Steels/ in this 0olume.00#!.i!h(Stren!th Structural and . steel. calcium or rare earth additions$ immediately before casting or teeming. r$ can be de'eloped through the controlled processing of these steels. thus reducing the number and size of indigenous nonmetallic inclusions.S-A. 5ower sulfur content impro'es plate throughAthickness properties and impact properties. Aluminum(killed steels are deo&idized with aluminum and. the steel can be further refined by secondary processes such as 'acuum degassing or 'arious ladle treatments for deo&idation or desulfurization. / size are found in most wellA processed aluminumAkilled steels. )&ceptional resistance to thinning through the sheet thickness 0as measured by the plastic strain ratio.es$lf$ri&ation/ 3y combining steel refining with the addition of ladle desulfurizing agents 0for e&ample. It should be noted that some aluminumAkilled steels that cannot meet the formability requirements for drawingAquality sheet are sold as commercialAquality steel. 1eltin! "ractices. resulting in impro'ed toughness for heatAtreated 0normalized or quenched and tempered$ steels. basic o&ygen.