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which has since so extensively prevailed try. Lowth has been translated and is appreciated there. It among the scholars of that coun- taught them. of which a translation is here offered to the publick. Winkelmann. in the study of Hebrew an- and Hebrew poetry. as a classical and standard work. to see the world as they saw to it. to . as did one of distinguished merit. which are peculiar to their own of country and institutions. too. and of the peculiar spirit own age . and others had done in regard to Grecian tiquity antiquity. On its first publication it much to awaken and cherish the taste for Oriental and especially Hebrew antiquity. though Germany has since been fruitful in works connected with Hebrew poetry and history. to feel as imbibe and express their spirit in its truth and simplicity. to divest themselves of the conceptions.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. this still retains its place. . The work. Hence. as the works of Leesing. has long been celebrated in Germany. whose thoughts and feelings they seek to apprehend they felt. and w modes their of thought. and though the great work of Bp. by the force of imagination to place themselves in the condition of those ancient patriarchs and prophets.

compared with the work of Herder. who is acquainted with both. to claim for it a place in the biblical literature of this country. have long wished for a translation. from which It contemplates the subject of which ry. in the view even of those. it is believed moreover. it exerted. in the point differs essentially from that of Herder it of view. by a mind thoroughly disciplined and cultivated by a study of what in English literature is exclusively understood by classical learning both ancient and modern. is readily seen by any one. seeks to illustrate and telligible the beauties and sublimities of varieties. ble. and indeed other works. What that is. Lowth is the only one of much whose influence is felt either in England love for the spirit of as distinction. in the country which produced it. exhibits the views. as above remarked. . art. and indeed indispensable as it is. and are therefore justly taken. must naturally be taken.These general facts might seem sufficient. which. who are acquainted with it. which should render it accessible especially to ^11 who are professionally engaged in biblical studies. The same influence. in cultivating in the minds of students a genial Hebrew antiquity. make inHebrew poet- by comparing all it in all its ductions of Grecian and Roman It with the proand has done per- haps that can be desired in following out that mode which of critical comparison. who are not personally acquainted with the work. in concert with here. from the richness of its thoughts and the nice discrimination exhibited in it its learned criticism. it treats. The work of Bp. or in this country. is needed among English scholars generally. to the student of the Bible. and the few among us. and capable Valuaof appreciating the difference between them.

and the living spirit of their poetry will be ditiicult it kindled up in his is for own imagination. the less ified to qual- imbibe the genuine spirit. Unless have the higher power of divesting peculiar in it itself of all that is acquired forms of thought. from which it its own its character was derived. the modes of life. and of so adopting their conceptions for its own. by which their habits of thought and feeling were moulded. the man can never participate in their emotions. and in takes cognizance of the itself those conceptions by which objects of its knowledge. He must not only be acquainted with the facts of their history. and occupied with the conceptions exhibited in the literature of one age and country. if it This must necessarily be the case. and test their merits. and the circumstances of every kind. and feel the simple power of every other biassed as to judge of national literature. inspiration of the poet. and then assume. nor breathe the spirit of their poetry. be so pre-occupied and all others. in relation to the poetry . that the is thoroughly one's understanding more moulded by the is it forms. he will sympathize with their emotions. and to see each other. he will be understand why they thought. as to contemplate the world around them under the same relations with them. exclusively by the result of comparison with that. however. prepared to and wrote as observer. which they would he has done this. they did and if he have the feeling and to When . How us to do this. and felt. as a mass of antiquarian lore.But in one sense it may be justly said. of clothing anew in the forms of thought peculiar to another people. but must learn to place all himself entirely in their point of these particulars in the relation to the view.

are changed. which we are here called to study. to understand the child-like simplicity of Homer. or the mountains of Palestine. and by that alone.of a people so widely diverse from us in all the cir- cumstances of their earthly existence. and present to us a strange and foreign aspect. which Lowth has pursued. that the poetry. we may apprehend something of the difficulties. observed the conduct of our fellowmen. and when we how difl&cult it is for us to return upon our own childhood. with which we then looked abroad upon the works of nature. the heavens above. the The language. and so diverse . Thus to enter of Grecian poetry. or contemplated our own being and destiny. of interall the habits of life. and the earth beneath. and embodies reflect. and appreciate is the truth of feeling in his representations. many of the of the first simple and child-like conceptions too. to do full justice to a body of poetry so peculiar. every thing is to be learned anew.' When in addition to this we consider. on ment for the classical student. who would fully enter into the spirit of Hebrew poetry. when compared with the more ancient and Oriental Hebrews. yet the the plains of Arabia. and make it intelligible to a mere English reader. modes of thought and course. human mind. which an author has to overcome. and revive the faded conceptions and forgotten feelings. a high attain- Greeks were our neighbours and kindred. When we place ourselves in the tents of the Hebrew patriarchs. belongs to the earliest periods of recorded time. can be understood only by those who have looked at the subject into the spirit with enlarged and philosophical views. We may understand too how impossible it would be by the method.

. Lowth. How far the author has succeeded in regard to the in the proper point of view. and in various parts of the work itself. of the Cherubim. even of important matters. with proper qualifications for forming an opinion. by looking these in their causes. to place us to feel and But what farther is necessary to be said on this point the author has himself said in the plan of his work. from that with which he brings it into comparison. of the garden of Eden. what Herder denominates mygenerally. attainment of his end. in a word. and most part to interpret by his own rules. in giving its ciiaracter at and spirit to their poetry. So in- far as philosophical and theological considerations fluenced the author. in which every critick feels at liberty to form his own opinions. in connexion with the outward circumstances of their its whole spirit. have thological representations ever fur- nished an ample for the field of speculation. and of of Adam. he seems to have aimed chiefly at . fall of the temptation and of the deluge. which was wanting in the celebrated lectures of Bp. The bib- the Hebrews lical representations of Paradise. connected with the early traditions of the race. which had been transmitted from the infancy of the race. nor would any one probably unde'take to defend all his views. must judge for himself. and which had a predominant influence. That he has always apprehended the early conceptions of in their true sense is not to be supposed. in his preface. tracing the simple and He has aimed by child-like conceptions. the reader. and enable us appreciate them for ourselves. Hence the necessity of the to work of Herder plish. which he sought accom- was to supply that. and the end.

a man of piety and of sober and correct views. for and peowhich they were originally made. all work should be given to to my views of duty my author. which he has given of these matters.meeting the popular objections lent. did his opinions in not permit me to misrepresent any thing of importance. and extremely desirable. and the free spirit of Biblical criticism. and those in whose judgment I place the highest it confidence. is such as may seem to convey a sense tartlier removed from what are considered correct views. which were then very generally preva- and are so more or although at first less in every age. If it be asked. they yet exhibit when seen from the right position. why I then do I exhibit opinions. have thought things considered. which I am herewith exhibiting to the publick. nor would I be understood as subscribing to all the sentiments. which I deem erroneous. as well as myself. as a faithful translator. we must consider moreover the atmosphere. as exhibited at the same time by Eichhorn and other contemporary German writers. that the work contains some things irreconcilable with just views. But after making due allowances of this sort. when seen from our point of view. An instance of this occurs on page 189^ where "Hell" properly means the place oi the dead. can only say. by showing. we cannot understand these. as natural and rational. as they to would seem mean. it will still be felt. the translation. through Inadvertence. a sense both To judge fairly of the author. that the the publick. and in their true relations to the age ple. in which he wrote.* I was at *I fear that in one or two instances. than the original. that others. It is explained by reference to page 176. . to the representations of Scripture. from the representations. that.

immediately following this preface. realized. however. that must either give a naked opinion. It seems. too. or enter into discussions of a philosophical and theological kind. and giving in them my own re- marks. found. and to correct in the general result. whatever individual errors It is only to be regretted. of opinion it may contain. as at last to be removed in the midst of his labours. if only it be read in the spirit that dictated it. and cherished with fondness. the character as to give it an influence highly beneficial to the cause of truth and of sound Biblical learning among us. moreover. that such is and spirit of the work. when he had hoped for leisure to accomplish it. however. taken as a whole. What. His hopes. of the which we have. ever executed. had sketched. to have been his favourite enterprize. and how comprehensive was. as he remarked to one of his friends. that the author had not completed the plan which he work. were never fully and only a part of the general plan was During the latter part of his life. when he had scarcely entered upon the third division of his work. . on considering the nature of the sub- jects that I would require to be noticed in this way. will be seen from his own sketch of it. from his very childhood. unsuited to the character. on whatever would probably be considered I soon objectionable by the lovers of divine truth. no doubt. and beyond the proper limits of the My belief is. have judgproportions and bearings of the his plan fairly. where a sense of propriety would not permit me to do so. and ed more parts we could then.first disposed to avoid the difficulty by accompanying the work with notes. he was so much oppressed with other duties.

whom they were originally written. He aimed to preserve far as possible. 1782 and 1783. in 1803. as the chief object of his work. except that I have been very well aware of its difficulty. Of my own undertaking as translator I have no disposition to say any thing further. Mueller of Schaffhausen. The third edition. These were regarded by the author. in 1805 and 1806. 8vo. to give a fair expression The numerous translations from the I poetical effusions especially. in the but their form and colouring. ter his death. and his translations from the Hebrew Hebrew. as could be made from the was published by his friend J. of Marburg. I have was able. In this he has succeeded. The work however was in its published by him. and have aimed to papers. This is esteemed the best edition. I have endeavoured to exhibit with as much accuracy as could well be attained in a matter of so much difficulty. as far as as of the original. was published in 1822 by Prof. more where less regard was had to elegance of composition. far better than Lowth. as feeling care. which took place left. in two vols. and nearly in present form. and aimed. G. whose poetical paraphrases . it requires care and labour than would be necessary. a Afsecond edi- tion with such additions. and the precise tones of which were associated with them and of those for minds of the authors. As work of taste. undoubt- edly. and from it the present translation has been made. and other were made with peculiar and exhibit. at Dessau. Justi.10 Even the two first divisions still required some impor- tant additions and corrections from the author's hand. which he had perform it with all reasonable exactness and fidelity a to the original. not the thoughts merely. with some small contributions of his own.

to consider this as the part of his to pre- work. and timent of the original Hebrew.11 serve only to convert the simplicity of the into the Hebrew which It more artificial forms of expression. My aim has been in all things of importance. therefore. which he would most value himself." first which this a translation of a part of the volume of work. to give a faithful representation of the author's I work in regard quite both to matter and form. as far as possible. always preferred has led for the where it could be done without misrepresenting the sense of Herder. though with little regard to the length of the lines. and have it. Regard to this me also to be less careful of metrical arrange- ment. a few of which the author has inserted in the work. though not uniformly. I serve. Herder has most part. and . When this could not be done artificial without giving the translation a more suits colouring than in our notions of simplicity in such things. that a version could not learn till of any portion of the in work this had been previously made either country of a . in so regarding have thought it necessary also to have reference to the language of the English translation. I have merely followed the form of the original. and aimed only at the most simple rhythm. than those from the Hebrew. recently. was tion a matter of course. belong to the classick poetry of more modern times. I have most cases merely preserved the parallelisms. England or but within a few days have received a copy title work under the is of " Oriental Dialogues. adhered to the Iambic measure. his peculiar views of the sen- Yet. in giving a transla- of Herder. Several of the dialogues are omitted. In translating other poetical effusions. it. than I should otherwise have been.

had known of its existence. That it of as the pressure promote a genuine to taste for anmay do something volume. so that it can hardly be considered a satisfactory acI count of the original. containing the cient learning. The first volume. as soon will work itself. and. which is now ready for publication. .the order of the remainder changed by the translator. contains only the introduction and a brief account of the life and character of Moses. more especially love for those inspirantiquity. other duties will permit. and ed records of and so dent. it will be observed by comparison with the plan of the work. which have so many peculiar claims upon the regard of every stu- Hebrew is the sincere wish of the Translator. first Tne other and second parts of the be prepared for publication. would not have saved me the labour which I have bestowed upon the work. and the simplicity of primitive antiquity generally.

as connected with the earlier history of our race. . which it work is Whether and can- occupies. who cherish a liberal curiosity respecting the progress of knowledge. the history archs in it down was their great law-giver. are exhibited the poetical characterisits of their language in structure and copiousness . simple.PLAN OF THE WORK. however. is universally known. and which as it is constitute. The beautiful and justly celebrated work of Bp. as more particularly their writings and the spirit of their poetry. that the present it. nor an imitation of the sphere. and human. In the tics first place. as it were. it is at least sufficiently distinct. A nearer comparison of its will show. de sacra poesi Hebraeorum. origin the char- Hebrews was derived. Lowth. and might seem to preclude the necessity of the present tindertaking. contents. from which in acter of the poetry of the. a cosmology as sublime of their patriwhatever poetical to . not be without its interest and use to the lovers of the most ancient. In a prolonged introduction are investigated three its principal particulars. as fitted well the whole na- tion generally. which they had received as a legacy from the most ancient times. and sublime poetry in general. and third. divine. nor indeed to all. be of equal or inferior importance. then the primitive conceptions. neither a translation. and to distinguish.

transmitted from more ancient times. their promised land. gave he aimed it its . produced during this period. and capable of exhibiting something The work then passes to the third period of the art. or spirit failed to exert. The causes by which these effects were brought about ar. that some of the most interesting and instructive of these in the specimens are inserted of their true spirit. and of their posterity. by his legislation^ and by the exhibition of both in his history and in his own poetical effusions. in a translation both intelligible. which of their beauties. which gave rise to them. It is necessary to a perception effects is produced by them implied of course. of the people. work.14 The work itself properly commences with Moses. and finally. . by to impress upon their minds what means he formed the poetry of the nation. the law-giver of the nation and proceeds to show on the what influence he exerted. and their influence exhibited in the most striking examples of later times. he adopted and practically applied. is In the next place. are placed in that true Oriental light. . and consecrated it to the uses of the sanctuary and of the prophets of Jehovah. by his deeds.e unfolded out of the history of the race. pastoral and r'ural character. and what he altered in this legacy of the patriarchs what view of . are explained from it. It points out what conceptions. the causes. under whom and his son occurred the second marked development The most beautiful specimens of of national poetry. the history itself carried for- ward from Moses to the period of the highest national prosperity. and of the nations around them. and the in after times unfolded. and of the most powerful king.

what may have been the result of these writings and of their spirit in the whole history of cultivation. beautiful. with which it has been imitated at different times. the effects produced by the writings of this people. This annunciation. and finally. end of the work investigate A the history of the mode. The characters of these patriotick and divinely prompted leaders of the people are unfolded. and in different languages. it is hoped. In magnis few chapters at the . which accompanied and followed the doivn/all of the nation . in which this poetry has been regarded and treated by the Jews and other nations the different success. which the author of the work has ventured to form and place before him. and those which breathed hope and admonition in regard to its re. and made known in other languages. — the voice of the prophets.establishment . especially the Greek. Next come the sorrowful tones of lamentation. will be received not as ambitious pretension and high-sounding phrase. . and sublime passages here and there embodied in the work. so far as known to us. but simply as the purpose. voluisse sat est. and their influence through the writings and teachers of Christianity down to our own times. and of revolutions in the world. The Author. is here his chosen motto. when collected together. an introduction given to their writings. and some of their most touching.15 as it existed to among this people long before their down- fall.


have endeavoured not unnecessarily to say for the hundredth time. With these. at large supersedes the necessity of dwelling in this place. what had been repeated ninety-nine times already. as among this people. therefore. of the Elohim. so peculiarly also the genius of their poetry. and what is worse. the most ancient conceptions of God.THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. and where on account of the connexion I was obliged to do so. the traditions of the patriarchs. it must contain also. The foregoing annunciation of the plan of the work. of Angels. and of the Cherubim. especially. have passed over it as briefly doing . since most traditions of this kind have themselves more or less of poetical colouring. were the source from which were derived all the peculiarities of their modes of thinking. To set forth these. first only state briefly how carried out in this part. The general purpose of the work. and individual objects. consequently among all nations. of Providence. was here so much the more necessary. and poetical representations of nature. its cosmology. In this. are often greatly misapprehended. required that this part should embrace the general and characteristick traits of Hebrew poetry. it is upon it I shall. and unfold them correctly. which. I have aimed as much as possible at brevity. which mark its essential outlines.

have occupied as much it could of the I work hope. for in regard to this. of the wrestling the obscure and misinterpreted histories of Paradise. To one who is destitute of this. and personifications. 1 am of Luther's opinion. &c. where in common-place matters we cannot read with interest. in all their ancient dignity and simplicity. with the translation of select passages. I should not. therefore. no one. for before one can say much. of the tower of Babel. sought. the conception of beauty to one who has the capability of emotion. will think too much. in an otherwise empty space.18 as possible for . same time prove of the greatest service to us hereafter. with the Elohim. for these are in fact. work be free. the very purpose and subject of the work. he must first at the learn to understand it. sit " that we must let the Prophets as teachers. is They are the stars They are the fruit. and repeticommunicated hardly be from other poets. and of things. it can by exclamations. either of the beauty or deformity of an object. with- of figurative language. will From as I all this.. which show most and will clearly the character of Hebrew poetry. at the least. and at . and much passages tions of similar less by abstract discussions respecting the nature of its poetry. and I my book fairly have succeeded which I have here given. therefore. of the fall. together with particular mythological representations. we can much less write with I it. A right understanding of words. have failed altogether of my only the shell. will give. and the present If I various kinds. rather to set in their true light. in Could setting forth the specimens aim . out long discourses and a tedious explication of it.

and something left for him have to search to out. though unusual. I have which he availed myself of the rich helps of lologists. more recent phi- where I I could do so. vetustis novitatem dare. or seeking credit aid by disputing them. and only wish may have expressed something of that which my own soul felt in the study of this sublime. their opinion. of Job.19 their feet listen with humility to not say what they must hear. obscuris lucem. have chosen the form of dialogue. and weigh by his own reflections. dubiis suae fidem. and of of a I With mere learning and the characters could not consent to burden foreign language. Hence. for can easily accommodate himself him indeed. and in the clearest light. especially for the young supply for himself it is a source of pleasure to the grounds of the opinions is taught. omnibus vero naturam et naturae omnia. obsoletis nitorem. too. my To Ihe unlearned they are of no use. novis auctoritatem. without making a display of it. fastiditis gratiam. and the who has the original language and the ancient . and to have aspired to rival the graces . Ardua res est. . to compare. jects of this sort. simple. translations at hand. am aware. To those it whose be have experienced. and perhaps most ancient of all regular compositions. there in order to I had advance — my own I I it always in the mildest terms. I in what Moses. I know very well. have said of the patriarchs. pages. scholar Something of this I would have attained. the Book of Job I was my purpose. with them scholar. my silent use of I will my And thank-offering and where this could not adopt opinion." teachers. especially appropriate to that I as if what they say. was for in sub- How difficult me. and we were their In this early period.

tinue too long. nor finally drawing out thoughts from the mind of the respondent. Here was no opportunity for devising interesting derot. and of Lessing.) treat of matters that are too dry. A dialogue. for which I am heartily thankful.20 Shaftsbury. and point out to view. friend with friend. But why then did I choose the form of dialogue ? From more than one cause. but to elucidate. and such may be I said on the other this hand" &c. situations. nor for unfolding of the dialogues of Plato. are the de- monstrator. would require periods or half pages. of the professorial chair or of the pulpit. gives to the subject animation. spared such tedious forms of transitions as " it Thus am expression. to find what is already before us. might in way be escape the uniform. in treating such matters. the extreme of folly. even in the worst style. the In the dialogue a single lettrain of thought. to exhibit. able to In the second place. and conIn the third I escaped. but the book of Corsi. or controversial tone. the necessity of contra- . invent in general. variety. peremptory. on a subject of this sort. therefore. and he to whom he demonstrates. and more especially for the sake of brevity. which other- wise could scarcely be avoided throughout the work. or indeed the catechism. ter. a brief index of a new how? I or ivhence? expresses what in the systematick form . and human interest. ease here. for artfully The only speakers admissible. First. of Diwould have been. teacher and scholar. in which the greatest art especially of The aim here was not to didactick dialogue consists. of Lord new characters. and with such aims. if only it do not (as was often the place. My pattern for the general plan of the dialogue was not Plato.

sentiments as are uttered by the publick with its hundiction. fresh. I not agree with Euthyphron. we can best speak with children and youth. Whom and tone in does one teach. I venture to confess. and lovers of Scripture. unbiased. improve what they say. not from the necessity of his profession. however. moreover. lovers of the most ancient. dred heads. whom I would most gladly choose for readers of this work. of strife. Whoever does Finally. I have adopted. may listen. in a word of the most an- human mind and heart. the publick as a mass what style when he teaches Where does this publick dwell ? should we address it. that the older become. or — have his may retain own opinion. Of the childhood and youth of the human race. the most simple. the opinion of Alciphron. but they speak to one another alone. but from a love of it. I would choose before all others for my readers. the speakers are Alciphron and The former speaks very much such Euthyphron. and ardent men of the same character. and humble a whoever will. Let me venture to say. lovers. pulsion. the more difficult for me ? is the tone of an instructer. Alciphron is a youth he studies this poetry not from com. perhaps of the most truely heart-felt poetry in the world cient records of the . and of numberless citations. teach and controvert nobody in the world besides themselves. The times antecedent to the iality — Mosaick bond-service those feel with most congenwhom the yoke of rules has never oppres- .21 and In the form which thus avoided a very serious evil. or of bread. Young men then like him. that we may to neither assume too lofty nor sink ? too Here two individuals speak. and be either learner or teacher.

impossible to understand the former . he is my best friend. and we see in it the many coloured dawn. aright without a previous understanding of the latter for Christianity proceeded from Judaism. Let the scholar then study the Old Testament. of characters. that can never be understood in a scholar-like and satisfactory manner. the beautiful going forth of the sun in his milder radiance. and of scenery . depth. than in as far as possible. It proimpression and misleads the young theo- him the New Testament to the Without this. and in whom with the dawning of their tains any thing of dawn of the world harmonizes own souls. even if it ral be only as a human book full of ancient poetry. and the genius of the language is in both books the same. with . most ancient poetiy. And if. and satisfaction. in its duces a false its poetry. interchange of history. and every one knows which period of the day to the natueye of sense imparts most life and strength. what does not suit his taste. and that of the It is New Testament the Old.22 sed. If my book conworth. there be among these youth. readers Each one can always and for this omit. with more truth. purpose the con- tents of the dialogues are prefixed to them. and in meridian splendour. In the New Testament it stands in the highest heavens. and indeed. The basis of theology is is the Bible. And this genius of the language we can no where study better. that is. as I could wish. comprehensive- ness. venture to say a word more particularly to them. I those engaged in the study of theology. a rich logian to commend to exclusion of the Old. who the it without either praise or censure procures for of this description. In the Old Testament we find as an aid to this. of figurative representation.

and he will be in the latter also. . and thus will the New come forth to us of itself in its purity. barren.23 kindred feeling and aflfection. and without these sacred things. Herder. Let a man gather into his own mind. and more than earthly beauty. its sublime glory. taste desecrate Weimar. none of those smatterers. or feeling. April 9th J 1782. who. the abundant riches of the former.


Importance of poetical character. Organic formation of words in one word. Causes The language its full of action and animation from the this to its mode of forming Its verbs. In what classes of objects these are to be Names of the productions of nature. I. Of the tenses of Hebrew verbs and their poetical character. Conjunction of many ideas sensuous form and feeling. and that our quity.DIALOGUE of these. Prejudices against the poetry and language of the Hebrews. from childhood itself. Causes of its peculiarity in the Hebrew language. Do you ? know any thing of this barren and barbarous language What are the grounds of your opinion conccrnimr it ? 3 . impressions can effect. How far it lies in Something analogous even among the Northern nations. words relating to ornament and luxury derived from the neighbouring Reasons why the Hebrew was not developed in the same nations. Significancy of Hebrew letters. Its influence and use. The want of adjectives supplied by multiplicity of names. numerals. Wish for a lexicon formed on philosophical principles. anti- EuTiiYPHRON. Alciphron. Whether the language had originally its present number of regular conjugations. Founded in tiiat correspondence of quantity which Greek metre. synonyms. Of derivation from radical words. Of the parallelism. sought. Of the roots of verbs. Of parallelism in nature of language and feeling. Study of I its poetry. manner as the Arabick. How to be decyphered. a poetical language. who would but if You speak like one of our modern illumifree men not only from the prejudices of possible childhood. nouns also express action. how indispensably necessary young minds be kept clear of the rubbish of There is afterwards no hope of deliverance. nators. They combine in Northern and Southern nations. this pool' So find you still ! devoted to the study of and barbarous language A proof how much early it is. Study of it ae pleases the ear.

its er. but to have studied with no very good will. and I am ready to abandon all prejudisoon as you will shew them to be such. summoning a player. I have no youthful impressions from the poetical spirit of I this language . enough that I studied I it methodically with rules. The rattling- of ancient cymbals and kettle-drums. the source of our most precious knowledge. It was the torment of my childhood. at men can never be one respecting sured. that they may the E. if For myself I would execrate the impressions of my youth. in short. We will make come the teacher of the other. E. and I am still haunted with the recollection of history. ringing in my ears. to hate a science. shall we permit to ourselves learn at which we have the misfortune ? under a bad form ? alone And that too ? Would you judge a man by his dress when the dress is not his own. it. I learned its it as you did. I think will for I have pretty well tried both the language and contents. howevbe diflicult. Truth is. it. so By no means. This. I still see David dancing before the Ark of the covenant. of philosophy.26 A. A. and But my dear of your disgust. I So much the worse. beauties. and one of us will be- E. the whole music-band of savage nations. which you is still love to denominate the oriental parallelism. first comprehend now the reason Sir. ces. and only by degrees that I I came as now do. It was long before acquired a taste for to consider it. indeed. hear the echo of sublime non- sense. cannot help that all . if they must But be asbind me through life with the fetters of a slave. I know enouo[h of it to my sorrow. of its and of what not. You seem I then to have it it become acquainted with is language. the experiment. and of that early . to be be- wailed. their could cite the never knew meaning. a sacred language. when in the study I of theology. or the prophets feel his inspirations. but the rules of Dantz. but forced upon him A.

A. or at what period even the Grecian Homer sang. exclusively indeed themselves. manner in which Comparison of one with another in these points is always instructive. at once. I am glad to converse of ancient languages. E. They exhibit the most dis- tinguishing traits of character. In . You are driving at an apotheosis. At no such thing we will consider it as : a human to language. and with such a discussion in should be delighted the highest degree. Proceed then to discuss the dialect. Their poverty may at least enrich us. and its contents as merely human. in which human thoughts are moulded more or less perfectly. imagery. this. has its It does not follow from that every savage race Homer and Ossian. when they are treated only in relation to men. rhythm ? A. that the languages of people but partially cultivated this 'Now you are aware. Certainly nothing. Undoubtedly. A. E. A. which extending over but a small portion of the came to us gratuitously and unsought. give you better assurance of my It perfect fairness. earth. may have character in a high degree. What do you ? consider most essential to it a poetical language No Is matter whether it belong to the Hurons or Otaheitans. not action. musick. we will speak of it only as an instrument of ancient poetry. And is the language that exhibits these in the highest perfection most peculiarly poetical. and conduct us to thoughts of our own. and the objects are contemplated by different nations. and not for the language of other nations. E.cultivation. need not remind you among what people Ossian. passion. Perhaps many have even more. for E. even of these Eastern Hurons. Nay. and are in fact in this par- ticular superior to [ many of the too refined modern languages. They are the form. ? Are you I pleased with this subject has at least nothing insidious. more.

so important in descripall. This is obser- vable in all the psalms and productions. Homer how few nations we they had an to institute or an Ossian. the structure of their on. after all very imperfectly 1-X'dunt. a But what poetry! and it ! what language! How how poor ! in proper terms and definitely ex- pressed relations ses of the verbs to by '. Orient! jucundis. prudentioribus stomachaturis. now prepared an inquiry of it. their dances and thcii- skies. stands as a lifeless and senseless its hieroglyph. without a metrical arrangement of words and satisfies syllables. imperfect is Their poetry in our hands. what scenes they looked upon. the far sought images. and for their peculiar wants. how they lived.onotonous. regard to the He- brews we can do A. must see. All this too we must learn to think of not as strangers or enemies. How One unfixed and uncertain are the ten- never knows whether the time referred them be to day or yesterday. whether in their own kind. natural the derivations from ! how forced and unHence the frightful forms monstrous of the catachresis. It it of this language. that breathe the spirit Finally. Aures perj>ctuis taulologiis says one of those best acquainted with them. in modes of thinking and feelins. And he says the truth. that. dorniitaturis reliquis. their mu- sick. had no vowels. what were the objects cf their country.28 order to judge of a nation. but as their brothers and compatriots. lelism is The paral- m. or a thousand years to come. the character of their atmosphere. the ear. their we must live in their time. and then ask. You know VV^ith is in in regard to have instituted or are even this kind. tion. it Adjectives. scarcely has at and must supply their place by uncertain and far-fetched is beggarly combinations. How them the signification of their radical words. how they were educated. must adopt their affection own and passion. very often without any key or certain index of . an everlasting tantolojjy.rans. Europaj invisis. a thousand years ago. the combinations of ideas the most heterogeneous. for these are a more modern invention.

the ar-- and that too with the and fine rangement. were living beings. The noun always is exhibits objects only as lifeless things. In other words every thing lives and The nouns still are derived from verbs. that might be expected from one skilled in many languages. So the language. while their radical source itself state of living energy. rolls on without end. what when verbs and nouns are still Think related. the very essence of all po- etry consists. action. that this abundance must always maintain a certain proportion to the other parts of 3* . E. 1'he verb. They are Observe as it tracted and moulded. A. and in a certain sense are verbs. and one may be formed into the other. I thank you for the beautiful sketch you have traced out for our conversation. or upon the sculptured rocks of Arabia. rich materials. a poetical its language. of which we it has in poetry. the noun. Recollect what Lessing has is Homer. Let us proceed first to consider the structure of the language. Now with the Hebrew the verb is almost the whole of the language. where motion. English^ the German. that abounds in verbs. for it itself as it them were and animated with a living said of spirit. motion. the verb gives and this awakens that life. which present is a vivid expression and picture of their objects. in him all bustle. It seems to me however. acts. feeling. are speaking. ? What do of Homer and Ossian As well look for tliem Mexico. the more poetical is. you in at all events without any certain expression of proits nunciation and knowledge of find here ancient rhythm. You have brought forward reflection. that in this the the influence. is an abyss of verbs. into verbs. The language. action. or verb A. a sea of billows. The more too it has the power of forming it nouns action. exwas in a an effect nearly of the in modern languages. E. Did you not say.29 meaning. that action ? and vivid image- ry was the essence of poetry and what part of speech paints ? or sets forth action itself to view.

and for its masterpiece the syllogism it is — necessary. is would have few readers. which we have not. and yet how few of them have we remaining. E. it is but in sensuous representations rich. and The senses and the not abstract reasoners and philosophers were my Thus A. this language has not. The lion. More this than 250 botanical terms occur in the small volume. In po- etry the copula the main thing. the serpent and the camel have even in the Arabick. and in a particular point of view. I am formed for poetry. which it uses only we must not judge of it according to our own necessities. is and move." But how if they use nouns for adjectives likewise ? Then they have adjectives. and that too in . There must be the subject. the other parts are neces- sary or useful only as accessories. There are many names of things. but poetry is quite another thing. For logick that will do. nay my whole essence poetry. E. the things themselves . For every language has that. for if all be action. because each of them originally represented the object under a peculiar form. the sword. proclaims passions. and copula so says logick. that left to us. that accompany when presented to the senses. which . still it is. for an abstract reasoner the best. act. the most cultivated of the Oriental languages this multiplicity of names.30 speech . and as it were paintall multifarious relations with it. the circumstances. ny others. because the people neither had. that this object denote one and the same object for the very reais always mentioned. that in regard to to Hebrew language may not be this active form of it so much the Every thing in it more favourable " I live. is of the writings of the Hebrews. the poet. there is nothing. and it has numerous synonyms ed in its to son. predicate. creators. and these streams afterwards flowed together. and a poem in syllogisms. In He- brew too superabundance of sensuous terms is very observable. that acts. Even should I admit. nor knew so on the other hand In abstract terms it is it has mabarren.

from what resources could they form a language E. or that of Arabian speculation. fared with the Hebrews probably. their ? Whence the genius of the people called. but for this beggarly race of herdsmen. that the language. since they neither traded. and where it. ted all that now belongs to the Arabick. has numer- an amount that we cannot and a mul- titude of terms for the products of nature. for Phoenician. even in In my opinion we have enough notwithstanding. nor speculated. the Babylonians. wants required It were unjust to expect of them the language of trade belonging to the Phoenicians. It was used in the neighbourhood of the Phoenicians. it How rich then would the language have been. it might have appropria- world. and composed mostly of history and the poetry of the temple. with which they were enough acquainted at an early period. or even in the It writings. How copious has the Arabick become. had been handed down to us in the poetry of common life with all its diversity of scenes. the flood of ages has passed over them. I can very well believe. and borrowed from all Had it continued a living language. in short of the most cultivated nations of antiquity. which can justly . and yet all this wealth may be said to belong to the language. with most nations of antiquity. that were as actually produced. the Egyptians. for these few books the same thing repeatedly occurs. Noah could A. als to The Hebrew easily designate. of which we are speaking. But we are wandering from our subject. might have become rich and refined. Chaldee and Hebrew are radically and essentially but one language. as well as for the forms of fashionable ornament and luxury. in the hands of another people. and only a small remnant. and as it were of the then cultivated enough to supply its wants. and the Phoenician too may have been rich enough in the language of trade and numbers. the Ishmaelitcs.31 writings of a very uniform character in regard to their subjects. Arabick. such as preserve in the ark has escaped.

the simple its na- language of the country and of herdsmen. not like this. fj. have with the emotions of childhood. and the . The nouns still too. Of nothing valuable however. active agents. Within this limit you will not refuse to give it its due. In regard to simplicity I admit its claims with my heart. I grant you. and dispersed over the world. and are spirit. the their nation was sunk in poverty. to my dear Sir. finery which it has borrowed from neighbours. and recurs with too much monotony their poets nothing has compass are forever sketching. that mode of expression to the gen* were spoken around them. particularly in scenes of nature. this characteristick seems me too limited in extent to have much redeeming effect . felt This trait. its The A. as few of our poets do. but cannot give the finer touches of the pencil. as a poor. instinct with Of their verbs we have already spoken. are fication. A. all entire. Yes. I would all I very gladly have dispensed with.. E. the The Rabbins have in fact made contributions to it. but yet a fair and uncorrupted child of tive hills. when it it was the living language of Canaan. Greek and other foreign terms. Their radical They forms combine the representation of a sensuous image with the feeling of the heart. Still. overlife Their productions are not loaded with delicate and wrought refinement. action and emotion. but vigorous. and thus to be produced a sorry medley. nor in accordance with genius of its original structure. before period of was corrupt- ed by the introduction of Chaldee. retaining the properties of the verb. and of that too only during the greatest beauty and purity. and exhibit a continual personi- Their pronouns stand out with the prominence. they sketch. 32 boast of being one of the most copious and refined languages in the world. that they always possess in the language of passion. thought of in a discussion We its are speaking of the Hebrew. When they wrote. Most of them conformed ius of the languages.

A. but same time under a clear and luminous heaven. we conduct Begin. tate. my dear Sir. I From all these peculiarities poetical. to you. the disif individual examples. and and whizzing. to an ear accustomed only cents of Nortliern languages. chanism of the outward organs. but not therefore I more clumsy. but to you. of form- ing words in the East. Eorm and feeling. and so remarkable.33 want of adjectives words. It will cussion by be most means of to our purpose. tranquility ! and passion. who are acquainted with the principles of formation in the Greek language. and seizing as were upon the very objects themselves. I so much an Not so sensible and obvious. assume the form of distinct individual agents. A. and almost always with some mark of emotion or passion.v verbs. but roughly. it will not be difficult to go a few steps further. E. which wise poets may employ sparingly . E. and as were only by the merustling. The lan- v. languages imitate the sounds of it natural objects. and observe wilh a congenial feeling. with the radical forms. The roots of tiie I Hebrew kno-. in the most preg- nant terms of the language are combined the sensuous form and the sensation or sentiment guage was moulded and uttered the lungs. with the verbs. combine simple of affair form and feeling. witli organs yet tliat it i)roduces. repeat it again. to the ac- admit very willingly. the method more forcible indeed. with powers it of vision acute. that tlie is so supplied by the conjunction of other qualities merely of a subject. the language seems to me. you please. accents strong and yet light and flowing these are rare combinations. Let us then analyze them and explain the matter more All Northern carefully. more if other language on eartli. and crashing sounds. and no language is in ^^hich the and unstudied combination of the two the senses. they Like the objects they imi- abound with creaking.ith a fuller expiration from at the pliable and vigorous. I remnrked. than any confess.

And do you venture to compare them ? with the silvery tones of the Greek I Every language suffers by being thus compared with another. and in opening our mouths but little. were. the nature. and moulded as the vicinity of the heart. been modified by feeling. is like is wine without vent My bosom bursting. and that still more the Greeks. meant to say. and from the heart. our manners itself. : 34 with effect. and the prevailing custom require and the language has been gradually moulded into the same form. spirit it. In this union of feeling from in the roots within. and form from without. but ore rotundo. T of their verbs. they are sonorous. discover a delicacy in articulating and uttering our words only from between the tongue and the lips. Nothing is more exclusively national and individual than the modes of gratifying the ear. when he exclaims. are the best models. in and by which the languages were originally formed. but forms on which feeling has placed its gentler impress. speech. The Italians The languao-e of the former abounds of tlje latter in full and sonorous vowel'sounds. and in the organs. and the characteristick habitudes of the organs of make no comparison. climate.. The words have passed through it a refining process. A. The further South. for example. and with dipthongs. think otherwise. The it. in Thus they do not present uncouth forms of mere sound and noise. more refined will be the imitation of Homer's most sounding lines do not creak and hiss. The cause of this obviously to be found in the climate. is but which the injudicious will abuse. as if we lived in an atmosphere of smoke and fog. the Oriental languages. Is it possible ? you are speaking of those barbarous and uncouth gutturals E. I Elihu describes of words. am ! full My Lo inmost it labours . both of which are uttered not with the lips compressed together. The accents of the East are uttered forth more ab imo pectore. We. like new bottles .

what fulness of emotion. was prompted. So is the object of in the The root of the primitive word offspring form a grove be placed it. it It is it is vent to feeling. Your metaphor . when this jungle will is become a grove of palms. sound sense. while this. like the Greek. where no ever found rest ? What human are they foot has E. When tion. and manv of the most learned philologists of Holland have rendered the way A. and for whom . it. its the very breath of the soul. to use own. and appears to me. I will speak. deeper gutturals re- main unuttered and unutterable the soul in those old times. of words that breathe. what it. but breathes Such is it to us. and with lives. and the judicious comparison of different dialects. an Oriental one. it does not claim the beauty of sound. must have inspired an expression of its It was. sis. Yet Once more you have all tins may be so was present nearly accomplished its apotheo- in relation to the radical sounds. is the spirit of the It Hebrew language. But the time is coming. centre and its around brought By influence of taste. or the utterance of feeling that ject itself to the senses. The The A. and make myself room lips I will open my and answer. breath of the Almighty that gave it life. spirit of God that spake in it.. when store was unshackled. who are but partially acquainted its pronunciation. In bad lexicons this is indeed the case. E. lexicons will be to distinguish. while the obBut how is it with ? the derivations from these radical terms but an overgrown jungle of thorns. these lips are opened. will still more dilHcult by their labours. and to trace the gradual process of . the utterance is full of animagiving and bodies forth the forms of things. diligence. what is essential from what is accidental in the signification of words.

and the application of metaphors we come more fully to I understand the logick of ancient figurative language. and you place yourself in the circumstances of the ancient herdsmen. poetry becom. vative will give back something of the original sound of It is the words. for even. than too superficially. It will be lono. have shown enough of them. when they do too much. Storr. even as the lexinow are. A very necessary and useful race. Strike at the first radical form that occurs. toil disappearance and death.e present to us with such The language abounds in roots of this character. and if possible would lay bare all the tree. that the language addresses its itself so much to our senses. cons You may find examples every where. Avho has individually. For us. Scheid.36 transition. while in the derivation of words. roots and fibres of every to see only the flowers even where one would wish and Iruits. Have you any further objections against the Hebrew verbs ? . Simon. They never know when to quit. I A. the most distant derifrom this cause. they do it with a good intention. Pray in the mean time illustrate your ideas of derivation by an example. in which this shall be well accomplished. and of the original feeling. A of expressions signifying fruitless if loss. vain purposes. These are the slaves suppose upon your plantation of palms. and nad trouble succeed by their slight transitions . and our commentators. is as the primitive " he gone.yet. in wandering unsettled mode of still life. and the first lexicon. Castell. who rather go too deep. Coccei- and tlieir rich contributors Schultens. A. before we shall repose ourselves in your palm-grove of Oriental lexicography. E. We must treat them with mildness. anticipate with joy the time. and any other. E. and the creations of stirring effect. Schroeder. the present I use the best we have. or in associations contributed to the same object." and observe the easy gradation series of its derivatives.

more Is and vividly present ? to the senses. history itself is properly poetry. which you remark. have exhibited them the most in the style of history. what beauty results from the ? change of tenses How which one hemistick declares the future ? in the past tense. of the tenses. A good many more. ear is by the other the beginninir. is Among Hebrews. number. which are related the present tense. poets or the prophets. while the first has given to the discourse the certainty of the past. are after all essentially aorists. the languages. and thus the provided a with an agreeable variety. which has no distinctions of time. and the and thus it has in fact but one tense. is present time. E. Does poetry employ more. rendering what clearly is described. not this in a in the style high degree poetical of the Have you never observed that. which incline to nice distinctions of time. the other expresses in As if the last rendered the presence of the object continuous and eternal. With us too these have a hobbling movement from the small and frequently unaccented syllables at the beginning or end . to express still by a single sound. undefined tenses. the present. In fact. what we can express often only by five or more words. For the defect. or future. action and ly more. especially in producing conviction. like children aim to say the whole at once. It exhibits and events as present. with 4 . related or announced. For the two tenses of the Hebrew future. that in the transmission of narratives. How vast- must this contribute to the ! sudden and simultaneous ex- hibition of an entire picture They express by a single word. or passing. tense. and the representation present object of sense. where every thing is already finished and unis changeable. What kind of an action is it. that is. whether they be past. may be an essential one. made more The Hebrews and besides. By one at tense the word increased at the end.37 A. and here too we may and discover an advantage derived from the indefiniteness or fluctuation. actions To this all history. the person. that fluctuate between the past.

38 them the whole is joined by way of prefix. in an alternation of parts. have made great progress in this way in a short time. where yomig persons. words and ideas correspond both which in kind of symmetry. in his this. who are to learn it. We may neither of us enjoyed this advantage. all that is expressed by the words " as he has given me. I have translated . too. We gradually acquire however by employing the eye and the ear in conjunction. especially those whose senses were acute. and the correspondence of many particles and predominant sounds to the things signified. Tn. You will in this way remark the harmonious arrangement of vowels and consonants. many ideas."* in a single well if I sounding word. in a similar manner with the wri- of the Chinese. Rather they may be said to be one with him. especially in marking the metrical divisions. of words. in the number the illustration. not more poetical and beautiful. which are to be decvphered. and have often lamented. which would aid them more than many dull and unmeaning rules. are not early accustomed to this habit of decyphering or analyzing with the eye. than rate fragments ? express the same idea in so many sepa- A. * As the German and English correspond in this case. as tinoit were. These are of great and de- The two hemisticks have a noting their mutual relation. and give a free indeed. which convey at once so material for rhythm and imagery. use too. are the finest 1 When is it can utter. coming train with measured steps and harmonious voice. ? Is think you. for example. which are at the same time paralbut very simple and sonorous lel. that children or youth. it E. of no importance to a poetical language Sono- rous verbs. I have read of examples. For the eye T have sometimes considered this language as a collection of elementary paintings. like a king with his ministers This stands the centre and menials close around him. rhythm. or as a sonoroasf in termination to the leading idea. which express the idea.

But must necessarily be at the expense of the understanding. the celebrated paralI shall lelisms. in the and sounds ? The syllables were not indeed yet accurately scanned and measured. E. their antistrophe Suppose we compare the poetry of the He- brews to the movements of the dance. We are not to be frightened with names. that he had but half or imperfectly expressed time. in The hexameis in which their ancient poems were sung. it Whoever has any thing to say. to I suppose. depends entirely on proportion and harmony. of the Greeks. or consider it as a shorter and simpler form of the choral ode. will and your dance of savages so. E. And has not the Hebrew parallelism the most simple proportion and symmetry in the structure of its figures members of its verse. Let us dwell a little longer upon its gratefulness to the ear. and the metrical harmony both of motion and I of sound. not Add Be it the systrum. it he shows. depend on symmetry easily and that too a symmetry apprehended. though ever changing par- . all this A. You are describing. or even number- ed at all. be complete. That will not deny. E. 4er verse. let him say at once. or car- ry his discourse regularly forward. A. upon simplicity and equality in the pro its portion of parts I ? A. constructed with more art and refinement. When first one is under the necessity of saying every thing twice. Answer me candidly. while the thing all itself is good. in regard which hardly agree with you. Does rhythm. but not repeat forever. that delights ? the senses in forms and sounds. but the dullest ear can perceive a symmetry in them. The metrical system.39 A. than that of any other language. might say all. re- gard to its sounds a continued. the E. and the symbals. the kettle-drums. Have you ? ever witnessed a dance ? Nor heard any strophe and thing of the choral odes of the Greeks.

Even to an seems to me to have its beauties. the it more pleasing artificial becomes. In didactic poetry one precept confirms the other. remark. circlets. In the song of Jubilee this tation it is obvious. Very great undoubtedly admirer of the parallel- E. A. as if the father were giving instruction it. cordiality and confidence. finely woven garlands of words and sounds. Love demands endearing ings and thoughts. the interchange of feel- The connexion between these different . their shouts of joy. and its response is the echo. as the labyrinth of Daedalus or of Theseus. of our sorrow. that it results from the very nature of the occasion them. but simply hang one over against other. ism. intercourse. In alternate songs of love the subject itself determines the form. " the 'daughter of the voice" to his son. To give it greater precision the pentameter in the elegy. I need only to adduce as examples the Sapphic All these metrical forms are or Choriambic verse. We could not expect from a chorus of herdsmen a dance as intricate. elevate and strengthen each other in their convictions or their rejoicings. The two divisions of their chorus confirm. while the other division of the chorus takes part or.40 allelism. as the our afflictions. and the movements of the dance we find to them answering one another in regular alternations and this simplicity the most simple proportions. Hebrews would say. that the more a less artificial parallelism is heard in a strophe in conjunc- tion with the musical attenuations of sound. and ac- the mother repeated The discourse by this means quires the semblance of truth. The drawing in of the breath confirms. In their language. and comforts the soul. as were. was adopted and especially ture of its This again in the struc- two hemisticks exhibits the parallelism. as nearly to justify the The finest and most natural species of the ode depend so much on the parallelism. and in those of lamenfeelings. tlie In the East the two strings of pearl are not twisted into a garland.

Without question the Alexandrine. When Even Descending upon the mountains of Zion. friendly to the parallelism to its ? And are these not So soon as the heart gives way emotions. life eternal. appears language of passion. or upon the rocks. the Lord commanded a blessing. which most peculiarly the off"- spring of emotion. and would is you not have that in poetry. this breathing of emotion. or impresses upon the heart. The heart is never exhausted. it precept. It is like soothing oil upon the head. A fine view of parallelism undoubtedly. and explains it. wave follows upon wave. E. it has forever something new to say. might apply to it the beautiful and delicate Hebrew ode? Behold how lovely and pleasant For brethren to dwell together. itself broken So soon as the first wave has passed away. E. Even upon the beard of Aaron. and that is parallel- ism. ' And descends the to the It is like dew of hem of his Hermon garment. A.41 •expressions of feeling that I is so unaffected and sisterly in short. But granting that the ear may become accustomed ? what becomes of the understanding It is constantly fettered and can make no advances. What German do you consider as best adapted A. species of verse in to didactic poetry ? Thus the parallelism returns again. That runs down upon the beard. the second swells again and This pulsation of nature. But suppose It it aims to be and must be at the same ? time the language of the understanding changes the figure and exhibits the thought It varies the in an- other light. in all the returns as before. to it. Poetry is not addressed to the understanding alone but primarily and chiefly to the feelings. A. 4* .

Do you think so ? Rhymes were in Europe long before the Saracens. And yet monosyllabic brevity seems to me conducive to sublimity. as study and reflect upon it. and in the end the piece becomes either harsh or wearisome. is of and rhyme. and it stood A. And both for same Oriental source we are indebted rhyme. or as suited the form of their language. A. according as the ears of a people were accustomed. has however. it. dignity and sublimity of the language. the former and the doxologies have introduced the E. and the uniform movement of our church to this The Saracens have latter. and it was done He commanded. Examine care- so powerfully enforces instruction. three of the We often use ten words. this advantage over our Northern its small number of words it makes a more choice arrangement. for by For here too He spake. to express Hebrew. We must not so much imitate. In our languages the figures must be more extended and from the Orientals the periods rounded because we are accustomed to the Greek and this Roman must be numbers. All simple songs and church hymns are delight of Northern ears. correspondencies of sound either at the beginning or end of words. and admits in the utterance a greater magnificence of sound. Otherwise we should and might very well have been without either.42 E. laid aside. But in translating such a course we lose a great part of the original simplicity. The Hebrew parrallelism we must admit. : fast. that with incapable of translation. the great a continued parallelism. Even the Greeks had hymns and choral songs as simple as our own church hymns can be. fully And why it that is parallelism altogether. musick. . and you will its find it to be simply on occount of full parallelism. For us therefore it is nearly languages. the small words produce confusion.

position of individual words. and so here the parallel of the effects the to see form returns. that the Oiicntals wrote entirely without vowels ? A. its 1 have even something to add in I favour. here the ancients after are the dwellings of men. entrance is and exit. while we endeavour keep ourselves I in the right way. Many say so. as the Hebrews say. a rythmical movement. you represented the language. we wish of poetry. voice of a friend. in the command and its consequence. in regard to the understanding. " Here. But if in regard to this pathless forest think you have overdone the matter. forest. and the predominant feeling of the The two and thus hemisticks or. Do you indeed believe. and without a key to its signification. simple thing arrangement of sound complete. ? Have you any its further against parallelism A. existence. the oratorical numbers. this correspond as word and deed. as the second were itself a voice. they acquire both from the whole. and. E. For. Finally. The Laconic style Even in the is neither the style of friendship nor commands of a monarch. that you far off in the thick and gloomy recesses of a of friendship. of Greek or uses Roman ty From its general spirit it few words . conversation. E. Lot them go. Where many obscure words. It knows nothing of eloquence. and expected to find in member of the sentence some to new and precious sentiment. And say too what is absurd. command. if this did not serve for tells so our guide. the concise structure of the Hebrew language. gives to the parallelism generally something of the style of command. heart and hand. and It is like the have often been thankful for should we be left in the explanation of phrases. Who would wrile letters . as a lifeless hieroglyphick without vowels. from the uniformi- of inflection being similar." But indeed the ears of were deaf to this voice if it They followed the echo. In the beginning of our you recollect.these have mutual relations.43 E.

though few vowel marks (for those we now have are a later device of the Rabbins) and the it appears to me. Grammatical nicety however. it was in the ancient German. 126. in which we speak ? and who would use it if it w'ere found ? The letters stand as general signs. and they must be designated in some general vv^ay sooner than the various consonants. could never myself imagine. 1 * Eichhom's Einleitung ins Alte Testament. as Hebrew regularity even in the import of the young students are taught to find in every word. when too the whole object of the work depended on it. p. derived from other Orientallanguages. and every one modifies the to suit his sound own organs. . a remnant of them. Herder says. And yet boys are tormented much The it is with them. A. in such distinctions. S. Leipzig 1782. certainly when the more dificult task was accomplished. and the pronunciation was perhaps as unfixed matres lectionis are. defective words shows that is The confidence this. It is probable they had some. empty sound. &c. the mode of deriving are. Read on the subject a work. as Otfried says. upon the this. Where then are these vowels ? • E. + In a work on the origin of language.* which throws much and many other points "of Hebrew antiquity. Th. the easier would not be neglected. Who has ever found an alphabet for every sound of every dialect. I fear. 30.44 without any means of giving them utterance ? Since on the in reality vowel sounds every thing terminates. that a language so unrefined as the could have so different conjugations. in wliich taste and learning are equally united. I A. by which the Rabbina were fond of modifying They carried into the little Hebrew tent whatever it would hold. the more smcuhivated a languf^e the more conjugations. but the conjugations. A series of refined grammatical rules respecting the change of vowels. light It is first introduction respecting the language and writings of the Hebrews. was not sought for in those ancient times.j multitude of anomalous and not.

have the language to to its form of their minutest inflection so fully in ? their heads. and bring the conjugations nearer together. by this is method. that is. and both habitually associated. to learn its form. language. form. but the old Hebraic.46 E. It is well to have seized upon the technical artificial form of the language. although it is improbable. who are directing their this thoughts even to the grammar of grammar. for us Here again we must not go it is too far. E. to go through all the seven changes of a verb. as their Homer or Ossian. The language will then be no longer a schoolboy and Rabbinical jargon. A. E. a second Masclef to or Hutchinson. Why at this particular it time ? Because was itself the first dawning of the illumination . would if hold their Bible as dear. The attention of the boy must . A. his all it appears to me. should be heard under the open sky. as you in have begun. or that every Hebrew had the same entire notion of Hov/ few even of our authors. It is not necessary always. and the ear with the living sounds of the language. E. as never commit an error How much ? too. that every one must make own philosophical He may omit the vowels and other marks now and then. and makes the rules more easy. does the structure of language vary with time that It is well we have After at last found men. The poetry of the Hebrews. We will continue the discussion of the subject our walks. Perhaps may also. He may become The too. that such was its earliest it. they knew what was A. this In manner one comes at the genius of the language. in I it. a poetical language. be awakened to that of the youth rewarded by its poetry and I am confident. practised best course have the eye diligently with the paradigms. and if possible in the dawn of the morning. and more especially in our morning rambles. and necessary. if you proceed with me. that not only boys but old men. it.

are brought before our eyes. by soul expressed its which the human thoughts.46 of the world. for convinced that contained nothing it. affections that bound and guided it Though we should be remarkable. language of nature in we must In believe. for it we should gain knowledge by them. you say. in the morning. in short. the most uncorrupted it. . We meet again. We see the earliest perceptions. would you not ? of attention for these purposes A. we The first perceptions of things. the earliest Logick of the senses. thinjc it Were worthy even the poetry of cannibals. must be dear to us. the simplest forms. yet the feel it. while our race was yet in in it its infancy. the simplest analysis of ideas and the primary principles of morals. the most ancient history of the human mind and it heart.

It II. Whether this feeling was a slavish fear. as an upper ocean. clouds and In the vapours.DIALOGUE. human it. tive Early notions of the angels. reli- or brutal stupidity. as a powerful being. dark masses . till it stood displayed. the magmore elevated and serene appeared the golden firmament. lying an appointed spot. Probable origin of ideas of the terrible in the gions of antiquity. when the at two friends found themselves together prospect. Whether gave occasion to the to idolatry. the parallelism of the Simple means heavens and the earth. Its them and at rest exhibiting their in action. as a God of Probable power. while his his and consecrated the heavens as and peaceful temple. that furnished a wide and beautiful They saw before them in its veil all the objects of nature yet formless and undistinguished. that gradually purified itself from the subsiding waters. a delightful eminence. wisdom. Spirit. What the po- etry of the Orientals gained by connecting relations. for the night had wrapt them up of obscurity. an expanse of sapphire interwoven with gold. Neto cessity and use of the idea of one God understanding. going forth was as if the Almighty had cast a reviving its look upon the earth and renovated glory accompanied nificent it. mode of representing God and His word. Service of poetry in confirming and extending this end. Dawn of the morning. Images of God as the ever ac- Lord of Creation. first i-ays The of the dawn were not yet visible. and the morning appeared in Its loveliness. and also as supreme origin of the idea of them. the earth same manner Its also seemed to rise up before them. presents an image of the creationof the world* First feeling and conception of the Great Earliest views of nature. existence . Example of in clear notions of God. The higher it rose. it Of the Elohim. But soon the night its breeze sprang up.

EuTHYPHKON. as the He- brews say. nations made a distinction . but wcs re- turned again. You agree then with the author of " The Monuments. man elevates and purifies itself morning sky ber. the breaking forth of the dawn. like the The . the hind of the morning its is struggling with the shades of night. was from this that this knowledge first dawned upon the hu- man mind. head and knees bended together. and a bright- that of the sun considering an uncreated being. when. with whom all beings to air and water. nothing has been or can be objected to them. like the virgin earth wakes and rouses itself from slumbut at no moment is the delightful view attended with such sacred awe. It Observe. Is it awake into being. and at length it stood forth like a bride. so soon as the sun awoke to shine upon the earth. this the peculiarity and splendour of the view which at moment opep. and perhaps was the cradle of the first poetry and religion of the earth. as at the first existence of light." but remember his views have been con- troverted. earliest Alciphron. my friend. as it were a birth of and every being shudders with a pleasing dread. waitint: for the bless- adorned with herbage and flowers.48 became distinguished. behind which Jeho- vah himself concealed. ness that gleamed from the throne of Jehovah. It is the is vicegerent of the Deity.s before us. soul of it . E. that the moon and ? do not come forth simultaneously with the sun Perhaps . between the it light of the dawn. the whole stars objected. It is. so long as the morning dawn remains what it is. So far as our purpose is concerned. as The most ancient conscious of the presence of Jehovah. and ing of Jehovah. Have we not at this moment beheld and admired all the changing scenes in this vast work of creation in ? From in the dark moving pictures of night to the magnificent uprising of the sun. with waits for the the day if . moment of release. the ocean and upon the earth seem h^s passed before us. and.

were most part formed. by for whom. derived from the contemplation of nature. and the freshness of the dawn.49 too you the may add with equal force on the other hand. are sent interviewj inquire What if we. first It is sufficient. have remarked. same character where the sky is serene. while those of creation are to be divided into the labours of six. E. and from the connexion and pro- gress of in this its changing and varied scenes. acceptable than the thankful offering of our inquiring thoughts. that all phenomena of the morning belong to every day. open. in which pressing. and know not. But why waste our time with such discussions the first ? Not only brief history of the creation. of a picture. cold. nay the very names of those glorious phenomena. its I When. and expanded. for the that we just now saw it before and around us. were. in the immediate view of those very scenes and it was this view that prompted the most ancient poetry of nature on the subject of the creation. that the poetry of every people the influence of the climate. but all the Hebrew songs in praise of it. the soul also expands itself. A. sketch that celebrate the creation. as . and fortunately the extant. With great being all my heart and I am convinced. E. I could say much against such a theory. nothing is more . after or in conjunction with which both seem to still have been formed. that to the who pervades and surrounds us. A. but let it pass. gives rise to images and . The morning tellectual of the day will remind us of the morning of into illumination. 5 . in our pre- into the earliest ideas. the hymns. which are exhibited beautiful poetry of nature ? childlike and We can hardly spend our morning hours in a more suitable manner. and soars without restraint. was sucli poetry formed ? my understanding cannot carry back researches to the cradle of human improvement. that the poetical roots of the language. and give our souls the vigour of In general is I youth. A de- cloudy atmosphere. feelings of the it characterized by is formed.

and more obvious appear- ances and events of the external world. Not from slavish fear and senseless up. Even among how elevated does poetry and sentithe remarkable ment become through invisible Spirit ! the all-pervading feeling of this infinite. power was every where witnessed whose unseen presence was felt with a shuddering of reverential fear. and tiiey fall immedown and worship stupidity. A. and feel and adore. with the primitive notions than with the of the human mind. The heavens and . to which I wish now to direct your attention. and morning is morning. name of Him. In all climates. and. E. who ty . but with him. of which. and whom all the wild and untaught nations of the earth still seek after. from the ruins of the an- .50 Those features of poetry. extends to all creative energies. their languages. that in these is manifestations of his power. Begin. their dearest possessions with childlike forms. else could I begin. the earth spirit are every where spread above and beneath us and the of God. they ofl^er honour of the great Spirit. To them phenomena. and those images. and their religious rites. Tliese are every where the same. their names of God. then. and awe-struck all ador . kindles up the native poetry of the heart its and the understanding. appear as the index of his diate presence and agency. whom men honoured whose name gave a sanction to the solemnities of an oath whom they called by way of eminence. if you please. the most savage tribes. and the active powers of nature. . night is night. the Great Spirit. are those which spring from the earliest and most childlike intuitions and feelings of the huare occasioned by the man mind. . which gives to man his e evation. which fills them. This feeling pervades the history of ancient people. their hymns. ancient poetry animates and it binds every thine together vvliose whom denominated the strong and the migh.tion. With what in this . in the lively feeling. he nearer to them. at the view of the glories around him. and under every sky.

In languages religion employs terms of fear and dresd.61 cient world. brutal stupidity have paid them homage. and so must ex-officio believe in a Neptu- nian philosophy. that an evil demon. . his learning so full al- of uncertainty. not a new one. presented as to of an author. that our existence blessing. distinguishes them from the brutes and almost is universally the feeling has prevailed. maall lignant beings. some kind. which we ought him. and that the service. and fear is as false as it is old. and at the same time superficial thinkers. a that the Supreme Being to yield to is good. that nations worship gods of . discover continually increasing evidence. Slavish terror and as powerful but say they. for nothing is more easily misinterpreted by frigid. and his imagination so confused. to a multitude of monuments and proofs will occur your observation. not a curse . in its simple and primitive character. that this feeling of reverential homage is. and in the Hebrew they adduce as proof a catalogue of the most an- cient names of God. that they * Boulanser. His books are so bad. nor the stupidity of a all neither the servile brute. But are you not acquainted with many observances spring from terror. a slave. like most others that are brought I forward. and fearful forebodings of renewed destruction ? E. Tliey do so. The is hypothesis. but the philosophers have explained this feeling of awe in a far different manner. I think I feeling. homage of The circumstance. must not be an offering of fear and A. than unsophisticated human So far as I am acquainted with antiquity. in short as invisible and evil demons. Do not disturb his ashes — He was a superintendant of bridges and dikes. E. and have you never read the books terror. Fear and ignorance. have produced imaginary gods.* who derives all religions from the desolation of the world by the flood. A.

and volcanoes. but of power and reverence. and even among those most impressed with ideas of the ful terrific.52 much resemble the waters of the deluge. the offspring of fear. are grand and noble. or in caves and mountain cliffs. Finally. for the But these are whole earth is not a perpetual de- luge. and priestcraft. that first fixes the Power. or other terrible events. however. find The religion of nations in milder regions we is mild. plainly exceptions. on the shores of a tempestuous sea. and his us incompre- effect of his will. The ideas of the most ancient The human race seems to a fine treasure have been originally furnislied with edge. since his breath very existence but hensible power. But let us leave this tumultuous crowd of nations we are . is the attention of a feeble creature of the earth. and of one language. these are the first impressions in relation to the is incomprehensible Creator. his The ancient book of Job furnishes the clear- proof of this on every page. among rocks together very . religions. and in its almost ap- always predominates influence. belong in fact to later times. Well do I know. est tlie in the hands of God. all these pendages. that it is thus. boundless power. . their wanderings and misfortunes. or whose minds were imjjressed by some great devastation. that the religion of many ancient nations had indeed a mixture of terror especially of nations who dwelt in inhospitable regions. For what is a man. feel this. now A. in which the most ancient names of God E. But we will go upon safe ground. He cannot but and his own comparative to weakness. not of benevolence and love. against God ? Even the wise. attribute. superstition. and the powerful. Of one. True. and admit. nor a burning Vesuvius. are indicative. unbiassed and uncorrupted . to speak of one people. of knowl- but their degeneracy. the existence of a powerstill good spirit never wholly given up. have alloyed it with baser metal.

Lo O Lord. or lying down. . thou searches! and knowest me. in whose of depti s they are lost. He He I hath made Libra and stars The seven and the chambers of the South. is Such knowledge too wonderful for me. 53 Who hath withstood him. without And wonderful Lo -he passeth by me. things. to them but a form of power. He overturneth them in his wrath. it now be also my morning prayer. And 5* placed thy forming hand upon me. Thou beholdest my thoughts from afar. He shaketh the earth from its foundation. thou seest me. He taketh away. . Hebrew You allude poetry to ? my favorite psalm . Jehovah. Do you not recollect an example shall this in A. and prospered ? He removeth mountains in a moment. And its pillars tremble. and I am not aware of it. who shall restore ? ? Who what doest thou Do you nature ? not believe. Thou hast shapen me in every part. And walketh upon the summit of the waves. by which he has formed not tlie only the inanimate but animate creation. and when I arise. will be the expression of Even is the wisdom whom they worship. and it riseth not He sealeth up the stars in their dsvellings. Before ! a word is formed upon my tongue. thou knowest it all. doeth great things. a vast ocean of intellectual energies. And art acquainted with all my ways. that this lofty feeling is the feeling of and that the more clear and comprehensively a peo^ pie beholds in everything the power of God. and shall say. the polar star. Whether I am going. number. He commandeth the sun. that are unsearchable.. Thou knowest when I sit down. and I see him not Before me. the more it ? stirring and forcible of the God. He spreadeth out the heavens alone.

the darkness shall cover me. 64 It is high. seems to me me more stirring to the feelings. to be frank. For thou hast formed my inward parts. thy book was life I already described. The days of my already numbered. I cannot t^ttain to I it. thee. boldly with the expression of the I original but. from ? any other people equally ancient his intimate the purest con- ceptions of God. the efficacy of his purpose in our formation as in . V/hen I was shapen in secret. bones were not hid from thee.. And And dwell in the uttermost sea. The night shall be for day to me. I will praise thee for the wonders of my form All thy works are. perhaps because my ear was to accustomed to it an early period. Whither shall Whither shuU If I go from thy spirit ? ? ! \ I flee from thy presence If I ascend into heaven. even when at less minutely correct. knoweth it well. thine eyes beheld me. weighty are thy thoughts ! . .ed. and his fore-knowledge. O God overwhelming the sum of them Do I number them ? they are more than the sand: I awake as from a dream. thou art there . If I soar on the wings of the dawn. Darkness and light are alike to thee.wonderful . When And in yet unform. of the finest natural theology. You have contended . Thou didst environ me in my mother's womb. E. If I say. as the day . his omni- presence. I How How to me. acquaintance with the human soul. thou art there make my bed in the abyss. and am still with thee. of his omniscience. confess the heartfelt simplicity of Luther. there shall thy hand lead me. full Can you name Here are such a hymn as this. Even the darkness shall not hide from The nigiit is clear to thee. Even thy right hand guide me. Curiously wrought in the depths of the soul My My earth.

A. the Adonim. that know no purer Theism than prevails in these songs of praise. and that too set forth with energy and fervour. flowers. Even the thouorhts. at whose wisdom the serpent taught in the the first man The to aspire and who probably from the fruit is opinion of Eve derived their wisdom East. so appropriately expressed. and Schadim of the Hebrews. elements. all trees. and they peojjled the uni- Such are the Elohim. to what period these fine passages be- long. To them every thing appeared instinct with verse with living beings. the most ancient . and the prophets . ly peopled wilh invisible beings. you well know. in this ancient picture of the creation for he. mountains. still Without doubt Moses found the term . the Labi of the Thibetians. and the rich imaginations of theOri- cntials could hardly remain free from life. . Elohim remained still polytheistick. the st^rs. might lead to would certainly not have troduced A. (a name that seems to resemble Elohim. It was the Eloliim. wage war with and preside over plants. Polytheism of kind is suited to uncultivated nations. one race of refined which subsist on the fragrant the giant spirits of evil. of Job. and even in the simple word holy. of which many modern philosophers make so much. that night and day are alike to him. Such is my belief. as of the tree of knowledge. exhalations of trees. it.65 the creation and crovernment of all things. the Izeds of the Parsi. the great it. enemy of polytheism. and has especialspirits. the Elohim E. spirits and gods of the uncivilized world. even the this &c. and that in the most ancient hymn to the creation.) the Demons of the Orphic hymns in a word. that God in his being has no analogy with any created object. that I is. are in many passages. wholly incomparable. and he joined with it perhaps the word created in the singular to guard against the tendency But notwithstanding the primitive idea of to polytheism. But recollect prevail. in- and of all that it.

how the Genii secretly listened King in the councils of the Slc. telling us behind the curtain of the Great angels. it not innocent or could you have any thing to object to . of which one formed and a pronature for affection- another that fair work of creation. and restorer the world effects. with perhaps a fond partiality for found feeling of enjoyment. and becomes attached to particular objects of beauty should assign to these objects each preserver. was it. of whom we shall speak by and by. according to the more common their representation. or an animal. like man. If the origin of these representations of the I Elohim was ? entirely as have now described it. came into vogue. as a tree. and the capacities of its These creative beings maintained an sympathy with every part of the creatures of their power. trans- and. and appropriate creative agents. and revive along with in Elohim were then perhaps the Genii of the creatales. and were princes of heaven. formed sometimes plants into themselves to that of plants. those stood around the throne of God. who looks with wonder upon the beauty of the world. The later mythologies of the East have many fables respecting the relations and contests of these two orders of beings. and wisdom. and so subaltern spirits. ate its wants. Do you find any thing debasing weak creature of the earth. and meets who beholds every where power with no visible author of it in the idea. those tion. and punished.66 E. To the bodily eye the theatre of filled destitute of causes. and sometimes of each living proit. a self-regenerating and exhaustless creative energy. it. own form. and yet intensely with How natural then for one to imagine to himself distinct this. Be it so if you please. The genius duct was believed to perish short. that a . is ? its own invisible creator. a plant. which the later mythology in- As the angels properly so called. these but the attendants and protectors of the lower orders of the creation. but probably connected in this more ancient fdith with none of those fabulous vented for them. how they were watched. these Elohim fell and Genii into neglect .

cannot be mistaken in the tion. It world full of animation. the From one were of the psalms of David spirits but little superior to we learn. nothing it places To the man in a own imagination. It was the most ancient obstacle to the progress of idolatry. and it poured the first bright order into the chaos of the creation. from the vices and abominations of divinely authorized disorder. in the laws of nature . that man in rank and first Elohim excellence. especially the we are treating. order and beauty. from idolatry. where every flower.) the mind of man was directed and poetry to the combined glories. a simplicity and wisdom these Orientals. is even a benefit. From the idea of one creator the world came to be considered as a to its united whole . while at the same time the doctrine of the unity of Creator. has given an to the poetry of elevation and truth. as the world. What are they 1 all this ? . may not be so acceptable to life. and light in darkness. E. and benevolence tiplicity. He turned away in consequence from superstition. its own spirit. love. The contributions of philosophy same end have also produced the most beneficial poetry. at all. and so by degrees wisdom. as it seems me. God the picture of the creato This one doctrine too. [xoa/iog. So far as feeling and poetry are concerned. and What pleases and improves however. and learned wisdom. has feels its principles of the imagination here. wiiich rendered its subsequent influence. and became accustomed to remark in every thing unity of purpose. of which effects.57 A. of which knowledge. indeed. Why not 1 Even in the most ancient times with this idea had among these nations no connexion polytheism. every tree. a blessing to possible to say what treasures of im- knowledge and morality ty were destined to accrue to our race from the idea of the uniof God. we have any beam of unity and Can you tell by what means it has accomplished A. the understanding. every star rejoices with us. It is the guide of civilization. to find unity in mul- order in disorder.

be separated and classed in order the some way more unstudied. the earth also parallelism of the when the air and the water becomes inhabited. where poetry and the language. For their this end the radical forms of the language employ all descriptive powers and bold imagery. Examples in abundance. creation must in . the more obvious. Where In this whole body of poetry. A. my footstool. might add to it. An image so grand that I My limit is infinity. . A. arranged after and the division of the so called erence to it.58 E. the more this be perpetuated. and '^ has been so. hymns of praise that are grounded on this picture of creation all works of nature are invoked to praise the most solemn addresses of Moses and the their Creator prophets in short. . relation And yet the division seems to its me to have no useful between parts. it appears most extensively throughout the the . lifted up. What is the earth in comparison ? with the heavens. The works of clear. E. earth my throne. of it? Do you recollect no examples A. or what relation have the heavens to the earth E. which I might there- fore almost denominate the poetry of heaven earliest picture of the creation is and earth. this The model. The same all heavens and the eaith pervades the . the earth is brought forth also and adorned are peopled. Heaven is The E. likely to and comprehensive the division. six days' is work has also a ref- When the heaven . the psalms. the parallelism of the heavens and the earth. tlieir elevation with our abasement. It is one of the very objects of this poetry to contrast the boundlessness of the heavens with the nothingness of the earth. A very simple matter.

and disposed of from above. what dost thou know Its measure is longer than the earth. the earth a theatre for phantoms. ruled. lime. and corrupted. and remains eternal as the heavens. and are dead changed but like a garment. by All power descends from heaven all is that is means of invisible but powerful ties. the all is mutable. what wilt thou do? Deeper than the abyss. in the All that is fair. soul connected the two. E. A. that has no correspondencies To me it seems to have gained much. and learned to its The more human contemplate them together. and the sky ty . led to liut what. ancient nations later times the notion of the boundlessness of the Of that which we call the universe. earth-born dust. and evanescent. By and this it was compare is. Wilt thou find out the wisdom of Eloah ? Wilt thou fathom the perfection of Shaddai? It is high as heaven. The name irorld Aeon in — — gave to them the idea of every thing despicable.59 Or. He im- who created and renews them. grand and sub? imagination of the Orientals. heavenly is the low. who was be- fore the mountains. Above. and a burial place it is the . to contrast immensity with nothingness. Here yon perceive world of sense. the azure arch stars emit their ever- there are expanded the clear and cloudless lifts its heavens. it is. with Job might ask. the more views became enlarg- . has poetry gained by this ? parallelism. these knew nothing. in unihsturbed sereni- beneath. 1 must ask still. for and senseless apparitions. the finite and the infinite. worthless. weak. the God of the heavens and the earth. ? And broader than the sea. lasting radiance . placed : in the dust of the earth. beneath. The heavens grow is old. before the earth is whom the heavens in flee away and scattered and dispersed mensity like the dust. guided. and insignificant.

are the efficient cause. the low. from those his living spirit. that is the A. in short. and mutilate. that mere earthborn poetry. and truth requires definite limits. All sublimity . must be necessarily is poor and grovelling All elevating and sublime poetry by an influence from above.60 ed. and it I am desirous to follow myself through the poetry of Job. so the nal. the weak. high. sphere of our obof the eter- servation and knowledge floats in the immensity where that all is glory. so much that is great and beautiful dependent on as to re- ward the frequent appeal. energy. and to number the earthly by means of the heaIt venly. ? however refined. should "^requires the it give one part only of these opposite views. measure. and spotless perfection. reached a point above the world. and the powerful it would be false and delusive. You have very well defended your parallelism. is as you it. it is mother earth that gives to all forms their characteristick outline. of the . compass. As the atom on which we walk little is encompassed by the heavens. For that I'eason too. or withhold the other. From the former their poetry gains sublimity. to and marked with wisdom. the heavens as all beauty earth. It learned to define. To me poetry seems great which holds us to the steadfast contemplation of what we are. the Psalms. E. A. Yet. let me say. . clearness. say. boundless and immense. The heavens in . the earth its eflfects. direct and govern the world Do you not belie v 3. the instrument and theatre of al theatre. from which to itself. only not the perpetuthe heavens and Even the formation of man the earth co-operate from this he receives his body. just as our souls receive the impress of sublimity when we direct our eyes to heaven. and what we are not. and energy. and know whether. correct. the Orientals associate the hea- vens and the earth together. and the Prophets. and consequently their beauty.

the words of my mouth. — — ye heavens. And here again the first and most sublime for the parallelism of the two became the model : manner of representation in after times God said let light And light was. At rest. and torrents were poured forth. as an eastern king. that is generally indeed : interpreted in a too spiritual sense. exhibits a similar picture He sendeth forth his word upon the earth. the poetry of the in Hebrews. and the greater the beauty which it confers: He said to the snow. This sublime language of God becomes in various ways. . He spake. scattereth hoar-frost. when. He connects them at some times in a state of rest. the form which the style for the most concise and forcible images. is in what manner the one God of instrumental in poetry also in associating and binding them together. He commanded. however. at others in action. The more strange and obscure the object. be upon the earth.— 61 Give ear. in always is. like wool. Show me now. His word runneth He He He giveth snow. and it stood fast. O earth. the more wonderful. casteth forth his ice like morsels. And hear. and which obeyed his will. To the rain also. swiftly. like ashes. be. One of the psalms. and it was done. and I will speak. which God commanded. and commands the creation of the world by a word. heaven and earth E. he sits enthroned in the heavens.

His ministers. Thus God of the Elohim. and tediously uniform. and sung around the throne of God. the waters flow freely. as the messengers of God. E. but rather. that all the objects of nature at his command became angels and living beings. did battle array and then they appear also In in the form of his messengers and servants. although this was in- deed an idea of somewhat later times. as an . returns. for if the command and the etiect are always to be repeated. is still in and of the host of heaven. the flaming The book of Job is full of these personifications. the daughters of God. and ceaseless motion excite at once the idea of sustained delight. his servants. ful exultation . sunk in comparative debasement. is of the Genii and the rulers of the lower a higher sense the king of angels. Job we shall see admirable exearth-born the amples of all this. Here often the is word of God is personified. as it by the Hebrews. and the dance. that creation.62 Who can stand He sendeth his His wind before his frost ? word again. as a messenger. In that they do wisely . Jehovah Sabaoth . they are melted. He maketh the winds. The most ancient idea was not. A. finest The stars especially afford us one of the earliest and concep- tions of angels. their untroubled radiance. in splen. Why so ? Because in earlier times God was not thought of. that they stood as inactive beings. his messengers. E. fire. A. for soon become monstrous. and the harmoni* ous movements of musick. and contrasted with them. At first they were who encompassed his throne with joysoon they became his host of warriors. Their sublimity and beauty. It is indeed all its employment of angels is nothing more. their sublime poetry must not wanting in personifications.

published here a As an appendix to the hymn to the Deity from the Persian. so he daily creates and orders every thing anew. Is theirs a good groundwork however ? If God is thus the Divine Being. He ties up the clouds. A. where he calls fortli the his tent. which form the groundwork of their religion.raises of would be surpassed with as much difficulty. clothes the flowers and cherishes the all plants. Of this we shall have an opportunity to speak hereafter. is better felt than described. generates the dew. What ry alone all the poetry of the Orientals is full of {. traces out channels in heaven. and warns us.ere encamped to relieve our labours. and no creature be- what wakeful and ever increasing confidence in God this must give to Hebrew poetry. At present the sun past. as the evis er active father of his family. and opens the treasures of lightnings his his household. is in the heavens. as He when he first created them. in which. taken by Herder from an En- "Specimens of the Institutes of Timour. as the childlike confidence in him and submission to his will. whose busy agency was every where felt. and provides for full beneath the sky. enthroned apart in the heavens. daily stretches out the heavens. Job and the Psalms are neath his care. of what use is human effort and skill ? E. glish work. . As in the picture of the creation noth- ing was too small or insignificant to be beneath his creating power. But not the Hebrew poetheartfelt interest. by Hunter and . men become unconcerned and inactive ? If the hosts of God are every wh. of images.63 unconcerned and inactive king. and gives the commands . that concerned will not in (lie control of the smallest objects of nature. and goes for this end on the billows of the ocean to the utmost j)itches it bounds of the horizon. Daily he dawn. but as a father and rnaster of a family. no work. divides out the rain. like leathern bags. : that our chosen hour is Go we then to our labours the morning will return. as he called at first. to exemplify the remarks on the general characIt is ter of this class of Oriental poetry. when we meet German there is again.

this fearful obscurity. but I We must not dwell as er. Origin of the sensuous idea of Spirits. and of the dawn. as daughters of God. Of men.= taken. and as the tent of the father of creation. On at the the following day Alciphron did not fail to be punctual to day. morning hour of poetry. Personifications. Representation of the stars. entials Do you mean ? the state of the dead among the Ori- . Poetical images of effect. as a flock of sheep under the Supreme Shepherd. Is not all at the same time to richer.64 White. as an ar- Why my. this poetry brutes are Of God as their universal parent. we did yesterday. will direct when you they met togethto a on individual and more general which picture. as an arch of waters. How far it corresponds to the natural history in of our earth. have the Hebrews no hymns to the sun and stars ? Beautiful and correct use of them in Hebrew poetry. The state of unborn souls. said Euthyphron. DIALOGUE Thoughts suggested by night and chaos ? III. Poetical geogony of the Orientals. as a treasure house of ting anima- and refreshing . than the tablet of Cebes. in one suggested you by beings are at this moment involved. Its effect and comprehensiveness of feelhig to poetry. in Voice of a nightly apparition gladdening tals. David's hymn to the creation. as if impatiently waiting for the light. Particular passages respecting them. as angels. Of the lively sympathy of Oriental poetry with the brute creation. A. spirit. all that is heaven. Job's description of ancient night. twilight. as sapphire. giving a delicacy of Animation of plants. Job." I As it is not very necessary to the general object of the work. upon the waters. First appearance of light. Its Glowing pictures of it in the poetry of the OrienPersonifications of light. Had the Orientals any idea of a The Spirit Their notions of the most ancient condition of the earth. and know not where work from which wa. ideas. Why in sometimes put before man. it have not thought to find the worth the wliile it to retranslate it.

in which I was bom brought forth. or the gloom of a starless. with which to begin our con- was thinking indeed. shut not up Because it my mother's womb. of Sheol. imprecations the hour of his birth. God tlio looks down from its There sleep unborn his elevation. the night to which Job doomed in his versation. twilight be dark May Nor let the stars of wait for the light. but rather as the state of things yet unborn. Nor hid evil from my eyes/ Where have you seen the ancient night to which this unhappy man consigned his birth-day. and horrible darkness. Who Let it can call up the monsters of the deep. Let no song of joy resound in it. for illustration. and comes forth with exultation to join choir of companions in the circular dance of the year. and hoping to find along with it unmingled joy. The blackness of misfortune terrify it. at whose enchantments the day goes not forth to 6* . Let darkness and death-shade seize it. Recollect. that waits in vain for the morning. see the eyelids of the dawn. That night! let darkness take it away. rayless. Let not God inquire after it from above. And let no light shine upon it. a son is day be darkness. 65 E. Let that night be set apart by itself. May those curse it. That I is not tlie topic. That it join not the days of the year. nights and days. The clouds ever rest upon it. The Let night that when they said. Perish the day. which are waiting for the light. and light it come not. and it calls forth this or that as he pleases.. more fearfully described ? No song of gladness cheers it. Nor come into the number of the months. and its silence is interrupted only by the muttered spells of those. who its curse the day.

' is appears to iu fact the so much the finer for beiiigtfue!. it became A. But you said something of the state of unborn souls.y:aiad-CPi»bi«ed wit^ '^ft^^. He does not yield to the Orientals. so Lbei must have stood by wppders ofi creation. .tb§[f^eiipg(pf ...j. toi1vJhicy'|yob''a]ltldfe.66 interrupt them in their works of darkness. You know how Shakspeare describes a night like A. as chance directed to the Greeks. impulse in creation for |S€i^n?s originally. inhabita]>le.. image . in They knew nothing for example of a chaos.jj. -dThis pictuje.. are silent and formless as the scurity.^tfP^.i *0 • . The realms that contain^ey|irsi<9i9dm^o8tiinqiinral life. E. until. In their mincj^ (its place was supplied by a dark upon which . :^ Ijaveibpen {drmeilfiom hnn .foas. fails to inspire m^^Wj^th^ awe.wi.^j.??^'^ .|as the for age^. It W'as to the Oriental§. They are shaped in the deepest ob- centre of the earth. ^ ^ ^^^ j^ . all as at this their birth moment is creatures wait for calls is it.^i-jri/ltnb oldi-ijorl -R95^fi''5i?^f?'l%. A. first it it sea. The Like representation remarkably adapted to the senses. p^pecialliy 4ti ajglli|. The passage you have repeated seems to me to have no reference to such a state. . formation of our world the atoms that compose about. E..?ip^jvi^ power. were driven which we are indebted gloomy me. thSt'^lliooifed over the waste and fathottfle^^'aWs?. and there wait the light. however. for which before the it. natural and conoeivabiei-i that formlessiehlaies^as The spirit. . and never E.. of that which constitutes tli^lijdpajpf (a.thei . i^'td'me peculiarly striking.tbe wind of the Almighty i\vas hoverarnd'^he'pifciti'rfeVas 'it^ ing with an agitating"eflect'. a fiction..«otneihing in hiiiither. in the night. The hour of struck — God them forth. fictions all the poetical of the Hebrews.' "Such' s^ was condition of our eartn. .n(jl. this.

my A "spirit was passing my hair stood before me. 'Whilfe 9'iii '•"' . How can man.l: tid 'jo ni)is.iii?st( morming' bieamiishoti fordii. and after all the powerful effect alone indicates the formless figure. shadowy image was before my eyes It was silently whispered to me.fl^i^:fi^H'<^«^^*rt. as. . . •. . the energy of all spirit. I 'Butil66kir'ybnder con^e the glories of the mlOrrileave: the'iisionsi of. God dwells in light. He enlightens the hearts . &c. and his countenance beams with paternal goodness. thy ijihisbncs^i iindl<i>f thy divihdiglory. ear whispers caught my At I the hour of night visions. . the feebler it must be. and so iflnedits features. Form and de^nitfcness are incompatible with our notions of spirit ill is the bffs-piiinf sf *hei Wihdj and niu^t preserve thd charabt^l<af its origin.fij]l.. ing.7/!j j. .iil'.oiqiiii ihiv/ ." A Its word stole secretly to me.bejajQ/^terioal TCtfi and I didst consecrate it to emblem! olf. .' the cf eatttf. : 67 er of tlie wind. spreadeth out the heavens as a tent.'!!>--^ooofni hiir. was seized with terrors shook. ii'. silence. E.' -^''g'' . and blessed- ness. and yet a voice.Iijoh .. and paternal joy. Alh deli^Jat-aiEiid purity^ M alllwisdomy 'groodness.' I Let ius ^eiad0re:iihe^.i'! ^ v/on i3 yiil 'l6 . There is as you say a form without form.ofin«tjesiyi cIuL ni -e-iKoq ' He He putteth on the light. The more closely de- would their effect become. rW'he'n . " It harrows up the soul with fear and wonder.tlie.Faifh^l©!f :Lighit/)sle*'8f!i'i> O^'^^ -f|nr! //. a garment.. He A but I saw not his form.night to theii* re^yose.b oti'j' . (iriiov/ 'j. frame.8-i3obijifi!J'?'^*^M?^'?>. stood on end.oor^i)(] -jb..t. -liJIuooq -li . thoxr. still. It raises the hair on end. When And All deep sleep falleth upon man.didet'deeljiirejtHB>lig"httaibegiodd. fear and shuddering.. and rouses the terrors of the soul..

it places in animating contrast. he displayed his glory in the cre- ation of light. that would better deserve to be the garment of Jehovah. we see before us. born the dew. any cre- ated existence. Perhaps no poetry in the world has drawn from it with E. While it paints darkness in images of fear and horror.68 of all good men. how the Eternal Father is gradually expanding and arching over us the tent of his azure heavens. the eyelids of the opening dawn. . of expectafruition. and the vine purposes and joys. it the idea of waiting. light its and darkness has each palace. it were. in the nigfht of and death he sends into their hearts a beam of unceasxls ing joy and hope. dwells nal obscurity ? in eter- Light is his swiftest messenger. The dawn ap- pears in Job as a hero. as to the essence of his nature.' winged almost with the pinions of his omnipresence. as seal. new impression of his is From fair the womb of the glitter- morning dawn. emblem of Di- ry A. more The very name of light has in this all language a and noble sound. beautiful lofty eft'ect. All the pictures of the dawn associate with tion. In their original darkness he sent them the affliction ray of light. and stamps them. God. and leading us onward from Is there this twilight of existence to brighter habitations. the emblem of that is joyous and transporting. which light . the bright eye of day. who. and its appearance brings is The mornits ing star. and illunanates first their path. ing children. here a son of the twi- for like every thing else. fair of desire. her numerous host of See you not there the mother before you. as the father of the universe in irradiating with its beams the souls of men. peculiar and inaccessible dwelling. prives who scatters the bands of misdoers. gives to with a things their form. The poetry of the Hebrews has consequently fine imagedrawn from this source. de- the robber of the covering of darkness that protects all him. ? in that beautiful blending of light and darkness observe too.

Whether it be a tent. Such forth the the tradition of the Arabi- — God called heavens from the waters. inhabitants of the world are grasshoppers before him. are all E. In the celebrated song of David even it is said. are also suitable and dignified. Even at this mament. is matter of wonder. rightly understood. He goeth forth on the wings of the wind. if you please. it. The Orientalists must have. for the pictures common. great disputes to vens themselves. and even the throne of God as begirt with darkness in the midst of the waters. and. The droughty Orientals. I Moses meant by liis firmament between the waters and the waters. a dwelling. let stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain. we also sec nothing of the chrystal fir- sublime palace arched over with the is waters of heaven. He He But A. in these representations. seem to look upon the heavens only as a store-house for their refreshments. No disputes are necessary. us pass. and form- ed them for a habitation. The most ancient idea is certainly not of a firmament or foundation of glass. as peculiarly beautiful. or a chrystal firmament on which the waters decide what rested. I have always admired and also the descriptions of the clouds. as an arch of water. an arched covering above.69 He The sits above the circle of the earth. The most ancient mythology represents the heavens. to the mythology of the heafear. A. The beautiful correspondence with truth too. but a ans late period tent. spreadeth it out as a tent to dwell in. since glass was unknown till a late period. it seems difficult to determine. He placeth amid the waters the arch of this He maketh the clouds his chariots. He stretcheth out the heavens as a tent. a sup- . of the lightning and the rain. considered as pictures of natural history.

and treading upon the swelhis treasures ling floods of heaven. them out with a profusion. which their earth so often denied them. last The were probably conceptions of a late period. Whether early or not. nor blade of grass springs. What to heartfelt prayer for rain ! and refreshing waters ascend wait. He is often described. abound ! The finest images of the bounty. And was he not so represented at an early period ? E. E. who extended his parental care to r-i^ man and in the beast. where no man dwells. as in leathern bags. for its relief. So panteth my soul after thee. So also the most earnest prayer and cordial longing after God. and traces furrows to in heaven. and opens channels. behold his face . and their airy tissue not broken. divides the heavens. Observe the numerous passages this kind Psalms and prophets. There he has of waters. by which his tent. living For tbu God. that oversows even the deserts. A. and deluges the earth with torrents. or opens the windows of his royal palace. passing from land to land. filled with the bounty. My soul thirsteth for God. And they have clothed this beautiful idea in a variety of imagery. In them is the water of man and stores oi" beast. his At another he and pours drives them. to refre. When And shall I come to ? him. the uni- yersal goodness. are represented under the image of burning and consuming thirst : As the hart panteth for the fresh fountain. as going forth majestically in these waters.-h the thirsty regions of the earth. hither and thither. he was still earlier represented as the father of a family. conduct them. when God was represented as the king of heaven. and providence of God are borrowed from the rain and the dew. Again he rends asunder and lets the rain descend. now animated anew.70 ply of the blessings. in thanksgiving heaven How do all eyes and the parched tongue. At one time he life for biails up the waters is in the clouds.

ly To those who dwelt in to however. have been the greatest favorite. A. He He hath established the earth upon hath covered stocyi its foundation. The waters above the mountains. pictures. and making to fast to the mountains. E. an emblem of security. E. shall not pass over and return To deluge the earth. according to fly which the lightnings are but sparks. is the father that has life .71 Images of this kind give to poetry a community of feeling and sympathy between brute animals. to when the heavens came be represented as a temple and palace of his. tents. the valleys sunk down. of all. To the place settest which thou didst appoint for them. Then rose up the mountains. this pure azure of the sky was the ground floor of and the covering of our habitation. At the voice of thy thunders they hasted away. their glowing s]>lendour. plants. The Arabs have Finally. Thou They boundaries to the floods. if you go on with the psalm. heaven. lives with his creatures. off from the sapphire firmament. the pillars of rest. that this solid firmament was that ice. of in and of the paternal intercourse and friendship. and all the Supreme and Eternal Father. God. as with a robe . from which the hail descended. the idea of a heavenly tent seems to me They represent God it as dai- spreading it out. At thy rebuke they fled. which God A. It shall not be moved for ever and ever. in which David has given a picture of the creation. Perhaps the most ancient notion was. it with floods. And how You do they treat the earth ? will learn from their own words. men. But how then were the heavens represented as It solid ? was on account of their sapphire appearance. and their beauty. It is them. . their uncliangeableness.

Where the birds build their nests. They sing among the branches. Above them dwell the fowls of heaven. but providing for the earth. that strengtheneth man's heart. I The production of bread from the earth is men. that they I procure themselves bread. with the blessings which thou crea- God is represented as the father of a family. always busy and referred not to God. Wine also that maketh glad the heart of man. raised up from the waters an Elysian field. Now the mountains rise up. And bread. . At the waters stand above the mountains. and makes fast the * With the test. And seed for the service of man. They run between the mountains. earth ! With what a It is joyful expression that poet surveys the a green mountain of Jehovah. And make his face to shine with plenty.t 72 Thou sendest forth springs in the ralleys. They give drink to the beasts of the field. The wild beasts quench their thirst. Finally God sets bounds to the floods. by may sow it and have transposed parts of the 14th and 15th which they acquire more symmetry. E. The trees of God are full of sap. i. The rocks as a refuge for the conies. That he may bring forth bread from the earth. He has caused seed to grow for them. which he has established above multitudes. e. which he has . And the fir trees the house of the heron. fruit of thy work. which he hath planted. The cedars of Lebanon. and even the words a better consonance and arrangement. From the fruits of thy works* thou satisfiest the earth. at the command of God they shrink beneath. verses. contain exactly the natural history of the earth. The mountains he made for the wild goats. as the waters rush through and level them. Makest grass to grow for cattle. The which the poet has made use first of. Thou waterest the hills from thy store-house above. the seas for the habitation of his living series of images. the valleys sink.

and the rivers from his blood ? Poetry. Had we more of their pastoral fables like that of Jotham. and more than figuratively them. who res- bestows rain. his blessings upon them. the wanderer and the turtle dove. What profit do I gain. what fine poetry and personiPerhaps more beautiful and fications should we find in them ! diversified. or those in the Persian between the rose and the nightingale. who nourishes them with Their and serves them with the breath of spring. as their preservation was a memorial of his universal providence. — But this. plants As ascribes to all in degree the principles of sonifies life. in order to affect the heart and the understanding. must combine beauty with truth. or of the class to the which Song of Solomon belongs. than the dialogue of our own poet between the rose and the zephyr. me nothing What are all the mythologies to me. What sympathy and herbs ? for example does it erdiibit with flowers. as the skul^ ple. the earth as formed from his bones. Job more sublime pictures more true or beautiful are most consonant to nature A. where their beds are already hollowed out to them the beasts resort. The loves of plants seein to have been early remarked. and animate both with sympathetic E. them the birds sing. for the banks of streams were first cov- ered with trees. and above . of the formation of the earth scarcely possible. and the palm tree. 7 As . when the Northern of a slaughtered giant. i^enewal of their verdure toration and the was a beautiful emblem of the resurrection of the dead. the vine and the olive have furnished beautiful and sublime images to the poetry of the Hebrews is all. if And in truth whatever is is most perfect they teach in beauty. the streams run between the mountains. alas ! which they have furnished. all feeling. for exam? Edda repi'esents heaven. the cedar. The poetry of the Orientals seems to me it to combine a certain pei*- these. so God is represented as their father. We shall find in .73 earth —Then the fountains break forth in the valleys.

But the sun. righteousness and beauty. his creatures and messengers. I mean A. my heart had burned in secret. Let there be two To rule over the seasons. but one that breathes throughout the fragrance of the rose. my friend. and you are aware how conscientiously this was avoided. no hymns to the hosts of heaven were possible. For I should have denied the God of Heaven. had kissed my hand for them. This would have been an abomination. God said. moon going abroad in its beauty.74 it is we must content ourselves with a single collection of such songs. because the Orientals in general were not so much attracted by any inferior idols. this poetry could not have. I believe have none of these. It became therefore a direct object of this poetry to represent the sun and moon as the servants of God. or to any other object of It nature. A. as by the king and queen of heaven. They are kings of the world. this species The Hebrew poetry guarded against of idolatry with the more extreme caution. Be Point me rather to some examples of fine personification and hymns addressed to the sun. his representatives. Had And So I looked at the sun. Hymns addressed to these. would be idolatry. is rising high. Job says. and brings back the musical notes of the turtle . great lights in heaven He placed them in the firmament To have dominion over the seasons. and to these their hearts were very greatly inclined. but only subordinate to God. It has used them you 4 mean but little ? . The Hebrews E. not in haste. In these characters alone the Hebrew poetry has employed them. the when it shone forth. that I And When this feeling was so sincere and earnest. the Songs of Solomon. and to ascribe to him also all glory and truth.

When saw the brightness of thine arrows. for example. tial host. and they hide tiiemselves his greater glory. For the sun he hath pitched a tent in the heavens. And lifted The up its hands on stood liigh. — Whatever pure» . Yes. personification its I consider hardly possible. moon and stars also were animated. comes tents forth in his war-cliariot to conquer and divide the land arrows the sun and . as they have in the minds of the Arafor bians and other nations. swiftest objects standstill. The sun. The glittering splendour They hasted away. And And goeth onward filleth the to the end of it. confusion before the presence of The mountains saw thee and The waters passed away. He goeth forth from the end of heaven. much and appropriately too. moon come astonishment to the doors of their fly his lightnings are shot forth. or in which they timidly shrink and hide themselves. God . its All nature listens are obscured. wliich you may seek a You know the beautiful passage. brightest the maris In the same spirit the stars are made the exulting children pf God.75 E. Thus in in ITabakkuk. And rejoiceth as a hero In the career of victory. trembled. From which he goeth forth as a bridegroom Out of his chamber. of thy lightnings. world with his beams. in which when they are to be darkened. God seals them up. They had still their dwelling places and tents in heaven. sun and they moon still in their tents. parallel among the Greeks in vain. A more sublime . Tne deep uttered its voice. when the glory of Jehovah appears. his in around him. The moon and stars also have their dwellings.

When we come stars to treat of the will it book of Job. . who binds together the seven stars in their his secret treasures in the and hides South . represents God as tlie gr^at shepherd of heaven. I A. To them were ascribed the water-spouts and the overflowing of rivers and in the song of Deborah they are beautifully personified in . in a sublime choral song. In their character of angelick messengers they are capable of failure. and the light of the moon shall be as the light of the That poetry. king kings. have been particu* . to the anticipate it am I for ever reconciled most ancient poetry of the world. this character. E. what elevated views of the with delight. But finally. who refreshes : and waters them with the only brings in the dew. and the angels are often personified them. is compared with the in stars. which sun. a messenger. but to the Even the nourishSupreme Fathair. but never the ori- ginal fountain of blessedness and beauty. who knows . ment of er. as even But for ? what purposes are these which and employed Those its for God employs is his servants. and feeds them fields under a variety of images on the azure her children terly union. and furnish us. then shall the sun shine with sevenfold brightness. and the heavens are not pure in his sight. The sun. of the sky who sis- girds Orion. such poetry is the daughter of heaven and earth. name is indicates. and does not trust them with confidence. plants not ascribed to it. when the future days of his peculiar reignshall arrive. and immortal. but subordination to the King of The stars as his army go out and engage in battle. and. He own finds im- perfection in their brilliancy.76 fair. and the rain it about the seasons — a of the earth. He discovers them out of the way. glittering hosts sent A. which so profoundly comprehends the nawhich binds all the objects of creation together ture of things in such admirable order. and consoles the nightly wanderer for the loss of . and calls for the stars by name as his sheep.

and wish ed that in place of some of the sacred songs Ave had more of its fables. The wild beasts it denominates living creatures. and the hawk flies by hated crocodile is the object The monsters. animate creation. and velocity. more of this the poetry of nature . were with every and fulfils its wishes. and he . and behemoth isjhe beginning of the ways In short of God. the wild chamois goat experiences his livered in her time of need. I was delighted. when found the voice and language of brutes so forcibly expressed in the language . and the ox. of deep. at others. the acuteness of their senses. whole animate creation. the most magnificent of bis works on earth. and the whole in childhood to find. who wanted nothing but the power of speech. or the living. lie gives all eyes wait upon him. wisdom. and looks down from his mountain eyry The wild ass lives upon his paswith the glance of the eagle. and I when the prophet coos with the crane and mourns with the ostrich in the wilderness. their habits of and their character described and painted in appropriate terms. feels its wants. as a necessary this he is the parental head of to every creature its lights food joy. stateliness. because he has given to all their natures. He roars with the lion after his prey. the lion. them up with and paternal care. lor this seems me be among E. His too is the great his tures. sometimes their strength. The name of God however must always belong accompaniment. and of the most perfect simplicity. and is deit lie lives as animal nothing in its peculiar sphere. people the most happy. as I it were and dead. for to it. nothing of his paternal love. riddles respecting the brute creation. — The young and hateful raven does not cry unheard. and was delighted even that it treated the brute animals (so called because they are dumb) as the brothers of man. the turtle dove. parables. rejoiced at finding the form of the stag. because the domestick animals are.77 larly struck by its perfect sympathy with brutes. 7* . the realm wild. in the still comparison. is To him dumb and despised. life. to in to short.

. To give them meat in its season Thou givest it them. and the lion. extent. but is silent respecting man. delighting in the horse. full of the universal in his providence and goodness of of our mother earth. God is represented as wlio rode her. so wide in There are swarms innumerable. and I will another time. And seek their food from God. is leviathan. These wait on thee. The sun knoweth his going down. And to his work in the field until evening. It does not however pass over man with neglect he image of God. The sun riseth. and the ass of Balaam has more influence with the angel. so vast. the close with one to correspond with it. Then man goeth forth to his labour. There go the ships. The sea too. There sports the leviathan. And lay themselves down in their dens. O all God. The young hons roar after their prey. Which thou hast all made to play therein. In wisdom hast thou made them The earth is full of thy treasures. and one But of this at of the visible Elohim here upon the earth.. Thou makest darkness. . and it is night. as being proud of be- hemoth and E. they hurry away. He made the moon to divide the seasons. than the prophet In the book of Job. some I now discover (what I have often wondered at with perplexity) why it is. God wide empire. they gather it . It was nourished in the bosom of nature. In which every beast of the forest creeps forth . A. . Living things small and great. and cherished in the lap A. the masterpiece of his works. 78 this poetry is full of natural feeling. How manifold are thy works. that in this poetry a preference is sometimes given to the brutes over men. Finish now your song of praise.

I will praise my God. they are satisfied with good. . is one entirely in the Oriental this In my opinion there is class of poetry in all the living is indeed but one style in European languages. path. here style.* Milton's morning it * Reference of is had in the last paragraph to Hymn Adam in the 5th Book of Paradise Lost. The glory of Jehovah endureth for ever. but since you prefer hymns. E. They are created anew. Praise the Lord. I will sing to Jehovah as long as I live. Thomson has trodden among us Kleist has this style For and this imagery we are indebted to the simplicity of the Hebrew poetry. it Milton has especially interwoven in the composition of his immortal with feeble steps in the same very philosophically adorned poem. They are filled with terror Thou takest away their breath. I remain pledged for a corresponding specimen . which is not thought ne- cessary to copy in the translation. the Prophets and the Psalms. And thou renewest the face of the earth. He looketh upon the earth. They return back to their dust Thou sendest forth thy breath. and that the style of Job. Thou turnest away thy countenance. while I have being. Jehovah rejoiceth in his works. My song of him shall be sweet. and it.. 79 Thou openest thine hand. and it trembleth. I will be joyful in Jehovah. O my soul. Hallelujah. and they smoke. . He toucheth the mountains. Tr.

the creator of the world. Of the poetry of nature of poetry. Style and character of Elihu in his descrip- tions. sublime pictures of nature. tions of stiller IV. as judge of the stars. means Examples from Job. and to the hardly necessary to say. the antiquity and author of the boob. ALCiPiiEOiv. the tedious complaints and claims to innocency. be a lifeless species and undeFirst serving of the name. Descripw God. animation. of attaining personification. it God out of the tempest. Influence of the poetry of it nature on the feelings. and his government of the world. Examples of his its style. Best method of reading it.DIALOGUE Transition to the book of Job. that be the iiv terpreter of nature. it is You 1 see how your scholar is employed. Second requisite for this class of poetry. it er the most ancient times have an advantage over us in this respect. in it. Discourse of Elucidation of in general. But the descriptions of nature the sublime and yet simple account of the attributes of God. elevate the soul. . and why. and still less the vindications of Providence. I leave it to you afterwards to set me in the right way in regard to the plan. the of the tempest. Examples from Job. logue. in EuTHYPHROx. Whether it. Illustrations requisite. If you are inclined to listen then. It is a very proper course for you to begin To read the that way of selecting particular passages. he found him reading the book of Job. cannot yet indeed accustom myself long speeches. Third from Job. and read a few passages to you. Of the guiding thread of the dia- T yet know nothing. Object o the poetry of nature. that have an object and When Euthyphron enquired for his friend. Whethj. I will (as these people say) open the treasures of my heart. purpose. that I am reading this book with delight. which cannot themselves be vindicated.

and a obvious sequence of ideas. and know nothing. the considerations of time to the all and authorship. my own times. its beautiful descriptions of God and na- My ear is open. with a species of reverence. in poverty and is its richness. if you please.81 work continuously are accustomed is for us perhaps too strong nneat. . or bringing it to the test of itself. cially in verse. They give us the language of their hearts. The fathers. Power and its terrors are his. They are pearls from the depths of the ocean : loosely arranged. so childlike. but precious treasures of knowledge and wisdom A. Our life on earth is but a shadow. say to myself in the words of the book are of yesterday. unperverted impressions and ideas of nature there are other ideas so poor. and listens with attention to the ideas of the most ancient of the infant world. they shall teach and tell us. We Proceed then with ture. perhaps of three or four thousand years. We more to prefer brevity in the dialogue. Pass over. He is arbiter in the heights of heaven. here so in sayings of the olden times. as it is. and instead of sitting in judg- ment on I the book. and were even fond of prolonged discourses. and confine yourself its work. My thoughts are carried to distant countries and remote ages. Beyond I contradiction the it book from very ancient times. I listen to a voice that comes to me from a distance. as in the governments of the world. great revolutions that have taken place as the ruins of the well in matters of taste. than tals we find here. A. The Orienespe- in their social intercourse heard each other quietly through. and yet again E. and its take up whenever I venture to decypher thoughts. and furnished so abundantly with . ? But of what time One must be surprised to find much intelligence.


not his hosts without number,
his light prevails over all




then be just before

God ?
its tent,

One born The



be pure


Behold even the moon abides not with
stars are not pure in his eyes.


man, who



worm, be pure


A child

of earth, a



sublime representation of God, the supreme judge

of heaven

the arbiter


the stars and angels.



tering hosts are numberless, his splendour obscures them all
his light, his purity, the truth

and justice of

his judicial


puts them to silence.

The moon



these bright

the stars are impure in his sight.

Then from

eminences we glance
Shall man,

man, and ask,
a worm, be pure




child of earth, a



Your explanation of

the obscure words, "

He maketh

peace among

his heights, over


doth not his light arise

The moon

pitcheth not her tent before him," pleases

me much.

see the Eastern judge,


decides between angels and stars.


and poetically too

the darkened



Its tent is

gone from heaven,

has concealed itself

from the presence of its judge. E. Proceed to the remarks of Job


they are better



Whom helpest thou ? him who hath no strength Whom dost thou vindicate ? whose arm hath no power ?

give counsel ? one without wisdom ? Truly much wisdom hast thou taught him To whom dost thou give knowledge by words ?

To whom

And whose

breath dost thou breathe



To whom do you suppose this passage to relate ? Job means to It seems to me to refer to God.





needs not to be vindicated by him, that his very
the breath of


God, and

that a helpless creature can-

not become the defender of his Creator.



I shall

not again interrupt you.


A. The shades are moved from beneath, The abyss, and those that dwell in it. The realms of darkness are naked before And uncreated night without a covering.


the wasteful deep he spreadeth out the heavens.

He hangeth up the earth upon nothing He bindeth up the waters in his clouds,
And the clouds are not rent under them. He closeth up his throne round about, He spreadeth the clouds around him. He appointeth a boundary for the waters. To where the light is ended in darkness.
The pillars of heaven tremble, They are shaken at his reproof By his power he scourgeth the sea. By his wisdom he bindeth its pride. By his breath he garnisheth the heavens.
His hand seizeth the fleeing serpent.


these are a part of his ways,

A whisper that we

have heard of him


But the thunders of


can comprehend


splendid passage, and, as you are turned poet,

I will

become your commentator.

Job surpasses these opponents

in the excellence of his effusions, as


as he has the ad*

vantage of them in the result of their contest.
only a single representation of the



but he draws his

power and majesty of God, image from the deepest abyss, and carries
of sublimity.

his picture to the highest point

The realms of

non-existence are spread before the Almighty, the boundless

depths of vacancy stretch beneath him


and as these were

conceived, as we have before seen, under the form of a

less ocean,

he represents


the vast realm of ancient night

and unborn ages, as appearing before the Almighty, unveiling

wild abyss, and the horrid

commotion of




shades tremble, the shapeless forms of future being are



the abyss, which never before


the light,

without a covering.


begins the work of


spreads out the heavens over this dark and

boundless deep

he establishes the earth and causes


to rest,

and as


to be

suspended over nothingness and vacancy.

(For these realms of night and of the shades were supposed to be subterraneous.)


he arranges the heavens in order,

binds up the waters in clouds, and forms for himself the open



builds and adorns his




midst of the



around, and spreads the thick clouds as

a carpet beneath


Then he measures and

designates the

boundaries of the watery heaven to where the light and darkness mingle, that

to the extremity of the horizon.



exhibited in the thunder, and



Next mag-

nify the effect, in a storm at sea.

The waves

are represented

as rebels,


he drives before him, and can in a



in chains.



breath from him, and the sea

calm, the heavens clear

hand meets only with the flying

serpent (either according to an image occuring in other pas-


— Ps.

Ixxiv. 13. Is. xxvii.



monsters of the deep

in the

neighbouring seas, as the crocodile, or perhaps the


and curling waves themselves, which


hand smooths




the picture closes with a stillness as

sublime and beautiful, as the tumult, with which





these, says

Job, are but a single

sound, a small part of his wonders.


thunders of his power,

who can comprehend them


Every morning, as day breaks from the darkness of night,
every storm, especially at sea, brings the magnificent picture
before us.

Have you any

other passage







you please, the laudatory hymn of the inspired

Elihu, immediately preceding the final and magnificent re-

sponse of the Divine Being.


Observe however by the way, that


stands there only

as a foil to increase the effect of that response.


as El-

ihu thinks, and finely as he speaks, he
says, but



as he Jiimself

new and

fermenting wine, that rends and escapes

from the


has s|)Icndid images, but directs them

no end

and the


of them are only amplifications of


which Job and

his friends

had employed

in a


concise form.
pares the

Hence no answer

returned to him.

He pre-


for the entrance of the

Divine Being, and proit.



without himself being aware of

In describing a

rising tempest in all

phenomena he

paints, without


coming of the judge. A. I had never remarked

this prospective

design in the

progress of the picture.




however, as

I think, the soul

of the whole, with-

out which,

that Elihu says

Vvould be




the passage

too long to be taken entire, begin at the

words " Lo
with you.





occasionally alternate





in his




a teacher like



shall try his


And who

shall say thou hast erred


Consider and praise his doings,


men celebrate them, men behold them, But weak man sees them from far. Lo, God is great, and we know it not. The number of his years is unsearchable.


draweth up the drops of water,

Rains are exhaled upwards


The clouds pour them down again, They drop upon men abundantly.





can understand the outspreading of his clouds,

the fearful thunderings in his tent

Behold, he encompasseth

with lightnings,

And covereth with floods the depths of the sea. By these he executeth judgment upon the people. And giveth also their food abundantly.

hands he holdeth the lightnings,

And commandeth them where they shall He pointeth out to them the wicked




the prey of his wrath.


All these images will occur in a more concise and
that follows.

beautiful form in the language of God,






upon them, and Elihu proceeds
is terrified,





leaps from

place with alarm.

Hear ye


hear with trembling his voice.

The word,

that goeth out of his mouth.


goeth abroad under the whole heaven, his lightning to the ends of the earth.
his thunders.

Behind him sound aloud

He uttereth the voice of his majesty. And we cannot explore his thunderings.
thundereth marvellously with his voice.

He doeth wonders, which we cannot comprehend. He saith to the snow, be thou upon the earth. To the dropping shower, and the outpouring of his might So that all men acknowledge his work.


In the last words


like better the interpretation

— He

puts the seal upon the hand of every man, that

they stand

astounded and amazed, feeling, that they are powerless
feeling, that every

thunder-shower awakens in




terrors of the storm are farther described.


wild beast fleeth to his cave.


cowers himself down in his den. Now Cometh the whirlwind from the South,



And from the North coineth the frost The breath of God goeth forth, there And the broad sea is made firm. And now his brightness rendeth the
light scattereth the clouds afar.

is ice,


They wheel about in their course as he They go to accomplish his commands Upon all the face of the earth.



must be Orientals


order to estimate the good effects


and to paint with such careful observation, the


and the course of the clouds.

It is

obviously a present

scene, which Elihu

describing in what follows



Job, and hear this.

Stand and consider the wonders of God.

Knowest thou how God disposeth them,


he kindleth up the

light of his clouds


Knowest thou how the clouds are swayed The marvellous doings of the all-wise ? How thy garments become warm to thee, When he warmeth the earth fr^m the South Hast thou with him spread out the firmament.
That stands strong and
like a

molten mirror


Teach us what we

shall say to him,


cannot speak by reason of darkness.

it be told to him when I speak ? Let one open his mouth Lo he is gone, His light is no longer beheld.



His splendour is behind the clouds The wind passeth, and they arc dispersed. Now cometh the gold from the North,

The fear-awakening glory of Eloah. As for the Almighty, we cannot find The great, the powerful judge,
Therefore do


in righteousness.


reverence him,


wisest behold him not.



consecjuence of the young pretender's forwardness

you perceive

that he

shows that


be impossible, which

prolix babbling of a child. surrounds. Gird up thy loins like a man I will ask thee. and the line is stretched upon its and. thou knowest. and contemplate these images. and all corner-stone is laid in place. his elder offspring. and that no mortal shall ever hear the voice of the Eter- and how vast the difference nal. Who fixed the measure of it? dost thou know? the line its WJio stretched upon it? ? Whereon AVhq stand deep foundations stars laid the corner-stone thereof. the children of God. the morning sang in chorus for joy ? all the sons of God shouted We forget the geology and all the physics of more modern times. Who is it. which the Creator speaks. and said to him. Next follows the birth of the sea. as the ancient Like a house it has poetry of nature respecting the earth. and overwhelms the Job with objects of his inanimate and anima- ted creation. When I founded the earth if Tell me. when its its foundations are sunk. its foundations laid. its it : dimensions are fixed. ? Where wast thou. When And E. faculties of — He disputes tlie not. teach thou me. astonishes. that the dark- ness of the clouds a perpetual barrier between men and God. in comparison in with the brief and majestick tones of thunder. chant a song of joy to the great architect and the glad welcoming of their younger sister. that darkeneth the counsels of God By words without knowledge ? . Jehovah spake to Job from out of the tempest. . A. when he is is convincing the face of his declaration is on the point of taking place. God appears and speaks between the words of Jehovah and the language of Elihu ! — It is but the feeble. the morning stars. but produces a succession of living pictures. At the moment.

hushed. in thy lifetime Hast thou And That taught the day-spring to it commanded the dawn? know its place. as if clothed with ornament. 8* . And scatter the robbers before is Like clay the form of things changed by it. and with a word the sea A. which the to their —how differ- Western nations assigned Aurora ! It points us to ancient times of violence. which the clothes with its that. terror and robbery anticipated the dawn. as a watchman. when A. stormy waves. sent to chase away the bands of robbers ent the office from that. Who When I I wrapped up it the sea in swaddling clothes broke forth from the mother's the clouds for garments. Their haughty arm is broken. by which of the It here expressed. as a youtig giant exulting in his . it ? seize on the far corners of the earth. unfortunate.89 A. do not believe. shalt thou dash thy I said thus far shalt thou come. the and director of is things addresses as a living being. that we cannot more clearly repre- sent the dawn. They stand forth. and obeys him for ever. than of an infant. E. that this object was ever represented it is under a bolder figure.* ? Hast * It is still tiiou entered into the caverns of the sea the custom of the Arabs to go out on plundering excursions before dawn. From the wicked their light is taken away.subduing power. earth. a messenger of the Prince of heaven. and no farther. I placed them for gates and bars. it. Creator world swathes and bursts forth appropriate garments. I fixed my decrees upon And Here E. It is . it womb ? gave it swathed in mists and darkness. all from the clefts of the ruler as from the womb it of its mother.

? For the day of war and of slaughter E. . To refresh the wilderness. the darkness. if thou knowest it all. which no man inhabiteth. E. God fears the attack of his enemies. and the barren place. A. Every tiling here is personified. born. Who is the father of the rain ? The drops of dew. death and nothingness.90 Hast thou explored the hollow depths of the abyss Have the gates of death opened for thee ? And hast thou seen the doors of non-existence ? Is thj' knowledge as broad as the earth? Show me. The whole A. and gates. the light. and has furnished and secured his vaulted treasury of Uail as the armoury of war. And cause the tender herb to spring forth. Upon deserts. it When wind streweth upon the earth ? Who divided the water cpurses of heaven? And traced a path for the storms of thunder ? To bring rain upon lands. Where doth the light divide the East itself. For thou knowest the path to its house. A vein of irony runs through the whole passage. their kingdoms and boundaries. who hath generated tkem? From whose womb came forth the ice . every thing breathes of poetry. is a poetical world and a poetical geography. In the clouds too. Thou knowest. Which I have laid up for the time of need. Hast thou been into the store-house of the snow? And seen the treasury of the hail. as well as in the abyss. for thou wast already And the number of thy days is great. where no man dwelleth. where is its place ? to it ? That thoumayest reach even the limits thereof. ? Where dwelleth the light? where is the way And the darkness. those their These have their palaces vi^ith bars houses.

The surface of the abyss is confined as in chains. no part of creation without The that joyously usher in the spring. ? the clods of the earth cleave together The life. "here are we ?" shall go. And then follows one of the most beautiful and sublime views of the Universe A. But in the description stars. Orion (or whatever for action. E. description of the so called inanimate creation is is ended. the earth Rich and exquisite pictures both of the heavens and Above. and the ! East wind scatters it over the countries of the earth. Beneath. — Canst thou bind together the brilliant Pleiades ? Or canst thou loose the bands of Orion? in their Canst thou bring the stars of the Zodiack season 1: And lead forth the Bear with her young ? Knowest thou the laws of the heavens above ? Or hast thou given a decree to the earth beneath Canst thou lift ? up thy voice to the clouds.— 91 The hoar-frost of heaven. here watered the dust. that they And say to thee. And And E. the water becomes a rock. Who Or gave understanding to the flying clouds? intelligence to the meteors of the air? ? Who by his wisdom hath numbered the drops of rain Hath sent down the gentle showers from heaven. that it might unite. rise in gradual succession like a wreath encircling the earth. ternal ruler of the heavens traces channels and marks out their paths for the clouds. the dew and the hoar-frost have their father and their mother. and the waves of the sea are chained with ice. the fountains of light gush forth. are bound together in a sisterly union. . and girded constellation Chesil may be) is a man The constellations of the Zodiack is the pioneer of winter. ? And enter into thorn clothed with floods Canst thou send the lightnings. Even the rain. the pafor the rain. who gave it birth ? The waters hide themselves and become as stone.

and then times. as giving understanding to the darkness. that. that it does not deserve the name of Those miserable wri- . and denominate a heartless description of things and forms. as to the connexion of ted. It is conciseness and symmetry. and its parts. the sending out of the lightnings. around the North pole the stars. that are inde- scribable. and the their reply. to the roving clouds. E. the stars. like a girdle with beautifidly embroi- dered figures. A. inanimate in the whole compass of the it Some indeed will not even accord to it the name of poetry. 1 say. that belong to a shepherd's to life. them animated being and form — one. can be but imperfectly transla- the same also with the passage. or (in accordance with another mythothe nightly wanderer. poetry You seem an admirer of it this whole species of — and yet our critics hold to be the most barren and art. his numbering of the drops of scent at his rain. their gentle but copious debeautiful command. that logy and interpretation) who is seeking her are ef- no longer tliat visible. I agree with poetry. and rises gradually to view with the revolving seasons. will perceive at once the starry brilliance and beauty of its it this passage. all my heart. If such be the fact. and meteors. Yet all these images.) if One who by night observes the Bear in its course as feeding with young on the its fields of the sky or the Zodiack.92 The Father the of heavens lets the Bear with her young feed . going forth of God among the clouds. who does this. a mother of lost ciiildren. in wliicli God is represented. is the object of his consolation (perhaps fected by bringing forth to her view new stars in place of those its were lost. wlien the nightly shepherds reflects upon the under an Oriental sky had ascribed these images continually before them and in accordanccwith the fancy and feeling. although. The personifications both of feeling and of form in poetry vanish in another language. to be are in the style of the most descriptive poetry. encompasses the earth.

disjoin them. are neither good in poetry. has it in the place of it ? It makes the objects of nature to in a state become things of and exhibits them of living action. It and the peculiar sources of verse. in which nature studied. where in true poetry we see actual and living beings. and tion. this gives to poetry its anima- The soul is hurried forward. through with consistency. the arsenals of snow and for and channels water in the heavens ? it. a witness of their Tedious descriptions. and becoraes . and create out to whose eyes and heart nature it whose apprehension to neither speaks. The true poetry of nature has something else. nor acts. and carried er laid the corner-stone. like a child. to lie. E. same principles. every climate own measure its matters of taste. A.93 ters. who ice. than a dull description of individual traits. has no life. on the other hand. abstracted and partial shadows of forms. in swaddling clothes. and the winter. life. shows a di- lamentable poverty to attempt to borrow from a people so we must adopt the of the same material. my friend. follows then. A. Look at Job. It stands lifeless him. And what Poetry. of which the build- God shouted The ocean was born and wrapt in garments. yet favourite poetry. while agencies. But who. will It still lifeless in his writing. The personification is kept up. the thunder. and paralyze their powers. to which in fact it is not principally devoted. The dawn is an active agent. nor in prose. They exhibit but a tatter- ed dress of words. describe to us the spring. E. could ? venture to write poetry in the style of the Orientals to present the ocean as a child hail. the rose. and feels itself in the it is midst of the objects described. the in a tedious and unaffecting style. A. that the ages of ignorance had great is advantages over those. while all the children of for joy at the event. every nain tion. No one should do has its For every language. and the lightning speaks. Here the earth is a palace. befoi-e was not born and it be be its poet.

if passions. of Buftbn and Priestley. Every age must make its poetry consistent with its ideas of the great system of being. when man's knowledge of nature was perhaps less extended. because they conceived ideas of appre- all things. they have a more living. call you the ages of ignorance All sensuous knowledge of that nature. but to make it the it foundation of poetry would be about as wise. than systematick truth could secure to often be the case ? it. reduced the all ? universe contains first to the shape of a house. that the times. and awakened feelings of astonishment. as to write out of Htibner's rhyming dictionary. as elevated poetry may be made. and animated that it with human who can do will. tribes have a this metljod is necessary. that from the systems as from the most simple and childBut why have we no such poetry? of Copernicus and Newton. that the simple pathetic fables of ancient or unnot because the lively learned tribes always affect us more. at least with more comprehensive ideas. than these mathematical. They had poetry — ? v/e have only E. description. struck the view. produce with truer. were again experienced. he is so disposed. when analogies to what in is hu- man A. including God himself. but was a living knowledge. which those feelings prevailed. and inetaphysical niceties ? Is it people of those times wrote poetry with more hensions. like views of nature. E. the effect which they accomplish- . with love the and hatred The poet. For myself I admire those times. and for their purpose a better knowledge of it. than the Linna^an classifier from his For a general knowledge of species bookish arrangement. And may not this I have no doubt. physical. same in the universe of BufTon and Newton. to which their poetry relates nay. under analogous forms. Why is it. must at least be assured of producing a greater effect by its poetical fictions. It were to be wished then. What . when the eye was i-endered discriminating by impassioned feeling.the object of knowledge. or if not.

Would that such a poet is were already among but so long as that not the case. What wretch. however. seems to me not to belong in so high a degree to the poetry of nature. and power. E. let us not turn to ridicule the genuine beau- ties in the poetry of ancient nations. and everlasting splendours. which He spreads fresh and glowing before us with every revolution of days and of seasons plish city ? Can the language of poetry accom- any thing more afiecting.95 ed witli their limited analogies and poetic fables. Ma- ny of their allegories and personifications contain more imatruth. us. in walking under a starry heaven. our feelings and thoughts. ginative power. and more sensuous than voluminous heart speaks for systems itself. love. and in words suited to their purpose is — such a poetry holy and heavenly. than ? God himself has exhibited to us in the works of creation poetry. is it not as if God himself addressed the words to him — . would not of its silent. experience imperceptibly and even against his will a soothing influence from the elevating contemplation un- changeable. all A species of poetry that furnishes me and with eyes to perceive and contemplate the works of Qreation and myself. to consider them in their order and relation." Tie. in the greatest tumult of his passions. to discover through to all the traces of infinite wisdom. Can more beautiful poetry. than with brevity and simplito unfold to us in its measure what we are and what we ? enjoy We from live and have our being in this vast temple of God are . This power of producing emotion. Suppose at such a moment there occurs to his thoughts the simple language cf God. our sufferings and our joys this as their source. because they understood not our systems of natural philosophy and metaphysics. shape the whole with the eye of fancy. " Canst thou bind together the bands of the Pleiades. — and the power of touching the A. The more there be any gentle and enduring it. sentiments of poetry at least are produced by and more even than by any other.

E. often in a high degree debasing and criminal. It would be childish tlic to hunt for the system of physics implied in individual representations of poetry. but could not be a refined and powerful expositor of nature. renders this serene and It contemplative.96 from the starry firmament hint. tender and benevolent. that energetic. it or to aim at reconciling with the system of our own days. Will the heart of the poet of nature always exhibit this ? character Of the great and genuine poet undoubtedly. Do you apply the remark to the chapter of Job. the fair interpreter of the nature of God. and a sympathy for all awakens It ac- that lives. free. of such poetry. an interest. in the spirit . while expands the view. A word. is This especially true of the descriptive poetry of the Orientals. The poetry of divine things can never do it this. with lively and affecting apprehensions. but brings them home to the sympatliies is of the heart. A. to tliink like our yet the leading idea. and thus show that Job had already learned natural philosophers is . a love. with that continually extends to the minutest concern. when and it the heart of the poet himself can hardly fail to be so. of ? which we were speaking Certainly. E. that labours. where he is is himself the director and disposer. especially. A. and often for no very enlarges worthy purpose. in the impure recesses of the heart. with be- . otherwise he may be an acute observer. with tlie Poetry. It the heart. all customs the understanding to remark on occasions the laws of nature. and guides our reason to the right path. where every thing transacted accorda providence. often suggests it to the mind extended scenes nor does merely bring their quiet pictures before the eye in their outward lineaments. a single ? Such an effect has the true po- etry of nature. and joyous. may corrupt as well the author as the reader. that the universe the palace of the Divine Being. ing to unchangeable and eternal laws. that concerns itself deeds of men.

of fications. meaning. qualities. with plan. as nomena come before the doings of an ever active and a provident father of his household. for in all whom she has removed the and dis- played the true expression of her features. as there is in creation.— 97 nevolence and judgment to in — this. and so incomprehensible Let him. . be great and ennobling. animation in the objects for awakening the senses. like that His own poetical creation creation which in- spires his imagination. her the all-powerful mother of so progress so slow. and ultimate design. benevolence. and com- mend and all itself to the its understanding as a whole. as it does to the heart by individual thoughts and interpretations of nature. fear. as animated personiwith as suitable expositions. which every thing manifests unity of purpose. a regular work. man are connectThe periods of time. Let him speak. and suborThe most wonderful pheus. plan are You we require. things are connected. That therefore human poem must be ? so vast. we must acknowledge forth too. under as concise images. no unity of purpose. In nature. will be a true xo'cr/nog. too. and for the v'cw of is ed by their relation to what human. Show me poem. veil. and the changes that undergoes. I A. for the understanding. whom nature exhibits no plan. which and opinions exhibits our system of physics. so slow to in progress. fails in The last requisite al- together most of our descriptive poets. what is impossible. by examples. a plan in the poem. the How things little ? able to comprehend in scenes of nature all is The kingdom of vast. its to the sense by the animation of objects. nor venture to give her expression in the language of poetry. and a plan comprising unity and variety for the production of effect. and purpose. our discoveries respecting the formation of the it world. as much But do not forget the three leading which I have spo- ken. I say. hold his peace. It is set dination to the combined whole. order. He will discover her works connexion. her prospective views so endless a E. interpretation of nature for the heart. outlines.

nor far in this respect is Roman has ever done. secure. rich it may be judged. In all the various departments of nature they behold the God of the heavens and of the earth. one Creator. first of all.98 as days and years. and combining in a tiform features. pression to its He is the eye of the universe. one God. ages and worlds in the one eternal cause. nor Celt. and ! how Lucretius behind Job and David . Countries and climates have a principle of unity in the one race of man. harmonious union the expression of all its multiplied and mulHere we are brought back again to the East. that which the understanding demands. however poor or unity. This no Greek. giving ex- otherwise boundless void. in their descriptive poetry. for the Orientals. have their relation to the age of man.

exhibit a connected train of thought. translated it from the Arabick. advance. ? crouch under covert in ambush Who When providcth for the raven his food. am eager to proceed to the second part of In this God's address to Job. for mascus. Egyptian imagery was an Egyptian. agery. of beasts we shall find the brute forms also not only animated. Whether Moses wrote the book. for lack of meat ? ? Dost thou know when the chamois-goat brings forth . and is tiien The king the first to Dost thou hunt for the lion his prey? The hunger of the young lions dost thou satisfy. and a wit-combat. Whether the author of it the book. in the pois When etry was brought of the Hebrews. will read. but all feelings. or found Judaea. Plan of the book.DIALOGUE Descriptions of the animate creation in Job. I become ensouled with human wait for your interpretation. or the philosophy. Leading traits of his im- Wiierc Job lived. I Appendix. Whether it is founded on historical facts. When And they lie in wait in their dens. Whether the friends of Job are cient as the distinctively characterized. Whether behemoth be the elephant. Its poetical style and composition. his And wander young cry unto God. but a consessus of wise men after the manner of the East. What extent and variety its imagery embraces. Whether their several discourses. W^hether the Satan of this book is a conceplion of Chaldee origin. it to Whether it was imitated Whether the historical introduction as an- book itself. it with Jethro. Grounds in Gutah near Daconsidering the proverbs of this book as the in the valley of Whether wise sayings. or the hippopotamus. That the book is no drama in successive acts. V. of the children of Edom. Of the juridical forms. Alcii'iiron. as put together. under which Job represents objects both in heaven and on earth. as ajudicial process.

A. evils A. for him. we have already remarked. their pains. The unfruitful desert its dwelling place city. and no longer demand her care. this scoffs at the uproar of the city ." In re- gard toother animals also. 100 And mark And know the birth-throes of the hind ? Dost thou number the months they fulfil. and spies out the smallest blade of grass. for which yet God provides. " Her the recompense with which God rewards her pains. looks away rather green herbage of the It lives mountains. and all hoarse cry of distress. Will the buffalo be willing to serve thee. He He He E. rock. and give They cast forth the offspring of Their young ones increase birth to their young. speak with for themselves.. young soon grow ing. . the hate- young raven. The cry of the driver. . moreover. which he regards and provides for the wild chamois of the Observe now. fulness of the its The terrific cruelty of the lion. he heedeth it not. we find notice of this fatherly feel- of their condition. with up. and joyous. sent forth the wild ass free. in strength . like its enslaved brother. ? the period of their bringing forth They bow themselves. With how timid true a feeling of liberty is the nature of is animal described. EuTiiYPHRON. in the wilderness unoppressed. . Who And broke for him his slavish bonds ? The wilderness have I made an house And the barren desert his dwelling. to the driver's to the voice. free. The paternal tenderness of God also. spieth out in the mountains his pasture searcheth after every green thing. They grow up in the wilderness They go from them. which God spares them and compensates the The following is an example. here so briefly described. and return no more. and this it barters not for the noise of the nor will It listen.

He scotfeth at fear. A wing with joyous cry Is it is uplifted yonder. Hast thou given the horse his strength. and and finds enjoyment after eagle own way. With vehemence and rage he devoureth the Andbelievcth not that the trumpet is ground. She heeds it not. And turneth not back from facing the sword. is Above him the rattling of the quiver. 101 And And abide through the night at thy crib ? Wilt thou bind him with his band will in the furrow. At once she is up. The lightning of the spear and the lance. that the foot may crush them. and they close magnificently these tures of the brute creation. She casts off her young for none of hers the . In vain is her travail. and is nothing daunted. Wilt thou because ho is ? strong. sounding. In short. every creature lives fashioned for its own ends. She laughs at the horse and his rider. those of the horse and tlie . And hath not imparted to her reflection. When he goeth against the weapons of war. and urges herself forward. wing and feather of the ostrich ? When she commits her eggs to the earth. other. And clothed his neck with its flowing mane Dost thou make him leap like the locust ? of his neighing is ? The pomp terrible . He paweth the earth and joyeth in his strength. ? he harrow the valleys after thee trust him. And leaves them to be warmed on the sand. unto him thy labour BelJevest thou in him. that he will gather thy harvest. the pic- finest descriptions are yet to come. And commit And E. And the wild beast trample upon them.. that thy threshing iloor shall be filled ? The wild and tame ox are here contrasted with eacli will not is and the former perform the work of the its latter. but she regards forge-tful it not For God hath made her of wisdom. A. 9* . But the three ostrich.

it would mourn for its abandoned young and hence God has denied it understanding. he cries —aha hawk up. and it presents itself to the sight. From this he spieth out his prey. the dom brute creation. Had perhaps the noblest. marked. Behemoth and still the monsters of the watery world. and by loud neighing joins in the its battle-cry of heroes. that partakes in the exits ultation of victory. ? And from far he snufTeth the The war-cry of the captains. and aU night is there. . And where the carcasses are there is he. which has ever been given of this animal. getfulness in the bird. that the name is is at first forgotten. and the shout of battle. an intelligent. and timid life in by which he has kindly adapted desert. His young ones are greedy of blood. flieth. exulting in the race and shouting for joy. are to follow. but given it its wild cry of joy. His royal tower. brave. as the region also. and he closes the as it as king of the feathered tribes. Mark now the peculiar boldness of these three descripThe ostrich. The description of the horse is it . that the eagle ? And Is it spreadeth his wings to the south wind at is lifted And buildeth his nest on high He inhabiteth the rock. and his piratical list omnipresence also are truly sovereign of another kingleviathan. Is it slaughter. tions. It is here. E. His eye searcheth it out from afar. the clift". appears as the What stupid for- wisdom of the Creator. war-like animal. flight Last comes the eagle with upward and sovereign eye. produces the noblest of horses. and its winded speed in the race. is sketched Such is with an expression of eagerness and exultation. in which the book was written. as the Arabians regard it. it to its shy the more consideration and tenderness. was begun with the in the lion. on its first rising to the view.! 102 The trumpet sounds louder . his sanguinary propensities. as a winged giant. feeling of surprise and the wonder too. by thy understanding that the thy word. High upon his rocky fortress.

the time E.103 These I will peruse by myself. E. Nothing can be plainer. and as far as may be. — did Job dwell ? If the historical introduction prefixed to the poetical part of the book is ancient and worthy of credit. we meet with no Syrian. ling and place. * And whence came iv. E. the friends. also. Uz. namely. obviously. On however. is distinctively Syrian. where the author lived. . (and of it is certainly something story). A. explain to me rather the general sense. the Gutah around Damascus. tJiough that country is so rich in natu- ral scenery peculiarly place. more than a newly invented But where was this land delightful valley of Uz? A. the aim of introducing these pictures. and instead of dwelupon them at present. And where does Jeremiah place the daughter of Edom*? A. where is the scene of the book laid. So you venture to enquire also. and look into the other Hebrew writings for ourselves." E. the connecting thread of discourse through the book. if we know not the author himThe enquiry must clearly depend for its result upon self? where another. in which the author lived. But how can we know tiiis. 28. 'A Lam. book is at variance with the book itself for here. but with Arabian and Egyptian In all its poetical imagery there is no picture which scenes. whose claim is must then give up this founded upon a resemblance of its name its own. he dwelt in the land of Uz. 21. xxxvi. It must have been this supposition. Do you know of no Uz besides this little colony from Damascus ? Read Genesis. that dwellest in the land of A. We alone. " Oh daughter of Edom. So one of the children of Edom had this name also. the introduction of the . and that probably given at a later period.

to book represents it. when Edora still liad been it often subdued and placed under the yoke. we In Eliphaz and Teman distin- among the sons of Esau. . Jer. the poet is at fault in his introduction. is many passages of the prophets* Teman find it referred to as a country or city of Edora. proverbs. 3. The to prudent men of Teman. I am it disposed to believe.J Now we know in what It was made up this Oriental or Arabick wisdom consisted. opinion. as this reo-ion. in fixing the scene of his poem without regard . the manners and customs represented in the book are Idumsean. xlix. that is. of poetry. Were left wholly to us. xlix.a ? of intellectual cultivation If not.t and Dedan dwelt on the borders of Iduma^a. Gen. he knew better than we do. xxv. E. we Bildad of all Shnah. . treated as Arabick wisdom. and the wise men of Edom seem have been proverbially spoken of. and who lived in his neighbourhood find both ? In the books of Moses even. Arabian. lofty figurative representations and riddles. 7. we should probably deny the representations of the book. xlix. viii. Obad. Can there have been at that early period such a degree in Idunia. viii. guished for prudent counsels and wise sentences. E. Which of the prophets in ? Those who their own time. just as represented in the character of Eliphaz. X It gives evidence in itself of the for the scene t and the whole cosJer. A. and say. the classic land of Oriental. and Elihu of Buz are places in or near Idumaea. 9. . 7. 13. The other cities named were in the same region and in general. Ezek. *Jer. 9. Obad. 8. 2. Zophar of Naamah.txv. in times so ancient and regions so uncultivated. to the proprieties of time and place but of this. from Shuah was a near relative of Dedan. A. which it belongs.104 who visited Job. such wisdom and such accurate knowledge of nature could never have exYet several of the prophets were clearly of a different isted. that.

of — of the Nile. all We least shall find in another part of our enquiries in a poetic strain the treasures of Oriental imagery in a eulo- where we should is expect it. origin. and I will as in Egypt. — gy of wisdom . and not the elephant. are all and wears an aspect of extraneous and far-sought ornament. you may nevertheless find it on every page of Thus the Egyptian imagery is Egyptian still. all it not ? Job surely did not Egypt. of The ideas of God. a river. or rather Oriental. and of tlie same character with books of Moses. (taking this latter word to express the general notion of what belongs to the Hebrew in common with its kindred dialects). as his friends probably were also. It is not to be mistaken.) the tombs of the kings. and the same observable in many other de- . Suffer me to proceed. the scenery and are not Egyptian. of the crocodile and the add also islands of the dead. such as are expressed in no other language but these. But has also numerous representations of objects pertaining to Egypt called the sea). of the world and of Hebrew or Oriental. as the name of no where recognizes the laws of Moses. of religion. and though it abounds in ideas pertaining all to judicial forms and proceedings.105 tume are entirely Idumaasn. E. whole. or contains any allusion to them . this kind of Asiatic tations pomp and of style prevails. If you have not discovered this from our former conversations. is tlie papyrus reed. (which v/as probably the hippopotamus of the Nile. both in the fio-urative represen- in the facts presented. or in other words. its man. Job is an Eastern Emir. not forgetting the elephantiasis live in : — and why should book. the book itself. they are an Oriental Emir. of destiny. that in the whole book. thinking in the mode of The mythology is which prevails through the poetical representations He- brew. and is it adapted to the tribunal of pervades the This mode of rci)reseiitation the Tery soul of the book. — the behe- moth. It the princes of Edom mentioned in the Jor- dan occurs in the book. A. (wiiich here.

the behemoth. Iduuicea as the place. are the pillars of Hercules. the happiness of the all his is Emir are own conceptions. . According the common was intended. and on these the whole is built. On the other hand. the father of failing the family. a number of other less important circumstances. They are introduced as something In respect this is strange and beyond the knowledge of the vulgar. and this is the purpose for which they are introduced. as the hippoopinion the elephant potamus. together point out. moving hordes and caravans are images of most frequent ocBands of robbers. the treasures brought from Africa. at the end of the book. E. the ultima Thule of the author's chart of knowledge. then. Had these two last animals 'been lived. the judicial tribunal. to it seems. in accordance also with the lxx and the historical introduction. streams from drought. dwellers in caves. and. The leviathan and behemoth. Is it possible. but the pa- triarchal offering. A. it is He acquainted with the offering of sacrifices. conducted by Job himself. life. A. and the leviathan unde- niably the case. and wild asses. They appear curiosity and as foreign and strange monsters. Arabian deserts. currence in the book. nor with such an air of solemnity. the avenger of blood. which cannot so easily be reckoned up. as objects of wonder . common where Job they could not have been described as so gigantick. lions. to the ostrich. to determine with any degree of precision the sphere in which the author of the home. The mode of the pos- sessions.106 scriptions in this book. all the formalities of an Asiatic court of justice. in which the scene of the book is laid. You consider the behemoth. Witl^ tolerable precision. the rarities of Egypt stand out as orna- ments derived from rare and far-sought knowledge. in the country. and what among the objects presented or what was familiar I in it book was at was strange.

The . and since. as something foreign and monstrous it seems me. than of the elephant. placed apart from the land animals. and his force is in is the navel of his belly. Ludolf. as foreign words were by the and Greeks. which also are arranged in a separate discourse by themselves. It is not a proboscis. His strength too His bones are is in his loins. in Hebrews company with the crocodile. the name behemoth itself to the may be considered probably the Egyptian all name of this animal. which he moveth like a cedar ? E. that he eateth grass like the ox. as if he would drink up fit- the river with his enormous mouth. as to in the Orientals. all and represented. moreover. and find the description as accurate. but the tail. to suit their it is own forms). and his back-bone a bar of iron. a character not well ting a land animal. since introduced. as could well be of a re- mote and strange animal. like brazen rods. that the mountains bring him forth food. He goes against the stream. A. that its this opinion has at least a balance of probabilities favour. believe you will Read Reimar. where on the contrary the like elephant weakest. but obvious of the description favour this view. is weapons. tering . weapons Since. reeds. for the sharp-pointed and projecting tusks of the hippopotamus and the language applies better to these. the description undoubtedly it is whose usual resort is the river. and become it the I prevailing one. They is are however not conclusive. as something singular. (here modified. which the language . creatures of the watery realm are by . and the beasts of the field play around him. which clearly does not suit a description of the ele- phant. latest common opinion I have little it chance of be the al- but that of earlier times supposed to rhi- noceros traits and not only respectable authorities. that of an animal In general. He sleeps among the and lies concealed among the marshes on the shore of the river. and will at length JBochart. But the proboscis. jj-ehe-moutk. He that made him his has fur- nished him with a sword.107 E.

always. drawn from the paternal and judicial character of an Oriental Emir. and as its then shapes itself always remains. low and level plains of an Arabian. too. bending over as the cedar bends branch- This is the sense expi'essed by the ancient versions.108 here indicates . I make allow^ance too for the difference which a change of circumstances. book. MoMoses this even in the sublimest passages. which early impres- Job abounds so much in images indelible. which he applies even to God. full of meaning. of having studied Moses and without prejudice. The style of in the thought Idumaean. this Moses saw nothing in Egypt. I am sorry that I cannot find reason to adopt this pretJ. nor its is the length of the cedar the point of the its comparison. nor did any of his fathers . I may say. the poetry of that Solon wrote the Iliad I and the Eumeni- can boast. while he was with Jethro. very peculiarities in the style of and in the arrangement of his imagery are foreign to listening. as the East and the West. ty It is said Moses wrote it. general and quite ancient opinion. which are often even more charit acteristick than any other. think you. and the image fits the appearance of this round-shaped monster. than des of iEschylus. rank Moses very high as a poet. but find no more evidence that he wrote the book of Job. has a more flowing and gentle style. but es. heroick. in the loftiest tone of expression and the boldest imagery. Who. forcible. occupation. age. this also I believe. still they ap- pear to me as directly opposed each other. as in favourite traits. that we see in what But of sphere he was educated and his imagination formed. The voice.c. would produce to . E. especially in sions render great features. was the author of the book ? A. forth in The to which we are here in the is tliat comes rough and interrupted tones from among the rocks. ses. The poetical style of Job is throughout concise. &. But enough. as well those little general scope of his imagery. of an and can never have been trained of Egypt. its The it fancy of the poet acquires character in youth.

in the spirit of an entirely different race of people. mode of life. that it. while with Jethro. is here it To him the whole of this if was foreign and would be a fact truly marvellous. we should have found many more traces of its having been imitated by the Hebrew poets.109 sustain the character of an Eastern prince. E. to passages as I have self. his together with the poetry admitted to be laws and institutions. A. images one from the other. come that period into the hands of the Hebrews with assemblage of incomparable imagery and genuine poetry. I . May we I not suppose. accredited by their respect for Moses. At So least. it and only filling it out and applying each in his 10 . that we may Yet I while tending the this opinion. flocks of Jethro. know of no ground there a translation. during his residence with his father-in-law. originality in the book are it at A. even to howat ever gladly I might entertain seems me its improbable. How ! often do the prophets crowd and encroach upon each other borrowing their peculiar way. then. such exhibited. approaches the poetical style of the Arabians. as Idumaea borders on Arabia. but to sup- was written pose it Hebrew. and their customs and the spirit of their poetry naturally exert a reciprocal influence. must say. Had this book. By going over a few might have saved the necessity of saying so much but you can easily make the comparison for yourwhich he was a stranger. in a confined and narrow circle. of a different in short. he had produced also this collection of poetry. than %re now perceivable. of a world. Rather the strong features of variance with it. his. Moses may have found not leave him idle. I find nothing farther than this to give credit to the hypothesis. translated the poem from to the Arabick it. ? might be willing In admit if it should seem to have come among the Hebrews by his it means. that Moses. But how are is we to prove this in ? my It opinion I is not a translation. E. then. as .

who valued himself more. who mentions Job by name. which they had Edom. But are there not then imitations Psalms ? Imitations perhaps of particular passages and of indi- vidual images. David we know reduced Edom to subjection. both it strong and whatever treasures of knowledge at his might possess. 20 and the short. and gained greater honour. still fewer in the prophets and Ezekiel the first. It is name I is here placed after those of follow the most ancient notice Noah and Daniel. its When cities he cast shoe over This ancient and venerable pyramid stands for the most part unimitated. as a servant. E. (a manuscript in the Syriack character). sentiments of Moses to was besides not accordant with the borrow from the people bordering on Canaan. he strove to imitate it. whose proper name was Jobab. than time of Moses ? their re- A. than of his throne. were command . either books or religious notions. Job. This occurs in c. as it is perhaps inimitable. translated from the Syriack. If in his later Psalms. ites But do you see no nearer way for the in the Israel- of the age of David to be acquainted with through the intercourse. . While Moses came It in collision with them by fusing him a passage. obtain them. lxx and is attached to the " This book is translation of the as follows. In the time of David his the matter was otherwise. on account of his poetical productions. this proves. . discover so many passages Psalms. since he aimed as far as possible to make the Israelites in every thing a separate people. in the A. which appear . however. and well was worthy be read by a prince and patriarch like David. Thus came would probably take some pains to into his hands this book of ancient and poetical strains the steadfast it wisdom. and a king. (for in these alone are similar expressions obser- vable). I its style. xiv. that it he too felt the sublimity of strains. In we have of this book. E. even in the to be properly imitations of is this. celebrating to in lofty piety of one of their ancient Emirs . and aimed to join with his pastoral do not myself.

for But how — a notion of so much The E. be severely of. e. have sometimes had doubts on little this point. The first chapters are written with such patriarchal simplicity. happily unnecessary for A. and the understanding of the book. On Arabia. authorized to do. ly Do I you then consider the historical introduction equal? ancient with the poetical parts E. who came to him were Eliphaz. who was called Job. and ites founded on the family register of the Edom- furnished by Moses. but found them of weight. and God himself directs his attention is He goes no farther than he trial.Ill lived in the district of Ausitis on the borders of Idumsea and was descended from Esau. Jobab. especially nothing in the book contradicts it. that they are fully worthy of the author of the poetry. Emir of Shuah the father's side he . But certainty cannot be attained it is matters of so high antiquity. representation of Satan. as he appears here. to Job. The kings of Edom were Balak the son of Beor. is so widely different from the later Chaldee . though indeed it may easily be said. This account cannot be supposed entirely factitious. indeed. and was the fifth from Abraham. one this among the attendant train of the is Supreme Sovereign. such commanding brevity. and at the end of the book Satan is no longer heard This conception of him. hold to be very ancient. he permits Job tried . first I is may add is too. an Edomite. . the mention of Satan to later origin. He is simply one of the angels. that the scene presented in the be accounted chapter obviously the groundwork of the whole book. i. and he does only by way of God maintains the right." of Teman Baldad. &c. The friends. as an angel or messenger commissioned of God. tiiat it grevv out of the resemblance of the is names Job in and Jobab. to though for a long time. In in character he sent as a messenger to search through the world and bring information. and unstudied sublimity. I A. prince Zophar king Naamah. this He merely acts accordance with the duty of his office.

and to punish. he may see his judge. who has been unjustly treated. prises Yet me. I have already remarked. and as Satan sent with a court commis- sion to prove Job. and at certain periods gathers his servants. and that he would himself take cog- nizance of the matter. Job is silent. and faitlifully adheres to him. how much the reference of every thing to a court of justice prevails throughout the book.112 conception. E. sits in Why should its it ? Every age and every nation transfers both to the upper and nether it is the picture of own customs As in the first chapter here represented. in order to receive informis around him ation from the earth. Supreme and All-powerful Judge to various sublast the him as already condemned. and he is richly compensated is for the grievances which he had suffered. who assume against to justify the His friends are the advocates of God. and the primitive cause of all evil. This the plan of the book. The Chaldee Satan is the opposer of Ormuzd. so Job appears through the whole book. At sovereign appears in his own person. The agent represented in Job cannot even be com- pared with the Typhon of the Egyptians. whether he be a true worshipper of God. I confess this view of the subject not a little sur- E. that I cannot but wonder how it should have led Heath and others to consider the whole book of Chaldee origin. as one who is punished without a hearing. He is nothing but the attendant angel of the tribunal. as an aggriev- ed person. You will find the connecting thread of discourse. as an Emir. and the characters of the speakers pointed . Such a conclusion falls very wide of the mark. tliat He wishes only. A. out. and resort terfuges for that end. a messenger sent out to to chastise make enquiry. A. the angels. which you can read. world. restitution is made. or what the ancients called a man's evil genius. have sketched some farther outlines of it. It I would be very instructive to see it exhibited in detail. that God the heavens. and in the attributes of majesty calls Job to account.

that at the close. iv xv—xxi. As a diadem would I bind it to my turban. xxxii — — xxxvii. have made my defence Oh that the Almighty had answered me. to be considered a kind of drama ? Not according to our conception of the drama for how would such an one be possible. and listens to the discourse of Elihu.|l God appears. And one had writ my cause in a book As a mantle I would lay it on my shoulder. xxxviii — xlii. and a progression in the action represented. the part of is Zophar ations. and his innocence. to decide the contest. The historical statements before and after arc obviously but the prologue and epilogue. E. his present wretchedness. a methodical connexion discoverable among the speakers. an intelligible relation of parts. As such ity too. only not after our fashion. t Chap.! except that in the third. and spent prolonged discourses. xxvii —xxxi. Chap. Job begins with uttering his complaints :* the three opponents make is their several speeches. Ts the book.}: He pictures his former happy condition. * t But xiv. in exhibiting what is here- A. he utters the wish had one. in a style at once so beautiful and afTecting. who had heard nie. || Chap. and sets forth his cause in represent- which are unquestionably among the finest passages in the book. the entrance and the exit. This process repeated three times. iii. he stands before us till in the book. and Job answers. in the fulness and simplicity of his heart. 10* . all is motionless. that I Oh Now that I I I . Chap. . wanting. § xxii Chap. Job after defending himself against thein keeps the ground alone. then. placed before us the time is ? Here in is no action . Is there. as the supreme in author- and wisdom. I would number all my steps before him As a prince would I draw near unto him. ? E.§ — 113 A. Certainly there is. then. I shall not contend x\\'\..

To gratify a taste for this. a history of afflicted It and suffering innocence all over does. the same fashion. In this alone consists A. figurative style. But the discourses which are contained bunal and the appearing of God. — a monument more noble than It is brass. stately ornament of their rhetorick and poetry. is Of this there is no doubt. The Orientals are fond of these learned consessions. It is in fact simply a consessus of wise men. and everlasting living imagery will be preserved in there. history. The discourses are indeed divided oiF at interact. is to me a matter of indifference. written its with deep impression upon the hearts of men. this ? and the substance of the images presented cannot be all Who could discourse extempore in such style as E. the representation of Satan. and after the listen to with patience. tri- A. but poetry of a kind. more durable than marble. vals . by the depth and truth of exhi- bitions. engaged pro and contra in discussing the justice of the Supreme dramatic Governor of the world. indeed. it Its powerful and profound poetry makes a history. to indulge the cherished fondness for hearing lofty sentences.wished. That of. to think a It becomes. This ^HJD mashal. yet the words scene. conflict of argument and of wisdom its respecting the case of Job. In the style of composition it is poetry from beginning to end. and of long discourses in a lofty. facts ? Do you suppose the book to be founded on historical E. such as we have few its examples the world. the remembrance.114 about a word. wouid seem to me entirely misplaced here. and for celebrating the . of a spirit so elevated as this book exhibits. and then answer is their philosophy. which of all the most natural. In that case the book for him the perpetual memorial which he . a character. which they hear through. render the picture like more grateful man Job actually is lived and that he gave proof of a soul so firm.

The scene of action is above . of is it How much of it may be history. the sayings. below is presented in tlie book is two-fold. The most ancient poetry.115 combats of wit and wisdom. You well know whose the estimation. book of Job. and historical notices of their fathers. we must previously treat of the Oriental traditions. fruits We shall there find ourselves garden. In order to the last. by themselves. the poet meditated and wrote this conflict of suffering virtue. which relate to the creation and destination of in a man. receive their form and character wholly from this state of mind. ject of I it into a harmonious whole. hold such traditions of the olden time. rejoice at also. Brief outline of the book of Job considered as a composition. which for is still extant and perhaps the most ancient composition of art in the world. The scene and on earth. A. in wiiicli the Orientals and all nations. and the style of thought in this book. as it. I am deeply interested in the sub- showing how wise men of the most ancient times discoursed of the providence of God and the destiny of man. that which is is occupied with discourse only respecting what . minds are equally under the dominion of sense. of no use for us to know. names. in heaven. E. where the earliest germs of poetry were cultivated. of human wisdom overcoming and again overcome. and learn what flowers and have been derived from it to the poetical productions of later times. how much it may ever have been actually spoken as here recorded. E. which APPENDIX. the Here are the few pages respecting alluded. however. to I shall gladly accompany you into this garden of the primitive Hebrew I world. it The poet heard it all and has composed A.

bittered. without comprehending its true import. in a condition of suffering. and longs for his life is en. his representations of the power and wisdom of God. for even a hero permitted to groan from bodily pain. and God holds the crov/n in readiness to adorn his brow. justifies the word of his maker. the uncertain and fluctuating all speculations — the every in the guilt- day condition of the philosophies and theodicees is The less object. and even of bodily anall his guish. They look they should seek above the stars. but rather embittered his sorrows. or philosophical justification of the Governour of the world in the permission of evil . by which they sought to silence his complaints.116 acted in the other. no one even conjectures. they yielded no consolation to the afflicted sufferJob surpassed them in er. ings be represented in a light er ? more honourable to the sufferit In this general view of the contents of the book. it . — the customary picture of worldly of the earth for that which Their views are too narrow. Hence world. so far . man. This . but still remained miserable couisolation. not a partial justification trived. But however ingenious the speculations of these worldly philosophers. and too much obin the dust scured. may be considered a theodicee. Job maintains his integrity. such as the wise ones of the earth conis though these too said much that ingenious. He sees death near. in those views. We forgive is him lamentations and sighs. Can human suffer. of which the book treats. that the reason of Job's afflictions was what the In the first chapter represents mean time what honour is bestowed upon the ! sackcloth and ashes of the humble sufi'erer He is made a spectacle to angels and to the whole host of heaven. why should he not groan glory of ? Job's sufferings are inflicted to promote the honour and God they are designed to maintain the truth of what God had spoken in praise of his servant. an upright. None of them look it.

Chap. give a sacredness to the representations of the whole book. though really of a soothing character. and the plot. The poet has given him a char- acter of rashness and warmth of feeling. the thread of the argumost involved. The three their several philosophers exhibit distinctive characters in their discourses. and so modest. by an ingenious • Chap. The round 80 of interlocutory discourse between the parties thrice repeated. and a nice sense of proprie- ty in adapting the parts. and the invisible spectators of Job's patience in suffering. But is the man. He is also the with- draw from is the scene. Job aflirms in answer though Eli- to Zophar. t produce a better underxt t ziii. which at the first address of Eliphaz. Chap. || — xxi. which friends. hurries him away. T. and Zophar most part only first to repeats what Bildad had said. if we may so call it. and indeed of the dialogue if it itself. that to give to the lesson which he aims treats Job he does not speak for the his own thoughts altogether.* Bildad Job more severely. like other and here he human men. contained only the complaints of the sufferer. intricate for at the end of this. and the condolence of his An accuracy of discrimination. Eliphaz in is the most senfirst and discerning. This leaven of his natural temper is the condiment of his virtue. but communicates an oracle. they are already much is at variance. 12. upon the is earth. involved in a conflict of argument. .! At the close of the first. It in the worldll only seduced to do so in the heat of discussion. pervade the whole work. zzii ^xxti. xxi. — xiv. that Job formally appeals from them as his accusers to ment most he is God. Chap. J In the second. would be tedious and uninstructive. and Job sible is made to surpass them in attempts both as a philosopher and as a poet. . whom strained to regard as a the inhabitants of heaven are conmodel of human fortitude and constancy. to phaz seeks. that the wicked even prosper turn.— 117 two-fold scene.

and supercilious. what he had uttered from the excitement of the and in three successive paragraphs exhibits specimens of thought and imagery.* Bildad has little. Job commences with a beautiful elegy.113 standing. but the matter has gone too far. the complication of the argument be- comes more and more intricate from one discourse to another. § Chap. xxvi. and serve to give universality of character and human interest to the argument of the piece.! and Zophar nothing to say in reply. and modifies his former expressions.§ and closes for the most part each of his discourses with an affecting lamentation These may be compared to the chorus of of the like kind. and the course of thought. and hence no one even returns him an answer. or assumes the same grounds for his own till discourse. Supreme Judge. in short. they have in fact their lights and shades . U Chap. Chap. Job declares his sen- timents. if he has not remarked how Job wrests always from his hand his opponent's own weapon. the very soul of the book. he is assuming. who by his actual appearance only shews and the shadow vanishes. iii. and to no purpose . t Chap. the He stands there as an empty shadow. He discourses in a lofty style. which are the crown of the whole work. between the discourses of Job and the address of his nothingness. xxiv. xKii—xx*vii. like a lion among defeated enemies. and either says the same thing better. His introduction t • Chap. IT of the same sort. Job returns upon his own steps. xxvii. a younger proLike most inspired men phet ushers himself upon the scene. . and Job comes off triumphant. After Job has silenced the three wise men. has failed of apprehending the animated and pro- gressive character. retracts contest.ll However monotonous all these discourses may have sounded to us. He his then proceeds with calm confidence. or rather. the ancient tragedy.]. xxviii—xxxi. Whoever has not been guided by this thread? and especially. and accumulates figurative expressions without end. bold. || Chap.

breaks in upon the prophet. . had described . and finally the monsters of the deep.! vvhich. without being aware of He it. These relate mysteries of creation and providence. who utters his voice in the tempest. who had overcome all all opponents and ex- hausted as to the it were the treasures of wisdom. most of them are even injurious to man. who. and for " WhereThey are not for man's behoof. he speaks not at first as a judge. the incomprehensible who cares for acknowledged goodness.* He proposes problems and hard questions to him. as for it were. but as a teacher. which he had suffered. as the paternal author of the universe. Submission therefore to the infinite plan. With him too. t God Chap." With all his worldall which. ? fore are these creatures here ly wisdom. He restored him to happiness. his coming. The true theodicee man is a study of the power. with paternal fondness. xxxix-xli. who had assumed to be his advocates. make known even to Job. God himself appears upon the scene unexpected and with overpowering magnificence. and recompensed him for the injuries. he has created. understanding. and goodness of God in all the works of nature. does not subjected * Chap. of the great tlie crocodile and the raven this — the solution of the problems concerning providence and the destiny from the mouth of Supreme Ruler tlie himself. wisdom. and confound to silence the worldly and put wisdom even of Job all himself. wherefore he had him to trial. he daily provides. Job is put to silence and confounded. that his understanding and his plan surpass the comprehension of ours. xxxviii. with conspiring move- ment. He places before him seven striking forms of the brute creation. but obvious and father of is all. of the whole creation. and an humble acknowledg- ment. and treated it as an impossible event passes by the wise men. and directs his discourse to Job.119 in its relation to the composition of the whole is wisely and instructively arranged.

as the superintendant book and director of the wide creation. his poetic fire. whose soul kindled with these divine concepwhom was vouchsafed such access to the counsels of God. fortuna compositus. of which I have sketched only some feeble outlines. to grave of him. in the fortunes of an humble sufferer. clothed the sublime in sackcloth and sitting in ashes. not in words. to angels and the souls of men. and a theodicee or justification of the moral government of God. this justification of the ways of God to man. to whose meditations we are indebted for this ancient book. but fired with ? inspirations of his own wisdom Who shall point us to the tions. as the father. in this altation of humanity. of providence . who embraced in a who could send and his human affection^ . and human destiny are scattered throughout the book eral conception is but the divinest consolation and instruction are found in the gen- and plan of the book itself. single glance the heavens and the earth. that without Ecce spectaculum dignum ad quod respiciat intentus Ecce par Deo dignum vir fortis cum male operi suo Deus. — silent picture. is but in its exhibition of events. that they were required to seek atonement by an offering from the hand of Job. So far. hand. words. style of its it is If not the produc- worthy to have been so. Through the whole God acts as the king. and sublime exwho has exhibited them too. tion of a sovereign prince. the most persuasive grounds of consolation. and whatever can be said. on opposite grounds of argument. But who shall answer our enquiries respecting him. the raven and the behemoth are all equal in his sight. Thus lofty and divine is the plan of the book. and forth his living spirit. In this view it an epic representation of human nature. for the representations is princely. The finest descriptions of the attributes and of the government of God. Angels and men.120 and this was all that he could ask. were those who had placed themselves in on the other God's stead from being honoured and rewarded. in that working.

how blest have been his afflictions. was here the recorder of his own sufferings. . his unuttered marks the place of for a his rest. the patient sufferer. in this book. unheard. has taught. the heavens to the earth. flour- ishing in unfading green. No cypress. how amply rewarded his pains! Here. that the Lord tiful very pi- and of tender mercy. Ye have heard own truth. gaged in a yet nobler song in that world. With was en^ is name he has consigned book is to oblivion all that earthly. 11 v.121 to all that exists. own glory. full of imperishable thought. lie has drawn down around encamped their host invisibly the bed of languishing. that God too looks with a trial watchful eye upon his creatures. he still lives. 11. did Not only. and. gives utterance to the sorrows of his heart. and exposes them to the of their integrity for the maintenance of his the promotion of his happy which endure. and then humbled in the dust. and Behold. and made the afflictions of the sufferer a spectacle to angels . and where the morning Or if he. which gives and will forever give reviving energy to the faint and strength to the powerless. and extends his triumph over centuries and continents. from the land of the shadow of death and beyond the stars ? to the starry firmament. and from his odorous nest is diffused an incense. we count them of the patience of Job.* *JameB. leaving his memorial below. according he die in his nest. but a phoenix has sprung forth from his ashes. where the voice of sorrow and mourning stars sing together. is and have seen the end of the Lord. of his own wisdom first victorious in conflict. to his wish. and of his own triumph.

The original germs of various kinds of Oriental poetry contained in it. VI. and in Ezechiel's visions. ful Pictures of the golden age in the peace- intercourse of all animals with each other. Poetical ideas of it exhibited in pictures of youth. Biblical poems descriptive of the Cherubim and of thunder. in the temple of Solomon. and of the scenery of nature. pic fable. Of love in Paradise. in all The same ideally represented received Eve with songs and songs of love. EtJTHYPHRON. Whether they were a mythological representation of the thunder storm in the form of horses. Sphinxes. Change in Consequences the condition of man. Of the and tree of knowledge. crafty animal. wilderness. Traditions of the most ancient fabled animals of the primitive world. Of the life. Why Moses placed it in the remoteness of an enchanted land. and are farourod with a delightful morning. of God. Of Adam's conversing with the brutes. Why to the serpent might eat of the tree. of love. of eating of the forbidden tree. be as the Elohim. We are again together. Distinction between true and false is Whether the tradition of the tree of knowledge it an Explanation of as an ancient tradition. Their origin and composition. Char- acter of the serpent as an artful. pression of the affections of the sexes in these primeval traditions. Of Ezechiel's Cherub on the mountain of God. Why ^so- men wished wisdom. Whether the representations of Para- disc tend to hold men too much under the influence of sense. in the poetry of the Hebrews. Of the war-chariot. who guarded the Whether the Cherubim of Moses were from the ark of the covenant these representations and at last appeared in visions of the Of the Oriental mountains prophets. What is meant by the knowledge of good evil. but man not. Whether Adam Delicate ex- prophetick anticipations. Of the Cherubim in the tabernacle of Moses. How were transferred to the clouds. tree of From what cause tales of also this region particularly became the scene of so many Beautiful peculiarity of it enchantment. treasures of Paradise. . Analogy of what is here related to our own experience. Wheth- er they contribute to cherish the Oriental love of repose. and a deceiver. and of the chariots of God in the Most ancient representations of thunder. Whether it ever had a real existence. in which God is represented in Habakkuk.DIALOGUE Of Paradise. Appendix. Of the Cherubim. Of the chariot of Elijah.

while the spring revives the recollection of them in the it minds of and re- stores their original freshness as were from year to year. sions from the poets without doubt contributed to this and indeed we have very fine poets.123 Alciphkon. poetical delineations of the good old times. beauty and repose. Early impres. for in fact. always the most uncorrupted and susceptible of imit pressions ses. and so at the same time to the Paradise of own early years . which they present. to accompany the patriE. and repeat in their young have a own dreams all. Recollections of your A. and will always remain the favourite objects of contemplation for the young. Thus pastoral songs. you will recollect. or with tears of regret. of such objects. and scenes of Paradisiacal peace and happiness have been multiplied. as a whole. own youth do you mean ? was the delight of my childhood to wander in those scenes of beauty and innocence. and longings. among a people. distinct and those of the one Thus the morning will be to me It one of delightful recollections. . who have given us pictures E. You are to carry me back. at with all his ardent wishes What indeed does man aim but Paradise plicity ? that is. in its my my and apprehension. propriateness to Yes. which we picture to ourselves in the primeval Paradise. in the earliest events of their history. the race. the pictures of happiness. health and love. has successive periods of developement are analogous to those of the other. what can he have. very opportunely. sim1 and innocence . Every people has them. The poets. no less than the individual. and with singular apthe subject of our present conversation. blissful Among all nations. a feeble echo at least specting the heard re- gofden age of tiieir ancestors. archs of our race with affectionate regard. the children as . were of the Mu- have seized upon these traditions the natural fondness for them. to the infancy of our race. is still who are not wholly savage.

or soon to become so. gives the situation of Paradise only . or the land of de- he represents God as planting a garden. it they now. however. and happiness trifled self-excited passion. perceive. was the garden situated ? Where which grew in it the tree of life — and the tree of knowledge turity ? ? Have these ever come Where are I confess. dition to Yet there is much of which is 1 have my doubts. amid the and care. of peace and of Paradise. A. . of which we are to speak. is between fable and in between historical fact and the dress which it clothed. You have remarked correctly. So should have and the purpose. land. in a country so extensive are the marvellous trees. the Phasis and the Oxus. the appearance of fable. that Moses. But how sad is is to reflect. name of Eden. You are a very eloquent interpreter. and must have felt deeply the refined yet natural sense. of which he parlife. we soon see the serpent away through groundless and tlie Close by tree of life grovvs always for man Such the wished for tree of that proud knowledge and understanding. that most of what is thus represented but a dream. including in wide (?bmpass Colchis and CashIn this broad mire with their golden streams. found in the enjoyment of innocence. truth. of those traditions. to which he gives the light. it He places too. The primeval Paradise the Paradise of spring and of youth passes rapidly away. and we are driven out of it into the open field of labour. precisely in tliose remote regions. as well as the regions of the Indus and Euphrates. where fable has placed every thing its marvellous. there Wherever. lost. which we are now to distinguish seeking to accomplish. a race may be intruding. and where stood the to maCherubim ? All this. Where. that is is. E. I E. clearly represents fairy land.124 A. is takes at the expense of his the fate of mortals. or the tradition copied by him. which they express. or ? Moses him unknown the whole a poetical traas a wide extended and it. has to me. then. too summer heats of anxious toil among the nations. Had Paradise ever a real existence.

and anticipate his labour. and that the region in which it is placed. that tradition. must some and wJiere more probably— where have had a beginning whether we look at history. so far as history and the progress of cultivation enables us to judge. But do not these later marvels show. had such ever been made. has been only gradually spread over the earth. to which these traditions surface Here we find the most elevated places in the direct us ? . which you speak of in Moses' account of the situation of Paradise. and consider only rise. and adorned with flowers. there must have been some more simple and some ? real fact in primeval history. the plant their of immortality. it were. in which they had their origin There must have been some cause for the singular fact. therefore leave this tradition to its We may original vagueit ness. the original archives of Paradise tliat what. too. For the traditional ideas of Paradise infuse themselves 11* into the boldest anticipations of . neither traversed the country. that the tradiiions of the whole world chance to point towards one and the same region. the golden apples. what poetical representations has given A. Moreover the is very indefiniteness. or the formation of the earth's than in those very regions. of their Peris and Neris. a tree with many branches. an evidence of its truth.he did was it is all which he had the means of doing. on which the sun agency to Here nature seems almost spontaneously to yield her man. was the garden of all Gods and Genii. He had so would give no more than tradition had furnished. &c. of the ancient Tliey are the most fertile. which.125 within very wide and vague limits. is just that fable-land. nor could have found there. in But not our business at present to trace historical truth. shines. It has indeed been a fruitful source. with other creatures of en- chantment. the back-bone. in which the nations visionary of antiquity placed their finest pictures of all that is and enchanted — the golden It fleece. as world. — continent of Asia. The human race. He .

A land. than the images of sense. And whose streams a sweeter fragrance yield. and all is bliss. It is thus the beginning and the end of Hebrew poetry. Nor thought revive the anguish of the past Where all. the ideas of Paradise contain the highest ideal of human happiness and bliss. both for the present and even the future world —a land. in accordance with liis previous propensities has conceived the joys of Paradise with the grossness of sensu- . E. who were continued already given up to sensual indulgence. of their hopes. endures. itself. we . And still beautiful at the end. while the writings of the New there Testament have raised higher dignity in the representation of heaven tree of life. A. that is. of sensuous objects this or of the future world. and seek beyond the rivers and the ocean the golden regions of antiquity and the islands of the blest. But may not such pictures have had an undue effect ? in holding men under the influence And what pictures. It is the dream of their love. either of the limits of our other. have so. and the tree of life still blooms in the very last of the books of scripture. as in the beginning. How has the Paradise of Adam been ennobled by the prophets They have to still exalted and transferred it to the times of the Mesit siah. still thought even. An endless bridal and perpetual dawn. E. 126 the prophets. In the whole compass of Oriental poetry. too. of their youth. ! . That never wastes nor vanishes away. even among the Arabians and Persians. know no of those primeval times had no whose images might be employed and men more abstract instruments of If those. trees cast round a more substantial shade. Where vain illusions shall deceive no more. all There blooms the we have placed the scenes of Paradise. if Mohammed. ? should the poet make.. but such as are representable to sense Beyond own fair world of sense.

and hope. fear only. not in the thing in this point itself. seems a thing of course . which contribute to this end. in the poetick fervour of their feelings. And yet injustice is sometimes done even to the disciples of shown seems as Mohammed. to which the Orientals in general are so I much given. and of Paradise. of delight. as the original state of nature jiend. their promote improvement. the strong hold of pleasure. Their poets and philosophers have much metaphysical refinement respecting their future In general too. or of the beauties of spring. that the dwelling place of repose. too much cherish tliat relaxation and repose of mind. and that.— 127 ality. that in their burning plains. ol desire. or hear the sound of bubbling fountains and cooling streams. I appre- to soften the manners of men. Would it have been better. not to make them i savage. and enjoyment in the bosom of nature have undoubtedly done so A. They feel and enjoy more spirit exquisitely . we must make some allowance here the characteristick spirit of Eastern nations. the fault is in the abuse of sense. Suppose they do. that like the Northern heroes they had transformed their Paradise into a golden banqueting hall. ? It is the office of poetry. in the same spii-it. as any of the Northern nations. Pictures of a Paradise of inno- cence. of love. wherever they meet with shady trees. know not. since we are so well the nationgratifying furnished with task-masters in the community. al why poetry should be a task-master also. for it Paradise. that representations gladly admit it. think or had conceived you. to me. Hobbes' representation of wild and universal war. To me it is rather. their lively imaginations picture to them the tranquil joys of Paradise. why should not also their poetical expres- sions of love. breathe the same ? of refined and voluptuous enjoyment It A. Have ? those two marvellous trees also contributed to the effect . they denominate this the land of Eden. or by other terms of the like kind. may E. and in poetical pictures of I innocence. All representations.

And the tree of knowledge ? We will talk of that Adam call hereafter. that which peculiarly and unchang- characterizes each ingly expressed. Did it never strike you also.128 E. distinctively. consistently. a continual iEsopick fable. to represent brutes. and in quiet subjection to him. A fabulous age truly. should that the fear we not all go on Now of God. a most agreeable and it delightful image. . Did we but know where a pilgrimage to visit it ? blooms. we be less excited ? Can book There we be of the it unaffected by where represented. should it. Nor has any poetical tradition of Paradise forgotten moreover. in the poetry of the Orientals. and to his feelings. A. They A. which this representation inspires. The tree of life certainly. live at peace among themselves. their eldest brother. as the tree of immortality stands before us. to the fruits When my of the earth. and whole mode of is life. nations with there to revive and restore the conquering but wearied soldier. in his dictionary The first comparnames were the living cries of brute animals. as in the last ? New Testament. and wisdom are represented as a tree of life. in a two-fold sense. to heal all its its unfading leaves. The first perception. E. even in itself considered. modifi- ed by their relation to his organs. It is. which he had of the various . that God brings to the animals of the brute creation to see what ? he would nature. and to nourish them with ever fresh and new returning fruits. The divinity has here exhibited before us. in the Paradise of God. temperance. their master. man here in conversation with the He is their king. in a sportive representation. tongue let shall no longer be sensible me die in the hope. at the end of our course and of the strife It is of our pilgrimage. as it were. which blooms for us all. his reason and language. them By this living intercourse and study of man cultivated his faculties of perception. dispositions and characters of the soul. of ison and abstraction. was in the brutes their gait. for in their looks. as a fine incident in the account of Paradise.

his sleep. that God brought her her to him. have given very fine descriptions of E. The finds love of Paradise the artless and primeval description of all love. Many is others have done so besides Milton. it is even a mere poetical yet worthy to be the poetry of Paradise. but as yet without the occasion or the feeling of shame — all this is so delicately it felt. is who himfeels. and is unable to express the want which he to. it. so briefly. And a little child shall lead them. The calf. as in praise it existed in Para- — what can you say true. yet so beautifully expressed. . tlie A. out of the shield and resting place of his own heart. 6. The suckling shall play on the hole of the The weaned child on the cockatrice's den There In all shall be none to hurt nor destroy of the knowledge of Jehovah. that both were naked. And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. mysterious longing of the man. * The wolf shall dwell with the lamb. * Isaiah xi. the young lion. The leopard shall lie down with the kid. and the fatling together. his dream perhaps. and with the most and animating application. my holy mountain. At least a golden age. is full For the earth As the waters cover the sea. Of such pictures as skilful this the prophets are full. the forming of his wife out of his own breast. that Adam embraced with the natural expression of admiration and delight.. that wore representation. The new and self alone. from the heart of his paternal Creator. the farther particulars. and blessed them both. of that ? Milton and others. Their young ones shall down together. The cow and the bear shall feed quietly lie . 129 E. asp. but which responded as it were. Listen to a single description of It in the language of Isaiah. dise it is And representation of love.

that Adam himself ut- tered the words ascribed to him. thou art my other it heard in its alternating voices from one end of to the other. by which they went out from Eden. with the prophetick expression which they include ? Whether he did or not. It is at least an incidental purpose of traditions so full of meaning and of sentiment as these. according to this account. are drawn from the quiet fountains of this garden of Eden. and you know the consequences. by tones. Let him have uttered fullest. to have been written self. or perhaps by both is that simplest. otherwise neither tradition nor the E." are The Oriental poets moreover are draw their pictures of love and youth in this The Song of Solomon. who recorded it. Adam's simple expressions of admiration and love. A. ob- At first " they are naked and are not ashamed. as he would. as it were. the Paternal Judge appears and makes known to them . the feeling.130 Love of incipient this description belongs to Paradise. and see their nakedness . it able. was his feeling. or gestures. the step. united with innocence and prophetick anticipation. makes up the whole Paradise of the heart. which were brought upon the mother of our race." they eat of the tree. A. You have made out a rather refined analysis of the it history of Paradise. accustomed to same spirit. these feelings so full of simplicity and innocence. would have put the language it in his mouth. and purest emotion. which animates them. however. for example. in the beautiful It is the first waking of the heart visions and dreamy anticipations of youth. " thou art my own. for the narrative viously directed to this end. might seem in Paradise. and as he was together. indeed. Could be the aim of these ancient it traditions to explain and analyze for us in this manner is ? E. The developement of other was the fruit of the forbidden tree. propensities. You do not suppose. which. All the genuine inspirations and poetry of that age. writer.

E. and several others. . and on the other tree. picture. vvliich are yet . plainly the state of marriage and of family over. which sprung from partaking of the are given with truth and simplicity. as the history of Paradise. Nothing is more foreign to the language and allegorical style of the Orientals. Whether its this narrative be a fabulous and hieroglyphick . as pothesis assumes. in the toils and troubles of A. but garden. of such child-like simplicity and such purity. to This view resembles the hypothesis I beg you v/ill mention no mere hypothesis* like that which you seem to allude. than this.— 131 their future lot. unworthy of a narrative so ancient. and you know what followed. and they fled to conceal themselves among the trees of the Their father's voice breaks in upon the tumult of their unquiet anticipations. hand the feelings. E. The event alluded to in regard to Adam and his wife is directly spoken of. A. I wish you would explain your views more clearly also itself. will appear hereafter at present let us consider it simply in proper character. and the divine being himself provided them with clothing. the scene is The Paradise of their emotions is changed. and they are involved life. respecting the tree and the instrument. explaining to me perhaps the most ancient fables and hiero- glyphics in existence. more improbable and allegorical far- The Orientals know no dress of such fashion. child-like tradi- * Probably that of Beverland is here meant. disturbing and disagreeable emotions. pothesis supposes. then If all this was what your hyis we may prove that white black. cares and anxieties. would make the tree of knowledge what this hyA fiction of this sort is but one of the impure inventions of our own age. by which deIn doing so you are unfolding and ception was produced. They were new. and that too without going aside from our proper purpose. fetched. as an artless.

and for it was forbidden. that the punishment of his fault immediately follows his not distinguishing. All other trees . E. prudence. Eat of and from being children you shall become men. guage of the East. They saw truly. " Man has become as one of the Elohim. and true meaning. his capacity for the exercise of this. so far as I know. a higher knowledge.132 tion. hitherto. enlightened. evil. If he knows how to distinguish learning to distinguish his duty. and feelings and views were awakened in them. What think you was the tree of knowledge ? ? What is the import of the expression A. its knows what is good Here you see the whole history of this tree. These the Creator made for them the occasion of new trials and duties. from beThis was a second and ing men you shall become Elohim. that is. he distinIf guishes good and evil. say. cise in the distinguishing of good and evil. either in derision or in earnest. commonly predicated of to understanding. evil." Finally they ate of it and were indeed different meaning. by a faulty step he is made to ex- perience the fact. which they might well have done without. he has learned to distinguish good and . he has been — good and he remains true to and resists all temptations to the contrary. in short. — what. and aided them with the first necesThis was a third meaning. He placed them in a different condition. when a man comes to years of understanding. The serpent interpreted otherwise. said " this tree is forbidden to you. in which a man un- comes denotes one's moral judgment. And thus. were good. or it those years. God might now sary inventions. because it gives the knowl- edge of good and it . it. but not in the most agreeable way. then he and evil. for the use of them was permitted this was evil. his practical derstanding. God forbade man the use of specifick duty in and hence he was charged with a This was the first easy exerrelation to it. It is in the lan- discretion. that they had done wrong . The knowledge of good and evil means.

A. man alone bound by com- mands and a law of This distinction throws light upon the whole matter. simple accordance with . Can any this sort." Thus. tasted death in the eating of this apple. 12 . it was otherwise. to examine it more closely in all contains in fact the fundamental ideas of moral poetry in the East. but essentially the satisfactory. and from the Let us proceed It fancy of our race. man man A. first includes . The doctrinal consequences remain as they were. it. I would very gladly do so. but in a history. We are treating here of a in- handed down from ancient times. the man had obligations of du- discharge his the brute which probably ate of the tree. and at do not concern us tradition present. and those which have obli<rations of duty. On this occasion too he learned a lesson of evil. we find one and the same idea. neglecting the dictates of acted in violation of his duty. you observe the distinction ? for occurs to me The also. its nature. this relation. Mil- men have eaten. Do you remember what was said of Adam's intercourse with the brutes ? A. that the Orientals divide created beings into those. I knoAv not whether it be equally so yet on which so much depends. The serpent acted in when it ate of the tree reason. than a same thing. In the place. having different as- pects. so thing be more development of complete and so simple ? A. E. He learned from them. E. as we look at the narrative in different points of view. it. and by example (the most powerful language) excited the had none. which must be considered in the spirit of those times. through a misunderstanding. command given them duty. it and it was seems. then. lions of It is very well in a fable. to eat. since is they have no E. all brutes.133 evil. which are free. the man when he would eat of and follow the example of the brute. ty to If so much depends upon first . It Do For the brute to eat was no sin. and made use of their example.

which resemble our account here of the serpent's character. of hia and imitation Could he have used is a more and fit one ? The character of the serpent acts that of sub- tilty it. of which one scarcely knows what them. for example. The that history it I perceive assumes ! a new character. to been continually adhering. Would fable. and stop their ears against disagreeable words of enchantment . And what sort of animal did first God employ ? as the ac- cidental cause of the faculties of perception aberration of his reason. and restoring their sight in old age. resented in outward act. of becoming young again. was a fable. A. Yes. the fables and traditions of the East are full of They ascribe to the serpent manifold art and wisdom. and is craft. — indeed may a multitude of traditions. which more and more of the marvellous and incredible has These marvels have at length . others are derived from fragments of this primeval tradition. It should always be considered as such. I and are actuated by a have read many marvel- lous tales how seipents heal the sick. understand the voice of the charmer. and the curse inflicted upon him.134 E. said too. He is the symbol and receives the reward of a deceiver and seducer. or how far to credit Many of them only exhibit the natural history of is the animal. In regard to outward form and colouring. but one rep- Without doubt you are acquainted with numerous traits in the fables of iEsop and Lockman. especially the head. E. which men have so much sought after. them. to think. the art. in It is which their power and life are concentrated. how they listen to musick. of which our knowledge too limited . — that also of hiding themselves in danger with great skill. ture. they possess the secrets of naspirit. were a fable its It would indeed be a beautiful it E. A. Here he and speaks in accordance with afterwards exhibited in the same character. and follow the voice of their priests.

Immediately after the fact is man sees his seris . in Can you conceive more instructive contrast one animal ? A base worm and shall it aspire to teach man who is formed in the image of God ? The folly of man in imitating so degraded a being is placed in the strongest also. and aiming his blow at the heel.135 become the belief of the common people. the serpent. crafty brute it is and we need not prove. The story and the facts related ever happened. At first. as were. creeping slyly upon the earth. pent-seducer as he involved in the is curse. while he can only repay with a blow upon the heel. these traits are brought out in this narrative. and contribute very serviceably to the inventions of the poet. for this instructive picture more mischievous conceits we have still many . or glistening animal. the man could not have had a more instructive apologue. an enemy of her and her is children. tion are the teachers here. Observe now with what cor- rectness first. From this view I can who have puzzled their brains to this. and has felafterwards he creeps upon his lowship with the Elohim . as a base deceiver. is and is condemned to eat the dust of the earth. man it has power to bruise his head. perceive the errour of those. The Rabbins have of still let U9 not disturb these people. and to the self-inter- ested craft and deception of the magician and the priest. and showy. the ac- and the words only express what alas! experience too clearly taught. knows the secret powers of nature. but understanding to perceive the import of the curse. trait9 to bring out. At he appears as a knowing. then. the light. whom he it wishes to make a Goddess . determine whether the serpent had feet before or a hu- man E. finely which turned here if pronounced upon him. So far he from being immortal. is celebra- ted as a knowing. At first he eats the food of the Gods. belly. the serpent . afterwards. that a friend of Eve. Throughout the East. But enough for a base all us. as the proper enemy of her a ! whole race. A. so that the mother of serpents treated. The serpent . that and noxious one. &c. The tree.

incredible what stories and respecting this hidden wisdom have been handed the highest antiquity. to open the man's eyes. Even their precepts also ? always warn men to shun forbidden They E. knowledge of nature. its hidden powers. and care- and hurtful knowledge from the I could adduce for you true. That this the forbidden tree of a false and depraving knowledge. and the fully to distinguish this false fear of demons. with this food of the Gods partake also the knowledge of the Gods. as It is who strive after this myswe once did after the phifables losopher's stone. and here and there their — especially men. by means of the tree. I believe. A. talisman . who. By the Elohim you suppose to be meant those beings. arts. here a multitude of sayings. or do you prefer to consider a fa- ble ? A. are placed the tree of opposition to each other. with open vision look upon the secrets of nature. Why was this ? Why betray man with this hope in particular ? Do you remember what we have before said of the Elohim ? A. and to give him the clear-sightedness and wisdom of the Elohim. to what you refer. I cannot deny that I do. a now it is concealed in a figure. the sole and simple wisdom. history.136 was. down from tree. who feed on the fragrance of the flowers. in which the fear of God. fleeing before the enin chantments of false is knowledge. listen to the working of E. obedience to God. Is it But let us return to our it not such. behind the curtain. is The existence of such powers of knowledge a wide spread faith terious among the Orientals. as it were. but for the most part is Genii. and. under compulsion — impart wisdom to individual The moral instruction of the Orientals also has taken a very peculiar direction in pre- cepts and poetical fictions associated with these traditions. a it. then the it fowls of heaven prate spirits. . I understand. more knowing than men. Here of it grows upon a particular seal. and life.

Their eyes were in fact opened. we at- tach knowledge to the tree under the same notion of knowl- edge which the serpent held out. not have conceived and borne children as women now do . but rather effects of If a different kind not included in the threatening. " they were naked and were not ashamed this state ? . and every tiling follows naturally.137 E. that it be a consiswhole. then. They hold Eve would ." could men that continue in A. they might also eat of the tree of as and become immortal. Why then had he forbidden them the tree And why does this newly acquired knowledge. yet death did not follow. reality feared. and that what is represented in act be represented manner picturable still to the sense. that God in as they had tasted of the tree of knowledge. It is a tree. a narrative of an instructive history. either obedience or death was attached . the facts of which actually took place with the parents of the human race. suppose then. his will ? they had become knowing. to which. Some 12* enthusiasts say so. and they became. life. against Your fable needs a defender. and there remain superfluous and irreconcilable traits. the promise of the serpent seems to have come to pass. agriculture and the pains of child- birth It Why too must these new Elohim go out of Paradise ? ? would rather seem. to we must admit the language of make the fable consistent. Take the tree. after it like that of the Elohim. God to be untrue for to . E. which the language admits. bring thorns and thistles. that they ought to remain with their Are we to brethren the Elohim. so long as it must be consid- ered a fable. as God declared. some extent at least. effects. A. But suppose it to be a tradition. as God himself declares. I would like to see then with in how much consequentit ness you can connect together the causes with their tent in a in For it is the essence of a fable. I leave that for you. Begin the explanation where we left it. like the ? Elohim. any one of the senses. I That cannot become.

and that shown from losophy would have it which this Adam. if we deny this.138 that this is the wages of sin. but not that so soon as he sinned he lost his humanity. the enemy of man. as first. introduced in pseudo-phi- such a sense. and an equivalent for the pun- ishment of death. become mothers that blessing pronounced expressly shows. indeed the philosophy of both Testa- ments. the Psalms. and a Paradise under the North pole. than that which employs every art to put out a man's eyes. E. estranged from our simplicity — this the scripture aflirms. surely did not. which took place. in order that he may not himself. who formed him out of the dust. and God. show us another earth. No know philosophy is more odious to me. and show. So Eve was not formed. We have said too man for much A. and knew every errour of which it was susceptible. till In short. is In none of this history it. He weighed the dust in his hand. sinned we must therefore die also. and knew what would come out of it he measured the powers of his soul. of them already. than we are acquainted with. As Eve was betrayed. and of our earth. You suppose then. are . we make ourselves unworthy of our the condition. in which . men were formed people the earth. The poetry of the Hebrews. says the scripture. the authors. as necessarily as pain to childbearing. and another humanity. or of the prophets. of our humanity. In truth. that God find actually created him ? And who else should have formed him for it ? The E. to whom you refer. knows nothing of this sublime nonsense. Devil. and than that to which the blessing at the creation of our race obviously had reference. The with the intention that they should earth also is fitted to be the habitation of men. and the sweat of the brow belongs to the cultivation of the earth. . necessarily foresaw the development. and we all sin as he did he died. we may leave them to dream of Adam's glass body. so we are betrayed. we now reason. and the first as women of the present day to for in their formation they are designed . and suffer- .

death. and how did it prohibition and the tree in question ? follow from the E. In the mean this time. . of which may God had warned them conclude. was to . predicted for themselves in future. had now more toilsome labours before him. and pointed out the consequences of their their seducer. he placed in the way. by which he could restrain man from the use of bounds of since it it. before inexpe- rienced. his senses and all his members. partly as opposed to that of the tree of and partly as the severest threatening. What then was it. and. gave an blood. deadly tree. A. of terrour and astonishment. his subsequent condition. foresaw aberration from duty. who had spent only liis period of his youth in this nursery of earliest development. the first The quiet dweller in Paradise. would have been inconsistent with wisdom to first create a human race to no other end but to perish in the moment of existence. What he did suffer is here plainly described. both answered a present purpose. Admit then the supposition. betrothed bride of Adam. The to fruit of the tree inflamed his appetites. that it was a noxious but not a not to eat. new powers introduced. living beings. the ministering attendant of the who by her should be born into the light of the world. transgression. He who knoweth the his all things. in his understanding and will. and as the occa- sion of his disobedience. to themselves and This latter he made an object of abhorrence and even from their present hereafter feelings. become a mother she. in the plan contem- plated for humanity. feelings the Creator This state of his to his children made use first of. new scenes of life.139 ed for himself and his posterity ten thousand actus and raptus. the housewife. I do not understand you. impulse his placed him in a state of fear and unquietness. and must serve after a sort to introduce A. E. and former ones taken away. that God denominated We it the effect of life. to them. a tree which. The maid of Paradise must who had hitherto been the become Eve.

for it. or in a positive obligation of outward duty. in this history. and no feature of all it is even in the tone of the punishment inflicted. is always and always tempting — the inclinations of the senses and of our sensual nature. and him are punished. What a new aspect does the history in this view of it it Now useless the whole of . too. could not and should not always continue. and it to owe it to itself. a paternal guidance. indefensible from truth and delualways at and simplicity of heart. and own must be the occasion of opening A. . turned himself out of his father's house . E. Do you see nothing more ? no analogy with our present condition the A. is fatherly and forbearing it is a progressive history of humanity. The father permits his child to fail in his weakest point. he must now be his own master. which seduces us. The fault household door must be opened man. in our consciousness and conscience. and for this fate also he was prepared in the tenderest manner. to break for itself the apple of future cares and discords. there. is The commandment is hand. errour was made under . the false representations and illusiv. through principles of action. In short. in which has. E. Our life also passes through like sin like Adam. but with regard to the yet a necessary one. The man by his own arbitrary and self-willed conduct. Can you draw no conclusion from evil ? it proper nature of A. same conditions. sive That it consists primarily in a deviation alien. assume. the law ever present. was announced. that brought into a state of greater hardships. We too is. his first .e .140 which yet belonged also to his proper destiny and finally the painful word death. to promote the progress of his being the punishment. interprets itself. that it is no longer in Paradise. either in us or without us. which God his inflicted. was the chastisement of a father. and his own provider. A continued analogy. The serpent. a blessing in disguise.

waa in maintained about the middle of the by J. though for the present not joyous but grievous. prove to be paternal favours. The fables of Prome- theus and Pandora are poor in comparison. bondage. for our best good. The Cherubim the with the flaming sword ? That I sup- pose means thunderer. is and to which. as unfolded in this simple narrative. all The consequences of and to I trust in transgression. by which man's obedience was to be tried. D. a kingdom of beasts. are ever the same .* steeds of the tempest. in the midst stands the tree. and at the time. will which he awards each of his erring creatures. dispensations of Providence E. which are lamented Psalms. in short every thing with which the fancy of youth so delights to occupy itself . the horses of the E. in its general character. too. Tr. that to set forth. Here we see human nature. or these together. love. that the chastisements also. too. But one object in this history yet remains. last century. de the Cherubim. At first we have nature. its fruit every thing referred and from the eating of in com- mence death. just as the poetry of the Orientals in later times has represented it. in the moral poetry of the East. a Cherubia equis tonantibus. such touching elegies in I Job and in the — toil. innocence. The horses of the thunderer ? and at so early a period ? it How tures improbable a representation must ! have been in a tradition of those primeval times —a tradition. Paradise. that pic- every thing else so entirely correspondent to those * The view of dissertation. sickness and chapter an enI might indeed denominate this short cyclopedia of humanity. A. . . when this work was written.141 promises of the too confident and proud understanding. than it would be now. and in its various relations. its were able which every condition and rethat with it lation in a is manner as free and natural. and wish in vain. here referred to and controverted. God. and a very poetical one. in poetry or prose. those evils. Michaelis. was thought more worthy of attention.

not a single passage. to which indeed is horses are properly attached. A. He stands upon his war-chariot. as they came. through the heaps of great waters. of ancient warfare. but these are by no means the Cherubim. But the Greeks gave and horses to Jupiter. Now he draws his bow and shoots forth his arrows.142 times. before his triumphant car. through the sea. . and birds of prey are flying to his feet. it in ia pieces. Is Jupiter Jehovah ? Are the Greeks Hebrews ? Is Virgil a Hebrew poet? her hand. 8. and the rain * Hab. He returns in majestick array and his horses go. he wields the whole armoury . and does he here speak of the Cheruhis chariot bim? A. . Did Adam know any thing of these horses ? What meaning would they have for him. Yet image expressed by the Cherubim throughout the poetry of the Hebrews. and how came he by such an image ? And moreover what have they to do here ? Tempest-steeds with a flaming sword to keep the way of the tree of life ! such indeed make me somewhat at a loss. and Virgil has beautiful representations of the E. Such iii. which gives even plauIn one of the later prophets* sibility to God is represent- ed with horses. pieces his enemies in short. You do the is E. the thunderer. and a panick fear falls upon the tents of the land of Midian. He beholds and drives asunder the nations. and measures out the land to the Israelites before him goes the pestilence. I know it. he smites and dashes in . There he is described with a war-chariot. which the fair Goddess of rain holds in Her brother comes and dashes pours down. Is this the same image with the other. sort. then thunders. but in this image he not represented as thundering. it The Peruvians represent thunder as the shattering of a vessel.

according to the side from which they were seen. . for how many different forms might agree at having faces and In his de- Look then the temple of Ezechiel. t 1 1 Ki. and Let us go through an examination of the passages first of the form. of a lion. 17. This the covering of the ark.— 143 the mythology of the Peruvians. and by the comparison and distinction made.— xxxvi. XXV. In Solomon's temple they stood in the same form. Cherubim have without any conception of the form of a same prophet the Cherubim appeared in the Cherub stretches forth his hand. several First.t A. To the clouds. n distinct ani- • Ex. vi. But ? after all there is not much described in in it. What then do you infer from the form ? E. in which they stood here. tion is The descrip- wholly a repetition of the sanie. only more large and magnificent. Hi. those of an man. neither the figure nor the position of your thunder- bearing steeds. wings E. 2 Chr. which || man and of a horse. And probably in the same figure. its form becomes obvious. 18. These four faces John saw also. xli. Two inferences follow from a it beyond dispute. 7. 10. 14. and it is a man's hand.J the heads of a scription the lion. One takes the fire from the altar. 18. 35. but what would be the effect of attempting by the aid of this to interpret the poetry of the Hebrews ? Do we then the language of the know nothing of the Cherubim from Hebrew poets themselves ? Are they ? . Ezech. and of an eagle. in which they are represented standing over the ark of the covenant. not distinctly represented to us as works of art A. x. only not all on the same animal. The countenance appears. they were also wrought in the tapestry or carved on the walls. ox. Therefore A. Ezech. of a Each of the creatures has four faces. 23. i.* E. look down upon overshadow the mercy-seat. and is There they have wings and faces. that the Cherubim are compound of 8.

and the day of his creation is a day of re- joicing. who dwells in Eden. See Appendix II. He appears as a creature exalted and perfect in his ways. the image of the Cherubim. symbols of magnificence and pride — precisely those four. xxviii. A. E. with certainty for those earliest times for the composition of Cherubim does not appear to include uniformly the same elements. Now we know in the what forms of the brute creation were as employed entals primeval world. . the eagle among the wild beasts. in the garden of the Elohim. This is employed as the highest representation of his might. Ezechiel places his king of Tyre. to express it. for embellish- ment. and of his proud nificence. and over-awing magnifiHe derived this impression probably from his actual cence. that this proverb does not decide . and second. upon the holy mountain. vary in some degree with is the times yet the spirit of the composition not to be mistaken. — " There are four But it The proverb of the Hebrews respecting them well creatures of stateliness and pride in the world. which. The proud king of Tyre is called by Ezechiel* a Cherub. 14. on account of their fearful * Ezech. that among these the figure of the horse is not found at all. mag- All the splendour of precious stones is employed for his ornament. the ox among among birds. the lion. As all forms of art. which are included in the position of the Cherubim. Is there no other passage ? One more. and gives him a form and character of splendour. E. the seems me. the lion the tame. and that a decisive one in regard to the present question." to A. the ox.144 mals. and the is known. the eagle. and very naturally employed. on the holy mountain of God in Paradise. especially when used . appearance. and especially. comman. by the Ori- of these regions. and man above all. and walks up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. where the most ancient cherubim stood. of wisdom.

speaks all the languages of the world. that this description of Ezechiel. The Orientals have a winged animal that dwells a upon the mountain Kaf. of reason and religion. has the artifice wisdom of the It is griffin. gives us so distinct a conception of these shapes of wonder. and had many of the olden time. creation. 13 . and guarded there the treasures of the past ? A. At first they appear here as a guard with a flaming sword (not as destroyers to lay waste Paradise. modified only by differences of age and country. Every nation has fictions. they say. The dragons and griffins of antiquity guarded treasures E.145 and awe-inspiring forms. are all of one and the same composition. were placed to keep the way of the tree of life. a prodigy among craft. To what Do you know of no other fabled form of the brute E. in connexion with the other traditions of the Orientals. with the flaming sword which turns every way. That was a tradition of a later period. the It is war with the giants a creature. It seems to me. and modified will by its own be sufficient to trace the history it from For us it of the Cherubim in the poetry of the Hebrews. in the very region in which our account places Paradise. you will see the later fables. and the griffin of the Northern mythology. that lived upon the mountains of the primeval world. the works of God. or more Northern of gold or golden apples. a creature not to be overreached by nor to be overcome by power. and guards the way to the treasures of Paradise. the dazzling forms of terrifick grandeur upon the holy mountains. retained the same in poetry and traditions. The sphinx of the Egyptians. tribes. In tracing the history of these. and marvellous tales of the guardians of the tree of immortality at the gates of Paradise. other traditions do you allude ? A. just as Ezechiel has described the Cherub. that we may venture to leave out of view altogether the representation which you suggested. the dragon of the Greeks. added to it time to time. of the sphinx.

flies. The ture transfer of the Cherub. that even had some ground existed from this. 16. which occurs in the books of Samuel and the Psalms.i. there were no Cherubim in the form of his manifestation. t 2 Sam.) Isa. appear in prophet- iv. 1 — . and David seems to have been the first. " God enthroned upon So soon as it the Cherubim. || (Appendix 8.and at last of the prophets. upon which God and corresponds in the parallelism with the wings of the wind. vi 2. t Yet so far is the Cherub. It to the clouds for since the descended upon them there. which was originally a work indeed very of art upon the ark of the covenant. were transferred ers here also. from sugsjesting the tempest-steed. who. Even in the age of Isaiah. xxxvii. and out of Judc-c-.146 some have fancied They appear again in as in contradiction to the literal sense). vi. in other passages. III. placed them ark of the It was not till sitteth God who later times. When God appeared to him. was naturally suggested by the expression. while the thunder and lightning are described by their own proper imagery. as employed by David in describing a thunder storm. is it must have been excluded David's Cherub a winged animal. after the From the ark of the covenant they . who availed himself of the image. the it imagination of the poet had scope for employing in its pictures of celestial objects. among the captives by the river to Chebar. xviii.* had been applied to the representation of full God in the clouds. as a creabearing up the throne of Jehovah. 4. t Ps. as a designation of the Divine Majesty. they must be placed as thus support- became appeared a peculiar poetick in the visions image of the Hebrews. Egyptian form upon the divine glory its perhaps because he discovered a resemblance between them and the sphinx." which occurs. even in the books of Samuel. is no more than the old Mosaick representation. that the old poetick image came * 1 Sam. to the clouds. 11. the tabernacle made by Moses.| upon the Cherubim. Isa.

and here the Cherubim are seen It in their fullest splendour. inspiring In the most ancient tradition must also experience it was a creature lifeless art. its in the course of these changes mode of use. and the distinct sphere of each. or because he doubted In the tabernacle of Moses both circumstances were combined. so was the appearance of the brightness round about. temple. and the form in which the Cherubim were there represented. and above them was as it were sapphire.147 ick visions . in the wonder and awe. all. as repre- sented in the clouds. To these you may add also that of their mythological representation in the tradition of Paradise. their forms. The Cherubim. tranquillity. will readily see in the You moreover how. in his temple he leaves them only two of these. then. but certainly no picture of a thunder storm. was undoubtedly very simple. majesty. either in because he would not represent a human countenance respecting the skill of the artificers. in order to avoid idolatry. had three distinct periods. They bore up the throne of divine majesty. i and x. and much less drew after them. and as seen in the visions of the prophets. and so they would not have been transferred to the clouds.* was however no tliunderer's car which they bore. in the tabernacle a Psalms a poetick image. the bearer up of the divine majesty. and grandeur in their most impressive form. as works of art in the temple. as living In the heavens he describes and majestick. and finally work of prophet- in the ick visions a ^ojop. that is. with their four marvellous the faces . . the clear and luminous heavens. E. a celestial creature. A. Had they not been exhibited in this the ark of Moses would not have placed them upon the covenant. * Ezech. according to your theory. for this was the original ground of tradition. Like the rainbow in the clouds. the image itself a change. Ezechiel himself gives. The difference of use. nor finally have appeared in proplietick vision.

is the testimois ny of Ezechiel. and throughout the East. which was dazzling which we may like a flame of fire. E. a the Orientals had his station upon the garden of the That the Cherub of mountain. Of this also the probable explanation. confirmed by traditions. to scription of their form. in its elements. the unanimous report. the terrible. probably in the Do same region in which Moses has placed his also. leading character. and in time of war sent a ground of tempestuous wind upon the enemy — a fable. The conception of in the Cherubim. then. which prevail They all assign him his place upon a mountain of farther Asia. as its we learn from these views. according art did. That is undeniable. from the de- which Josephus gives as traditionary. was. it Undoubtedly within its own man. fabulous ful which nothing seen by human eyes had any resemblance. It is known and familiar to all the Eastern nations . that they were a winged being in human form. behind which lies Paradise. to same universal tradition gives a very That these Cherubim were stationed tree of life. a compound of E. the find in Biblical history. and it va- as the poet it introduced in his imagery. keep the way is to the Hesperides. and walked to up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. a compound of the majestick. It appears also. you know of no other mythology which speaks of a moun- tain of A. the lion.148 A. A. the eagle. that the Cherubim were winged animals (^wa) of a form. the powerand the marvellous. with a look. the ox. The Arabick tions also mention respecting the Cherubim of the ark. the four proudest forms it air. But how do you account for the origin of the first and most ancient mythology of the Cherubim at the gates of Paradise ? E. embracing as of earth and ried. or tradi- could mould into its own shapes. that of a creature of marvellous and supernatural form. God ? I know of none. limits. several distinct animals.

Upon the heights of the North ? I will sit This mythology could not have originated with the Hebrews. This too. a mountain on which dwell the Gods. E. as simple as the tradition it. 87. and you know. upon the mountain. Job. or flame. and in the midst of the stones of fire. 22. on which the King of Tyre in Ezechiel walked up and down before the garden of God. abounded perhaps in wild animals. Chap. the Demons and happy men. that in the ironical representation of Isaiah says. the Elohim. tion.l Isaiah exalts mount Zion above all the mountains of the earth.149 from Thibet to the Red Sea. mingling would naturally enough be combined. 13* . the Lahi. place toward the North. it Above. may be in the mountain sent forth volcanick the tale of the wanderer. the discourse of Elihu* his holy in in But North God comes also from the golden splendour. with how much ze. upon the mount of the congregation. as given in the fourth dialogue Tr. I will ascend up into heaven. xxxvii. that have found their way into Hebrew poetry. Above tlie stars of God will I exalt my throne . same mount of A. hung the thunder-clouds. as he did to the Israelites from Mount Sinai. Perhaps tlie this mountain of the North was the Cherubim. of Paradise itself. of which the adventurous wanderers. brought back marvellous and frightful tales. and thus form the fabulous *This will be understood by referring to the author's interpretation of p. since they have Sinai and Zion. for their holy mountains . Who was the king. who would have searched out the way thither. and which some few traditions. Men were banished from and a lofty mountain-range lay probably between them and the happy residence of their childhood. And how It did the notion of ? Cherubim upon this daz-* zling mountain originate was at first undoubtedly. or He breaks furth from his holy congrega- assemblage of Gods. These.

kings flee before him. A. But what other image do you give me. and as a conqueror dost thou appear in the the heavens. a compound of many phantoms. mountain and from the poets. and to conquer the land the mountains tremble. E. all This image is still presents itself to the minds of children. of adventurers. ? ation of the thunder The voice of a reproving father. a war-chariot. shaped itself to and a creature of strange and marvellous But be that as it may. So Elisha understood who witnessed the phenomenon. God came . as a represent- A. in describing the conquest of the land of Israel. the fiction. his chariot and horse therefore also heroick and war- like is thy ascent. and wild forms of the brute creation. there is at least no ground for Cherubim carried man from Paradise. go before Israel. much Thou . as the whole Psalm shows. the spoil.150 animal. and thus received an impression. But was not Elijah taken up fire ? to heaven by a chariot and horses of That too was it. is set forth in the finest songs of triumph. and cast a look behind them. removed them out of the garden. and soars aloft with his chariots . that the its guardians. Or it may first men were compelled to go out from be. which we saw in the imagery of Habakkuk. which turned every way. and found in . same representation. the and distributes his gifts. hast been the The import champion of of his exclamation was. from seeing the tales of travellers. which they transmitted. and which. He divides he carries his It is captives away in triumph. when the Paradise. and the Cherubim came as form. they beheld flames shooting here and there. not a a mythological thunder-car. with a flaming sword. that. less Cherub. and which afterwards. as God himself poets and painters have sung and pictured it. with other dazzling nieteorick sights. the image forth from Sinai to taken from war and triumphal chariots. E." So when chariots of is God are said to be thousands of thousands. " Israel. a triumphal car.

of profound knowledge. 14. than by the symbols of all that is Read and compare. the vision of God comes from the North and probably also from the mountains of the Gods. APPENDIX Ezechiel's Vision of I looked. Its volumes. Ezech. in which the thunder-horses have " They heard the voice of Jehovah walking in been sought. were used with ? reference to one and the same thing to you. charged with gleaming cast its along. xxxvii.* We see in . Came sweeping onward. go towards the North as their — place of rest. than by this expression the image was introduced and continued And if so would it not be in the poetry of the Hebrews. bearhave ing the artificial character of a later age. the garden in the cool of the day. I I now is exhibited believe. so accordant in artless character of the narrative. * See Appendix + too. unreasonable to suppose that an image. the history of the Cherubim. and lo ! a whirlwind from the Northt a vast cloud. xxviii. God enthroned above the Cherubim. 14. Isa. sublime and awe-inspiring on the earth. all around.151 the simple history itself. combined with an idea of the inconceivable and unapproachable. and unuttered wisdom. 22. its primeval simplicity and artlessness with the child-like and and one so complex. and with adequate proof poetry so ancient. . Again in the vision of Zechariah vi." that this voice Nothing is more probasound of thunder. and that was the ble. in its origin all and progress. xiv. Now Here from within shone what seemed the glow I. I. And dazzling splendours forth. on which rested the and by whom could this be more throne of the Most High appropriately sustained. . which have gone to and fro through the earth. and that that can be expected with regard to a mythological conception in will no longer them mysterious and incomprehensible creatures. that rolled fire. as in Job. of superhuman wisdom and majestick form. bearing up the canopy. and you have any doubts on the subject. 1 8 the horses.

wmg to wing. [It returning progress of his working throughout the natural world. as the whole approached him from the North.. that. or to. On upright And shone limbs and cloven feet they stood. or even each itself. |I Advancing each with look and course unchanged. but for which we have no name. being directed to the four . liar brilliancy. x. compounded of the two. They turned not in their going. Withdrawn beneath on every side Were human hands. have exhibited the direction of the different faces more distinctively per^ My conception of the matter is.+ t 152 r. and Gesenius' Lexicon. * Properly an amber-coloured metal. that each several face looked constantly in the same direction. but went forth. 15. An image of the omnipresence of the throne of God. 20. those of the lion and ox. went forward by in The whole obviously moved as one. could not of course be understood from this. See Ezech. its In the form of the Cherubim. — That yet contained the semblance of a man.* molten in the flame. t Tr. II accordance with the forms of Egyp. nor that there was no wards the North. to which this note is attached. four human faces looked to the South. such a way as to separate the one from the other change of direction in the motion of the whole. in each of the four-fold forms. in though this latter was modified tian mythology and art. and when it advanced moved in a direct line without In the lines following that. we cannot but recognize a resemblance to the sphinx. haps. of pecu. with splendour as of burnished brass. thos« and so of the others. the human face. and of the un. The meaning then must be. As of a four-fold living thing a shape. and below they are described as going and returning. With four-fold visage each. t Tr.r ' Of gold and silver. to the right and left. Then. Thus the of the lion to the East. and each four wings. that each face. than the author intended to do. of the four-fold forms of the living creature. particularly in having the cloven feet of the ox. their wings. I turning. was directed towards the prophet. And four-fold had their faces and their wings. And in the midst thereof the form expressed. and the eagle's backward. and highly valued in ancient times. for each four-sided seemed. and each to each close joined. In this view I have adhered strictly to the sense of Herder. who un- derstands the whole as one living creature. .

it went South without turning or changing when the whole went North. it seemed. and those of the same kind always to the whether its in motion or but at rest. 14. he calls the face of a Cherub . in Chap. When therefore the whole same moved point. The several living forms. This view seems 14. t This veiling of their bodies. They up serve however to show. and same to went forward and though is in no other. it seems probable at least whole was seen in a different direction. the living forms Were here and there. iv. and the dazzling light of fire. their faces and their wings they each Extended upward. but bore it M .153 In all the four-fold visaged four was seen The The face of left man . x. as indeed they are not found in the description of John. and with the whole descrip- tion in this chapter . as lightnings flash. eagle's face. vi.] What the prophet here calls the face ofj an ox. Rev. and peculiarly such. or in the direction of the human must necessarily move backwards. Appeared. as horses harnessed before it. Chap. as appears from the vision of Isaiah. Cherub (see the following note) from the context. t I have omitted here the description of the wheels beneath the throne. that the named as the first. the right a lion. that the Cherubim did not draw the throne of the Divine Majesty. 2. like glowing coals What seemed the flame of totches played Between them. and forward each advanced. and an ox* all distinguished. By itself Distinct. * Tr. in the direction of the direction . nor ever turned.x. from the fact. Two wings for flight. but each always looked in the cardinal point. or to- wards the East. the face of a me to agree with the original of the tenth verse. in Ezech. was perhaps commonly considered aa that the form of the ox was ihe predomit inant one in the whole composition. or to the the others. while two their bodies veiled. From out the fire went gleaming lightnings forth. and to the four Belonged an eagle's visage. went forth and back returned. And quick.! cardinal points. and so of same direction. was a symbol of their unworthiness to serve the Lord of Creation.f With course direct. Whither the spirit moved they went. as the aspect of the sphinx shows. the human face. joining thus.

Rev. and close veiled around. and from the loins Above and underneath it seemed like fire. to come and see what was contained . So seemed the lustre of that radiant form. the image of all that is majestick in his creation. in vision. high over-arching. they stood With wings depending. poetry. (Rev. serving and unceasingly praising him the symbols of hidden wisdom. their wings. In the vision of John also. generally is here called the voice of Shaddai. They arc the bearers up of the MaGod.) these living creatures call to in the book. vi. 5. as in Hebrew wings. The Cherubim and the living wheels entirely correspond to each other. from the o'er-arching firmament. or the distant sound Of thunder. with two They veiled their bodies round. form And shone with radiant lustre all around. I heard the rushing sound of wings. the seals of the book are opened. it Even when the Cherubim stand still. jesty of and they contribute nothing to it. like clear Transparent crystal. what seemed the Of man. like rush Of mighty waters. iv. And as they went. as burning fire. like an host. here introduced simply way of comparison. * Obviously the thunder as an image by is distinguished from the sound and It is still more from the essential being of the Cherubim.* They went with sound of tumult. that inspired with awe. and let fall their thunders in the firmament above them. as well in regard to number. There seemed And on the throne there sat. Approaching near the firmament. were upward spread. the apostle. For when. winged creatures. With two they bore themselves aloft. as to the rapidity and direction with which they moved. When . Both inward and without. Above a voice was uttered forth. And high upraised above the firmament the sapphire splendour of a throne. Extending wing to wing. seemed An azure firmament outspread. the thunder proceeds from the throne. the dread voice of Shaddai. It shone with amber glow of gold And silver intermixed. As shines the rainbow in the day of rain. And when tli«y stopped.154 Above their heads. they closed again their wings. It is just as rushing waters and the moving it of an army are introduced.

with accompany birth-day and other celebrations of and sound of kettle-drums. which Ezechiel. that outstretched Its wings. With every precious stone wast thou adorned.! And perfect in thy form. 2. that turned every way. work of art. to the beautiful situation Tyre. commercial in city of its day. Cherub. Lamentation over the downfall of the King of Tyre under the image of Oh thou. or glowing stones. APPENDIX a Cherub. and the diamond's fire.* II. and hope it may be so hereafter. the crown of art. And sapphire. I could wish. a translation of which will be found in one ofthe subsequent dialogues. of so the object here represented could not be ingly bewailed. in Eden thou Hast been. has carried out in detail. With hyacinth and jasper. it is a well-known custom ofthe East to that sort. The Elohim. the garden ofthe Eloliini. and up and down didst walk a Amidstthestonesoffire. than under the form of a rich and finished t Perhaps this applies. With ruby. was of works of ancient times the common name more affect. and guarded Eden thou didst stand Upon the holy mountain ofthe Gods. and witii gold. with drum and trumpet's I placed thee for the . emerald. xiv. and as the terms. or whether they are something accompanying the flame ofthe sword. It is account ofthe description ofthe Cherub. as matter of fact. In is all thy ways * Ezech. . xxviii. sound. They welcomed thee.t 155 The I aspect of Jehovah's Majesty in this. are to be considered precious stones. with the voice Of joy and praise. As a figurative representation. saw and fell upon my face And heard the voice of one that spake. I know not whether these stones of II musick fire. richest Tyre was the art. with wisdom filled. The day of thy creation. which seemed purposely designed for trade and magnificence. onyx stone. that the mythology of this mountain ofthe Gods were explained by more nu- merous traditions. 12. This passage an imitation ofthe lamentation placed here on of Isaiah over the King of Babylon. according to his t custom ia using figurative language. Phcenician or Sidonian work.

Thee. and his heard without delay. Thou shalt be but dust And ashes. hast thou With shame defiled the glory of thy name . t devour thee. I destroy. fill up his pictures even to the minutest point. as profane. from the day Of thy creation. to if It is the way of Ezechiel The fire of the Cherub. till transgression all now Is found in thee. This is introduced here to illustrate the mythology of the of the Psalm is thunder and of the Cherubim. such be the meaning. is well known. xviii. * In imitation of Isaiah. and the kingdom of the dead. by the brightness of thy form Wast thou despoiled of wisdom therefore now . of the rivers of Belial. By thy merchandise Hast thou been filled with violence and fraud.t 156 Hast thou been unpolluted. Thou hast been the pride but henceforth shalt thou be no more. Will I reject and throw thee to the ground. beautiful. APPENDIX III. That know Of earth. t Ps. is here turned against himself. that look They among the nations round. as a hunter with nets and cords. calls upon God. that turned every way. in imminent danger of death. That death is represented here. lifted Thine heart was up with ornaments ^ Of beauty. and by the fraud Of traffick in thy merchandise. thy greatness. in the sight of all.* By all thy many crimes. . Description of the thunder. And That from thy bosom shall go forth a shall fire. The other images. will be explained in the following dialogue. perhaps in the midst of battle. from death and from his enemies. From out the mountain of the Elohim. The whole movement cry is David. the procecting Cherub. God delivers him by means of a thunder- storm. And therefore will I thrust thee. 16. And cast thee from amidst the stones of fire. And make of thee a gazing-stock for kings. Upon thee. t Perhaps this trait also in the picture of the Cherub has reference to the devouring flame. with astonishment Shall see thy downfall. xiv.

Then the earth shook and trembled. In this sented. Psalm. smoke from his nos. towards the earth. by which the thunder is represented. here pictured forth with all its phenomena. The trils.* snares of death were before me. Around me were the cords of the grave. by which the icy arch of heaven is glow like burning coals. now the lightnings commence .^ from his mouth. as the parallelism shows. There went up smoke out of his nostrils . the lightnings are redoubled. My strong cry shall reach bis ear. that in the 29th Psalm alone occurs seven times. by which the thunder is repreis He just as he is often said to move on that of the voice of an angry and reproving God—-a figure. is merely the vehicle. The earth shakes. hear me from his palace. goes forth from his nostrils. that I should exhibit this. which precedes the tempest. The foundations of the mountains moved. the heavens become darker and more depressed. but could not well be ioftened without losing the personification. At length its the loud thunders are heard.) Fidelity in seemed to re- quire. and wings them with speed. riyers of Belial filled me with dread. hurls abroad his lightnings. Now he inclines the canopy of the fire it heavens. and then to made night. the Cherub is no more than a correspondent to the wings of the storm. 14 . then. t Tr. that is (v.157 The The The In floods of death encompassed me. and seem to sink towards the earth the storm sweeps along with increasing fury the darkness . perhaps accompanied by an earthquake. striking is A tempest. though I like better regard to the sense of the original. (See the previous note. speeding themselves onward. the opinion ofDe Wette. In this rich imagery. wraps himself in the darkness of forth his arrows. The smoke . the leading image. distress I said I will call my on the Lord. because he was wroth. on which the wings of the wind. God moves. interrupted only by the lightning's flash. And unto He will my God will I cry aloud. All this.t * The expression "cords of the grave" is sufficiently harsh. as and shoots were. in sev- eral successive traits. 16. and shoot all directions. becomes forth in intense.) the violent wind loaded with vapour. is clothed in continuous mythological imagery. whjch Herder intended to exhibit. And were shaken. ruler of the tempest casts forth in his wrath. that no personification was intended.

fire.cloud8. xxix. He rode upon a Cherub and did fty. fire. depths of the sea were laid open. And took hold upon me From deep waters he drew me forth. foundations of the earth revealed. . voice of Jehovah. From foes. Clouds on clouds enclosed him round. that were too powerful for me. ye worshippers of Jehovah honour and power. Worship Jehovah. APPENDIX The Give to IV. At the blast of the breath of his nostrils. hail-stones and coals of Then he The The shot forth his arrows around.t 158 Fire from his mouth devoured around. to Jehovah the glory of his name. At the brightness before fell. Jehovah. voice. Hail-stones and coals of The Lord thundered in the The Highest uttered forth his There were heavens. his lightnings. him the clouds vanished. He reached down from on high.* idols. Give Give to The Voice of Jehovah is above the waters. He bowed the heavens and came down. * Ps. Coals were kindled before it. He flew on the wings of the storm. arrayed in his Majesty. shows that these waters are not the Mediterranean Sea but the waters of heaven the dense rain. Redoubled and sped them forward. At the reproving voice of the Lord. And freed me from my strong enemies. In the sequel it t The parallelism — . Darkness was under hia feet. Now he wrapped himself in darkness.

Jehovah shivers the cedars of Lebanon. The voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds bring forth. And layeth the forest bare of sitteth is its leaves. Jehovah Jehovah will and poureth out the floods. specially represented as the be shown why Jehovah Psalm is is God of thunis der. * A wild animal of the ox kind resembling the buffalo. The voice of Jehovah shaketh the desert.159 The God of glory thunders on high. Lebanon and Sirion like a young ox of the desert.* The voice of Jehovah scattereth the flames. He makes them to skip like a calf. That this a continuous description of a tempest too clear to be disputed. Jehovah thunders upon the great waters. . Tr. The voice of Jehovah shivers the cedars. Tiie voice of Jehovah sounds with majesty. Jehovah shaketh the desert of Kadesh. The voice of Jehovah sounds with might. enthroned as a king forever.

an Arabick Song of consolation respecting th» condition of one deceased. Appendix containing a description of the kingdom of the dead. the Poetical description of the kingdomof the shades among Hebrews. ideal elevation and dignity How far has the poetry of the Bible de- veloped this? Whether this conception be too pure and divine? Why the moral sentiments of the earliest times and the poetical ex- pression of them must have immediate reference to God. A considerable time intervened. Reception of the patriarchs into the unseen world. and a designation of the probable course. Origin of the notion of a resurrection of the dead. as the aensuous image of power. Hymn on the strength and Godlike character of human nature. Of the breath of God. . in thought. Translation of Enoch. effect. and of Scheol.ed. That the 16th Psalm was by David. Two Psalms with their explanation. as the true friends of ment of poetry — God. word. poetry impart to human nature. Elegy of Job on the destiny of man. Whether it is a fragand cities sleep in it. Alcipbron had lost his best friend by death. kingdom of at variance the dead originated. as represented by Job. Whether the Israelites borrowed or derived from the Egyptians the representation of the Islands oi the blessed. Whence the conception of a it. and contains the notion of an eternal dwelling in the presence of God. of those entombed in them. kingdom of the fathers. taken from the notions of his Name and relation to the earth. What images has this representation furnished for the New Testament? The influence of this conception on the minds of men. tendency his feebleness. The useful which this produced.DIALOGUE Tradition of the origin of man. his palace or kingdom. burial. Elegy concerning and of the life Whether it is with the immortality of the soul. or rather presupposes it. before these conversationa were resun. VII. Poetical view of places of Celts. the Impression produced by the conception of the congregation. in which the Hebrew notions of the state of the dead were unfolded. and deed. Sublime foretokening of the same in the creation. and other nations. Whence probably originated the notion of ? giants in the Oriental kingdom of the dead Why whole kingdoms Of Belial the king of the shades. From what conception can Epic to dissolution. Language of God on the subject of immortality in nature in revelation. — a reflection awakened by his premature death. in ? its physical and spiritual relations.

which moths and . to Thus disparage the work of thy hands yet. permit the ele- me to read to you an . ful tradition You have forgotten. life Earth to earth I is re-echo- ed from the whole of man. and in this tranquil evening twilight. and same time they all flow naturally out of the radical forms of the language. with which so nearly associated his whole earthly destiny this — earth to earth.161 and his mind was oppressed with gloomy feelings. after some other conversation. even now. That thou hast formed me as clay. the beautiis of the origin of man. worms are incessantly destroying it is a flower. ure. for which formerly had no All the terms. are indicative of nothingness is He a clayey tabernacle. Euthyphron. ems. to hear last reflected in the hollow sound of the sod of earth thrown upon the grave of my melancholy pleasure in friend. is the task-master of our earthly labour. or which the sun shines upon and it is Perhaps no poetry bas represented the images of perishable and shadowy character of man in so touching at the a manner. which the wind passeth withered. and to this he returned. At length during an evening walk. and I have recently found a these Oriental po- reading I many of relish. seem. into the bo! som of it mother that bore him. Permit me. over and is here designated. by which man and decay. when the sun. this gone. Tiiat I must soon return to the dust. while the setting sun was beautifully exhibiting the daily repeated image of our own depart- began again. horizon. From Adam came the forth. it a pleasure for thee to oppress. with a subdued and melancholy tone as follows. he Alciphron. all sinking beneath the their release toil after seem to be enjoying from an oppressive. I ? Consider beseech thee. but vain and unsatisfying creatures perishable objects of sense. as if they ginal conceptions of the character Is were the ori- and destiny of the race.

! my life is a breath. So man goeth down And cometh up again no more. I To see good upon the earth. that seeketh. My My flesh is clothed with worms and decay. but am no more. forth again in But breaketh new sores. And wearisome nights been counted out to me. spirit. That thou If I say watch over me ? my bed shall comfort me. shall Thine eye will seek me.162 gy. failed when hope was gone. anguish of my I will cry out in the bitterness of my soul. skin becometh closed and healed up. Mine eyes shall never turn back not find me. My days They have flown. that Oh remember. . ? I say shall I rise again The night is irksome to me. away. Hath not man the task of a servant on earth Are not his days the days of an hireling ? ? As the servant longeth for the shade. and what we have to hope for in the end. Till the dawning of the morning. I am wearied with restless dreams. and what it is not. When When I lay myself down. He returneth not into his house. and are passed away Swifter than a weaver's shuttle. which I have never myself so deeply felt as now. He understood what the life of man is. The eye. Am I the river and setlest a its crocodile. And the hireling looketh for his reward. Therefore will I will I not refrain my mouth. the place of his dwelling And Shall know him no more speak in the forever. So to me have evil months fallen. As a cloud wasteth an-1 vanisheth to the grave. Job was a great and philosophick poet.

Then thou scarcstme wiih dreams. that this taber- ensouled by the breath of Jehovah.EuTiiYniRON. That thou settest me as a mark for thee. rather than this I am weary of life. body. that lookest Why And For wilt thou not forget suffer my transgression. What will a taberna- cle of clay. and am ! not. thou. frail Death. in which a fleeting breath sports itself. Have you never remarked representations of similar origin. the imparting of a divine spirit and of a ? Your grief has led you to contemplate one aspect only of human destiny the other is presented in the poetry of the' Hebrews with no less force and clearness. that he is so great to thee. . nay. as the word of truth itself declares. my friend. ? my guilt to I lie go into oblivion in a moment down in the dust. In the God imbreathed the spirit of immortality. which ascribe to the breath God all the powers and miracles of thought. Nor let me rest. till I draw my breath ? Have I sinned what did I against thee ? That thou visitest And provest . With force. the and of of all living energies. And makest me a burthen to myself. And thou settest thine heart towards him? Let him every morning. terrifiest me with visions. I In the morning thou seekest me. in its ask more .163 My couch And So shall relieve my sorrow. do you say ? What is a breath ? You . that my soul chooseth death. Such is the fate of man — earth to earth the first and only pride oracle of God ? respecting our destiny. me alone. A. and of a will Godlike faith of Godlike energy. Oh upon men. for my days are vanity. I would not live always. What is man. him every moment ? How long wilt thou not look away from me. nacle of clay inspiration of is But you is forget.

there is nothing of Will you not examine more carefully these concepimmortality of man.—— 164 would not look here for the metaphysical soul of our philosophers ? E. this this clearly and fully expressed in language and poetry. the spirit of lips shall God in my nostrils. are told. and too deeply concerns our humanity. My And countenance is as thine before God. E. mystery 7. of will. that it But the essential. that his soul is the breath of God. Most certainly not. not speak wickedness. The highest degree of force in words. And among the Orientals a word is the all utterance of It thought. that the it is who gave and there plainly a sentiment of Chaldee philosophy superIn the account it. or suffered . I also am formed out of the clay as a breath is in —So long My me. ? Nor my tongue Is jthis feebleness or strength A. nor an analysis of its faculties according to our methods. first Hardly so ! for how late was all this thought of. especially in regard to the peculiar notion. how great * Ecclesiagtes.. of the inward energies of the soul. E. in Adam. The breath of the Almighty giveth me life. of his weakness and his think you must have overlooked tions of the strength. utter calumny. is involved in the xii. be lightly disposed The spirit of God bloweth upon me. A. the eternal in came from God and returns to him. and the word. . in the Psalms. itM substance. we it . that it in its perishable tabernacle puts forth divine energies. I many things. from the breath proceeds in a special manner from is of the mouth of God. a was early remarked. In a book* belonging to the period of the captivity breath returns to God. Job. opinions and surely the matter to too important. yourself to be led is away by novel of. added of to the simple traditions of antiquity.

that our soul and others understand and it merely by means of the breath of the mouth. as a God of this lower world. Continue men. compared still to the hammer which fail. is When still all things the breath as God endures and efficient — efficient life wind. human weakness. the tongue speaks. it To God of himself nothing could be ascribed. It is would seem. executes listen to . a visible manifestation of their invisible powers. character especially in sensuality and to the first representation of Nay. as a triumphant lie rnler over all the works of Jehovah. and Godlike energy. prostrate at his . which • Pa. since you have been with an elegy on the weakness of man. e. and in the mouth of God not always to act in flesh. repeat to you a scriptive of his Psalm* de- dominion and power . fire. is mighty. which in the a strong hold of adfalls prattling of infants establishes for God miration and praise. reviving as rain that defertility. ? He too. how their fleshly nature. by a general corruption its of manners. more to the flame powerful than a word. and spirit. find even before the flood. and the hand thinks. a breath. Let me too. breaks the of rock in pieces. — man E. — Recollect an expression. go back man. He was be an image of the Elohim. 163 lact. scends and imparts and That is the breath of God in nature. of a divine inspiration so that flesh.. My spirit shall which we himself. at which every a enemy prostrate Psalm. that the soul thinks. a Psalm. man himself . the immediate working of his omnipotent will but the breath of God in A. viii. disposing and ruling like them. because he partakes i. For they are Observe too. to with which God introduces him into the world. shows imbecility. which crowns man with the dignity and majesty of the angels. are placed in continual contrast. and gratified in their stead.

as it this Pindarick song of praise into the history it of the creation. Hast made him lord of all thy works. The moon. If we were and waits dignity. from which was taken. and with what all man appear! — When still. If then I look at thy heavens. Hebrew poetry however has not furnished such a representation. itself which is even now outspreading how over our heads. as from his yet own heart. The fowls of heaven. . at which he is prostrate. In all excellent ia thy name the earth! Thy praise is sounded above the heavens. that thou art mindful of him. our God.— 166 feet. which thou hast ordained What is man. that thou visitest him. and seems to bring forth the form of man. and creator. The beasts of the field are his also. it from what more ? and comprehensive idea could pro- A. Oh Lord. From the mouth of babes and sucklings Against thy Hast thou prepared a strong hold of praise foe. our God. and the stars. Jehovah. And whatever passeth the paths of the seas. His are the herds of sheep and oxen. and might seem intended. Hast placed all things under his feet. takes counsel with himself. It is worthy. the At work of thy fingers. thou hast placed him nearest the Elohim. Thou hast crowned him with honour and majesty. for its visible to form a representation of man ceed in the style of genuine epick lofty and elevation. uncrowned creation stands God. and the fish of the sea. else is created. how excellent is thy name In all the earth ! Carry back now majesty does pauses. to be uttered forth beneath the open and wide expanse of the starry heaven. these. In rank. God The were. The son of man.

the sons of In relation to our to the we cannot be God according pure conceptions of the East. and of our duty. . and too lofty for our com- prehension of God 1 and how can men God. representation. to exhibit. of Enoch. the deeds of his almost omnipotent — But. sense of poetica} has provided evil. was pictured bodies with no less truth. for God But has no outward figure. To furnish such in the its worldly . hand. for you of man. was not purpose since man himself with this. predicated of Adam ! . which it has drawn from the image of God in the human form. and the most favoured of the patriarchs. and his finger has fashioned us . or the operations of his will. but this poetry to man in a spiritual How sublime and beautiful are the conceptions. in manifestations of both good and men done upon the earth. just The moral views exhibited here unite both now observed. as was carry sense. mi. we are formed of the earth. A to second build Adam up the appeared. unless he humbles himself below the proper powers of his being ? The view. that the weakness and abasement in it . and What have they not attained ? in the exercise of power ? To what have they not aspired ? What a splendid and lofty theme is presented to the be human. remarked before. seems me. What know we E. in works of art. in its leading and most important fads and that whether he sung the triumphs of the spirit of man What have not in the inventions of science and art. A. not divine. and exhiSon of God was bited through the Old and New Testament friend of God. there is no purer and more sublime conception of the ultimate end and aim of the being of the poetry or prose of all man in either other nations. which we take of our destination. of Abraham. who would merely celebrate this historically. out the ideal of it was not the aim of in a physical. imitate If only ! it be not too pure. and to verify to his brethren the true human It race to this idea in to all worth and perfection of being. form and character of a son of Jehovah.! 167 E.

You have given me a prolonged The picture itself is an answer. A. truly a child ! for the poetry and morals of this people are extremely child-like. Can the papyrus grow up without sap ? The water lily increase without moisture It is yet ? green. Islamism. the animated countenance the Spirit of God is visible. image. At once he is away from his place. So is the course of all. fanatick devotion. and every thing is derived from the God. So he stands green and fresh. so as at length must enfeeble the will of man. Poetry without God . but yet a feeble and a mortal child. It becomes a blind or as well as his powers of research. that forget God.168 and the lips of Jehovah have moved. She holds fast to it. And He sends forth his branches in the garden. it will not stand. but which destination in this at the same time is not seduced by his weakness to deny his real dignity and high . which does not overlook the weakness of man. His confidence is the spider's web. at early dawn. over the mouth and countenance of man with a breathing of kindness and love. There they still move and breathe upon us for in . it withers away. She leans upon her house. The hope of the ungodly shall perish. referred will of All their conceptions are back to God. E. E. as it were. in short." A. But while all else flourishes. entwines the rock with his roots. Which says to him " I never saw thee. In poetry. in order vainly to ascribe to him the self-sufficiency and indepen- dence of a divine being. and has not been cut down. Yes. That is cut off in which he trusted. They encompass the whole wall. appears a child of God formed for eternity. but no answer. but it cannot endure.

most ancient times the God must give it intelligibility and simplicity. The child is directed by the word of his father. nay. when milk and honey yet flowed for the child-like capacity of man in morals also. weak and it of the human soul but the sun rises. it it Why was but because God E. every system of morals It without him. but the Yet first. A. In the the ethical poetry of the Orientals the idea of God is 16 . its makes a flowery display in fine words. with a slavish fear. and never learned to ? know its own shall powers learn in What occasioned its the Mosaick ceremonial. we proper time. the most ancient and child-like it poetry and morals. still the East ? From the childish habits and feelings transmitted from the prime- come the burdensome and this. was here also the beginning of human wisdom. a mere parasitical plant. slavish Mosaick ceremosank always looked to and instead of the human lower. I would not by detract any thing from the worth of psychological investigations. and character of The fear of God. and sends forth there.169 is a showy papyrus without moisture is . holds in regaid to the ethical poetry of the more . tion are no where known. For the beginning it was well. spirit's elevating itself. insinuates itself into every . it branches here and spot and crevice vanishes. and will transfer no later notions to a period. when it follows implicitly the instruction of the father. could not be psychology. it. way. What was still admitted with regard to the poetry of nature. val world. which admits not a spirit of argumentation. formed by the modes of thinking. and helped him on his But why must it always accompany him ? It holds child never learns him perpetually in leading strings. otherwise would forever remain a labyrinth of dark sayings. nial. feeling and dignity. The man that invented it himself denies and its place and condithis. or even descriptions . and the Must not this be the case in to go alone. idea of the son is the author of his existence. For the child it is well.

* The is fathers asleep. and hope of immortality been produced knew of no immortality. and obscure presentiments. and proofs. Their age named. and these mostly inferences. and their life . and must therefore be im- parted to them with a character thus child-like. rigid. In the future world too ? subject of which we at first intended to speak. and how gradually. from what trifling considerations. was ended. There we come upon the At how late a period then. and the future world. and least hope of immortality. from blind wishes. and was buried with the blood. If it were possible here . * Gen. or they are gathered to their fathers. which infer too much. although there was no dead to bewail. To us of the present day. throughout the Old Testament. A. poetical representations of this or permit me to offer only one of them to — remembrance of my deceased friend. and even after the flood. that impossible. that there is no return from the dominions of the dead. the dark. 4 — 6. that to the grave. indistinct. for him'to be about us. simple.!70 sun in the firmament. child-like morality. for this simple. with clear and distinct radiance. which prove too much. This was in time shaped into a realm of But read. shades. realm of shadows the and disconsolate. Such was the world. this sun seems . yet no angel came to comfort the mourners with the His soul was in the blood. was to guide the nations of the earth in the way. Both in this. too burning and oppressive then its light was indispensable . ! . thence it cried towards faith heaven. has man's Adam was earth. and nothing more is. let me remark. and even at a its late period marked. and elevated. . — was poured out upon of the fell first the earth . nay. enforced by reverence for the Divine Being. which illuminates the whole horizon of human existence. God was here represented as the guide and father of men. he would surely now be hovering it is but even this truth-telling elegy declares. and wholly derived from him. the dial plale of particular relations and duties. ix. He saw Abel lying in blood the first death was bewailed.

if it be cut The down becometh green again shoots are put forth. dry land. ble. And remember me But alas if a man * again. born of woman. And its stock die in the ground. Are his days so determined ? Hast thou numbered his months. But man dieth. And set fast his bound for him. Man lieth low. From vapour of water it will bud. and where is he ? Till the waters waste Till the river faileth from the sea. He fleeth also as a shadow. as given in our Hebrew means any common version. Is of few days. full And of trouble. that thou wouldst conceal me In the realm of departed souls. till thy wrath be past. And bring forth boughs. He cometli forth as a flower. is And new If even the root old in the earth. And bring me into judgment with thee? Among the impure is there one pure ? Not one. And continueth not. Whether Tk.: 171 Man. term. To make the sense here intelligible to the English reader.* Hide me Appoint in secret. I hare amplified the expression. And It enjoy. pass that he may rest. tree hath hope. me ! then a new die. he shall not awake. his day. ? Which he can never Turn then from him. his sleep. dost thou open thine eye. is and old. the original grave. Till the heavens are Nor be aroused from Oh '. Upon such and is cut down. seems at thing more than the least very questionB' . and riseth not again. as an hireling. as a young plant. and his power is gone : He is taken away. but without adding to the meaning of the Ger- man.

And thus thou destroyest the hope of man. But of what return do you suppose be understood ? Obviously of a return to this life again. till my toil endureth. silence. . wilt bind up and alas ! remove my iniquity. that there is no return from the realms of death. and everlasting oblivion E. long. from the wish. let us examine more nearly . Thou shalt then not watch for my sin. Thou wilt call Thou wilt pity the work of thy hands. and sendesthim away. me. which Job was so little able to enjoy. and that nothing dwells there. If they come to it shame and dishonour. that it. The floods overflow the dust of the earth. is Yet the mountain falleth and swallowed up. is You the language here to me does not interfere with the strongest convictions of im- mortality. and I shall answer. a My transgression will Thou N be sealed in a bag. Changest his countenance. we see even here. but ? gloomy obscurity. that there no knowledge of the happiness or misery of our friends ever reaches us. change come to me. He perceiveth Could the sentiment be more forcibly expressed. till he faileth. The rock is removed out of its place. his anger was laid aside.— — 172 1 He shall So Will never revive. to taste the good things of the earth. The waters hollow out the stones. not. . and himself abandoned But was too presumptuous a hope. and then restore him to this although he saw. as I wait. Though his sons become great and happy. Whose soul after death has ever returned to ? enjoy the blessings of the earth That Job fully believed in the continued existence of something in the kingdom of the hide dead. Yet he knoweth it not Thou contendest with him. Though now thou numberest my steps. that till God would him life there. And this it seems to are right. then.

the dwelling places of endless peace. which the complaint of Job represents so all feelingly. cannot free themselves from the dreams of earth are empty shadowy scenes. or planting them with herbage. numerous traditions of dialogues. living breath. while yet in their graves. even in the grave. visiting the graves of their friends like dwelling places. as a nerveless breath. as limbless and powerless beings. but they So David often prays.173 the belief of the Orientals respecting a realm of shades. and trace from early times the circumstances. con- versing with them. as dead . a grave. In short this has been in the East an ancient and wide-spread illusion. there dwells the king of unsubstantial shadows : subduing conquerors still delight in their tragick scenes. as still Their living having an animate though shadowy existence. in the dark nether-world. that there all free. kings and slaves. and of perfect equality. first A. and thus they were represented there. In the conception undoubtedly it was the grave the abiding and everlasting dwelling place of the thought of them to be still living in These therefore they denominated houses. poems of the Arabians. in which they are represented. so its place was assigned in subterraneous reThis it is. as a shadow with- out distinction of members. as well as the original notions of the thing itself. and watering the dust of their dwellings. gions. of I have read some rest. whole you perceive was a mere illusion. that one could not and must not think of as dead. There flow there earth- with a noiseless current the rivers of sadness and rest but powerless. which gave occa- sion to it. servants and their taskmasters. of sufferings. simply. and . and they only flitted wandered and in the realms of the dead. that God 15* . which came down among the Hebrews even and gave occasion to to a late period. are equal and all alike. only that they their graves. of visions. and of journeyings in the As the soul was conceived to be a mere shadow. Thus the The dead were them held so dear. in a place of rest. power and energy were destroyed.

while thou hast power. fields. Every shadow presupposes a substance. and his Celts. if had not had a universal ground in the hearts or in the traditions of the human race ? A. Do quickly. like the subject-matter. or the painful dream. like the with the air. for still . a hope. which it represents. grasp at the sword. whose shadow-realm was it is the clouds. a An it illusion itself is a shadow of it truth. 8l)aped utterly In the hearts of men was a wish. whither thou goest. What thine hand findeth to do. For there is no work nor device. all ancient nations have had a kingdom of their fathers. says but well. of immortality. the Orientals. E. ? Must a man perish as the brutes Would not one gladly wish . which he had been accustomed on earth. as you acknowledge has. Some have others in repthe resented them as assembling in green clouds . siastes. Would the illusion of immortality have been. and Hebrews. a realm of departed souls. where each followed to still the employment. placed is them under the earth. Call to mind now your favourite Ossian. Like them. shadow. In the shadowy realm. in The fathers of his heroes. not a clear and well assured only a conception of the immortality of the soul. or have become. which produced the pleasing. a cloud with itself too is reddening hues. There is no knowledge nor prudence. a friendship. and even it perhapa into a universal tradition.. but only air or vapour. their arm that flits a shadow. a breath. real being. So too the philosophical author of the Book of Eccle- whom you have adduced as testifying to the doctrine briefly. in the realms of death all voiceless and there no songs of thanksgiving for triumph over conquered enemies are ever sung. so universal. who adhered to the primitive concep- tion of the grave. The whole It is only a cherished illusion. 174 would still give him here his is songs of joy and triumph.

the king of powerless and unsubstantial shades gates and bolts. Ghostly kings were seated upon slftdowy thrones nay. in which Scheol occurs. In many representations Scheol occurs as the ground of a sunken world. were there. The offspring of the sons of God. continued always to wander in Job and the states the ghosts of heroes the nether-world. also. and the daughters of men. They were men of power and violence. have beea vollected and critically examined by Scheid. What once became derived from that. but things. In those days lived the world-subduers. is The name sinks under or buried. who groan and wail beneath the waves. vi. The passages. . (diss. Belial. In process of time these traditions were softened it down. the giants. its Thus this subterranean realm came to have in time king . felt in the earthquake and the storm But these were of the empire of the most ancient and gigantick inhabitants death. had each its and consequently ghost). or the bottom of the sea. which 4. Consider what an impression upon the subsequent traditions must be produced by this monstrous event. and armies of the spirit. the shadow-forms. as from the depths of the earth. whose voice perchance was thought to be in the roaring billows. have always in Job and the prophets something of the gigantick. and was the silent congregation of the dead. or his children buried in a premature grave Orientals without doubt the flood gave the for the poetical representation of first ? Among the great occasion an empire of the dead. The renowned heroes of the ancient world. Hiskiie). Scheol itself is and Scheol became his palace. and whose restless motion was at sea.— 176 to live with the sleeping objects of his affection. ad cantic. his fathers. a royal residence of invincible strength.* Thus heard it was the Rephaim. kingdoms and (For among the its Orientals not persons only. . the engulfing of the whole living world. and the Rephaim. with brazen • Gen. the instruments of power and pride. slain. the ghosts. which Still Hebrews described.

and frees captive souls. I painful. The sense of these images is quite we apply them to our notions of hell and of of ancient poetical de- dsath. this mythology has given occasion the gates. He in whose power were the souls of men. which none could subdue and free. as those of Hezekiah. and the anointed of God wrested from him his prey. which every day the symbol of our resurrection. the and to all people and nations. a prey to these terrific. than a belief in utter annihilation. which other naThe Hebrews were still tions met with heroick resolution. if unappropriate. were even more E.176 his prey he never suffered to escape. For four thousand years you perceive ruler. and such want of courage in view of death. an image of death'— a symbol that speaks with . as of the king and the conqueror of hell. was an unrightful usurper. me melancholy plaint of one who finds pleasure in wandering it have studied these realms turn your eyes among the shades. but within the proper sphere scription they present a sublime picture of a hero. ghostin ly powers. which to many con- ceptions. to carry have permitted you through your discourse. and were too much for their self-possession. slaves. who subdues powers. You But of immortality now upward to the stars. seems with much attention. quickening. and no captured soul could ever be redeemed from his grasp. who all their lives long must tremble the bonds. and your been to historical deduction of the like the kingdom of the dead has in affliction. To this is to be as- cribed such sorrowful lamentations. The They sad and mournful images of their ghostly realm disquieted them. and of a whose dominion is universal. (he who had the power of death). in this point one of the weakest nations of the earth. is Think too of as sleep is life-giving influence of the morning. without assistance. and with the fear of death. men were. Even in the New Testament death. with every returning night. and of who opens set none could open. That is the book which God unseals and spreads open to us.

" became afterwards upon . because your brother was so innocent. that was revealed to ficiently early to men support them against the terrors of the grave Who was it. who were the favoured of God. of whom it was said at an early period ? He lived the friend of God. and is every where understood. and built God took him to his on many occasions the expressive phrase to denote the fate in the other world of those. this delicate and guileless maiden . that this softening of the language in my opinion is hardly satisfactotradition narrative in question. we say to them. own dwelling place. " This innocent and beautiful youth the Gods have carried off. and was zealous Hebrews has obviously attributed " God took him to himself. The pervading it even of other nations has connected with sense. He was seen no more. and the poetry of the to it a more prejrnant the same. You do not consider this saying." The first generations of men were still in the same sort of childhood.177 clearness. the fragment perhaps of an ancient song. And while he walked with God. But do you know at a period suf? of no other hope. E. which you describe just as other nations have said and believed." But permit me to say. it. as a narrative surely of the translation of Enoch to heaven ? It is the soothing echo from the grave of one. For God had taken him up. When children have yet no conceptions of the other world. because he loved him. Aurora has ry for the stolen away. A. and his brothers. and without doubt the notion was derived from this most ancient friend of God. I willingly admit it. and had not attained to the years of his father. who had prematurely died. and at all events a premature removal of an object of affection would make the child-like impression. " Your brother is with God God has taken him away so ! early. He lived in evil days.

32. the innocent. the zealous. What others ? I recollect no other example but like Abraham was a friend of God E. not with Jehovah. and of hope. manner as Elijah. came full at once be also a matter of peculiar in- terest. Elijah. and so it is understood by the kindred na- tions of the East. zling mountain. . and for him they patriarchs all this world these were dead. yet with the surely. the daz- was held the assembly of the Gods. God conducted his chosen own eternal dwelling. so the applied it in the heaven in last book of scripture received and image of the two witnesses ascending to a cloud. New Heb Testament.178 for the honour of God . place of their heavenly friend. xxii. the lonely. and you of Abraham. the prophetick. on which into heaven. the persecuted and despised Idris. perhaps was scoffed at and perse- cuted. iastructive to was.* God God of For of the living. as prefiguring a like removal to himself of other friends of God. and the former. The Arabians have a multitude of fables respecting the wise. as well as the latter. that these conceptions were the ground of representations in the Old Testament. the dead. Enoch. but with the Elohim. and of Jacob. A. and who dwells in Other nations place him upon Albordy. into a better Canaan and the congregation of their fathers became the beautiful family and * Nothing is proved here from the language of the there on the contrary (Matt. which God had given them they entered into the dwelling . as tradition also speaks of his intercourse. as in later times was Elijah. as it This translation of Enoch. also in the end distinguish with the God would Not perhaps in same majestick friend into his so brilliant a dignity marks of his approbation. The argument made 13 — 16) derives increased evidence from the fact. but the He is not the live. xi. So Paul understood the expression. and without enjoying the promises. the partaker of the same glorious fate. . know how distinctively God is called of Isaac. (so they call Enoch) whom God received Paradise.

I will give affecting elegy. Such were those nations. mother with her you an travels and friend with Iriend. which with good reaheld dear by its every people. though he was not buried with them.179 national phrase of the Hebrews. believe in such an assemblage of their fathers . that their loved him here. in pieces all by wild beasts. Abraham. own notions and modes of The Hebrew it race adhered to the conceptions of their fathers. although he supposed him to but by no have been torn yourself related. in the realm of departed souls prising degree with embraces of his and it is affecting in a surwhat joy the father goes thither to the son. means includes the whole of it Abraham was gathered to his fathers. whose departure was among the shades. with those of E. accordlife. A. Certainly this external custom. to his beloved son. could it be. the son to meet with his father. as its ancestry. as a proof of this. its congregation of the fathers. it it serving the faith spoken to the sense. and that retains an affection for and rendered visible. that has not been broken from own I stock. this say has undoubtedly had an influence in preof. and since was the highest glory of the race. kingdom of ing to its the dead. and Jacob wished to go down to the realm of shades. that Abraham. in the family dead body. even those we call savage. as meaning nothing more than the depositing of one's his fathers. like Enoch. the child. th© Paradise of They were like kingdom of the dead. their OP of the blessed. I understand the expression of being gathered to their fathers. and in books of we have a multitude of such witnesses and proofs. . You have even how the nations of the earth. would now desert him in the grave ? that he would leave him to the gloomy father. that God who who had accompanied him with support and consolation to the brink of the grave. and who must have formed their notions on the old From this each nation formed for itself its tradition alone. and was the friend of God. in God their friend. son off is tomb. were.

night of a tyrannical and

observing kingdom of the dead


Even now, was
ous dwelling.

the language of their faith, he

shows himself

as a friend, and hospitably opens to


his light


has taken him




the beautiful

language even of the Psalms. A. I recollect one but to




very obscure.

now arrived at the house, and will read One of them* sounds a couple of them before we separate. very much like an evening prayer, and some have even conE.
are even


as a funeral elegy of the poet himself.
this, all


ye nations,

ear, all inhabitants of the



Ye men

of low, and


of high degree,

rich and the poor, listen together.

My mouth shall speak, wisdom. My heart shall meditate of prudence,
I will give ear to a dark. parable,t I will solve


deep problem on the harp.


should I fear in the days of
the injustice of foes environ


These have confidence

in their strength.

And boast themselves
Can one

of their great riches.

of them, then redeem his brother,



him from death ?

Can he even give Too costly is the





him ?

price of the soul,

bringeth no ransom forever. That he may always continue to live ? That he may never behold his grave ? He must behold it for even the wise die.


Just as the fool and the senseless perish,t

* Ps.

if it


poet listens to his song on the harp, as



him from

the strings of his instrument.

Lyrick poetry, singing and instrumental

musick, were then united.

solve, is the prosperity of the ungodly, as

The problem, which the poet proposes to we see from what immediately



and the senseless person are here synonymous, as the

verse of the Psalm shows.




leave their wealth to strangers.

Their grave



house forever,

Their tent henceforth from age to age. If they call countries by their names,

The man

in honour* abideth not always, In death he shall be esteemed as th« brute. He must go hence.


is their fate


they also perish

And those after them make them their As sheep they are driven to Hades,
There death
shall feed

upon them.


soon the upright shall rule over them.

Their image

with empty shades beneath,

is their



soul will

God redeem from Hades,
to his habitation.


will receive


Fear not then, when one is made rich, When the glory of his house is increased.

The man

in honour, is

one of those distinguished men,




to countries.

1 1 leave


undetermined, whether
in the


are to understand here a song
in the

of praise, or of reproach and mockery.

Of both

mean time they

would be alike ignorant

realm of shades.

Herder expresses briefly some doubt in regard to the sense of the words here, and the editor, Prof. Justi, has given a few critical remarks upon the whole verse. Instead of translating it, I have thought

better to give the substance of both his and
translated, " death shall feed


Wette's views.


upon them," they understand, as a continuance of the metaphor in the preceding line. Death is a shepherd, and after driving them to the nether world, "feeds them there." The next line they translate, " the upright shall tread upon them," i. e.


upon their graves, or their dead bodies, with triumph. The remainder Prof. J. translates " their rock decays" i. e. the rocky cave, in which they
are buried, and " the realm of shades

their dwelling," henceforth their

only dwelling.

De W.



nether^ world


their form."



reason of theii dwelling place,"


the grave.

In the preceding parts

of the Psalm, where Herder differs from the English translation, Wette very nearly comcides with it. Ta.



In death he shall carry nothing away,

And his

glory shall not descend with hira.

While he

he did well

for himself.

thou art praised,

if skilled for




Soon he goes to the dwelling of his fathers, His eternal house, and sees the light no more



proud of wealth, and void of sense,
like a brute,

and banished hence.



have never apprehended so clear a connexion in the
accordant with the meaning of the words

sentiments of the Psalm.





and the


which we spoke

of, is clearly


The merely sensual souls, who who know nothing but

indulge in vain boasting and
the pleasures of sense, and

are without understanding, are driven


like sheep,


(according to a representation sufficiently horrible) death

upon and devours them



God redeems

the souls

of the upright from Hades, and receives them into his


The former waste away

a prey to death,

the upright rule over them in the morning,


soon, early,

as after a night of sleep, the light of a fairer

morning goes


other Psalm, to which I referred, marks





In that,


takes the dead

body of

his chosen under his protection even in the grave, and from the night of the grave points out a secret path to

the dwelling places of his

own heavenly




understand that Psalm as

as the former one.

must be

suppose the prayer of a priest labouring under
supplies with food and drink, and


whom God


prays for a speedy restoration to health.


It is as clearly a

prayer of David, as



one of

most peculiar and characteristick Psalms. His form of expression, and his personal character may be traced in every


me O


for in thee


I trust.

I said to

Jehovah, thou art

My happiness hangs
I hold

my God, upon thee.*

sanctuaries of his land,

them dear,t In them is all my delight.
Let others serve their many



them strange



are offerings of blood

such will I not


I will not take their

names upon my





In abundance thou hast cast

my cup. me my lot,

Pleasant places have fallen to me.



have a goodly heritage.
I praise

Therefore will


Who. hath given me



night also

my heart

goeth after him.


continually before





defence, I shall not be moved.


my heart


My soul exulteth within me. My body also shall rest secure,
For thou
wilt not leave




dwell in the realm of shades,
thy faithful servant

Nor suffer

In the grave to see corruption.

Thou wilt show me the way to life, The fulness of joy in thy presence, And of pleasures with thee forever.
This Psalm seems to me, both in regard to
in its relation to the character

contents, and

of David, to be perfectly clear.


expression, "




he acts

in conjunction with

my right hand," i. e. as a friend me and for me, the circumstan-

ces enumerated, that


has given him a fair inheritance

the text.

Herder defends this translation by supposing a different reading of De Wette translates " there is no happiness for roe without
Tr. and the conjunetion tu

thee," or independent of thee.


also a conjectural reading is adopted


m the suffix proaoua to a preceding


not received from his father, (the crown

among God's


him through the councils of iar people) God and his disposition of the lot» (as their lot once fell to the tribes, and God often instructed and sustained him in
this has fallen to

his afflictions)


therefore he cleaves so fast to God, longs

after him, esteems so highly the sanctuary of Jehovah,





by day and by night, will have no intercourse

with foreign idolatrous kings and their offerings

but esteems


his portion


his cup,



an inherited golden

cup, used on festival occasions, the honour and ornament of
the family, a costly inheritance,

which he


exchange for
can be au-

nothing else




these appear to you very intelligi•

and characteristick of David



thenticated from his life and from other Psalms.


And what

further in relation to the future world


God, who was his friend, his father, and his portion here, will not leave him even in the night of the grave (there




under the special protection of God)

faithful friend

and servant

— Chasid—he will not give over to



the ttjrrors of the realms of death

he will show him a way

from the darkness of the grave, to his own dwelling of

and receive him there with hospitality as a father and



see clearly in this the conception, which

was formed

from the translation of Enoch, which the congregation of the
Chasidim, the friends of God, Abraham, Moses, &c. more
distinctly impressed,

which afterwards the translation of


jah confirmed, and which finally became the Paradise, the

dwelling of the fathers, and a perpetual banquet of joy in

Abraham's bosom

be regarded

which we



in the


Testament, and which here were spiritualized,

* That David
eiah, is



in this

Psalm, as the


of the Mes-

seen from the

New Testment,

but does not belong here.


speak here of the character of the person there speaking, and of the sen. timents contained in th« Psalm according to their proper connexion.


and beautifully confirmed, as the

last poetical

book of

scripture especially shows.



it is

said, the

Hebrews adopted

the Egyptian


thology of the Islands of the dead.



who were fond of Egyptian imagery, Mo;

and Job, have once used an expression denoting a quick and these are the only had much better images
This mythology never gained a place among

passage by ship into the other world
traces of


Hebrews, and could not

for they

belonging to the traditions of their


race and nation.

They knew nothing of judges
their Belial


Hades, nor of Charon


any thing else rather than one of these forms.




Scheol, hell,

you observed, a king of powerless shades, and is his kingdom, his dwelling place. Their kingis

of the fathers in the presence of God,

surely not de-

rived from Egypt.


It is

the resurrection of the dead


a conception pertaining to the kingdom of the

Messiah, as

scriptions of the prophets

was already confirmed by the figurative deand we shall speak of it hereafter.

For the present I must bid you good night we are both going into the arms of the representative and image of death,
and, according to the later analogical representation of the
poets, the souls of the

good are even

in sleep in the Paradise

of God.



womb ?

Wherefore did
I not perish in the

Why not expire, as soon as I was born 1 Why did the knees receive and sustain me? Why did I learn to hang upon the breast ? Now should I have lain still and been quiet,

11. X. 20.


Who built desolate And filled places for their graves gold. The voice.' With princes who had abundance of with treasures their hotses of death. which they utter there. small and the great are equal. We held swift horses on the And yet they bore us not away From swift destruction's touch.. 2 SKETCHES FROM AN ARABIAN ELEGY ON THE DECEASED MOTHER OF A HEKO. The leading thought Arabick poems of this kind is. Are Let Before my days few. which waits few us all. all portion in this life and we love Imparts but visions and phantastick draams. and my life as nothing ? me alone. and return no more. And The The hear not the voice of the oppressor. go hence. There the prisoners rejoice in their freedom. fate without an onset slew us. How much this. . There the wicked cease from troubling. and even the light is as darkness. that I I may rest a but the hollow and sepulchral sound of the dead." <fec. There the weary are at rest.* We Yet held our swords and lances ready. the dead are inhabiters of the dust. Whoever lived and loved not is this fair world ? And Thy yet enjoyment here sought in vain. " the grave is oijr eternal dwelling. foot. 186 I should h&Te slept snd been at rest With kings and rulers of the earth. more beautiful ideas on the other hand were in the gradually unfolded in the poetry of the epeciraen following Hebrews will be shown . Like an untimely birth I had been buried. The land of dark obscurity and gloomy shadows. Where disorder reigns. * This people. servant not is free from his master. in is inserted here to show how poor are the consolations of a who are without the hope of immortaUty. To the land of darkness and the shadow of death. Like infants which never beheld the light.

* Upon the face. a well known omament among the Orientals. And mountains cannot reach thy firmness For much of time and change hast thou endured. There dwells the pure as water in the clouds of heaven. even the dead were refreshed by it. t A common wish uttered by the Arabians at the grave. with which the body of the dead was covered. Saiphoddaulah. from the transpiece ano taken. the self-protected. And Still all its ties asunder torn. Gentle as thine ownhafid hath been. Nor sprinkles o'er thee soft and cooling showers. but true and The great physician still now has healed her still. Reserved. in thy patience. whose beauty is The body wastes away beneath While thought to its reiL the earth. pain. and with flowers. Take forever. 187 Divine compassion strews the hanuth. Where not the South. which the Arabians strewed upon the face of the dead. which the women on festival that days sprinkled with water.. generations following after But trample on the heads of those before. . lation of \ in which the traits exhibited in this little An allusion to a powder for the eyes. chaste. They planted their graves aUo with evergreen trees. A dark abode. To thine own place hast thou thyself betaken. faithful in discourse . own son thy power retains. The veil here spoken of is that. The For robe of honour over thee thine spread. How many an eye that once was gazed upon. The sweet perfume of incense wafts to thee. And through all change hast thou remained the same. lowly bed of restf Now may thy Imbibe the droppings of the morning clond. We And but help each other to our graves. banished always from his home. refuge. Is now filled full with stony earth and sand t! How many now their eyes have closed Whom no misfortune ever blinded. nor yet the Northern breeze. where every dweller stays A stranger. it us still paints is fresh and oew. * A fragrant powder. They believed See Reiske Motanabbi.

szvi. Their ghosts with rage and shame themselves tormenting Iq hell's deep hollow caves. Ps. xxii. their But in the their graves deserted. 8. as the probable Hebrew notion of the Rephaim in the kingdom of the dead* 17. Sea Matt. Job. as strangers They see the promised here the prospect viewing. 4. xi. to endless night. Shall raise them to the light.188 THE LAND OF THE FATHERS. XXV. He's gone from earth ! to what far region going ?* The friend of God but here no longer known. • Thy hand shall held me fast. iii. 8. friend.t Thy friend. on high. § Ps. 11. vi. 11. Ps. no danger fearing. ACCORDING TO THE ISBAELJTISH NOTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS. For thy supporting hand. The friend of God our God his love bestowing Has placed him near his throne. IT 9 KingB ii. # . there at length appearing. Jehovah. Nor shall his chosen in Be left by him. land. Upborne by To thee. pleading. 18. 13—16. tGen.II Shall soar a conqueror to the lofty sky. origin of the The deluge is here referred to. I'll enter death's obscure and gloomy road. 6. Where now. Go down in death beneath the ocean's waves. Enoch's translation. Shall guide to thine abode. Hab. 5. xvL 10. our God. to sin consenting. Elijah. 12. 24. Ixxiii. D Heb. 23. xxiii. X Gen. fiery steeds. and upward leading. Ps. Ixviii.§ realm of shades his rights asserted. V. 24. 6. 33. — — The vile and Godless crew.t But ftfter him the Godlike throng pursuing Shall dwell in Paradise at God's right hand. The congregation of the fathers.

I hear who onc6 descended. in realms of light adoring. Cor. and die. Oh death where is thy sting ?+ + 1 » Pa. nor e'er be banished. them cry. xv. Shall he. 55—57. . Lxxiii. upward ! bring. In fairer worlds on high. Yet thee shall I behold. 25. faint. Though soul and body languish.189 Though from my sight the earth and sky are vanished. 26.* And hell with all its captive throng restoring.

a mighty hunter before the Lord. which occur in the poet- ical descriptions of providence. Impression made by this poetry on the heart.DIALOGUE VIII. Whether it represents the events^ which take place in the world. By what principles we are to judge of events of this sort. Implied General character of derision and mockery in the whole tradition. and even thereby snatched from danger. In a social conversation. . rived. many touching proofs of an over-ruling providence Examples were mentioned showing how singularly many were forewarned of misfortune. tyrants. Whether its sublime representations of the agency of God. which this poetry has rendered to humanity. Explanation of the language of God to Cain. New form and appearance of the earth after the deluge. earth. Of poetry which relates to providence. tends to bring the soul to a state of inaction. the rainbow and the in- cense of the first offering upon the renewed covenant. history of Cain. Isaiah's elegy on the king of Babylon. as the avenger of secret sins in the Affecting and poetical traits in the narrative. poetry relating to Babylon throughout the Scriptures. In what style of representation the traditions of this event were conceived. the olive leaf. how richly the children of the were related. ditions. Why the rainbow in the poetry of became the sign of a new Of the rainbow Northern nations. Explanation of certain ancient tra- from which the later representations of providence were deRepresentation of God. Transi. &c. at which our two friends were present. Of the judgment of the deluge. tion to certain animated personifications in the poetry of later times. Service regard to providence. thd journal of events in the Ark. Comparison' of Oriental with other forms of poetry in Pictures of providence from Job. Rec- titude united with benignity in early apprehensions of God. Appendix. as contrasted with that of man. the sons of God. Of blood calling for vengeance. Of the traditions respecting giants. which God is playing with them. Of the tower of Babel. as resulting from a game of chance. of the bird of retribn- tion. Of God as the conqueror and punisher of Vindication of the brief antitheses. containing two Psalms and Job's Pindaric ode in praise of true wisdom. Of the aim and the style of the whole narrative. of crying sins. represented as a giant's bridge. What is meant by the expression.


poor and virtuous are often provided for, how unexpectedly deeds of baseness are brought to light, and punished according to the law of rigorous retribution, and how the prayers
of the upright and pious are often answered in a remarkable

manner, with other things of the



Each of


company had contributed his mite from his own experience, and the company separated with very agreeable impressions.


Oriental friends remained together, and Alciphron pur-

sued his


of thinking as follows.


have been entertained, seem to you,

Did not the conversation, with which we my friend, now and then partake a little too much of human weakness ? If we
events as having moral relations, and refer back to

consider every event, as the result of divine purpose, regard


every act, which
results, every


ourselves do, with


happy or unhappy
and con-

thing seems too

too narrow,


In our conversations on the subject, you have inside,

deed taken decidedly the opposite


have rather



feelings, than

convinced my judgment.



the poetry of the Orientals,


are disposed of by a


of chance, as the objects, which the invisible mover changes

about as he


and independently of any choice of

This may indeed, as you recently remarked, give to their
poetry a species of dignity and





must be only


words, or at best a sort of beclouded and

unedifying simplicity.



to a state of stupidity

and weakness, in which at length they give themselves up
passively to the will of

God, and cease


act freely at alL

They only

God in hymns, and in short keep a perpetual holyday. The poetry, of which we are speaking, which shows in sublime contrasts how God works and consing, praise
trols all things, is like a

somniferous sound, that puts an end


our doings, a gentle opiate of the

extols the

works of God, but neglects to describe with distinctness and effect the characters and doings of men in their progress to-

wards the happiness and misery, which are the consequence
of these.



to a

light of

undistinguished in the dazzling and God's glory, and blinds them in regard

knowledge of themselves.


of the ways of God according to his

if man will be a judge own limited rule of moral




short-sighted, harsh, partial,

and arrogant a

judge does he become


poetry of the Orientals, taken
this abundantly.

connexion with their history, shows

The God
in this


the latter creeps

in history all

quiescent, or

wicked, in poetry comfort

sought by ascribing


and there the matter
point of view





me, that

has rendered but


service, either to the

understanding, or the heart of man.

has rather held him

back, and veiled him with a cloak of divine magnificence, or

by bringing his doings


comparison with the course of divine

government, placed him upon

where he must


or learn to go alone with great difiiculty.
I sec,

it is


friend, the root of

your prejudiis

is still

always in yourself, and unless


in vain to discourse of the beauty

of any poetry whatever.

What would be
if it

the use of the sublimest poetry in the world,


were but an opiate for the soul, or a veil for the eyes, prevent our knowing the real forms of things, and the true

But how, think you, shall we best pursue these notions, and this representation of divine providence, resulted from the influence of particular traditions and events ? They have at least remained closely
course of events.
the inquiry

Have not

connected with these ancient events, and, in their later application even, reference

always had to these.




then trace the stream from



for I confess to


would not willingly enter into vague and barren discussions


azure firmament.


Neither would

and the

histories of Cain, of Abel,

of the flood, of the tower of Babel, of

Sodom and Gomorrah,

of the patriarchs, are haps

all alike

before us, and from these per-

such notions have originated.


Let us


consider, then, the history of Abel.


stands there like a mournful flower,
in its simplicity just as poetical as

marked with blood, and
should be, for a proof of

the punitive justice and the providence of


Where is Abel thy brother ?* What deed hast thou done ? The voice of thy brother's blood Cries to me from the earth. And now cursed art thou, an exile Which hath opened her mouth, The stream of thy brother's blood To drink from thy hand.

in the earth,

It shall

thou shalt


the ground,
shalt thou be in the earth.

not yield thee




and vagabond

What do you most admire

in this

language, the severity of

the judge, or the tenderness of the father

And who
it ?


vengeance here,



does not






shall the father

avenge the blood of

his son



And must

remain unpunished

Shall the blood of a brother be shed like the blood of a brute,

and men be hardened

savage cruelty and wickedness
his crime,


And how



murderer conceal

and r'when called

in question, rebel against his

father himself



earth could not reveal the transgression to the father of the
race, but to



made known

the deed; the blood cried

out and called for punishment.

Observe how naturally, and


forcibly, every thing

set forth here,

— the blood


for vengeance, (and for a long time the living soul

was sup;

posed to be

in the




ground proclaiming the deed

the maternal earth, which received the blood of her son from

the hand of his brother, drank



were with horror, and
strict justice

afterwards refused to the murderer the free enjoyment of her
fruitful energies.

Observe, with what
* Gen.
iv. 9.







for the curse,

which he pronounces, only

unfolds the consequences of sin.

The murderer could no

longer remain in the house of his father, for there he would

be the occasion of misery
the blood raised


himself and to



not stay in the region, where the crime was committed


the echoing

earth cried out, and

he himself


" Every one that finds me, will slay




must be a


and a vagabond on the earth."

ciful judge, therefore, did

what the

The merperplexed criminal knew

from his family, and from awakened his recollection and horHe gave him another, perhaps unfruitful ror of the deed. and mountainous, but for him secure region, and even became Thus the himself surety for the preservation of his life. blood of his brother was atoned for without a bloody revenge.
to do.


He removed him

the circumstances which




spared and punished.


you not then consider

this history, as a

model of paternal




not the


tradition, in its several

traits, fitted to

alarm, to warn,

to sooth,


to benefit





produced these




Recollect the example of blood crying for

vengeance even

in the last

book of

the scriptures.



which are represented as under the

altar,* are the

blood of

the slain, which had been spilled, as Abel


may be

ceived, in a figurative sense, to be an offering, as

were, upon

the altar.


call for

vengeance upon

their persecutors,

but white robes are given them
their blood,

they are withdrawn from

and put



their expectations to the day of

God's vengeance.

So through the whole of the Old Testa-


the blood of prophets and witnesses for the truth calls

for revenge, but


has reserved


for himself.



the judge of all violence and outrage, especially of all secret

and deeds of shame.

That, of which no
vi. 9. 10.

man makes

» Rev.

complaint, has a voice for him.

That, which none on earth

can or

will punish,

he must call to account in right of his


as the father and judge of the whole race of


Thou hast set our Our secret sins in

iniquities before thee,

the light of thy countenance.*

the pervading peculiarity of Biblical poetry, and truly

sublime and instructive idea for the




means of

God awakened

the consciences of

men, and

them, at least through the influence of fear and Their hands were to be restrained from deeds of

blood, even the blood of revenge,

and hence the voice of

misdeeds was made


speak thus audibly.





not attained.




the avenger of blood in Arabia even to

the present day





becatne necessary for Moses to soften

and moderate the existing custom by special laws.


nothing more can be inferred, than that the

of revengeful passions was kindled deep in the hearts of

this people,

and that what was of a good tendency only
degree, than


tened and moderated their cruel and hard-hearted propensities in a less
it should have done. According Arabick poetry, the poison of asps

to the representations of

from the dead body of the


and continues





avenged, that


sprinkled with fresh blood. t


bird of bloody



from the blood, and follows the muris

Thus, the ofhce of the avenger of blood


from generation to generation, and the avenger becomes in his turn the prey of the avenger. Every tone and word, that,

regard to this maddening passion, tends to soften the
heart, and direct the thoughts upwards, is a gift



*Ps. xc.




number of Arabick poems containing such sentiments may be in the Hamasa, and many proofs of such a belief are found in their


heaven, and
it is

not the fault of the instruction, contained in

these traditions and this poetry, but of the revengeful spirit

of the Orientals, that


has been applied with no better


But there

are, in


undeniable evidences of moderation,

and beautiful examples of



Psalms and Prophets.



and concise


the complaint of Job.

Mine eye

dim with weeping,*
of death.

On mine

eyelids rest already

The shadows

No robbery is in my hands, And my prayer is pure. O Earth, cover not my blood Let my cry go up continually For lo my witness is in heaven,
! ! !

friends are but mockers Mine eye looketh with tears

My My

witness dwelleth on high.




Tender and subdued feelings of this sort are the most beauaim of the poet, as they are an honor to humanity, A. But vvould it not have been better, if the judge, as a
had anticipated the crime of Cain, and so every crime, after it was committed ? it


rather than have punished




what was possible

in the

nature of things, and

so he does

now and


did in fact anticipate.

Jehovah looked not upon the offering of Cain, And Cain was wroth, and his countenance fell.


said Jehovah,



thou wroth


And wherefore

thy countenance fallen?

In doing well, shall thou not be accepted

thou doest

evil, lo, sin is
t) at


(As a ravenous beast

thy door.

He aims

at thee,

and thou shall subdue him.
* Job. xvi. 16—20.


The verb here



in the

and there

no doubt, that sin

Arabick of the lurking of wild beasts here personified as a ravenous beast, a

or tiger, that, hungry and blood-thirsty,

was lurking

at the

door of

might we not. are laws of nature. 563. suffered every living creature. p. all which could be said cliild." where enemies are lurking aslionn lurk round the >ianntsof tht' young So too the resisting of temptation. more fearfulif will And what God did but look to his own conscience. A. that inflicted in regard to the How on accwunt of a few men and giants he punishment upon the his whole world. to Cain." and delivered eight persons with what could be taken with the ark. to which must be subject. The crime more so near being committruly or ted could not have been pictured ly. P. to none Those It is ill which the whole earth every individual subjected. its and contemplate as metaphysicians. or of a perished continent. could not be represented to Cain under a more apposite image. vetses out of the Tograi.) adduces two which are very apposite here. " because all flesh had corrupted way. Cain. "My friend deer. on the ground of their daily abuse. but in physical and it is moral relations. without the world much difficulty reason them out of We must not it then judge of this event and tradition. to Cain. III. and the over:-oming of sib. that can be conceived ? The judge of ! the world needs the vindication of destinies. even the brutes. philosophizing over the ruins of a sunken capital of an empire. As to the brutes. IS Bremens. do they not always follow the destiny of man ? and. as with a froward and dissuaded him from yielding his heart. 'to perish. like a beast of prey. listen to the he heart. if we must ! philosophize. Because they are taken from traditions of a violent Lette (in Symbol. of his creatures is partial impression. 17* . and then see what impression fitted to make. and voice of God in his A. he does to every man. All its accounts of the corruption of the human race seem to meet together with a heavy and sad impression. as alone innocent ? them into Does not this tradition give the most narrow and E. God spake with at his him. deluge leading But how ? will is it you vindicate the judge to be justified. liter.197 This was to that. which was sleeping in and lurking door.

and an entire predominance of the power of On these grounds. it For a long time. licentiousness. the period of is visibly diminished. deluge. could they haps too with effect in their thousand years much evil. Here too. and come escaped the deluge. To new laws do you say ? Obviously. Perhaps too. the thoughts of their hearts. and however one certainly resulted human may account for life the from the natural laws of the It had been earth in the existing stage of its formation. the best pledge of its antiquity. After the flood. in who yet felt themselves the fresh energies of creation.198 anu gigantick race. the in the first period all water had stood being inhabited. gradually and slowly formed. that he had made men. he acts. that is. E. who So much is the more original are they. and crime alone. I can readily credit the ancient tradition. at that period. the first-born of the ancient world. and above the earth. Jehovah saw the wickedness of men. therefore. then. The painful and distressing part of the account. tlie earth another ordinance. of its deluges in parts of it were not unfrequent. who could be so early and so widely sunk and in abandoned wickedness. and a father he gave laws. only the higher elevations of the earth's surface were at all inhabitable. cultivation. luxury. men. repented him. and subjected it to new A. That it was great upon the earth. to us only through those. E. a base man. possessed of power and in accomplish his brief span of life — and ? much. as a judge. and extensive at different periods. and devoted them to oppression. the remainder being . Their imaginations. . and of the whole record of the ark. Were It only evil and continually. How how per- much even now can distinction. and raised above the waters. Compare our years and our faculties with the years and the faculties of those Titans.

In short. it A. who went in to the daughters of men ? and yet the expression " sons of God. coming these fables over the floods of a sunken world. or exposed to sudden overflows. the of laws and length of days. though dim and obscure dawning of light. state of the such as no longer covenant. new ordinance in a for the seasons. and of their intercourse with the daughters of as the men . Would that we knew something more of of giants. E. and from this point. The antediluvian history sounds to us. only as a fabulous account of heroes and giants. is What fictions have not been invented out of what said of God. our liistory has its origin. such as scarcely belongs to our condition now. while shaping (and exercise of its misshaping) in the untried powers . After the flood. properly still speaking. Without doubt there was then a corresponding earth. and even the {ew traces that we have of them have been wickedly abused. and the first heroick age must necessa. . rily perhaps be only the temporary condition of the race in progress of itself its the early development. that Noah should learn to regard himself. which condition also had been designed with reference to this change in the stat6 of the earth. is common and current the sons of in all heroick songs:-but we are wandering from our purpose. We ought to wish for no such thing. beauty. men of superior power. or any essential change. in which it is now proceeding. I do not think so. every thing at that time came into the course. A. heroes. might bring back the water upon the inhabited parts of the earth and perhaps this was done by a change in the position of the earth's axis. as the favorite of one alone chosen for deliverance. That this sad fate of the earth. e. To the beginning of the development and formation of our race pertained a long period of life. nobles. A sudden shock.199 still under water. God made customs a new life. and strength. a exists. should be considered as a punishment of the giants." i. if was only the course of nature.

and these course. who looked upon lovely rain-bow. I have never contemplated the account in this light. God through him procured from the He had been greatly afflicted. glance of the joyous eye of the world upon the dark masses of clouds. bow in the cloud with the joy his of a father. and blessed the earth. As rest his implies. 7—10. — needs an explathe earth E. than God himself here feels them as it were for favor of God." Can the feelings of men be more strongly expressed. attend its A. though in a difficult and painful manner. and makes first — the image of own goodness. and joy. and resolved that he would not again destroy it. and the only worthy and upright man nation. malicious joy. — to become the sign of his unchangeable if\- He encompasses the earth with a fresh and still separable chorus of joyful seasons. that. E. liv. and what feeling of returning confidence. and have often wondered. covenant. He was name so. With what longing does he open the ment in the ark With window of the ark. . alone de- How narrow and limited is his confinelivered from death. is ! ! the first discovered olive leaf of the dove regarded insult. and therefore ought so to regard himself. but rather the little saddened emotion the first who had as escaped. and of the ing who stepped forth. as Isaiah" beautifully interprets this account.200 God. them the ? He sees the returning it. Of a covenant so sure. ing. over the perished world. or ! The whole nairative contains not a word of of the band. aud permit the birds to fly out what emotion. a sign of the returning sun. tyrants. the mountains and hills shall be re- » Isa. how a fleeting phenomenon in the clouds could become the memorial of a perpetual covenant. and saw himself. with a kind of dreamupon the muddy surface of their aftcient mother " Jehovah smelled the sweet savor of their first offerearth.

and God must find it necessary to watch upon the progress of the building. an appearance of like proceedings on the the judgment of part of the great and powerful occurred. after their fashion. if I find and as a specimen . to and determinate. All men are of one speech and one language. how fearfully God punished the predominance of The laws prescribed by Noah are therefore strict They indicate the height. their who were new world the im- crime. of brutes and men. the which corit ruption had attained in former times. and. into view every thing under its The earth must be punished by the waters of the flood. man is a moral being. upon their lips and language. they must build a tower. not what miracle. and can be broken asunder only at the final shaking of the firmament confessed. Pardon me. but yet containing the sense of the subject is The other wide spread gloss on the indicated here too.201 moved. rights of the people. until he performed. represent the rainbow of the as a bridge. and child-like it must be this original it. and sketch. which shall stand firm even to the end world. 1 it it. and those. from — a stiff and harsh derivation. and use keep a earnest precautions respecting sion. that that they might be scattered abroad upon the earth. know is. before this promise of God shall fail. and should learn moral aspect. So soon in the building tower of Babel. to to be consumed by my friend. as first were. — heaven is again awake to confou nd them. tradition. of the on the renewed earth. He came to the conclu- seems. again to be destroyed by water. a delightful fable if ! A. I might as say. So the tradi- tions of the North. in order that what had always happened might happen again. saved. whose top shoulu reach to heaven. the narrative in itself. that they would not desist. that since it is world is not fire. In short. must bring with them pression. as they might always have remained scarcely as if such marvellous confusion would in have been necessary the least degree in the natural course of things. Here we come upon so.

imagine a vain thing ? The kings of the earth are assembled. The purpose of the narrative is obvious. xi. And It is this you suppose was the ? child-like enterprise of building a tower up to heaven here represented as childish. E. Why And do the nations rage. and dering migrations. Jehovah them * Gen. E. as in fact. languages also were distinguished. rather too strongly characterized. wan- as well as we. of these traditions had The collector some experieace and understanding. which are divided ac- cording to languages. If you look at it in this light.* And immediately after those. it is so. ? But do you observe in what connexion the tradition occurs A. A. . E. countries. and even while they were become diverse in speech and language. In the midst of genealogical registers. that with nations. Have you never read the Psalm. E. and nations. in order to show by what event men were brought under the hard necessity of being dispersed and separated from each other. and became dispersed. by simplicity. But the descent and it ? fearful precaution of God on ac- count of tradition It is is obviously said in mockery. The rulers take counsel against Jehovah He that dwelleth in the shall hold heavens shall laugh. They would have a visible mark to prevent their being dispersed.— 202 of the judgments of heaven. But on this very account he inserted here this singular tradition. and has a childish Because they were of one speech and language. in derision. and knew. tribes. the whole of this character. A. result. they to would build a tower building they heaven.

Whose top may reach to heaven. If it were intended to say this. that one does not hunt such animals before the Lord. and oppresses them with cunning and force. that he hunted foxes and hares on the plains of Shinar. to which you are so much disposed ridicule. says in turn. " Nimrod. the mighty hunter before the Lord. Look at the foregoing chapter. Now you are aware. materials. let us build a city and tower. And why is he called so ? Certainly not for the foolish reason. In just this sense the narrative says. But what is meant by a hunter in Hebrew ? A. it would indeed be the most weak and simple of all sayings. condescending to imitate their resolve. —not to mention. he pretheir security it tended. and therefore. lurking enemy. easily deceived savages. in any peculiar sense. of great power. and willing laborers. let us go down now. as itself it upon the region peculiarly belonging to him. is in which he is often mentioned. Such was Nimrod. E. one who ensnares men. Who ruled in Babel ? veho was the builder of it ? A. where there werq neither mountains nor forests. And God." E. He found a delightful plain. Go to." therefore means a crafty. A " lurking enemy. whatever approached them ob- truded and. according to the universal tradition of the East. . and the same thing contained in the narrative. for building himself a residence and a royal tower. that it was a token of and of their lasting union.203 Here you have the best commentary on the whole narrative. Go to. that To the subdued and he had drawn together. A mighty hunter. but in his his pride own purpose was a monument of and of their slavery. that the most ancient times represented the skies as the dwelling place of God. encroached upon his throne. were. And there confound their language.

Do you not perceive a continued strain of sarcasm very ob? vious here A. to free himself from danger. of this first all the writings of the all Hebrew poets respect- They have precisely the tone and character tradition. together with the singular means. The same tone and character ? . and mount upward towards the heavens upon the shoulders of betrayed and oppressed hordes That my explanation is the true one is of the human race. —only It is laid his finger upon their changed the articulation of the breath. by which he knows how are placed silently side by side. It is the finest example of satire itself. They resolved to scale the heavens. the ruins of their enterprize. " This was the mighty hunter before the Lord. where the great and the the purposed ascent of men. brought low by a The narrative accords with the spirit of mere nothing. and resolved to raise himself conspicuously before his eyes. and to prevent their success lips. which is articulated in the mouth." who ventured to compare himself with him. their am surprised. And nothing will be restrained. that little The confusion of . an everlasting monument of their pride. with unaffected simplicity. was assured that they would not desist from their gigantick enterprize. God stood in fear for the safety of his throne. that I never remarked it before. the des- cent of God. by the event little. A. Babel. E.204 They have begun their work. He and his royal tower are — a proverb of reproach. the thing. expressed. the insecurity and dread of the latter. Till the work is accomplished. and there are called confusion. does more than a tempest of lightning and thunder throne of the usurper of the God stands confounded and put to shame. the confidence and arrogance of the former. particle of air. witnessed by ing Babylon. And the greatest reproach of all lies in the result I of mighty enterprise.

mag- nificence. is A. from which she and its first causes the nations to drink. as that in which I have represented it. scattered ruins are called — Babel. as equally distinct and we shall see at an- Even in the last book of Scripture. It continually. oppression of the people and of nations. The conis trolling mistress of the world. with which I made myself of the dead. and must at last drink herself. exhibited in the inations. and over her ruins in the heard a song of derision and lamentation. Babylon is same form and character. same spirit. which this tradition breathes. Her glory is then brought down to the dust. with is which she intoxicates the nations . You will enable me. for the poetry which they contain respecting Babylon is in E. this character. forehead a name is indicative of licentiousness and impiety she finally sinks like a millstone cast into the ocean. arrogance. and a throne among the fusion . on her . at the same time. and of the derision with which God looks upon the giant projects of men. the It exhibits same silent same * Isa. put to shame. of con- and desolation. All are satires upon Babylon. I perceive.* familiar on account of the its reference to the realms derision. in accordance with the general spirit and expression of this tradition. forever who A. as here. Jxr. The poetry of the Bible respecting other nations characteristick. the symbol of daring impiety against God. is crafty policy and as it is tyrannical domination.205 E. the mighty huntress of men. » 18 . the cup of trembling in her hand. Babylon is As it is here. of stars arrogant and ambitious enterprises. arrogated to herself the attributes of Jehovah. The haughty queen has always. but. She has in her hand the cup of abomother time. here. aspiring to the heavens. so every where. to look at all the prophets more understandingly. another name for pride. I recollect a beautiful elegy of Isaiah.

and is full of lofty scorn and contu- mely from the beginning Will you read it ? E. and anxiety. How Hovr art thou fallen ! from heaven ! Bright star thou son of the dawn ! art thou crushed to the earth. Even It raised them up from their thrones. moved all to meet thee at thy coming. With strokes. It stirred up for thee the ghostly shades. A. And low the triumphal sound of thy harps. " Since thou wast laid low. which were never remitted. . like a song of la- mentation for the dead. rod. And The oppression that nothing restrained. made even as we ?" They ? Brought down even to the dead is thy pride. That which smote the nations in anger. the mighty ones of the earth.206 aepulchral tones of lamentation. All the kings of the nations. which you have mentioned. and said." The ghostly realm beneath was It roused for thea. Thy couch beneath thee is the worm. Now the whole world is quiet and at rest. Even the fir trees exult over The cedars of Lebanon. to the end. It moves in lengthened elegiack measure. In the day. too. no one comes up To hew us down and destroy us. thee. The mould of death thy covering. nations send forth a song of joy. and thy slavish bondage. Which ruled them with stern severity. Then shalt thou take up a song over the king of Babylon. all welcomed thee. " Art thou also become a shadow like us Art thou. And shalt say. How The The hath the taskmaster become still I exactor of gold ceased to oppress ! Jehovah hath broken the oppressor's sceptre of the tyrants. when Jehovah shall give thee rest From thy distress.

it I will into the rubbish of desolation. gaze upon thee. pit. L&e a monstrous and abhorred birth. " Is this the man. narrowly scan thee. A morass of stagnant water. therefore. But thou art cast forth from thy grave. and a abhorred and cast off branch. For thou hast made thine own land desolate. without doubt a monstrous and deformed birth. The seed of evil-doers shall not be named. To the And They hollow caves of the dead. in his own house. clouds. And fill the country with cities. I will make sweep it a hold for the porcupine. • It is customary with Isaiah of it member is to a branch." I will rise up against thee. those. that see thee. I will destroy the name and race of Babel. An to compare a family to a tree. Upon " I the mountain heights of the North I will shall mount up above the heights of the become like the Most High !" to the But down abyss art thou hurled. " I will mount to ! heaven I the stars of God will I exalt my throne I shall sit aloft where the Gods assemble. The child and grand-child. his spacious tomb. Saith Jehovah of hosts. Nor called to remembrance forever. saith Jehovah. Thine own people hast thou smitten. kings of the nations all The Each sleep in glory. whom the sword hath pierced.! 207 That didst conquer the nations I Thou Above saidst in thine heart. Saith Jehovah of hosts. Give their sons to death for the sake of their fathers. The world around he made rendered its cities He He desolate. .* Covered with slain. Who Thou Thou sink liest down among the stones of the there like a carcase trodden under foot. That they rise not again and inherit the land. shalt not be united with them in burial. Who made And " the earth to tremble ? shattered kingdoms in pieces ?" like a desert. opened not the prison door of his captives.

like the waves. and in the sight of God what is this drop of but continual ? a world. and thrusts down hell that which would exalt itself to heaven. of which we spoke at first. see in the world. one kind of parallelism the loftiest These contrasts are and most powerful mashaU or poetical exhibition. Just as the parallelism in its general character seemed A. could paint the billows of worldly . and give us a view of the occur? rences and changes of the world. iEsehy. and the things of the world abasement ebb and flow. lus Hesiod and Homer.208 E. with all its giants and heaven-daring conquerors. which you have read. And . here we have thereexalts too that which is low example of those sublime contrasts in the agency of They seem to me providence. when you first considered . who arrogantly aspired to heaven. it. hibit the nature Do they not also ex- of things. fore an to you. after the object of God's . but a swelling and bursting bubble. her. humbled and thrust dow^n to the abyss " the she lies amidst the cast off rubbish of desolation. as they are in themselves What do we universally. as the people of The leading trait. much dispersed. and many if traits in the elegy. E. fleeting and Pindar. exaltation and Nothing continues. for would seem as intended Nimrod and the first building of the tower. above the derision. and immediately to the dust. how the providence of the heavenly judge dashes the pride of tyrants. quite too monotonous and full of repetition. But our thoughts are becoming as whom we to are speaking. Here you see stars the haughty oppressor of the nations. which such general represen- tations of worldly scenes can admit. nothing can continue at All here below is fluctuating the same point of elevation. is The desolate daughter of Babylon" name and representation of all biblical poetry respecting Babylon. that the poetry of the East tends to make to us observe more particularly. remark upon at present. which we were was this. and to build her throne .

they had derived They I picture the contrast of the high and the low. And our church hymns of course no less. as contrasted with the unchanging and unchangeable God of fate. and unnatural yet many hymns and finest Psalms respecting providence are among the collections. unanimated. they stand as unmeaning and empty sounds is but to one. since. in reading these contrasts. we may say with truth. comparative. on pride and humility. and stored with facts account I place a high estimate upon Job. E. to console him in his Job and the desolation. and confidence in God. universally intelligible. the strong if it and the weak. These hymns too have sufficiently proved their power and influence on the human heart. essential despotick governments of the East may be more But as to their more sudden. finds no examples to illustrate them. as from the East. grounds. Now willingly believe. the sentiment I might say common place. who. in our Some are beautifully versified. They sound here. since in these too such contrasts. they are a poetical abridgment of all history. throughout the whole. the result of human history. under no form more true or expressive. and the support and strength of the poor. the burden and end of the song. ly Certainly. A. as 18» . and Psalms. in regard to the course of providence. dull. They come to him. the Pro- phets. the eye of God is represented as watching over the course of human events. him. that such changes of destiny under the frequent. They are the consolation of the unfortunate. and more striking. which.209 change. and they calm and quiet his soul. to be sure. on good and ill fortune. are imitated from the Psalms. To . And true and false self-confidence. whose memory on this and the treasuers of experience. they are every where the same. that this poetry has plicity in the exhibited the same unity and sim- succession of events in the world. Psalms are a store-house of observations and moral reflections on human life. as a voice from heaven.

the weak from the hand of the strong. And precipitateth the counsels of the intriguer. sendeth streams upon the dry raise to happiness those that fields. And the chastening of the Most High despise For he maketh and bindeth up. hands perform not their enterprise. while in the East he stands upon a rock. That he may exalt those that are low. correcteth. He woundeth. I always It feel as if wandering beneath a clouded evening sky. not. with the everlasting his sure foundation. that hope is given to the poor. He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. from the hand of the sword. fond as I am of [it. Who And And And doeth great things and unsearchable. will I lift To God up my voice. . in the poetry of the Greeks is but taw- dry ornament compared with this child-like and pure simpli. The exhibition of art city it exhibited in the scenes of nature. is determinate. and in reading the Celtick poetry. In famine he shall save thee from death In war. mourn. but without a sun. And iniquity stoppeth her is mouth.. He giveth rain upon the wide earth. So that they meet with darkness in the day. And seven shall no evil touch thee. and capable of giving unity to the Man at last vanishes like a cloudy vapour. the clouds and on the presents indeed beautiful scenes in earth. He maketh their vain the devices of the crafty. as in the night. And So Thus he saves the poor from their sword. in In six troubles will he deliver thee. And grope at noon-day. God for I will betake myself to God. without God. Marvellous things without number. time. and his own hand healeth. 210 wc before observed. and without a purpose which whole. Happy the man whom God sore.

At the destroyer and at hunger thou shalt laugh. Thou knowest that thy tent is secure. Thine offspring as the grass of the earth. if we should on that account become careless and inactive. . me it is obvious. The stones of the field are thy sure allies. and sum up the experi- ence of the long and instructive life fall of the patriarchs. As a shock of corn cometh in. . ravenous destroyer. that breathes confidence in and providentiiil regard for the God and in his special human race. the destroyer cometh. Thou shalt come to thy grave in full age. Thou knowest that thy seed shall be many. beyond a doubt. but to trasts. is. and the most ancient poetry Oriental in its in this respect. As mountains grow old. The Orientals. in its season. so empires leaf puts forth. The last verse clearly explains the three preceding. Nor fear the wild beasts of the earth. the lion. so as the fresh new fortunes and new hopes spring up for man * — thus is the seasons of the year and the periods of of the tongue is. when of the tongue* shalt thou be hid. human the bite The scourge according is to the parallelism. had a peculiar' tendency to nourish the poetry. when most depressed and most in need of their influence. I leave every one to his own taste. entirely char- was only in this simple form. that these simple and unstudied con- (child-like and artless reflections on the course of tender plant of a kind of events from the mouth of aged and experienced men). They it But are a kind of mirror of the world. and findest it in safety. produced them of the Greeks acter. connected with hunger.211 From the scourge Nor be afraid. Let us be thus favoured by the care of providence. ing verse The destroyer i. that they could be apprehended moreover by the most simple and undisciplined understanding. and seize upon the heart of man. e. Thou returnest. And the wild beasts are at peace with thee. into decay . which in the follow. of a blood-thirsty brute. a hungry. and it would be our own fault.

and the in- credulous and headstrong youth finds by experience at that they have discoursed truly. And Let the mountains sink in the depths of the sea. the scenes of nature and the varying aspects of human destiny. or — the flood and the memorials of Divine pun- ishment. the Psalms. ON THE HELP OF GOD. as their source. as the guide of our — shadowy and fleeting life.» is God our refuge and strength. and the Prophets. God is in the midst of faer she is still unmored! .212 life. the confounding of human purposes and exposure of hidden crimes. . though the world be shaken. For the most part. too. From these they proceed. Yet will his refreshing streams Make glad the city of God The dwelling place of the Most High. when the fermenting elements of life have worked themselves clear. the most useful poetry and instruction. we have treated of. last. discoursing in the same tones with Job. A sure defence in time of need. and terminate throughout in the silent fear of God and wisdom of man forming without doubt the richest treasure. APPENDIX. Tlierefore we fear not. which shall treat of. ! its floods roar and be tumultuous Let the mountains tremble at his majesty. and God is the controller of them all. the more Oriental would it become general characteristicks. 1 could wish with a poem. in its The more simple. tha reflections in praise of providence are suggested by the pic- tures and historical traditions. 1. are connected together. A SONG OF PRAISE. ! » P«. xhi. Even at the present day we may hear experienced and moralizing old men. that combined together in I were acquainted representation* its the most striking and afiecting scenes of providence in our Own history.

Put no confidence In a son of man. I will praise I will praise my Jehovah. even to the end of the world.* Praise ye the Lord Praise Jehovah. Maketh wars to cease. while I have being! in men of might. A SONG OF PRAISE ON THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD. Happy is he. all that is The sea. Jehovah giveth eyes to the blind. Breaketh the bow and cutteth asunder the spear. . behold the works of Jehovah Who now maketh the countries deserts. Jehovah loveth the righteous. And " Be burneth the chariot in the still fire. And subverteth the counsels of the oppressor. He supplieth the fatherless and widows. nations rage. the God of hosts with us ! The God of Jacob is our refuge Come. whose help is the God of Jacob I Who trusteth in Jehovah. that I am God !" The king of nations. and empires sink. Jehovah raiseth up the bowed down. who hath no strength. cxlvi. God. His breath vanisheth. the ruler of the world Jehovah. That created the heavens. and know. ! O my soul While I live. our refuge. truth forever. * Ps. is He thundereth. he returneth And all his purposes are cut ofl'. Jehovah preserveth the strangers. ! Jehovah. He provideth bread for the hungry. to the earth. and the earth is melted. is with us ! The God of Jacob 2. and the earth. the God is of hosts. his guardian God.! ! 213 God The helpeth her. He procureth justice for the oppressed. and And keepeth therein. I And now. looking down upon her In the time of her need.

out. pumped dry. the cor- were. Interspersed with dust of gold. place of the gold. river of eternal oblivion beneath. From the earth upward. goeth forth bread. Man The hath found an outlet for the silver. than the deepest mines have reached. the dwelling of the forgotten would be the kingdom of the dead. • Probably the last stone in the mining investigations of Job ner and boundary stone.. .* out from the realm of oblivion. . to Yet I confess the paisage re- mains obscure my own mind. He hath set bounds to darkness. The way no mountain bird hath seen. and deposited darkest depths of the earth. but which yet the unwearied miner searches out. of the kingdom of darkness and an- H. ^ There in its rocks is found the sapphire. And every extreme hath he searched The And stone of dark obscurity. And underneath it is changed as by fire. it .! A flood goeth They draw it up from the foot of the mountain. of the shadow of death. No lion hath ever passed through it. He overturneth ths mountain by the roots. He cutteth out rivers from among the rocks. which he fineth. t According to this division and mode of reading. 214 Jehovah will reign forever ! Thy God O Zion from generation ! to generation ! Praise ye the Lord 3. J. veiled in the The language here used must in the deepest night. as cient night. He hath taken iron out of the dust. The vulture's eye hath not discovered it No stately beast hath trodden it. They remove it away from men. JOB'S ODE IN PRAISE OF WISDOM. and at a greater depth Streams break forth from the and yet are overcome by the mineri. and turned out of the way. designate metalliferous stones. And molten brass out of the stone. Man placeth his hand iipon the rock.

It is not found in the land of the living. alone knoweth its abiding place. He searcheth the floods in their deep fountain. The most fine gold cannot equal it. wholly without reason. which occur quity. For the possession of wisdom is better than pearls.! 215 And whatever is costly his eye seeth." is wholly misunderstood. at wa« clearly shown in the previous dialogues.* Where then shall man find wisdom ? And wliere is the place of understanding It is ? hidden from the eyes of the living. Kept secret from the fowls of heaven. The trade of which Job speaks was wholly with the South by way of the Red Sea. He of Job. The topaz of Ethiopia is not compared with it. and the parallelism of that passags speaks of the golden splendour. And that which is hid he bringeth to light. We have heard the rumour thereof from God marketh out the road to it. it is not in in sea respondeth. Gold from Ophir cannot equal its worth. From the passages relating to mining. which the Israelites gained nnder Solomon. Ramoth and Gabish are not to be named. silver Nor weighed as the price thereof. cannot be purchased for gold. The passage of Job. in which it ta aid. their acquaintance with Ophir. It is never ranked with gold and chrystal. . mining existed. but in this book. " gold comes from the North. The The It abyss crieth. Neither the precious onyx and sapphire. afar. doubts have been started in regard to So soon as gold and precious stone* were dug from the mountains. No precious jewel is ever exchanged for it. * All this variety of wealth indicates the Idumsan origin of the book The Idumsans Hence at an early period had the trade by way of Ezifirst on Geber and Elath on the Red Sea. and its anti. the costly articles here named. not me me ! . that it existed very early. ^thopia. when applied to trade in gold. and there are proof* enough. Nothingness and death answer. But where shall man find wisdom 7 And where is the place of understanding? Man knoweth not the seat thereof. in which God appeared from th« North.

And marked a path for the tempest. And established its law for the rain. but has nothing of the energy and which characterize the genius of this ancient Idumaean book. looketh abroad under the whole heavens. I . and in a polished style. A path for the flashes of the lightning. .* it He determined And to man he and searched . said "For thee." * Wisdom here Solomon. that is thy understanding. strength. it. as in the Proverbs of is far Solomon. wonder therefore how any one could imagine the author of Solomon's Song to be the poet of the book of Job two works at opposite extremes as to the style of poetry and the modes of thinking. And as he appointed their weight to And gave to the waters their measure. and the poetry of Job older. out. Then he saw ana computed it. is not yet properly personified. the latter full of thought. the fear of the Lord is wisdom. it. And to avoid evil. the winds. than that in the writings of The latter is brilliant. the former sublime .216 He He seeth even to the ends of the earth.

Whether the blessings. their inactive or profligate ancestors. self-satisfied and exclusive views. and his notions of the angels. and interesting to the whole human race. expressiveness of friendly communion with the Supreme Being. unfolded to the The belief in providence. his magnanimous and noble Of his being the friend of God. as well as of the race. Sec- ond characteristick of its poetry. and vocation of a people. First characteristick of i. and virtue of an Oriental prince. of the moral character. most calm and contemplative ideal of humanity. and how far Of the drunkenness of Noah. as the highest aim of the choice. Whether he received the name Israel in a dream. as a pattern to his descendants. Hebrew poetry.DIALOGUE Objections. Alciphron. But 19 . which had the nearest affinity with them. had in fact could wish rather. made against the Israelites as a people. and the rights which the Canaanites themselves admitted him to have. between them. tions. and must also have a bearing upon the spirit of their poetry their narrow. their denunciation and hatred of all the nations of the earth. Description of Hagar's wandering in the desert. Poetical extracts from Job for markto the patriarchs. the patriarchs pronounced upon their sons. and which you extolled as a flower of beauty and interest for the in human race. Bless- Blessing of Esau and of Jacob. ing his character. as the character. Of his conduct in Egypt. Description of it. Of the delinquencies of the patriarchs. fall upon Canaan. point of view for investigating these objections. Glance at the land of Canaan. which have been IX. Of the Explanation of the narrative of his wrestling with conflicts of mortals with Gods among other naJacob's The essential destinction import of this narrative. especially of Jacob. that the writings of this people unfolded it in a form unmixed with national pe- culiarities. its relation to the promised land and Appendix. as an ideal of the happiness. ing of Ishmael. What this was. . its of a national cultivation. The Of Ham's it transgres- sion and punishment. e. the Elohim. ing Abraham. has no adversary me. which showed partiality. and the symbolical dream of the ladder that reached to heaven. must necessarily the sojournings of Abraham. Passages from Isaiah respect. which you lately me out of the writings and from the history of full Hebrew I nation.

and have spoiled the best part of it by a mixture of denunciations and hatred of other nations.218 has it been done a in this form ? Was not this belief among that it them mere national faith. on which the glory of ? Can they to Abraham. because they often give pain to innocent persons. which according to human laws did not belong to them. No blessing comes upon any new offspring bouring race. who so cunningly overreached ther-in-lavv> : his father. but Ishmael must be thrust out from nor Jacob. Moses and Joshua slay the ancient and rightful inhabitants. but a curse must at the same time upon a neigh- if it be that of a brother or a near kins- man. they to exhibit. in order to convert to the benefit of God's chosen people a country. in which have no participation. that people. and arrogant views. chosen and to the race. he must at same moment pronounce a curse upon Ham. to Jacob. cherished narrow. even from their origin. even in the successive generations of their pafall triarchs. the timid to Egypt in wife his disowned who . which have impressed themselves also upon their poetry. So it is throughout. without corresponding and his home and family the . What great names. injurious neglect of Esau. his brother. You know how much sarcasm and how many invectives are I uttered respecting the history of this people. his fa- and the whole world. And yet I can discover in the history of their patriarchs no appearance of extraordinary merit. so narrow and exclusive. exclu- sive. the Moses. revengeful Simeon and Levi or to the incestuous finally to Judah. than friendly They were God's peculiar people. Noah is not content with blessing Shem. an example of drunkenness Isaac. who have no knowledge of the subject or of the times. might rather be considered offensive and hostile. this Yet it is difficult to controvert the leading idea. set apart even in their ancestors. Isaac cannot receive a blessing. appeal to Noah. which would not be What heroick deeds have far outdone by tlie records of other nations ? their race can be even tolerably well sustained . who with .

EuTHYPiiRON. than willingly own prophets. but. I now. and other vices. not mystically and theologically of such vindications have read enough and more than enough. do not affect my own their race. my friend. that Palladium. with stupid pride. Why did not Abraham ? continue where he was ? Why must the unoffending Canaan or the pay the forfeit of his father's indiscretion or villainy unfortunate Esau suffer. than that of their king coming from Mount Seir. will at last reduce them all to They have no representation more delightful to them. They were not for own worthiness. that their future king treader of the wine-press. The whole rule must be waste. and the lofty triumph of their prophecies and Psalms. which You have overwiielmed me. objections. and sadly profaned with superstition and idolatry. in the songs of their prophets. for which .219 hard-hearted insensibility cut off whole nations ? And could such men be the founders of a nation chosen of God. when grounds itself with an exclusive and hostile feeling on traditions of this sort. of ? . with have reason to be thankful. my I friend. God's peculiar people earth are to be blessed all In this people all the tribes of the and yet they imprecate curses upon nations. because his mother cooked a kid. before he could prepare his wild venison old wives' tales depends all ? And yet on these the peculiar distinction of this people. as a rejoice. in order that their poor and barren land. weakly and with hostile feelings subjection. obsequious vanity. their ancestral honour. and often. as a people. may bear Answer me beg of you. I am no Hebrew. despised by all nations. I grant you. and no one has exposed their weakness their and shame with more force. that they greatly misapprehended the purpose of their election and peculiar privileges. though they know only their names. in regard to these objections. I . The most beautiful poetry in the it world becomes poor and contemptible. their race alone. and have no interest in certainly chosen this people. and with garments dyed earth in the laid blood of a kindred people.

E. First. You call Ham to- wards him indiscretion or villainy. much it credit to themselves. when we fall upon a word that is misunderstood. To punish it ? . committed in this case. to But we are not and vices. triarchal shepherds with the dark malignity of Bolingbroke and Morgan. like the panot with the artful wit of Voltaire. the laws of filial reverence and modesty in domestick inter- course are guarded in the East. to vindicate the nation. that they had been delivered from the general judgment.' of Noah. And since we shepherd race. produced fruits for the benefit of so many will other nations. let us recline under this spreading tree ! We imagine it to be Abraham's terebinth tree at Mamre. (for this is matter of fact and no are conversing about a theological mysticism). who was himself a man of mature years. That is the sense of it and I know not why. tranquillity of nature The around us awakens peaceful emotions at and we will endeavour to keep peace with these forms of the conduct of ancient simplicity. as as a nation. the much less purpose of God in their national prejudices events of their history. than Ham. and had sovereign power even over the life of his sons. Noah was the second Adam. A. and of calm contemplation. and in a period so early were rightfully regarded as sacred. the patriarch of a new world. seems the me. Now no greater offence could have been committed against him. but here called upon. He . we should not put an The father was a king in intelligible one in the place of it. and the flowers of that poetick growth. Those members which Ham . his own family. must appear for it to his family almost in the char- acter of a God was only through him and for his sake. — their faith as the only and the true God. Let it be the one or the other. in the results of its de- velopment has actually.220 they assumed far too in Jehovah. then. you must give the father permission to punish it. which. and had You know with what rigour sons. nor even speak in the tones .

then it was an application merely of the E. in might say. and the relations of the tribes in their origin to each other.. 221 treated with mockery. A wishful glance at the laud of Canaan seems to have had its influence here. Let him dwell in the tents of Shem. tradition to a case. He had insulted the patriarch of the race. alone named ? for Ham had older sons. he naturally participated in the punishment . brothers. which the Israelites were more pa»- You know. And let Canaan be his servant. India. ac- cording to the then prevailing customs and if mode of thinking. A. Cursed be Canaan Let him be a servant of servants Blessed be Jehovah. He offended his if you will allow the expression. of His transgression violating the injured majesty of his father. that Noah inflicted a punishment. If it were so. in regard to family misfortunes. ignominy with ignominy. But why was Canaan. A.for rights. that the national rights of ancient nations depended on such traditions. were held sacred. which. and was degraded to the condition of a family servant among his brethren. God of Shem. and so was the punishment. was yet not unjust . And let Canaan be his servant. 1 In the East. which re- main attached 19* to their original stocky the same is true. in ticularly concerned. his children all when must the father suffer with it him. Ca- . that. Let the Elohirn enlarge Japheth. scorn with scorn. Yet I believe. Look and see. was domestick. the to his brethren. the youngest son of Ham. Is that the import of the words ? E. insult with insult. and was guilty. indeed among all small tribes. and seems me. even at the present day. as to the fact. and punishment was inflicted upon the son and his offspring. he was deprived of the rights pertaining to a son. Whether Canaan participated was deprived of his So it is now to filial in his father's offence or not. not light. In short.

and perhaps the peculiar expression.222 naan. could not be given by this sort of prophetick Jacob imprecated curses upon his two sons. narrative. life. account to kind. A. Simeon and Levi. the youngest son." points to this. Abraham obtained this by no make means the best country. chus himself. neighbouring region. A. wherever found. participated in the transgression. We will speak of that hereafter let us confine our- selves for the present to the history of the patriarchs. Mesopotamia. in his own country His leaving live a was the occasion of the subsequent mischief. The narrative is too concise to decide this point .^°and his it was not he that father's father. and God promised on his portion good with blessings of a fin?. . may be presumed. Because he was a Nomade. Why ? did not Abra- ham remain where he it was.. his father first became was a Nomade before him. in the must have made a considerable difference of these countries. regard to physical advantages. had planted the best countries of the In and his brothers' sons. " Noah knew what his younger son had done unto him. even on his death-bed. and let it pass. and of conquering the Canaanites. and all Nomades E. was the first experiment in the cultivation of an unknown plant.lly. though three thousand years. populousness Besides. E. Syria. a wanderer . And yet Joshua destroyed them without mercy. because they had revenged the deepest stain upon the honour of his house with the blood of a Canaanitish family. if it did. different And in the land of Canaan there was no collision of . Forget the word. will You retract called Noah a drunkard. the privilege of indulging misanthropy. wandering They are wanderers still. and Chaldaea. it even to the pre- sent day. and the brothers of Abraham. tribes even The brothers of Peleg had wandered with their down to Arabia. which might have resulted in the same way to Bacthe expression. I have no doubt you It when you read the narrative in its connexion. and.

than the mode of his intercession for Sodom. Can any more noble.— 223 interests between Abraham and any one there. represent. In truth one who would convict Abraham of misanthropy. and you are aware what they allowed him along with Obviously. benevo- court. Where the fathers slept. though even upon half groundless apprehensions. and towards the kings whom from their enemies. who is ready to die Abraham committed an errour . E. We will overlook. he purchased a burying place. and narrowness of soul. Besides. that in the history of a great man ed. or a knight by profession. that a stranger. we must not regard a patriarchal shepherd. in their ignorance of the ancient customs of the East." principle of national rights among all an- " the We will meet you at the graves of our fatheir was common expression in maintaining rights against the encroachment of their enemies. and simplicity. This was the cient nations. his own shep- herd's lodge. there first must the children sleep also. of oppression. who knew not how to conduct himself at dignity. and disowned his wife in Egypt. the of a herdsman. the narrative no where says what mistake vulgar slanderers. Yet he dissembled. must discover some new history of his life. must do what he did and the result proved that the fear was not wholly groundless. then. without paying price it. but for the politick Egyptians to be ashamed. and I am not displeased. a thousand deaths for his mistress. He moved he delivered about here and there. his declaring himself to the . and his integrity of character to the Ca- naanites. as a . gallant lover. A. thers. the weakness of being needlessly cautious stands record- In the mean time. It was not however for him. as a godlike prince. but he would not receive This they it him as its a gift. and observe with what uprightness. thing be lence. the occupation in common with tliem of their country for himself and his latest posterity. of offered whom . he conducted in his tent. of self-seeking. showed his magnanimity to Lot.

now a new name. and as holding intercourse with false Gs)ds. this land of strangers .! 224 king of Salem respecting the spoils. the tree ! and entertainment of them beneath one is In reading it. What delicate passages occur in the conversation and intercouse of God with him. when his divine did he offer up the dearest object all which he possessed. and breathes the true spirit. gives him now a token of his covenant and friendship. and said. who sent him a pilgrim but him he hold sfast as the best of friends. encourages him in regard to the future. and requires of him. my friend. Finally. I " Look towards heaven. his life which he had waited and longed for. departed heroes. that I scarcely ! know any thing to be compared with this calm. where he comforts and directs him. heroick faith. angels to present themselves before hi« own with hospitable and simple tent. " Fear thou not Abram. God of heaven The stranger into all has no other friend but God. And he had faith in And he counted his For rightepusoesa. then memorial signs. but not with the true and only earth." stars. his intercourse God himself. that return of affectionate confidence. faith to him . it. as it were. and in a way so calm and confiding. than his reception of the angels. and to Lot thing be ? Can any more beautifully pastoral in its character. of pastoral innocence. that on which his hopes were suspended. how full of interest faith. this artless confidence between a simple herdsman and — the God men and of heaven. and'tell the Art thou able to number them ?" And he said " so shall thy seed be. as the highest prize of Pardon me. now this. transported into the very re- gion. and now am thy shield thy exceeding great reward. thing to equal The poetry of no other people has any The poetry of other nations represents with Genii. Jehovah. for saying. and instruction With what calm and unquestioning friend required it. and expects." And he brought him forth abroad.

also. it not. even in the greatest future. or of power and dominion over other nations. A. so long beauty of such passages be felt. God difficulties. It is was a retiring. that in simple uuaf- . self-sacrificing friendship. thing great and sublime ? And where do you find it. tent with a pilgrimage in a foreign and uninviting country. When its at he received an earnest of he was required to offer up even him as a it sacrifice. and like a . He stands forth He must leave and be con- his paternal hon. faith. con- sidered merely as a preconceived purpose. in its sym- bolical character. to which Abraham was educated. which was to make him an example of the severest virtue. Friendship with God must be the purpose of their election. than the attainment of political cultiva- tion for themselves. itself But where then does the corresponding result show among this people ? E. when God makes a covenant with Abraham. as an ideal.e for a dwelling with strangers. Do you not discover in this purpose of God. and in regard to the ultimate is. and his race distinguished for the same characteristick which was to set them apart for no other end but to be the tribe. and condescends in the to pass form of a column of smoke his covenant by an oath. e. it Long he waited last and saw in Isaac. and silent virtue. A hero in faith. but on that trust in account the more noble and beautiful.225 So long will the as artless simplicity affects the human So heart. but a self-denying. all among the other nations of the earth ? Their noblest purposes were nothing higher. in which all the tribes of the earth should be blessed. i. for the promise. is as it should be in relation to God's covenant people. unpublished. In the patriarch of the race at least. as a sort of type and symbol of the covenant. It through between the sepa- mere mortal to confirm was a covenant of friendship for Abraham and his posterity. this ideal of a national cultivation. The virtue. all You see that. somerated parts of the offering.

under sickness and suffering. was Abraham. upon pure heroick souls.226 fected greatness of soul. in an intimate communion of the this heart with the most pure and holy Being Such must his people be — — and a hero of spirit. Few life and evil. says the last of them. the their destiny. than a hero with his or the weapons of war. is How lightful. and strengthens their hearts by recounting the doings of the Most High. and the controller of view of it. have the years of a pilgrimage. as accompany is made dwellings were. not departed heroes. especially in times of distress. by their footsteps. trans- and devotion. should be under- stood of a poetry expressive of friendship between his man and Maker. and feelings in regard to that Supreme Be. and misfortunes are not wanting to their fami- But God it always near them . only we must It not interpret in a theosophick and mystical sense. idols. should be called the poetry of the covenant. child-like simplicity faith in God. his angels them. as a sacred treasure mitted from the primeval world. the child-like poetry. They are on is or an abiding place. ing. men. higher fist. and in prayer. then. but) God. this sort is a development of the human trigue. and the land sacred. it So the poetry of this people. Hence the influence of this poetry all upon all simple and child-like hearts. . And in their were preserved the purity of ancient manners. who holds to them the relation of a father his which re- minds them of covenant. You have the right name. E. without rest my lies. in which feeble men express their conceptions. In this respect. too. or even with political craft and in- A. directs them to his given word. It forms a bond of connexion between men de- and (not father of not Genii. in this the simple story of the patriarchs! Their outward condition and worldly fortunes were not splendid. been. the Elohim are round about them. they were tiful for the poetry of later times the ground of much beau- and eloquent imagery.

227 Hearken to me. given here to the expression. 9. from the expression of Isaiah. The Israelites trusted in the circumstance of their being children of Abraham and the prophet of the wilderness says. God can from these stones hew out children to Abraham. whence ye are digged. nor indulge in anger against her. So watch ye also over your eager desires. Observe here the title of honour given to » Isa. which condemns and opposes the practice of putting away one's wife. Her desert like the garden of Jehovah.t . Joy and gladness shall dwell in them. ye that follow after righteousness. the wife of thy covenant. Will comfort all her waste places. which A peculiar emphasis was already understood from Isaiah. Look unto Abraham. Abraham — the one iii. What then did the one ? He hoped for is them from God. 14. Thanksgiving and the voice of melody. the alone one. 15. Look unto the rock. that bare you. . one alone. reference is had passage in Matt. 1—3. And For unto Sarah. And do not injustice to the wives of your youth. I called him the one alone. Whom thou despisest.t Look to the pit. from whom the race could and must be derived. and increased him. The Lord is witness between thee And And And the wife of thy youth. So now will Jehovah comfort Zion. Sarah was advanced in years. and yet he did not repudiate her. He was old.* Ye that continue faithful to Jehovah. and rejectest is yet she thy companion. So did not Though he longed for children. whence ye are hewn. to this t Without doubt. He was the alone one. At least the figure was known . li. t From this may be explained the obscure passage. And blessed him. Will make her wilderness like Eden. your father. as a name of distinction for Abraham. Malachiii.

. Oh Jehovah from thy fear ? . the crafty merely. our redeemer. invaluable. like Ulysses. Look from the seat of thy glory and majesty. And Israel acknowledge us not Thou Lord art our father. and out of which God hews chosen people — what various applications may be made of for the confirmation of his people's faith. thy holy habitation. The Jacob. A. in the interchange of friendly and heartfelt confidence. . considered as a pastotimid Isaac. • Sterne has an instructive. that evil was always recompensed with he exhibited among and His in his old age. Though Abraham be ignorant of us. which exhibits his experience of the law of retribu^on. my friend. though too witty sermon on the fbrtones of Jacob. stand forth in their doings the craftiness of the latter but you will not deny. who has transferred his children to his care. history is an instructive mirror of the human heart. And wherefore hast thou suffered us To wander so far from thy ways ? ! Why hath our heart hardened ! itself. alone I a rock. Look down from heaven. All very fair and good . Where is thy zeal ? where is thy strength ? Thy moving. . that in their history nothing kept back and concealed. to the faults of the patriarchs ? They are human failings.* and God himself wiped away from Jacob. arrived at mature age. that they are recounted. makes their shepherd ral narrative tale. thy compassionate heart Is now hardened against us And yet thou art our father. Thus God has taken upon himself the paternal rights of Abraham.. That is thy name from everlasting. O ! turn thee again to thy servants We are thine inheritance forever. E. but what say you. th^ patriarchal herdsmen a character well tried and approved. and the very is fact. which gives his it itself up to God.

as well as in the ear- lier traditions. The host of God revealed themselves to Jacob. t of day.t 229 those stains. A. He then placed himself at a distance from the tents. and wrestled with Jacob. And Jacob stayed alone by night. Then wrestled one with him. has not acquired this title however. • Not physical strength It celebrated in heroism. appeared and vanished with the obscure shadows of the dawn even in the tone and colouring of the narrative. In a E. 20 . * Gen. And what did he then ? What preceded we may very easily infer from the circumstances. but Israel. seems floating amid the dreamy and troubled shadows of the night. a hero of God. which in his youth were associated with his name. that his heroick faith . his. but expressly not to sleep. " Thou shalt no more be called Jacob. Jacob had encampment and the tents. deservedly but divine bear. he wrestled with God in prayer . And lo ! there appeared to him a hero. and faith. Gen. xxxii. shall thy tinction name be . A. till break And yet prevailed not over him. xxxii. prayer. Elohim appeared. and there must be some prevailed with visible symbol. which. (a supplanter). 10—12. not indeed that he might sleep. read the beautiful night vision itself. E. dream ? I perceive you use an expression. not Jehovah is and you know that in the history of Jacob. the word used distinctively. as Jacob did by a conflict in a dream. from fear of a noctur- nal assault from his brother." a title of dis- which the poetry of this is people also may it. 24. the divine It . but one which — often as it is repeated — contra- dicts the narrative divided the when taken in its connexion. as two wings of an army his encamped. form of a heavenly warrior. God. in short. and conceptions of angels occupied also thoughts. not new indeed.* He prayed.

While thus he wrestled with him. doubt. Elohim. name." And hast prevailed. " my name Jacob. with forms. " thou shalt no more be called Jacob." He said. frees spirits. and Jehovah came down once and again in order to fasten upon really him the dreams." is Then said the man. as he went forth from Peniel. as you me from all with heroick . not^ The joint of Jacob's hip was wrenched. in a And the have explained former conversation. as the mode of Jacob's dividing the Nay. And Jacob E. " I saw here face to face the Elohim And Then yet my life is saved. halted on his hip. " why dost thou ask my name ?" And then he blessed him there. The dreamer had wrenched his hip in his sleep." He saia. in Do every you not the absurdity of this representation particular A. Is there a word here about a dream ? Is it not all as plain historical narrative. " what thy is name 1" said. And Jacob called the place Peniel for. It is so. A conflict with Gods. a godlike hero. " now let me go. which was given to the patriarch and to the whole race." And Jacob asked. until then bless me." rose the sun. He He answered him. and therefore he was called Israel. consider what honour could have been attached name. was nothing strange or unheard of in ancient times . ironical is and reproachful recounted title of a hero in his All this too feel ? in a family tradition. Hero of God shall be thy name. I it confess. " Tell me also thy name. With Gods and men hast thou conflicted bravely. his whole sheep ? to the race inherited the himself name for the same reason.230 And when he saw that he prevailed He touched his hip upon the joint. he : said. and said. For morning breaketh. The man said. " I will not let thee go.

5. we may regard the dream . and the connexion of the narrative. and who he was. According their to the representations both of their poetry and let history. on a former occasion. man. and have^escaped with his life. gods and men are in continual conflict and Ossian's Fingal also on one occasion by night contended In the East conceptions of the kind must with a giant spirit. how he could have contended face to face with the Elohim. it was commonly considered as the highest proof of heroick power nav. which the shepherd youth tained of God and the angels. xii. like which he gave re- lates the story to no one. hero. from tlie name alone Jacob expresses no triumph. a manner adapted to the character of a man. as belong How acter tranquil and is how correspondent ! to the shepherd's char- every thing in this narrative is Jacob wrestled. and monstrous exaggerations. and So the prophet* from the place. but earn for himparallel. however. A. explains it. the vision of a ladder only in reaching to heaven expressed to the timid youth. But the finest part — of the whole taught is its inward sense. In Homer. and * Hos. E. The being. 4. The same name of a is thing . 231 according to the representations of the poets. does not to be inferred. what. self the He must The not dream. in have been common. and the figurative sense is plain the time. But us not confound this artless narrative with such fables to the later traditions. and wonders a simple herds- man. leaves it not named. a very significant one. with whom name himself. to Jacob. And thus the vision in this case expressed to the man in his alarm. The vision shows enter- the child-like conceptions. when he had' prevailed with Jehovah with the Elohim by the power of his arm. in prayer. which you have ad- duced. E.. by which the patriarch was it how needless was for him to stand in fear of Esau. most ancient heroes must often have conspiritual beings flicted in this manner with and giants.

and called the place Bethel." ! it. A. He knew not. which I have placed a monument. Then he took. that found except in his father's house. dwelling place. And " yet I knew it not !" And he was sore afraid. And Jacob awoke from " Surely. at break of day." Here And Jacob took the stone. This none other but the house of God! the gate of heaven. Jehovah his sleep and said. " If God henceforth be with me. as it were. And laid it for his pillow. He was he had slept without knowing the outer court of God's it. and said. Shall be the house of God !" I return ' . And give me food and raiment. And set it for a monument. And Jacob vowed a vow. in own He had seen . Will you read is it ? The evening is gradually approaching. And guard me in the way I go. is in this place. And laid him down to sleep. And there he dreamed. and said. And messengers of God went up and down upon And lo Jehovah stood above and said. that his father's God would be terrified. " I am Jehovah the God of thy fathers. He reached a place and spent the night. And this.232 as a true pastoral representation. For the sun was now already set. upon holy ground. and the sun going down in tranquillity and beauty. ^ That Then and see my father's house in peace Jehovah be my God. And poured upon it oil. You see here the artless conceptions of the youthful herdsman. a stone from off the place. shall E. Whose top reached up to heaven. and lo Extended high above the ! a ladder stood earth. How is is dreadful is this place.

The prophecy. that ascended and descended upon a it which reached to heaven. And all men's hands opposed to him. 12. according race. in which they follow vocation. and wish for nothing better. and in its strict and proper sense. E. because God in so peculiar a manner If angels here inhabited ladder. the whole fortune of their posterity depended on this last prophetick declaration. Cren. shall be His hand opposed to all. Ishmael dwelt is deserts like the wild animal. with which he compared. its doors open. You will perceive in is fulfilled in this. fee and joyous.233 in his dream it. while Jacob was and con- tinu-*d to be a stranger and dweller in tents. as His posterity boast of He shall be a fugitive* from man. ic ! himself with Ishmael that he How have must pass by his three oldest sons and indeed was one of those whom we named went in-jis emitted. and by a vow profFered to the place — a house of God. Let us read the touching and truly interesting story of the exiled Hagar. might wrestle with Jacob. xvi. wandering in the desert. ther ? How Was say you ? Did this depend on the to will of the fa- not Isaac in fact partial Esau? and would ? not Abraham have contented much pain did cost Jacob. ^iven their one them by the special favour of God. Have you any ? thing further to object to these pastoral narratives The gross partiality of the patriarchs in blessing their to the belief of the since. He dwells before the face of all his brethren. * A wild ass. sons. would be easy in to suppose. the Ishmaelites. 20* . one of them. their country. A. like the Elohim strength and dignity. that the tone and style of the narrative in these traditions has nothing of misinthropy or of hard-hearted insensibility. so far as regarded temporal blessings? Esau CO meet Jacob as a prince .

his And yoke shalt thou break from I off thy neck. me my son. when he failed of obtaining the fallen to Jacob. (f sorrowful Esau. And For hold him with thine hand. And went away and sat with looks averted. yet a mighty nation. order to observe the THE BLESSING BESTOWED BY ISAAC UPON ESAU. shot off. and he grew. and And Jacob came near. " What aileth thee. And she beheld a well of water. And from the heavens his angel called. And God was with him. And Hagar cast the child beneath a tree. Anil enriched with the dews of heaven above. " I may not see The child while dying.Then God the crying child regarded." and kissed him. Arise. and lift him up. Hagar. In tlic fatness of the earth shall be thy dwelling. For Hagar said. Let us compare the terms in the blessings bestowed upon both. And lifted up her voice and wept. " Come near now. And he became an archer. By thy sword shall thy life And thy brother shalt thou Yet be sustained." Then God the eyes of Hagar opened. And went and filled her bottle with it. . And was a dweller in the desert. And gave the child to drink." Thus she sat. . The distance of a bow. Where he is lying. fear not. I will make him. which had difference. In the same affecting manner is related the history of 'he blessiiir. serve. the time shall arrive for thee to rule.— 234 The water in the bottle was exhausted. ISAAC'S PROPHETICK BLESSING kiss PON JACOB. For God hath heard the voice of the child.

character for it we're derived from the promises concerning was of called the promised land. and almost every mountain. " Behold I smell my son. brook. All your doubts and objections against these exclusive declarations fall to when you to consider. that blesseth thee. that the poetry connected with Canaan treats every thing in this point view — its relation to God and the patriarchs. and plenty of corn and wine. of the dew of heaven." Do you not perceive will in both the voice of destiny uttered ? even against the of the father Under the form of and the fa- Esau the other is fated to receive the blessing. which God hath blessed. Let the people serve thee. is celebrated by its . thy mother's sons be subject to thee. God give thee. from the time of Moses onward. . to bear the yoke of the law tions — a blessing. to which the chosen son was guard the name and wor- His posterity were ship of Jehovah. some special regard to Canaan And what was there so important in this small counE. and valley. Zion. Their poetry has indeed greatly extolled praises this little corner of the earth. it seems. the nations And And bow down to thee. A field. Its distinctive name and it. Cursed be every one And blessed be he. that they were not temporal destined. blessings. A. The fatness of earth. and you will find.235 Then smelled he the smell of his raiment. to utter against him. as the land of promise. as the smell of a field. that curseth thee. Be thou let ruler over thy brethren. from which most na- would gladly have been relieved. and said. and. Lebanon. as the land favoured of God. therefore. ther to utter for him what he intended the ground. And blessed him. but observe it is always praised. There was. The race must have a habitation in some part of the try ? ! world. and in no other way. however.

which they listened and to All their golden dreams of the glory of this narrow region. unmeaning. by which they were united. are mountains of God land is . the streams. and cannot read the denunciations of their propliets against other countries with the enthusiasm. as made sacred by the presence of their people whose poetry like theirs has God made the . and the pledge of their being the chosen people. marked by the footsteps of God the God and the fathers. the great mass of laws. that they designated here and there a small piece of their soil. Read in this and will no . without a country to still rest upon. a poetry breathing the spirit of their covenant reis. me- morable deeds were performed. hopes flourishes and waves are not of A. In the history of other nations there are indications. and. lation. and the relation of friendship. too. race stood to God . seem to us is and a greater part of their poetry to us equally mere dreams of folly empty and . under a king so long waited for still be waited for. a word the poetry of herdsmen . with to them. race delude them- selves with hopes tions of the race. the tree of their in the air above. for us. that of the family bond. by which . if I had removed some of your doubts in regard to the early history of this people. and consecrated row limits Even now as a theatre for displaying the Majesty of Jehovah. as were. that Uninteresting enough. give would great pleasure. in a word it it is Canaan it as the land of promise. We me shall speak of that in treating of the prophets. since we country. solent esse graves sedentibus umbrae. but I know no its poverty of their nar- country exhibit the fulness of God. in which the patriarch of the the poetry of spirit. are the rivers of the holy land. and from these traditions of the race placed in a clearer light the characIt is in teristick traits of its poetry. to the drawn from its it because the tradi- poetry. its this dispersed this source. It Surgamus.236 Carmel. every thing has relation promised land. E.

Because I delivered the poor that cried. distinguished quiet but superior virtue. dertook prospered. which place his character in the fairest light. * Job. preserved me ! shone clear upon light I I my head. in the As once When God was days of my youth. When the Almighty yet was with me. He whose ear heard rne. And I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy. believed. AND DIGNITY OP AN ORIENTAL PRINCE. counted me blessed. The glory of his proGod gave him light and whatever he un- darkness sat in council with him in his tent.t And by his walked through darkness.237 longer be unmeaning. And round about me stood my slaves. on. APPENDIX. t A lamp was hung in the tent of an Oriental. in my tent. And where I went. as well as he did. PICTURE OF THE PROSPERITY. let it you would see another ideal of for wisdom. And he whose eye saw me. THE ACTIVITY. The aged rose up. I will point out to you the passages. its tecting in God . took counsel with me. bore witness to me. When from my house I went to the assembly And spread my carpet in the place of meeting. a stream of milk flowed The rock poured out for me rivers of oil. The fatherless that had none to help him. He that was ready to perish blessed me. voice of counsellors was silent. But if an Oriental hero.* Oh that I were as in The days when God His light the ancient times. Princes refrained from talking. and continued standing. Would that all christian emirs thought. 1. The young men saw me and concealed themselves. . and lived. xxix. and be Job. happiness. is here represented as taking place. And The laid their hands upon their mouths .

strength in me to shall be refreshed. as follows.+ * The Phoenix is obviously intended here is . I I shall from his teeth. a comforter As 2. My judgment was I as a robe and a diadem. his ra- losses of property and children. only through a double for that sense of the word. the to Job in book proceeds with a calm tone. My My My root shall be nourished by the waters. their And opened If I laughed at mouths as for the latter rain. And plucked the Then I said. PICTURE OF MAGNANIMITY AND UNSHAKEN HOPE IN ADVERSITY. me and waited. the joy of And no one saddened I I my . was eyes to the blind. noticed and pointed out in the East. my words they spake not again. among the mourners. bow renewed gave ear in Men After my hand. They waited for my words as for the rain. countenance. They kept silence at my counsel.* multiply my days as the phcenix. . spoil brake the jaws of the wicked. t Not a token of impatience in the East. them they were not offended. shall perish with my nest. And shaved his head. all [After the messages communicating his misfortunes. The dew lay all night upon my branches. And rent his mantle. chose for them and sat as chief dwelt as a king in the midst of my army.] Then Job stood up. were brought pid succession. an evidence. For my speech dropped upon them as the dew. I was a father to the poor. And feet was I to the lame. but of grief. the figure of the bird immediately changed of the palm-tree. that an analogy between the two was. And I searched out the cause of strangers.238 I put on righteousness and it clothed me.

my friends.0 * this The womb of the mother and way in the East. Blessed be the Majesty of Jehovah. And naked shall I return thither. which gnaw upon his skin. when the members of his household and his relatives deserted. said. he uttered his feelings in the affecting language. II These words in their connexion are so clear. His friends had forsaken him.who would be his avenger. upon the poor remnant of his life.! 239 And And cast himself upon the earth. worshipped. which alone he had is escaped with. as the sequel shows. and contemned him. And scarcely the skin in my teeth. t The figure . His friends are represent- ed as carnivorous animals. He sword in his behalf. i- of the earth are often connected in Job. and " Naked came I from my mothers womb. All which follows. which wild beasts carry away in his skin is his poor and wretched body. (not the skin upon his teeth). For the hand of God is heavy upon me. he had yet one friend. He shall . And graven in the rock forever " I know that my avenger liveth. their teeth taken from the prey. is God. the shall stand upon the arena. My bone cleaveth my skin and my flesh. and threaten- ed him with yet severer judgments from God on account of secret crimes. Have I brought away as a spoilt Have pity. God hath done? And are not satisfied with my flesh. disowned. . xix. one relative. Oh that my words were now written." [When his friends pressed him with severity. and draw the sword of the avenger and the judge. They whom loved are turned against to me . 19. have pity upon me. Jehovah hath taken away. (this was the duty of the best friend and nearest relative) and this friend.* Jehovah hath given.] my inward friends abhorred I me . as Why That they were printed That they were written in a book ! in iron and lead. do ye persecute me. that it is surprising they should have been so often mistaken.

there is a judgment. will That 3. He counteth over I my steps. which moreover. his kinsman) since on earth had forsaken him. show you. he seeth all my way." There shall ye then say. And God Did will then see my integrity. I could wish. It is a sword of wrath. Be afraid for his glittering sword. found out. Wherefore did we persecute him? Then shall the root of my cause Be at length discovered. his rectitude. Though they tear and devour this my skin. And what I have planted another root be for him. I Then nothing will the root of his cause. as my deliverer.240 At last shall he step forth upon the scene. I shall see him.) my steps ever turn from the way Or my heart steal after my eyes ? Or any blot cleave to my hand ? ? Then may I sow and another eat. and not for his friends. and deal no more in subtilties in regard to this passage. For whom so long my heart fainted. was fully justified. though not entirely in Job's sense. up. as mine. Job's heart recognises all him as his.* I Why then What What have made a covenant with my eyes. (his friend. *Job. be know surpassing this firm and noble confidence. should I look upon a maiden? portion should I then have in inheritance with God ? God from on high ? ? And open shame Therefore I Doth not destruction follow the wicked the workers of iniquity? thought. . that men would agree in this interpretation. Did ever tread in the path of the hypocrite? ? Or my (Let foot hasten after deception me be weighed in an even balance. MORAL SENTIMENTS OF AN IDUMjEAN PRINCE. xxxi. Yet in my living body shall I see God. that revengeth injustice. Mine eye shall behold him.

? my shoulder from the Let the bone of my arm be broken. seen the wretched without clothing. fire that A consumeth even out to destruction. And I laid wait at the door of my friend. I must now have trembled at God's justice. Because Theti let I saw partiality in the fall judgment seat joint. Then let my wife be the slave of a stranger. Did lever refuse his right to my servant.241 If ever my heart went after a woman. make him also ? what should I Were we Have I not formed alike in the womb ? fail for withheld from the needy his desire. if God stood up If he enquired of it ? Did not he. And rejoiced in the greatness of my wealth. Have I raised my hand against the orphan. that would be a crime even in human courts. And he been warmed with the fleece of my sheep. And said to gold. And would burn my prosperity to the roots. That too were a crime for the judges. Have I rejoiced at the fall of my enemy. If I have made riches If I beheld the sun when itshined. Or the moon gomg forth in brightness. And against his highness I could not endure. food ? . That I should be to him as a father. thou art my confidence. For Let her be dishonoured of others. 21 . I I Whom Have had guided from the womb. my trust. that answer? made me. And suffered the widow's eye to Have I eaten my morsel myself alone ? Nor let the fatherless partake thereof? Who had grown up with me from a child. in a just cause with me 7 What then should I do. That my mouth hath kissed my hand for them. For I should have abjured the God of heaven. Because my hand had gained so much. ? And That the miserable go without a covering his limbs have not blessed me. And my maid. And my heart was secretly enticed.

Nor any imprecation agamsl him. my crime in a corner? afraid of the multitude. I opened I my hide doors to the wanderer. thistles grow instead of wheat. And keep silence and go not in publick ? Oh that I had a judge. it should satisfy us."* No Did stranger need lodge in the street. As a prince would I draw near unto him. When the men of my tent said. O my God Oh that one would write my cause in a book As a mantle would I lay it on my shoulders.242 And ! exulted when evil came upon him evil ? No my tongne uttered no word. That is. " Oh that we had his flesh. As a diadem would I bind it to my turban. Because was And the contempt of families terrified me. who would hear me See my defence answer me. I would tell all my steps before him. though he were the bitterest enemy of open violence. my house and all was in a state of . And useless weeds * instead of fruit. And Let oppress the soul of the owner. ! ! ! ! Because I enjoy the fruit without money. . If my land cry out against me. And the furrows thereof complain. And cover up I my faults like a mean man.

which are connected with and perhaps have given ourselves very useless trouble. Abraham back Relation of the logical register. Of the style in other narratives. Who was the dis. tant and general subject. How it arose. it. from translation. What in these traditions is fictitious. Examples of this. originally that of the Hebrews was them by the it Ca- Hebrews.DIALOGUE Whether the language of the naanites. Whether the tower of Babel. Whence these significant names were derived. Hebrews from their patriarchal For may not . The history of Abraham. in our previous conversations. That only one alphabet exists. Jacob'swrestling with God. land. Appendix. What we have before members of this geneaWhether Moses found it already existing. X. deducing the poetry of the traditions. That the history of events before the deluge is connected with. Difference of th» traditions in regard to the use of the words Elohim and Jehovah'. customs. How the earliest traditions were probably preserved. the meaning and the form of it. foreign settlers in Canaan. mode of life. The song of Lamech. Whether the deluge was universal. are so. or a change of name. Improbability of and facts at variance with in the history and languages also of the kindred descendants of Shem. the pillar of salt. Whether the account of the flood were handed down from the ark. in We are at length come to the most importhis questions. Alcipheon. these traditions among the Shemites to Joseph and of the patriarchs back In what way were preserved. and depends upon a few significant names. That the Phenicians right of the were On what the Shemites to this and to Asia generally. That the oldest traditions respecting Paradise came down from upper Asia. Whether the picture of creation was taken from Egyptian hieroglyphics. and language. covorer of alphabetick waiting. Whether from prophecy. to the flood. How it was formed into a genealogical chart. The voice of antiquity. was grounded. Whether we have in it a complete chart of the wanderings of the several races. That the use of written characters perhaps originated in these significant names. and that is the Shemitish. View of what it must have been originally. How far religion was concerned their in Difference between the Hamites and Shemites in religion. and learned from this opinion.

Arabian. organization. they did not speak just as the hypothesis is a different language. that the most ancient Egyptian language was kindred to witli the Hebrew. the Phenicians. who were obviSyrian. that the Hebrew language should be considered as originally and exclusively the lan- guage of the Canaanites. or Moses himself devised them.244 these patriarchal traditions themselves have been of later ori- gin ? Did not If so. religion. ? EuTHYPHRON. so also in all But let this be as it may. hypothesis seema me to have little indeed to support The races of Ham and those descended from Shem seem entirely diverse from each other. as put down upon the genea- . from their hereditary enemies the Canaanites ? they must of course have been put together at a later period. whether previously. A. Abraham and The languages of their descendants. and language. after first Even according to piofane history. and planted themselves upon the coasi of the Mediterranean. E. moved by degrees higher up. yet unproved. in which they are written. having a kindred relation to his fathers. must also of necessity hold a corresponding relation. dwelling upon the Red Sea. Now I will not undertake to decide. the Phenician language. is undeniably the language of Canaan. before they pushed themselves among the pure Shemitish races. the Hebrews first learn the language. the meaning of which I could never yet comprehend. modes of thinking. Who knows what jargon they made use of? But the language in which these traditions are composed. ously Shemites Chaldean. it? to And from whom could the Phenicians have Do you know of no dialects having a kindred ? received relation it ? and were not these spoken by those. It is one of the fables of our own age. and had they no language Not so neither. all were pure Shemitish races. which has been hazard- ed in modern times. as political in manners. This last it. Before the Hebrews came to Canaan then were they dumb. therefore. the kindred races.

All these traditions. believed that certain regions and tracts of country were given them there. it was originally composed in the Mexican style. and so his Abraham.245 logical table of brew. Why should they usurp their country ? Was this not the race of ? world open before them. not that the the descendants of the Phenicians Ham and Mizraim. and gave it a fixed place in their language. from was disposed to drive manner in which the off. Chaldee. too. a language having a kindred relation to the Arabick. and Sy- This is proved by the book of Job. tribes In the mean time. and in whatever was. too. A. in the business of navigation The coasts belonged to those who knew how the to use them. of was not invented by this people. no one them. and all the religious ideas in them. spoke dialects kindred to the Heown race must have spoken a similar. and why not the proper Hebrew language. It was the Shemites. ever engage E. from the most ancient times. From the coasts. herdsmen. and both probably for the sake of trade. too. for its names The Hebrew . and roved their tents. The alphabet. as the with name itself implies. the Phenicians usurped as they did their country. as to say. or borrowed of others it. strange and absurd to say. not a lan- guage begged. by the radical forms oi It is as all the languages named. No descendants of 21* . are Chaldee. which so nearly It is resembles them. not African. It is same with the subsequent traditions. therefore is the original and proper language of the race of Eber. is that the chapter giving an account of the creation conceiv- ed after the style and manner of the Egyptians. proved. it is were distinguished and divided in their plain. as it came downward from his ancestor Heber. who brought down the name of Jehovah from the primeval world. The tribes of Japheth went at large Northwards beyond the mountains. and did the Shemites. that they took certain directions direction it wanderings. must in have been originally conceived and expressed riack.

indicates. too. with which even the unassuming and complaisant connexion. that both races could inhabit and possess the land in common. From what' ever cause we see the fact clearly. for that they firmly believed. why This the Israelites be- lieved themselves to have a well grounded right to the land of Canaan . : — ia the were diverse to in religion. Eliezer must go to to the distant Abraham admitted throughout of no intimate Aram. This too was the fault of the Hamites. admit no other result. as the genealogical If any tribes chart of Moses. riod religion should have been the cause of Quantum — says Lucretius it rightly. happened. and so to Africa. here and there the way among Shem- they did so at the hazard of being expelled. fact. as was the in Asia. Their lawgiver held his opinions on this point with a zeal and decision which left no possibility of doubt. religio I am sorry for that. as these races honour of their race customs. which rests on such traditions of the origin and original prerogatives of tribes. that at so early a peit.246 Shem followed them. and modes of and a brotherly intimacy between them was not to pertaining them. among the descended from Ham. the most gloomy superstition and the darkest idolatry have pre- . You see. must go . Ham went towards the pg. so also in countries thought . is plain from the writings of Moses. race and a marriage with a Aram to secure a progeny for the woman of Canaan would have to the been regarded as derogatory short.rtly torrid countries of the South. E. that from tribes earliest times. but the thought could never for a moment be ad- mitted. The Shemites looked upon the posterity of Ham as a race of servants. The most could ancient principle of national rights. in be thought of. descended from him remained. because not only ry of the origin all the traditions and the whole histo- of his race proceeded from and was built upon this. especially. and partly the name. (Mesopotamia) Jacob. A. then. or at a later date forced their ites.

and the purest who have maintained and diffused these with a zeal. which we now the call culture .247 vailed. For consider. and and among other African horrid were their religious rites tribes. which they have considered The Hamites on the other the highest honour of the race. ia it There you come again upon a new possible. Tradition ascribes the origin of this it to Ham is himself. in that. tent sacred legacy of pa- A. the most miserable fetisch worship has come from the same source. and purified from all sensuousness. artificially complex. they founded kingdoms. and with their roving . and of creation. and religion of the Shemites language). it is these same of Shem. which they They were not rendered and corrupted . the Think of the Egyptians. this ! most how gloomy. and systems of policy. prosecuted Most of if Shemites for a long pe- riod remained herdsmen. as to the ground forms. (for. that difficulty. to whom the world ideas of religion. they remained triarchal origin. Carthaginians. all these tribes from the Euphrates to the how pure and simple ! is Red Sea have but one their religion how en! tirely abstracted. hand went before them trade. Glance now for a moment at the language race . Phenicians. or they entered into other . nor over-borne a but in their simplicity and separation. modes of life. among his posterity the obscure tendency to a dark or indeed horrible religion cultivated nations belonging to undeniable. Whether were so or not. continued in a state of great simplicity and you see transmitted. How such ancient traditions and narratives. like in the the tent. how favourable this circumstance was for the language and traditions of the primeval world. little among a people so cultivated. and tribes is in- debted for the doctrine of the unity of God. and built cities. the Arabians included. is their name of God how characteristick of humanity their notions of man and of his duties It is as if one had passed from I the hut of the slave into the open and free tent of the children and the friends of God.

too. E. could be so long preserved. xxvii. more ancient traditions. ? life. viz. manner I to deserve the least My will doubts on that point. united with the history of Joseph. and transmitted in a even for thousands of years. 50. a sufficient pledge that such would be the case. it it seems to me. as is far as the nature of the case would permit. with the history of Joseph. and partly. as in but not a two-fold tradition of the same event. at large inserted among . has such an air of authenticity. genealogical and since those ol neigh- bouring tribes are industriously and * Gen. There are distinct traditions in undeniably. confess.! 248 manner of credence E. forms the all the traditions. It gives us authentick accounts of Egypt to a certain extent from a very ancient period. Because it was conceived and related by Israelites. an important fact. Joseph could not be forgotten. proved by circumstances of name. is inseparably connected the history of Jacob.* partly. because was founded upon. yet from they suffered there. not from thankfuloppression. and of Egypt A. transplanting of and served to explain. even supposing that was not previously is written. This must of course. monuments. We begin to unravel the knot at the end. which the trouble and this history Thus it might and must come it down so to Moses. place. are not easi- ly satisfied. and not by Egyptians. Every thing. That is true. With this. the the whole nation to Egypt. because through the sons and their posterity medium of twelve it many particulars of would naturally it be preserved. ness and love. because were more recent and nearer to the most the full and extended of it events related in compiler. full Then too. be preserved by the race. registers. and this. So long as an Israelite lived in if Egypt. although it is conceived in a style very characteristick of the Israelites.

But beyond this. of his children. 20. 21. We from what has been remarked. E. the whole histoiy. a quiet The race was shut up by enjoyed mode of life. too. These registers are the historical historical archives of the Orientals. on which afterwards every thing else arranged. But the reference to Canaan is every where observable. xii. fold tradition!. history of Jacob. 80 minute and full. . the account of his Avanderings. and the the events of the history. the sum theatre of all the promises. and the promises. A. 16. as were. every thing remains so true to the matter. the antecedent traditions ? Are more barren and scanty. of the marriages. 21.* they serve to authenticate its history. A. so suited to time and place. and the patriarchal traditions. E. and the intellectual nourishment of it. why the accounts ?ind given of the blessings pronounced. with the relations of a household. beyond the age of Abraham ? history vanishes even back to the deluge. account of Abraham's sojourn in Egypt we recognize a twoter of A. the is genealogical tree. t A Gen. In the and the traditions are the commentary. formed as it were the soul. and the charac- woman. In the E. and the long the patriarchs furnished a security for the of preservation of itself. a race of herdsmen their pastoral traditions. A war-like people have their war-songs. as they must be. too. • And The farther back. because Canaan was the end of all ot all Abraham's sojournings. too. Places and families life were the witnesses of particular events. I Gen. are it since from these proceeds. But here. Observe for example the reflection of the see. is so in accordance with the life of a herdsmen.249 the registers of this. and his wives. Arabian desert in the story of Ishmael|. that each tradition may generally be distinguished. together with the blessings pronounced. xvi. It must be so. Gen. xxxvi.

as of those more nearly related. xi. In regard to these. we have only a . 2. Heber's line is traced downward in both Peleg and Joktan. The posterity of Ham recorded are more nudefinite. If they were only authenticated. because they genealogy of these Eastern nations. 10—29. the more and distinct notices are always connected with some definite occasion and saying. } Gen. because they were too far removed. is all that we have*. ^ Gen. and to which they belonged. 23L Gen. the other names are attached to these only as full a terra incognita. we could hear any thing more from them. as we could wish authenticate them for yourself.j incognita.x. too. xi. and the re- You must lations of the parts and of the regions of country the members. x. Thus from Abracatalogue of names for the are the whole interval yet important names. which are only to the region of country. x. X. between the Euphrates and Egypt . which lay in the sphere of these traditions. as rod and of the Canaanites. The relation then of the members its in this genealogical register furnishes evidence of * I truth. and moving hither and They must before acquire consistence. And observe even the poverty of the accounts for this period are a pledge At this time the various races were making thither.! 250 naked genealogical table of their truth. 9— for example. from which they proceed. 4. the account of Nimregister of the children of The Shem shows this still more clearly. their migrations. IT and the other brothers are passed by and forgotten. of the different races. Gen.§ and their children. E. IT 6—14. while of Aram only one generation is given. 14—19. is means of doing so very the race is left Of the progeny of Japheth the number given small . x. two generations only. A. furnish satisfactorily. and become established. and no notices were found of them. Gen.+ but the notices of them. 24—29. x. And there as a terra beyond the extend mountains. . merous. + Gen. ham to Noah.

register. 12. there Aram established himself. he could perhaps. in how many distinct branches an origin- al race had gone forth. too.251 A. properly speaking. into a geographical chart. From about the time of Peleg. to which these ancient family divisions of the successive generations of the world had directed their course according to ancient tradition. Yet particular geographical notices occur . which In his time the tribes he inhabited. from what age and what region it was transmitted. it would have had no authority. oldest sons of Japheth and Hence so little Shem and hence . chaTt . Nimrod. A. 8 19. as far as i. then. gard to Nimrod.) by a very general designaIn re- tion in the obscure regions of the unexplored North. gives its limits to this genealogical record. E. 5. thence the Canaanites went forth. 18. He made he added to the genealogical record. there wandered the generation of Peleg and Joktan. that ? Moses drew this chart ? How could he it It is in fact. which he found existing. (v. and from the relation of the parts it is moreover plain. Do you not believe. which he had rebut most respecting the Canaanites. and the region. From what one then ? I am anxious to know. or it would be inquired. If he had contrived it. and placed his (v. this seems to have been the origin of these genealogical charts. an account of the place and direction. and this. and the Canaanites. is said of the traditions the are chiefly confined to a small region between the Nile and There were the enterprises of the Euphrates or the Tigris. it e. a. no was before called. Ashur. made their migrations . than the time of . — of both earlier and later origin apparently. as A. of it? And had Moses then nothing to do in the construction E. but.) he added the geographical accounts. E. Of Japheth descendants he knew nothing more definite. and as these migrations would be the subject of discourse. because they ceived were the nearest.

30. only the little. or perhaps an ear- lier patriarch. But who can assure us. even in respect to names. nay. 19. The very poverty you perceive of is and of these notices.262 Moses. and as one made. 26 — 29) built for themselves all cities in the region is. of ancient tribes. though labour bestowed in tliig way is praise-worthy. by a Mo- ses while it was originally mere register of the different branches of families in their first separation from each other. 11. lost - were not soon and absorbed or united with others.) . for example. (v. that then went forth separately from each other. these errours that the chapter or chart. It seems to me. Of tJie children of Joktan to him. 22. 10. if it is not wholly in a wrong direction. too. X. 30. and of their earliest oflspring. a proper and complete chart of the emigrations. that accounts were preserved of the towns and cities (v. E. these were unknown this chart.) all How we learn now. the sons of Joktan. . their security from being lost or interpolated. somewhat vaguely for the most their possessions and » Gen. he gave but a brief notice. The part. that some of these several races. 26—29. knew of the dwellings of Japheth. So it appears to me. A. that this much useless trouble has been taken from considering chapter.) and must we know more than they ? Other divisions and cities again are described. which for us however are very ancient. which occurs here. The ground of taken as a proper map 30. named. (v.* because. with a particularity if common do in ancient descriptions of countries. and seeking to trace out every name as a country or city. and who can tell whether all the names of families must be found in the counwhich they inhabited ? tries Even Moses. of Shem and Joktan themselves. (v. that. not to mention other descendants of Shem. later glosses upon this too. 5. as a small tract were- the whole world. only designate. is of all these.

mean time way it is enough for our purppse. universal. in a distinct from the accounts of any other people. their traditions. and was not from the deluge we shall in due time find it out. increase is and gave the measurement of the water in the daily and decrease of its height above the mountains. that had escaped overwhelming waters. If there were a people in the extreme East saved them whole kinadoms he knew it not. with chronological notices and ages of individuals. Suppose that in the far- thest East. with that It is institutions. from which through him the earth would now begin again to be peopled. high mountains and behind . Every thing itself. But how and by what means ? By a comparison of their languages. E. E. and most ancient which has spread abroad from mount Ararat. during. are proof of its high anti- quity. 22 generally thought so long a period .263 dwelling-places. his persecutors. noticed as in the actual and near view o' the thing Its tone. as the author of this supposed In relation to our purpose that it it it would make no diference It is we admit its was not to be so. And 1 so you consider the journal ? of what took place in the ark as true and authentick know not otherwise iiow it attained its present form. A. and after the lood. were saved from the flood bound to know it. and the fragmentary character of these notices. The giants. if And was ? the deluge as universal. even back to the deluge. that the register proceeds. E. A. and continued the in the successive generations. before. sufficient. too.ore Western region. ? A. while he took with him his household and a stock of animals to a n. that this author held and knew no country. and without affirming whether every name In remained. and with them all that lived in South Eastern Asia must peri-h.

Others suffered perhaps. And the history before the deluge ? Passes obviously into a mere record of significant names. Every name includes in it the whole history ot a patriLook at this a moment. of Esau and . a man of sorrow. find customary in later traditions. but continue so. But these could not have been the names. and was returned ther. find rest from the oppression of tyrants and so of others. and . Cain. or slightly modified liis former of Sarai and Sarah. You speak of significant names. and family traditions mingled together . persons bore in their their cJiildren tory.264 can admit only of conjectures. arch. too. . life events in his Edom. Recollect the case of Abram and Abraham. the earth was . and begin with Adam. was known. appointed for the cultivation of the earth. gives the history of another. Thus in the example of Cain and Noah. The voice of tradition would only what . Jacob and Israel. when she gave him his name ? . for all who gave names to were not projihets in regard to their future hisDid Eve know the future fate of Abel. ed from the earth. He was formto earth . and here. A. E. or who was also is the occasion first of sorrow. sion in it are the sole bridge of com- munication between ancient world and our own. &c. genealogical records. the posses- and the name of his son Enoch in equally signifito Noah. its poverty tell is a pledge of its truth. called significant names th. as we E. or whose lime. The man either assumed from later a new name. under whom. which the life time. I hope they will not always A. and we know of him nothing fur- Abel. and that is his history. . That I do not suppose in some cases however the name would afterwards be interpreted in a sense difl'erent from that in which it was given. restrained itself to this scanty memorial — a barren pedigree and the A. E. He is a man of earth. when the traditions were formed respecting them a modification of form.

and their meaninif be explained. only the numbers whicli exhibit the . lah. For otherwise. [)reserved. and the names translated. But in this you at least carry back the invention of the alphabet to a very high antiquity. At first. together with their genealogical records. therefore. and by these it was general customs of the Orientals. in a different sense from the initiated. indicating initiation. Enoch. A. but the race of the inventor and and so this single well-connected family line leads back to the highest antiquity. the earliest history it proceeded preserved. dependent. Methuse- and others may be it inter|)reted in diflerent ways all . were pronames. Of the children of Cain Lamech. You were see an example of this in the sword of translation of Enoch. the son of Cain. since thus the names would become truly significant. We ought then to have these names still in the ori- ginal language. a tradition. That seems to me of little importance. their lives. these proper names. A. Japheth. of which they were the on names was 'J'he gin. and Ham. In some like names would seem me to have been very easy. would show. prove this beyond a question. the preservation of such names in pedigrees would be scarcely possible. as the kindred forms which proceed from the original root. as for example the name of Moses. E. Cain. Were it an- other language. and the no names artificer. names of as their children are significant With many of them. but for parents. son of Seth. our purpose is of no consequence. sufficiently branches from the trunk. From . also after the flood with the names of Sliem.265 one so as to this make it characteristick of his to life. E. Whether tlie who gave names phets or not. But where the history of the life was not conveyed by the name ? There it was attached E. bore his name. to it by a song. so much the better. was associated the history of ori- and even of the race. A. perhaps. the to their children before flood.

but my own . alphabetick writing was ever to be invented. with that of Enoch the picture of a belief city. A. E. something very definite. &c. we are from this and tlie probability that alit phabetick writing must have been invented very early. would be as three thousand years. attention . which could not be expressed. has not been If formed on views in regard to this point. the the farther we could never come at more our. It is generally considered the and most difficult invention. From the matter wliich the painter seeks to repre- sent by a picture a sound. difficult after E. no alphain the first thousand. Pictures might become hieroglyphicks. but rather. od of proceeding. the articulation of is fixed upon is. to me. or never would have existed. where there was no alphabet is. as the example of the Egyptians and Chinese shows. . The common opinion is quite the The common opinion. If picture and hieroglyphick writing has once become established. it must be brought about by reason of something simple. A. is ever likely to be thought of. So do all sensuous tribes and. for ten thousand years in suc- cession. as it seems sufficiently clear contrary of that. pretty surely. that. as to serve the most necessary purposes. This must be the meth. without a designation of things. and so far in use. and with this mark would be even now in retained the significant name. test Soon It do you say. names connexion with the and numbers could scarcely be written or preserved at With the name of Abel was con- nected perhaps some representation of a man slain.256 ages of the successive generations. and conse- quently the history of the man. indeed betick writing. . mere lines all. were given with some mark to designate the meaning of the name in each. if they were modified. as more difficult. and very indispensable. but these would never become letters. that the alphabet existed at a very early date registers it and by this very mode ? of recording names and would la- necessarily be soon invented.

down rations. at all which were generally known. Thet. the ear- and the most urgent necessity gave rise to the invention or it would never have taken place it ? . where a single word. this done. who. that names exhibit these very conditions names and genealogical registers constiof the primeval world. all one and the same name. Very nearly. Theut. such long lives of the patriarchs. to the gene- which had sprung from them. and. is not such your own al- view of A. man had once which were to upon the He analyzed. suppose. they brought the origin of the human race. it must be found out to reference to objects. Con- in the third place.. for alphabetick writing was in truth an everlast- ing monument. were circumstances favouraas the ble to invention and memory. when a we may names. set up a monument. track. ? Who not . on religious 22* festivals. Now proper and it is a fact. their simplicity. events. the invention was accomplished. 257 by images. by means of these simple but myste- rious characters. his cording to the import of own significant was he. then was the inventor of the That I know who does know Perhaps it ? The traditions of several different nations call himeSeth. the reverence with which they were regarded by the long line of their posterity. where a word life brought to mind the whole nected with it. under which. the sublimity of the idea. of the individual named. for these memorials of their . their avoidance of images and symbols of the divinity. the sound of the voice in uttering some of tlie be placed upon the genealogical table. Nor was fallen the invention so difficult. and the're which could not be represented by significant images. Children and grand-children were assembled ""specially to learn these monuments. The purest. a to mind. and the whole original revelation of God. Thoit. phabet E. should bring the whole matter and such were significant names. in tute the earliest traditions In the second place. acname. liest. or mark attached it.

enough and to aid the serpent were painted. the first tablet sounds. In the time of Enos. men began to call on the name it of Jehovah and this. they could be preserved and ac- knowledged. And the earlier traditions ? They were transmitted probably in pictured images. with Thus the fifth chapter of Genesis names and numbers. because the institution of the sabbath renewed and retained them in the recollection. as the meaning of the name might denote. its may have been. which represented sounds. and in the reality itself. created universe and. numbers in seven pictures of the separate portions of the . in regard to the cause itself. to Shem. E. of thought in articulate and transmitted perhaps latter through Noah. or by mere oral tradition. The case was with the history of Paradise. under whatever form of words may be expressed.25-8 fathers ings. placed with reference to their parallel or corresponding relations. for without that the merely speculative opinion. . as far as They learned any thing could be so. in deed. was retained not by the memory merely. For that reference is . the woman. Do you see in this narrative itself of the pri this meval world no traces of of events ? mode of if I preserving the record A. and permanent. until alphabetick writing was more fully established in use. there were marks and direct the memory. the altered alas ! mode of life. whole E. presupposes some kind of confession and worship at a publick religious monument. but. When the tree. and so the invention would be rendered fixed. But by this the way was only prepared similar for hieroglyphick writing. A. tirely a The history of the creation is en- sensuous representation arranged by days' works and . were connected with their religious notions and feelthe names of their fathers combined with these characters. and manner of what had taken place. I is would be very glad could. and the matter the removal from Eden.

formed representations. and has been ridiculed with good reason as more recent and spurious. in the it. and must continue. consider the story of the picture •tree of knowledge. they had probably received their language itself from the Shemites. Ham had no alpha- Even the Egyptians had only hieroglyphit when they received an alphabet. and the letters in this. A sin- even as the names of the_ Greeks afterwards obtained them i. icks . know only hieroglyphicks. i. prejudice were the Phenician characters. not then. that cannot be sustained. art. is an explanation. name and word . through the Phenicians. it is sufficient. for as e. Those are called sons of the .269 liad here to the sons of God. and if we suppose the invention of writing to have been of the time. Shemitish language. E. mighty men. and the rest of the descendants of betick characters. some way from hieroglyphick and discovered by Moses ? these. that it was made in the family of Seth or of Shem. professed themselves and we might naturally conjecture this to be set up such a memorial. e. gle alphabet alone exists in the world. and the in of creation. mere conjecture this. Every which aimed to set forth this history in monuments of was ridiculous. All the Eastern nations. do which you refer grounded ? Where are those hieroglyph- . to be. to be of Egyptian origin. which have monosyllabick languages. Here men called name of Jehovah. when Seth of the spoken of. are obviously Chaldagan. as was before of God. And on what* is the opinion. had what according common A. as they lived in the midst of them. later date. and are obviously designated heroes. as they were clearly shown themselves by the his worshippers . I You do suppose. The Plienicians had not invented was remarked. who went in in a to the daughters of men. that is Egyptian ? ? or that even resembles the Egyptian hieroglyphicks thing. occur fragment of a hero- ick tradition. and that the ancient fables of the pillars of Seth were perhaps derived from Yet the whole is. What is there in my friend.

The radical principles. and a late period. at to Ararat. the par- allelism of the heavens. this ? there be a more decisive proof than the radical forms. But how darkly. from which Moses formed his account ? Where of is there any thing like this history in ? Egyptian mynight. and social organizations of society. into Egypt. which we commonly call Oriental. and the Jeremiah. are found probably the most ancient mythologies. (for all children speak at first in monamona- . and in the formation of a whole class of languages in respect to the sensuous in images expressed Recollect are obviously a style so peculiar. for Mizraim too had his conceptions of the primeval world. Thei*5 we find still a large class of entirely syllabick languages. as handed patriarchs. . thology and language spirits. traditions moreover from what regions these derived. and how cor- respondent every thing to the history of the earth. and the earth. the deluge? whither does the collector of them himself refer these Ob- serve the constant progress of culture from East to West.260 icks to be found. the fundamental conceptions. That certain conceptions of of light and asther. and from down from the Noah. to find would be glad the Ezra. from the Ganges ly. are placed and arranged in accordance with the forms of these languages. Paradise. the tree of life. in the vicinity of the most still elevated regions of Asia. every thing is clear and strikes the eye at once. I are they Egyptianized in this mythology. the migration of tribes from the final- mountain elevations of Asia into the low countries. thither and conceal it in that In the languages of the posterity of Shem. are is met with nothing to the purpose. and of ! human race Eastwards. the Cherubim. with certain Egyptian gods. of God and man. who could carry dark and obscure mass. Can of the inanimate and animate creation. languages. and gloomily. who from in the its mud purity of the Egyptian Nile the holy fire of the it could draw out and kindle first ideas of creation . growing is this in part out of the mud the of the Nile is how natural course.

and indeed one of the oldest. its es- features. and all the circumstances of the nation were so ordered. and have still their syllables) and. You do not. and of sential two syllables. The regularity of its radical forms fact. You give me a clearer general view of this matter. however. hold the Hebrew language to be the most ancient that has existed. preserved through thousands of years. history of our race. we shall see in a clearer light many tilings pertaining to the original ideas. the mother of E. even is no valid objection to this opinion. these nations still tl6pend on hieroglyphicks. and the derivation of the earliest So much. This indeed^ it arose from the early use of alphabetick writing for is proved from the history of all languages and nations.) hold it obviously the climate for this language. different organs. . must have had a different organi- zation. Lower Yet. How could it be. where these nations dwelt. at least in its present state and. know no alphabet. that they could be preserved in their purity. If we shall ever more thoroughly the mythologies and languages of these countries. to be a daughter of the primeval language. length Canaan bacame the spot for their preservation." A. in ? Its radicals are all regular. Men who lived a thousand years. then. all the languages of the earth. but where iiieroglyphicks are used they remain in perpetual infancy and unintelligible barbarism. They came down from the high regions of Asia. I Asia. consequently also a different language. we see with the greatest clearness. . which arose obviously out of the absolute despotism of paternal authority. ancient political organization. that " alphabetick characters and writing have universally given regularity to languages. A. and were At spread abroad with the diffusion of the Shemitish race.261 what is remarkable. is (not Cashmire and the upper Ganges. as fancy if for a perpetual memorial of the inlearn of the world. that Egypt could by no possibility be the source of these traditions. it is a highly cultivated language. the language of Paradise.

example. even as you explain is perhaps nothing more than a poetical description of his assault of Esau. it. fruitful mother of nations. the tower of Babel. from \vhich all great migrations have since come. th. Jacob's first. and they therefore abandoned rated from each oilier. with which some facts of history. and hear no more from it than from the nature is of the case. which had the in and related every thing prophet. val times to the simplicity it. a poetical it. of that given here. that the desolation of Sodom. '^he wrestling of Jacob with the angel. from Tartary. It from the very same region. with God. may show. of origin. who has introduced has indeed so understood " He strove with the angel and prevailed. it &c. probably a more recent memorial. and the nocturnal struggle was peihaps the mere of another tradition. Many other poetical em- . as in the melting of snow. as the pillar of salt. As soon as some of them went away. The Hebrew dress. be the for mere poetical fiction of late times. as commencement of the christian era. was only the first general migration of the sort. for he wept and entreated him. current formed in by one mass carries oif another. name of Elohim." Bodily conflict is not very successfully con- ducted by weeping and entreaty.e others followed. But must not much. Probably many things occurred during the building. that he would protect him from the tion We find this prayer related fic- before. in every age. later The history of the destruction of Sodom is probably a Hebrew has clothed poetical dress. the less does he find any thing satisfactorily. the and this came too. the migrations near the It happened here. can say. that produced disthe work.262 than I have ever before had. the history have shown me. And finally it. earnest wrestling in prayer. I will accustom myself to refer this echo of the primeand to expect. and sepa- sensions. wrestling with the angel. first ? In regard to the you is a satirical efl'usion respecting the absurd enterprizes of the ambitious tyrant. The more one back its seeks to find all things in eaqh.

. compare which be- them together in- respect to the three leading long here. which we. Something must have preceded. e. and the mythological stores of the different races. in the simplicity of our heai'ts. so as to titles. which placed men's heads so variance with each other. change. their formation. it. and give no satisfaction. out cities there. Philosophical explanations I are not enough. we cannot explain every thing by our conceptions of the migratory move- ments of the race. and the smallest and most savage If abound most of in the diversities all we shall ever have a nations. as for example. upon fire Sodom and Gomorrah. i. of Brimstone and from Jehovah. within An island. we add to this. that cannot be explained from the quiet migrations of the various even when of of i. as productive causes in close contact. The tribes. languages.263 bellishments might be named. not diversities. far as I now know. mode life. it. a narrow space. degrees of copiousness. heaven. would amount whole were so unsatisfy derstood. face of the country. Nations often dwell of the same race. Babel. diversity of languages in the world a problem. if tlie E. but total positive at diversity. we So shall be able to judge of these things more conclusively. It receive as true liistory. from (bfferent That which needs explanation here is dialectical variations of one language. a small continent. You have here rather strong features of poetical embellishment. because I can give no natural explanation of So it is also with the destruction of SodcT. embraces often of language. and causes of gradual e. Lot was come to Zoar. He overthrew the . The sun was When Then risen upon the earth. rained Jehovah. but with languages the most diverse. tribes many such list . climate. to nothing. of the same organick formation. But your interpretation does not is me. assume a mi- racidous event to ex|)lain what is related in this tradition. confusion. and customs of diflerent races.

and all that grew. is Finally the story of Jacob's wrestling with the angel It is it. that afterwards. like tlie repetition it of the name Jehovah. or rise from the love of the marvellous. has a metrical relation of members. a It may be. as its every tradition adheres closely and with emphasis to ject. without . not an unfeeling expression of joy at the It murder of Cain. upon monument of bituminous frag- ments was thrown together. a monument ways of destruction. She became a monument of salt that is. of which in the East. and one and the this brief same family. related entirely in the tone of historical narrative. therefore. according to is context. there is but a sinpoem here. And all that dwelt in them. pillar of salt. as is customary in the East. Thus this ex})ression. the daughter of the latter. gle You find. are unnecessary. and again. The former was . this. even in her form. that have been made out of both these. without corresponden- cies of sound. In short. tiie (for this. ap- pears as a very natural emphasis in the mode of speaking.— 264 And all the plain was desolate. The parallelism occurs in is. and became. something and coming after not as a paraphrase merely. : she was consumed. the import of it. and you thus perceive how ancient in the this Lyrick poetry in and musicji are invented same age. salt was al- a standing monument. and sound interpretation. here it is triumphal song but I can only give rhvme. and that the expression. in addition to the prayer. it who caused to rain. And when Lot's wife looked back behind her. and even correspondencies of sound. sub- The perplexing riddles'. Lamech's on the invention of the sword. came to be applied to it. ? nothing that properly poetry in these traditions As you understand the word poetry. from whom rained.) it. E. the place where she died. and they have always been united. — but I believe we have is said enough of A.

scription is The whole in now it. I voice. youth. effusions. which explain the diversity of these traditions the words Jehovah a"nd Elohim ? in the use of E. the picture of the creation is sublime poetry. became the basis of the subsequent poetry and history of the race. The matter of and the tone and spirit of the whole. and has been traced out by a recent to author* with an accuracy. especially in concise thoughts and moral sentiments. Passages are separated by throughout. though narrative deits again not designed for musick. * Eichhorns Elnleitung ins A. and majestick form of its contents. Th. who smote me with a blow. S. and are probably from the 301—383. as the traditions of their fathers do among all nations. concise expressions of parallelism. little is obvious to the eye. but every where characterized by simplicity of expression.S6S Ye wives of Lamech. or in the form of verse. A slew a man. and shall hereafter survey the building itself. though not fitted for musick. hear my And hearken to my speech. Other songs. unless indeed an aim at too great precision injurious to the it hypothesis itself. and properly poetical ditions . who wounded me. pastoral. 2. In regard to the concise. esj)ecially in the most ancient pieces. Then Lamech. seventy He felt thus forcibly the superior efficacy of iron and of the sword. T. are not found in these train the narrative. against the onset of other deadly weapons. Have you ar- rived to any certain conclusion in regard to those liypotiieses. In short. in re- but much of the spirit of poetry spect to every thing. my friend. If Cain shall be seven times avenged. times seven. 23 . You must me yet one question. is The diversity. we are now through allow the entrance way. measured. The blessings pronounced by in tiie patriarchs are full all a lofty mashal. and now heroick own way. which leaves be added . A. which ol)viously belong together.

Of that forbidden tree. perhaps even from hovah were placed. Hath breathed thy gentle breath Com'st thou from life's fair ? ? tree and holy fountain. impious men. thy father hide thee from the tempest In Paradise ? And send thee. Of man deceived. escape Of nations o'er the earth ? Did. and also those. and where Je- The most ancient fragments had him. Whence art thou. with the dove. then. Other fragments. in which the most ancient fragments were followed as the guide. cannot fail to be recognized. how didst thou avoid the ? sweeping billows. that braved Thou speak'st in artless tones ? Say. and in regard to their origin the traditions. the same hand. amid the storm of times and nature's changes. the cares and sorrows. or something was related. from one source. In mat. Regard was Elo- probably had to the question. THE VOICE OF ANTIQUITY. that was not properly suited to the dignity of Jehovah. In Eden's groves That of creation. hallowed voice of ancient ages ? And whither bound ? And how. ters of this kind. the heavens. taken perhaps from the mouth of tradition at a later period. have Jehovah throughout yet in those too. . and the deep prophetick feeling. and To his new chosen son ? leaf of peaceful olive. the wild dispersion That drown'd the world And gentle as thou art. we can never all arrive at the highest certainty. where Elohim.266 same age. Of floods. and giants. Of man's pure primeval love. this name was probably often inserted by the compiler. with this or with that name. the traditions of the family of Shem.

received from holy fathers. Descending safe.) Within his floating ark. (His pledge. ana The world received from thee. and memorial fragments. Of earliest times. Till we are blessed by thee. To me how dear for letters. by God's own holy name protected. To worthiest names. his legacy. ! . daughter of the voice divine and human. And thou didst cleave through every generation.267 Yes. Ye broken echoes. a pure religion. Thou went'st with him.

its form. in the early lives of many law-givers and distinguished men. with that pure light and truth.MOSES. sacred shade In thee do I contemplate one among the greatest. have collected. and of the sphere of hu- man life. out of the patriarchal traditions. of their poetry. and show them my friend. and animated the genius. even the poetry of his people derives its spirit. and his name reminded him. a Romulus. and its development. and with pastoral conceptions of God. thou serious. as once shone. my friend. of his deeds. which in later periods of antiquity we find. and most ancient of those mighty men. the religious. A man born and educated in Egypt. or fable. materi- als. which thou didst place. who not only founded the political. ! Let me approach thee nearer. From him. upon the breast of the high priest of thy people. either as history. too. but more fully confirmed the use. the whole scene will be changed and we shall no longer find ourselves concerned with a shepherd race. as a sacred symbol. but who made Arabia his adopted country. that the . shall not prevent us from considering the character of that great man. and. Our distance from each other. to which we shall hereafter have frequent occasion to . but so that to may know the features thereof. and the events of his history. were delivered as he was. is now before us. benefactors of the who were ! the law-givers and human race Let not the brightness of it thy countenance shine I upon me. the theatre of his plans. in the funda- mental conceptions of their poetry and religion. Now. The early events in the life of Moses were of that remarka- ble kind. and social institutions of the Hebrews. and others. A Cyrus. and his miracles. his wanderings. We have now passed through the entrance court of the temple. as well as in the cosmology and most ancient historical notices of this people. refer.

instances. Learned wisdom of the Egyptians. and the political organization of that country. their present standing and receiving Here agaii . as though Providence delighted in bringing forth from nothingness the most important products of wisdom and power. cations of such a leader were necessary. as far as it attains its di- vine purposes by human means. and and. a. he was also acquainted with the secret knowledge of the priests. a people who had customs Egypt. it In this. and the most complicated in its windings. To do tliis. from their near connexion with the idolatrous worship and priestly domination of the Egyptians. which was oppressing his own. plishment of its to employ the for the accom- deep and mysterious counsels. habits for the attainment of the end in short. by a thread the most slender. lost these and to the in God of their fathers. !!i'. and even hand of those. which became the cradle of the in all the political institutions of various other nations. who are hostile to its design. . very institutions. and to whom. into which their minds had fallen. but on this point the iiistory of his It is it own nation is silent. Moses was brought up at the court of Pharaoh. to construct 23* .! restore thcni from the undisciplined and wan- dering state. an Egyptian guide and teacher was necessary . to bring customs. in the form best fitted to it. make a and employ even their senses and existing . as in other might seem. The purpose back here to be accomplished was»to reform could be done to the consistently witli ofher purposes. Tradition rep- resents liim also as a military leader and hero. no valid objection its to the wisdom of Providence.269 Divine Being had not without design delivered him from a watery grave. to which they had who might employ those become accustomed in capacity for underthe skill and qualifi- Kgyptj in order to restore to them the religion of their fathers. that carries forward work by instruments. God i of their fath^-is was no longer familiar. in order to lasting impression. by means of the daughter of the king of that people.

gave in the ashes. and by many individual rites. which. The golden it models of Egyptian art and wisdom.270 for them. which. as Moses did. and chose and set apart a particular tribe for this office. to which it im- parts a new organization and life. The God. by the offerings. that Moses. to His people were taught calf copied from fire. too obvious to be mistaken. ate here and it would be too tedious to enumercompare with those of Egypt. was the first political sanctuary of true knowledge on earth. Yet. organization of the priest- hood. out of the costume and external accompaniments of idolatry. and organize a ritual. that he built every thing upon the priesthood. and from which he aimed forever to re- form and separate ficiently his . in spite of all that was sensuous and typical in the in it. in which he was people the traces of resemblance are is himself educated. full of meaning and of terror. by the fact. It is idle to pretend to deny. the God of his fathers and even in forming his ceremonial out of the elements of the Egyptian he employed those only as the creative spirit ecnploys the gross matter. his course was directly opposed to the dark of the slavish and enslaved Egypt. or representation of God. however. which were referred priest bore to in the traditions his forehead. and the breast-plate of the high-priest. and the arrangements of the temple and the ritual. His temple neither contained nor would admit any outward figure. he burned with in his and indignation and zeal. which he taught his people to . and had only a to idolatry. was Jehovah. but as the marvellous beings. worship. That such was the case suf- shown. to the guilty apostates. The Cherubim even he adopted not as Egyptian Sphinxes. the purifications. had no reference to those Egyptian institutions. among a superstitious people. His high- upon and his breast. Wherever any thing bore distant tendency spirit the impress of superstition. a form of religious worship. neither hiero- . for drink. abhor all idolatrous images. the dress. of his fathers. the spirit of his religion was as obviously not Egyptian.

as he was he himself improved his own laws. nor was this his meaning. he consecrated him and the twelve tribes of his people to God. this like the Egyptian and Chinese. which he gave them. and must thus impress stiff-necked people. the Isa great and generally. Moses to the Is- His system of laws at is the most ancient model. in itself and necessary step. and others of such kinds as were forbidden by raelites. and the service of God. wise and enlightened men. and the host of Israel his moving but chosen residence. the illu- mination of truth. i. of political development but unhappy in the extreme. the greatest of all the word which abides commandments. least in a written form. This. and modified them according to cir- cumstances but to love . though he so often called it it a perpetual covenant. •glyphicks nor idolatrous images. but letters and a sacred inscription. to be denied. ised his people. which we have. however. and an unceasing restraint upon the advancement of mankind. The sanctuary. that this It is not. in his last discourses to them. placed the customs of his people in opposition to those of Egypt. where health. e. and declared finally the great principle. whole system was to a temporary Egyptian yoke.. that not the slavish fear and servile worship practised by the Egyptians. as being in the progress if. as the palace of the invisible King. whose servants were the priests. all morals. are combined in one work and one system. must have been in its purpose and result a perpetual yoke. For he promprophets sent . as upon his barbarous and Lycurgus did his laws. of whom no representation dare be formed. Through light and righteousness. plainly. In regard to offerings and purifications he avoided superstitions of the Egyptians. and adorned with Oriental magnificence. political organization. God and with is all the heart. was not the purpose of Moses. was a temple mysteriously veiled. . is the in the heart. indispensable indeed raelites of that day. from God. and in the choice entirely the of food. which abounded in amphibious animals.

then. had he in those times. all of them only such as resultIn ed from the sad necessity of the times and of the people. round which men danced and revelled in the extravagance of a hypocritical idolatry ? With thousand-fold reasons might he have ground it to powder. to his sacrilegious and idolatrous people. diffi. nothing could be more it di- rectly contradictory to the gives. were now liave his neighbours for forty years. Fabulous accounts Jethro. that he becomes a jealous and avenging God. and which were kindred to the Israelites in language and origin. Moses to undertake a task so its and human eyes so incomprehensible in results . members. the harsh servitude of the slave. when the least of his precepts had been converted into a golden calf. when his system of laws. and the time for deliverance was not yet come. But for I return to the history of his life. Jethro was spirit. in sparing the offender. A deed of youthful heroism drove the future deliverer of his people out of Egypt. and the voluntary and affectionate obedience of the His God is long-suffering in and abundant It is only after long endurance and then but for a short space. indeed a man to of prudence and but not of such a as that. goodness. as the his represented the Arabian Emir or Sheik. and the author of view which skill. and given it. and always indeed. he reminded them of the fatherly kindness and beneficence of God. which impelled cult. when his commands were made a snare to catch the souls of men. child in contrast with each other. but. till his hand is again free to do good and bestow his blessings. as a once living in all its cup of abomination. and hold them in a state of appeared perpetual child-hood ? in times. instigator of Moses. Egypt was no longer necessary the quiet residence of his to him. would have been the conduct of that god-like man. Wliat. if the history has any truth. The deserts of Arabia must tribes become riper manhood. political plans . had become a lifeless mass. and placed the curse and the blessing.272 His severe punishments were his last heartfelt discourse.

and a perpetual of the passover. too. for festival he was once delivered. and laborious cares. on every house and every generation. farther shore of the On the Red Sea. He bought servant for himself out of slavery. as were. and rock. as it were. With no pretence. Vi4ere the ers of Egypt. the destroying angel. lives only in his work. are wholly Egyptian. which he wrought by his hand. of his leading out the Israelites. speaks of himself. as were. and noxious amit phibious reptiles. incapable of being accomplished. darkness. that he might be for him a purchased and a bond servant. weappns with which his hand was empowered which he contended against the magicians and wonder-workwork. by which he his people from bondage. by means of which the presence of the Eternal drew The appearing God in a flaming in its character. of in his and heroick deeds. was unpreis meditated. and was made manifest to him. to The miracles. delivers filthy as are all the plagues. represent Egypt. was sung in two-fold chorus the triumph- . What a self-commending and heroick picture this simple tranquil history of the mission of Moses. and baptized him. who never is never praised. of his miracles. in his faults and weaknesses even. the Nile. must indicate this claim of God. They are of a kind. That desert. exhibits the scenery and the objects. with the blood of a slaughtered lamb upon the door. and in his view. and no demands upon our admiration. Serpents. and an his it outstretched arm. here. in sight of the perished hosts of their enemies. of his deeds in Egypt. in the waves of the Red Sea. we see in that his mission was to him unexpected. spared. which is wholly fire. The first-born is his also. as the signs his attention. bush is entirely Arabian and wonders. in his plans. appropriate to Egypt. it places before us a man. and wanderings.273 for that he the fact. in regard both to its its productions and geographical character. God led his people out of Egypt with a high hand. was urgently impelled to undertake it. insects.

the perpetual theme of their national songs and festival celebrations. where they subsisted by the supplies which his indulgent hand provided.ith circumstances of fearful magnificence. by fiery serpents. and the opening of the earth to swallow up the disobedient. and of his shepherd sons ? Where now was the form. in subsequent periods. Where now was the mild and friendly aspect God of Abraham. and in his dreaming tent ? Where now were those days of innocence and blessedness. for which their heavenly them from all other nations in a desert. where he himself supplies them with food and and the special object of his care. when the tent of the patriarchs gave entertainment to angels. A barren desert must become the house for their education discipline. as friend with friend. and drink. which afterwards was the patmany psalms and songs of deliverance among this eagle's wings people. These proofs of his goodness were. a caravan of simple herdsmen ? Now at the presence of the angels of God the mountain is in a flame now the earth trembles and quakes before his hosts as they go forth to war! altered language. which was to be enforced so often by fearful punishment. as his first-born. and fully imbibed the spirit of those laws and customs. As on God bore onward his redeemed people. under which he spake with the father of of the this people. and two ar- blessed him as a youth mies of God encamped around .274 al tern of so song of Moses and Miriam. Its when compared with the former patriarchal history. With awe- struck fear and shuddering was established that covenant. was to form them In the midst of a wilderness fearfully desolate the law was given w. which this No now one can fail to perceive the prevails in the description of journey of the Israelites. How much happier would have been the events of their history. terrifick tones resound through the . by which he to a people for himself. had they also conformed themselves entirely to father separated the purpose. wrestled with Israel.

the original prophecy. as perhaps the two most remarkable. I am Jehovah and I ! there is none be- thy God. the organization of the state. and made the introduction its prophets. the conquest of the country. and embraced as he did every thing else. This conducting of the to in after times. to the As this begins with an apostrophe heavens and the earth. and many first other prophecies and songs. a burning and devouring fire. therefore. his discourses. which he sends upon the people of Canaan. As this divided into cursing and all blessing. of which I now name the lamentation of Habakkuk and the C8th Psalm. In a three-fold manner. In the tone and movement of the poetry. and probably the Isaiah chapter of to all the was placed first. he sends out his arrows. which are thirsty for blood. also. and ever and anon he his hand side ! to heaven and swears. the going forth out of Egypt. we see a striking similarity. live forever. He whets his glittering sword fiery serpents. His mes- sengers of vengeance are Seraphim. Moses exerted an ence on the poetry of his whole nation. in the The most the sublime poetical phets are desert. it was referred this as the type of all God's dealings with people. which he lifts himself sends upon his people. Before him go destructive swarms of hornets. which God went al subject before him and fought for Israel. and eseflusion. influthis. the jourin ney through the desert. the type and pat- the prophets. . pecially last poetical it For is this production is obviously. and in they sought the images and examples to represent their wars . eftiisions and images Psalms and Pro- this journey of Moses through from his miraculous deeds. as tern of all were. in First. so does Isaiah begin. on account of relation to the commencement of Moses. so are the prophets. Israelites through the desert. The prophets were directed his by the law of Moses. apostate taken from his Israel. paternal exhortation and warning.275 desert of Arabia. were the perpetu- of songs and poetical descriptions. and must form tiiemselves after example. by his deeds . God is a rock.

The most sublime tones of ancient times became a meagre echo in the ears of the drowsy and idolatrous ages such. they are first elevated and expanded. The regulation of the service of the sanctuary and I of the priesthood also. Especially was done by the great Isaiah. As ry and ceased to grow. the eagle with fiery eye. in the same spirit was every thing in As the whole after times celebrated as the work of God. excluded entirely all idols. among the Hebrew prophets.276 and victories. so pofounded on was thing etry clothed itself in all the ornaments of the priesthood. the idolatry of the temple service. all its pernicious consequences. In this also the plan of Moses had the fate of all systems and plans . adhered of God. the apostacy of the priests. much magnificence of the sanctuary. of political organization the temple. that of being a divine. however. a pure temple poetry. reckon among those acts of Moses. and hymns addressed to creatures or fabulous beings. as well as the family relations in short . and. The poetry of the all Hebrews enjoyed an undeniable adv<5ntage over other systems of national poetry. as every the offerings and the sanctuary. to look back beyond it and this recall to mind the father of the faithful. because they saw before them the abuse of offerings. the reviver of Jewish poetry. the blessings and punishments. was of a priestly character. by which he influenced continuously the poetry of became the poetry of the temple. and in his songs employed even in the descriptions Later prophets first ven- tured to return to the simple covenant of God with Abraham. and of the ceremonial service . which they re- ceived. and etherial sunward motion. . brought the name of Jehovah into connexion with the this it By means of minutest duties of the citizen. then in the end contracted and narrowed down. particularly when to the it David. with all. it . was abused the tree remained stationait was confined by the roof of the temple. for that succeeded. shores of the Red Sea. made the poetry of the Hebrews in all respects saAs Moses and Miriam had sung their song on the cred. his people.

for making a barbarian people. as spread over is it. must devote themselves to reading. was by the description of his own by his own poetry and songs. His last poetical effu- sion. and employed writing. and of the claim of Israel to the land of Canaan is proof. acted unceasingly upon the poetry of the nation. Psalm ascribed to bim. and make it familiar and severe as it was upon them. is full of meaning. and thereby secured the ad- vantage of it. as before remarked.277 The second means. ick writing. as for the occupation of the priests. and prefixed them to his history. but severe. and breathing an It is air of solitude. figures. their Psalms of praise. al. as well for the ornament of the high priest. earnest. like his and character. alphabet. a . In generlife the poetry of Moses. but a veil The spirit that breathes in his institutions and writings. as sacred relicks of antiquity. they held it in to their minds His song at the Red Sea was the model of high esteem. as the Israelites . that he devised his plans. of triumph. and of deliverance. for his people . who. vid. his institutions and journeyings belongs also I to the instrumentality. by which Moses deeds . and carrying into effect his laws and regulations that he excluded all symbols. glows with brightness. The ark of his tabernacle in its alphabetick 24 . the latter. his countenance did. widely diverse from the spirit of Job. lesson for the instruction of the people ticular tribe of that he chose a parmen. relieved from other employments. speaking. at least in part. and hieroglyphics. lit- and in the fundamental laws of their organization. of v/hich am That he recorded and the journey through the desert. which is the 90th in the collecwas the beautiful model of didactick poems. and made the former a canon for the priests. of his doctrines. or intend. into a erary people. especially the last repetition of the law. even as the basis of his law. copying. of Da- and of Solomon. The were required to learn it. was the pattern of the prophets. His own description of his laws. that he probably collected the ancient histories and traditions of his race. lofty tion. ed to do so.

in the and criers place of assembly. ture even to say. I venmore poetical spirit. than a republick of Plato. nally. the wise men of the nation. at least. it lias renewed his form and voice. ^ and the most powerful instrument of national cultivation. who roused their attention. by which Moses even provided revival of sacred poetry in times of declension. could we the find the stones. perhaps. comforting. which should call back the people and even the kings to their proper place and duty. and in echo. down to the latest times. when compared with the blessing of . by this privilege. than in the poetry of he was in his poetical character. they are regarded merely as prophets. The prophets understandingly. the times of its the kings. at are not read shadow. Great as was rather a law-giver than a poet. when the priests were silent and the great tyrannical.278 inscriptions preserved a treasure of antiquity. and some of them men of great worldlyIn IsaFi- wisdom. spake in the name of Jehovah. still Were its rude tables of the law still extant. The third means. for the was the privi- lege which he gave and secured to the prophets. and instructive poets. indeed. we should truly possess in most valuable monument of the primeval world. Isaiah and least in This privilege conferred by Moses has given us an Elijah and Elisha. Moses and prophecies of Balaam. successors of Moses. distinguished orators. a Moses. and warning. To their open abominations he opposed a voice. as dreamers. when his prescrip- should be neglected and violated. advising. who. sighted The far- man anticipated even. They were. when all was sunk in sleep. I do not consider Moses as the author of the sayings In them breathes another. an Habakkuk when . applying and reviving his law in times of declension. as the times for tions exercise. Such was the voice of the watchmen. and his last benedictions especially show. and guard itself from danger by the reverence yielded to Moses as the founder of the nation. iah we have more. on which before his death he placed it alphabetick inscriptions.

and survived not the attainment of the end. so the golden while his brother was holding convel-se with God. if between the two brothers. and those neither the boldest nor the most distinguished.! • . for which he journeyed. He a died. Even in the which built the with the Amalekites they were raised only in prayer. where they were teachers. anxiety. upon Mount were a hundred or Car- priests the well-fed servants of Baal. and God himself buried him. and to had unbelief and impatience caused to his place waver. it. preservers of the laws of the nation. only two were priests. I to place before you the soul of Moses. and in a sense the regal class. the effect of old age. in doing. though in suffering. and thou shalt be to him in the place of God !" So it remained always in the relations between priests and prophets. that he did not survive Thus were preserved. The latter is shall " He be thy mouth. severe. What . in his deeds. How few priests. the suc- cessor of Moses. the body. those hands which stretched Red Sea. full of zeal. ever opposed themselves to the corruption ? Under the judges and kings did not corruption ? indeed always begin with them calf. and therefore he came not of rest. unstained with the blood of the the rod over the Ca- naanites. we compare them together. at the mouth of God. mountain summit. even among a people. and meditating his laws. As Aaron made Sinai. done and suffered human powers could do and His eyes might behold it. 279 Jacob. all that He died upon for which he had suffer. Wise it and happy provision for him. was mourning upon Mount Horeb mel. How great is the difference. and a soul tending to the grave. battle sanctuary of God. the former the soul. but his foot not tread upon Even him. which received the law in the clouds. while Elijah. and borne down with even to death. his his last glowing and poetical effusion. overlooking a land. progress of judges. Moses and Aaron. firm as a rock in patience. says the beautiful ti*adition of his people. Among have yet all the prophets.

and them the angel of the countenance of Jehovah. heaven and earth 28. and then of necessity. not one word had yet fallen to the ground. He is a rock. SONG OF MOSES TO THE ASSEMBLED ISRAELITES BEFORE HIS DEATH. in after times to similar didactick poem. 17. with unchanging through have forsaken him.* My My doctrine shall drop as the rain. first They have become ignorant of him. and on the part of God it was enduring as the everlasting rocks. And as the showers upon the grass For I will publish the name of Jehovah . Ascribe ye greatness to Jehovah our God. the fiery and cloudy pillars. which went before Israel. the soul of the piece.\i. Moses vindicates the cause of the Most High. . we that shall enquire in the sequel but in this poem in the images surround you. i| They * ter. Give ear. (v. Hear. to a The whole of this mild introduction style so ardent. only are no longer his children. (v. faithfulness. and become first unlikeness. O earth. are the flam- ing mountain. is undoubtedly genu- ine. the words of my mouth..) and it is. as it were. On Mount Sinai the covenant was made. O ye heavens. 21. is Sincere and righteous he. and shows that of the promises. and he has then rejected them.) to bear witness in the previous chap- as the prophets often did in later times. 37. so frequent in this piece as almost to lose its t The image was undoubtedly taken from Sinai and the rocks of Arabia. Moses (Deut. because a similar one occurs repeatedly. among which Israel had so long wandered.! And all his dealings are right A God of truth. calls xx. without iniquity. to my speech. t The Israelites often complained of the way. figurative character. 280 institutions. of a rock. his descriptions. words shall distil as the dew. in which God led them in the desert. that closes in a in the introduction was frequently imitated works. 30.t his work is perfect. which he had made to them from the time of Abraham. As rain upon the tender herb. no longer his children. — . 31. 15. and his other poems have pro- duced for the voice of poetry.) 11 This somevvhut harsh arrangement of words. but they only God remains their father.

has here the expression. lands. and has therefore the claims both of a master. A faithless Is this and perverse generation. your requital to Jehovah. as Moses here distinctly expresses it. Canaan. t In the sequel is introduced that which it is said the fathers shall Moses goes back to the separation of tribes. the lot '. and in proportion to his numbers will be the space required occasion to too II for the twelve tribes.|I He * found him in a desert Moses at this early period. and carried onward. He limited the bounds of the nations. and they will tell it thee. the meditullium. that Israel was led out of Egypt. under no other guardian God 24* . and the division of countries among them. and of a father. This were.t When the Almighty gave the nations their When he separated the children of men. How truly also is the distinction found in Under Moses he bought him the spirit and the events of the diflerent periods. he that hath bought thee ?* That hath made thee. which the pro- phets often use —that God received Israel in Abraham as a child. to himself out of Egypt as a bond servant. That the numerous Israel . and led them to the hills the fruits and excellencies of which are deccribed. The words have plain. Jacob. redeemed. when the Almighty. The aged men. in assigning their dwellings to all nations. as it left for the twelve tribes. there was no strange Cijd with them. and gave him being as a father. the central point of the earth. as every nation of antiquity held their sanctuary to be. speak on another occasion. That the numbers of Israel might have room For the portion of God is his people. might be land becomes hereby. and unwise ? O foolish people Is he not thy father. pre- pared him as a people for himself.t of his inheritance. them on the shores of the Red Sea. express the fact. land. ? The years from generation to generation. narrower.281 Their iniquity hath turned them from him. and established thee Call to remembrance the ancient days. God found of Bashan. Ask. and yet are very The march of the Israelites through the wilderness. and he will shew thee. The words. as it were. drew their limits. given many fables. of which we t shall is. of his inheritance. thy father. that the line relate.

|| than Jehovah. sense. The first reason was philosophical. He bore him to the mountain heights. The name occurs also in the blessings pronounced by Moses and in Isaiah. There was no strange God with him. Spreads her wings. And The The oil out of the flinty rock. Butter of kine. the third national. I 282 In a waste and howling wilderness . fat of lambs. detail of these fruits and eatables of this poem. Thou didst forsake the God. And And hovers over her young. cient God of their fathers. and their fruits the food of Paradise. * I have departed here from the interpunction of the Hebrews. And lightly esteem the rock of thy salvation. t This word is a title of fondness given to Israel. seems to have no good is more natural sense obvious. and milk of sheep. the good. to whom at Sinai they . like every thing else in of the unborrowed truth After the people had been so long in the desert. takes them thereon. They moved his jealousy with strange gods. too full. and the guardian God. place only when Their idolatry and abominations with Baal-Peor took they had reached the borders of Canaan. too satiate. had placed themselves under new obligations. Then Jeshurunt waxed stout. which runs through most of this piece. the eagle covers her nest around. . bears them aloft upon her wings So did Jehovah lead him. and bread of wheat. himself alone. And fed him with the fruits of the earth He made him to suck honey from the rock. Their Jehovah was for them the alone true. t The distinction again between the choice of Israel as a son in Abraham. be^ cause the phrase.. they were foreign to Israel. and the fat of the kidneys of wheat. Thou wast too fat. hills is proof. Idols were a mere nothing. and of the rams of Bashan.' these must seem an Elysium.* And thou didst drink the blood of the grape. The it.. Here we see the precise. the anII idolatry. in the character of a child. the second moral. He He As took him in his arms and taught him guarded him as the apple of his eye. fat kidneys of goats. the holy. . and rebelled. that made thee. and his purchased deliverance as a servant under Moses. and true conceptions of Moses respecting which were the ground of his legislation. a personification. they were an abomination.

and anterior to the time of Moses. heat. not because their fathers trembled with horGod. as an ancient We how Moses God. for The organization. runs through the whole piece. but because they themselves did before their imaginary gods and demons. With a foolish nation I will provoke their anger. And my I arrows will send upon them. of whom they had no knowledge. They provoked me to anger with their idols I also will move their jealousy with a no-people. formed. And shall It shall burn even deep abyss. This Jehovah saw. what end they They moved me to jealousy with their no-god. was tions. that were newly invented.t For the fire of my wrath to the is kindled. not him the only one . fruits. With * God of his people. the Rock thou wa^t And didst forget the God that formed thee. and of the patriarchs. must therefore be ancient also. no- god. but uncivilized hordes* . 283 They provoked his anger with abominations. For they are a perverse generation. send upon them the teeth of wild beasts. To idols. Consumed with hunger. God. — — forgetful.* Before whom your fathers trembled not. They sacrificed to demons. did not invent then the religion of the patriarchs. To new gods. I will see to will come. Those who were his sons and daughters. but rather altered it and made the child + into a servant. consume the earth and her heap up atflictions I And fire the foundations of the mountains. Children of a base and faithless sort. and of the paTheir notices of him. He see thinks of the triarchs. no-children.. all other nations were to which he him no na- organized states. children.t Of Him that begat thee. " I will turn my face from them. ror before the true is used. no-nation or not-nation. the poison of serpents from the dust. He said. not to God. nation. I will upon them. and burned with Devoured with I will bitter destruction. The expression I The idiomatick form of expression. and cast away in anger. and is entirely in the spirit of the law-giver.

11 view of the melancholy end of as fearfully. that God is here introduced with human feelings of jeal- ousy. is at The day of their calamity is hand.!] cities Jehovah is now * Without and within the t It is and houses. their clusters are bitter. Grapes of gall. with such prophetick anticipations the poet places himself in and how exactly. That they would consider their latter end." For they are a nation void of counsel. which take these lines in a favourable sense. ! How is Is it it. Their grapes from the fields of Gomorrah. is Their juice the poison of dragons.* virgin." the Judge of his people. ? in ray treasures "Vengeance Their foot is is mine and the day of recompense. I not feared the pride of the their oppressors say. Have I not already my secret Sealed and laid up counsel.. as well . " our And And own high not Jehovah hath done this. to understand this. have the context plainly against them. for a That Jehovah hath given them prey ? Else their rock were not like our rock. plain.f And Had That blot out their name among men enemy. 284 The sword shall be without. that one can chase a thousand. Those translations. and the man had almost said. suckling. must life. already melancholy. was the prophecy And the legislator of the nation must himself utter it. fulfilled! close his a fete. I will destroy them. hand. t ? ' And two of them put ten thousand to flight not. speaking against other national gods. The deadly venom of serpents. Their destiny soon coming upon them. that their rock hath forsaken them. and terror within. Our enemies themselves being judges. The curse proceeds and contin- . Their vine is from the vine of Sodom. There is no understanding in them. t At once this people. And The I shall destroy both the young man and of gray hairs. would mistake it.' which only a rock like Moses could have sustained. O that they were wise. even now ready to slide.

And there are no Gods with me. The Gentiles are here summoned. And will reward them that hate me. Rejoice.the living one From eternity to eternity. See now. I am. that their That nothing is left to Which did eat the tat of their sacrifices. in whom they trusted ? seeth. render vengeance to mine enemies. * I can understand these words only as still referring to the Jewish nation. With the head of the chief of my enemy. I am he. If I whet my glittering sword. I am he. that woundeth and healeth. to the It is end of the poem. because the connecting particle Hebrew is wanting before the word people. ye Gentiles. what was meant as a curse. once his children.* blood. I will make mine arrows drunk with My sword The blood of the slain. The blessing first begins in the next chapthus forget the indeed a fearful consideration. The guardian God. on whom he avenges himself. He power is departed. It would seem as if to were wished read as a blessing. He asks them. though the blessing properly follows in a separate chapter. them more. He will avenge the blood of his servants. and yet feel that they are his children. And my hand take I will hold on judgment. even I am he. Lot them now be your protection.. that they are his children. that I. as now the people of God. shall satiate itself with flesh. and takes the Gentiles for his people. And drank the wine of their drink-offerings Let them now rise up and help you. ues ter.t 285 It repents him. And render vengeance to his enemies. in the it The last line is obscure to my mind. where are now their gods. And say. that killeth and maketh alive. now his open enemies. that God must father in the judge. For I lift ? up my hand to heaven. and of the captives. to witness the judgment of . t He rejects them. And none can deliver out of my hand. now his people. And purify his land and people.

" and need not be repeated here. sin. " Letters on the study of Theology. whether in relation to from his people. The nation is cast forth or word we should read and and banished from the land. (I will purifies the land from not decide. is translated in another work.286 God upon Israel. and the last He avenges the blood of his servants upon this people. . The blessing which follows. as well as that of Jacob.) This chapter ends like the last of the prophets.







XVIII. 5-18





146. 157.

p. 162.




XIX. 5—7: p XXIX. 1-10: p


p. 168.





3.9 20-22

p. 161.
p. p.


180. 150.




62. 69.

XIV. XVI. 16-20: XIX. 19-29

p. 171.

4: 5-18;

p. 196.
p. p.



XXV. 2—6: XXVI. 2-14:





p. 214. p. 237.

26. 28






CXLVII. 15-18



174. 164.


p. 113. p.


XXXII. 18-20 XXXIII. 3—6





p. 164. p.



22. 33




8-24 1-11






p. p.



227. 200.


89. 90. 91.

LXIV. 15-17


p. p.

p 143.146.151.
p. 142. 146. p. 143. 155. p. 142. p. 142. p.





p. 100.

p. 100p. 101. p. 105.

XXVIII. 12-19 XLI. 18



XL. 10-19
II. 1. 2.






II. 14.


p. 227.



the voice of his blood crying in the language of Oriental poetry, 194. Abraham compared with Enoch, 178 the reason of his wan-

Abel, his death, 193


— community of Canaan, 223 — denial of wife
his his


and possession



Egypt, 223

ship with God, 223

people, 225

— a symbol —reverence shown

his friend-

of the covenant with his








Alphabetick writing,

probable origin, &c. 255, 26\.
in the most ancient word of God, 62.

Angels, their relation to the Elohim, 56
times, personifications of the

Arabick wisdom, 104. Ass wild, description of, 100.
Babe], explanation of the account


— tower



Behemoth, the hippopotamus, 106.
Belial, king of the shades, 175,

Brutes, poetical description


— give —follow the destiny of man, 197.

77, 99

occasion for

Buffalo, description of, 100.

Canaan, earliest reference to, 221 poetry of, 235 language regardright of the Canaanites to the land, 246 of, 244 ed by the Shemites as a race of slaves, 246 their religion,

— —


Chamois, description

of, 99.

Chaos of

the Greeks


to the Orientals, 66.

Chart, whether the genealogical register of the sons of Noah

was also a geographical Cherubim, 141—161.

chart, 251.

Creation, 59, 62, 88-probable preservation of
the picture of




not of Egyptian origin, 259.

Dead, kingdom of
Deluge, 197, 253.
Eagle, description
Earth, picture of


— 185.
— personified, 88.




creation, 72



Egyptian, imagery in Job, 105

— of the kingdom of the dead,

— facts of


history in the history of Joseph, 248

roglyphics, 259

—Egyptian and


anti-Egyptian, in the


saick laws, 270.

Elegy,See Lamentation.
Elihu, character of his poetry, 85.
Elijah, 150.

Elohim, probable origin of the conception, 55 in Paradise, 132 as beings wiser than men, 136 on the mountains of Jacob's wrestling with the Elohim, 230 the gods, 149


between the traditions with Elohim and those

with Jehovah, 365.

Enoch, 177.


blessed, 234.

Fables, arose from observing the characteristics of brutes,
Fall in Paradise, 130

— a narrative of a real

event, 137


account of


did no* originate in Egyptian hieroglyphics,

Genealogies are the historical records of the Orientals, 249,

God, feeling
simple, 52

of his

presence in nature, 50

him not from

slavish fear,

55 — unity of God and — whether 57 conception, — God of the heavens of importance 61 — king of 58 — word and the 76 — description angels, 62 — sustainer of of God Job, 82 — among the 82~voice of Jehovah, 158 — address Job, 88 — intercourse with

— knowledge



of him





creation, 63, 71,







the patriarchs, 224

effects of faith in

him, 225

— Moses'

conception of God, 270

— breath


163, 165.

Gods, sons of the gods, 175. Grave, origin of the kingdom of the dead, 172
scription of

— Arabick de-



his transgression

and punishment, 220.
it among the Orientals, 68-71Edda compared, 73-parallelism with

Heaven, representation of
those of the Northern
the earth, 58.

Hieroglyphics, their aid

in inti

educing alpbabetick writing,

Horse, description

101-those with the chariot of God,

142-of Elijah, 150.


addressed to objects of nature at variance with the


poetry, 74.

Immortality of the soul, 170-185.
Ishmael, prophecy respecting him, 233.
Israelites, as the people of God, 218. Jacob, his character, 228-wrestles with the Elohim, 229-

prophecy respecting him, 234.

how the book of Job should be read, 81-description God and nature in it, 81-other particulars in relation to
103, 121-description of the


realm of shades, 185-view of

Providence,-208-represeutations of Job, 237-242.
Joseph, history


Knowledge of good and


formation, 259

Langua'^e, poetical, 27


— Oriental,

— 42— Northern


diversities, 263.

and Southern,


Language, Hebrew, common mode of learning
tions to



28-its defence, 27-37-parailelism, 39-not whol-

without vowels, 44-grammatical form, 45-right

mode of


45-not the same with that of the Canaanites,

244-not the most ancient language, 261.



song on the invention of the sword, 265,

Lamentation over the king of Tyre, 155-Job's over human

162-that there


no return from the grave, 17167-its dwelling place, 90.

Isaiah's over the king of Babylon, 206.

Light, Oiiental notions of


Lion, description of




his origin,

161-his destiny,

lG2-his strength, 163-an
to regard every thing in a

image of God, 167-should learn
moral view, 197.

Moon, personification of it, Morning dawn, 47-first and
48-personification of


natural image of the creation,

67-of the morning

68, 89.

Moses, neither the author nor translator of Job, 108-his poetry,



concerned in forming the genealogies,

251-lifeand character, 268-other particulars, 270.

Mount of

the gods in the North, 145.

significant of the patriarchs,

254-occasion of alpha-

betick writing, 256.

Night, ancient night of the Orientals, 65.

Nimrod, 203.

Noah, 199-his cursing of Ham, 220-why he also cursed Canaan, 221-his drunkenness, 222.
Orion, 91.
Ostrich, description of


Paradise, 122-130-preservation of


268-not from

an Egyptian hieroglyphick, 259.

38-42-of the heavens and the

earth, 60.

how regarded


poetry, 227-their faults,

228-blessings pronounced by them, 233-back to Abraham,

249-to the

249-before the

flood, 254.

Personification in


poetiy, 93-of brutes,

99-of the

realm of shades, 174-of
Plants in

sin, 196.


poetry, 73.

Phoenicians, 244,
Poetry, should render


refined, not

savage, 127-relation




God, 169.

Poetry, of nature,

among the Orientals, 72-iti Job, 83, 93Hebrews in relation to the covenant with God, 226of Canaan, 235-what is poetry in Genesis, 264.
of the

Polytheism of the East, 55-

Prophets imitate each other,

10-rights given

them by Mo*


Providence, 191-210.

Rain, representations of


69, 86, 91.

Rainbow, 200.


preceded the Saracens in Europe, 42,

Salt pillar, 264.

Satan, conception of in Job, 111.

Sea, 89.


in paradise, 132, 134,

Shemites, their language, 244-right to Canaan, 246-religion




Sin, personified, 196.

Snow, 61, 86. Sodom, 307.
Spirit, 66.

Stars, personified, 66, 76, 88.

Sun, not celebrated in hymns by the Hebrews, 74-personified,

Thunder, 86, 146, 157,


Tree of knowledge, 128-130-of
Uz, 103.


Wisdom, Oriental representations of
World, 59, 91,


136, 212, 214,


ERRATUM. should be arranged with the prose. Page 99. . 9th line from the bottom.


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