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INTERNET AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Introduction History of Internet Client Server System History of World Wide Web URL Internet Addressing Web Browser Connecting to the Internet Applic tions of Internet !m il " iling List #ews group $ile %r nsfer &rotocol %elnet Internet %elephony 'ideo Conferencing !(Commerce )nline Shopping !(" r*eting !(Advertisement !(Customer Rel tionship " n gement !(& yment !(W llet

INTRODUCTION Internet is networ* of networ*s th t connect computers ll over the world+ It is collection of government, c demic, commerci l, individu l, nd other sites+ %he Internet mi-es computing nd communic tion technologies HISTORY OF INTERNET In ./0/ the dep rtment of defense 12)23 USA cre ted sm ll networ* of four computers c lled AR&A#!% 1Adv nced Rese rch Pro4ects Administr tion Networ*3+ %his networ* w s set up for the milit ry purpose+ %he prim ry go l of AR&A#!% w s to llow multiple users to send nd receive inform tion simult neously over the s me communic tion p th +%he networ* oper ted with using %C&+ techni5ue c lled p c*et switching

%he AR&A#!% w s successful nd m ny universities 4oined the networ*+ %his AR&A#!% w s divided into two p rts "IL#!% nd AR&A#!%+ "IL#!% w s used for milit ry rel ted sites nd AR&A#!% for non(milit ry sites+ %hese two networ*s were connected together by using I& Internet &rotocol+ %he combined set of protocol is c lled %C&6I&+ 2uring the ./789s networ*s li*e the BI%#!% nd the US!#!% c me into being+ Around ./:89s #S$#!% 1N tion l Science Found tion Networ*3 w s cre ted+ %his growing web w s the birth of the Internet+ FEATURES OF INTERNET It llows sh ring of inform tion glob lly+ Se rch engines c n be used to find inform tion on ny topic+ !(m il services en ble to communic te with other users+ Ch t f cility helps to inter ct with other users+ &ermits l unching of one9s own web site+ It provides pl tform to dvertise nd m r*et products+ Sever l dist nce educ tion courses re v il ble )nline shopping en bles customers to purch se products from nywhere BBS #ews Services re v il ble )rg ni; tions c n collect nd compile inform tion from their offices

nytime in the world, nd p y through credit c rd or debit c rd+

spre d over huge geogr phic l re + Sh rew re softw re c n be downlo ded+

CLIENT SERVER SYSTEM ! ch computer on the Internet is c lled the host computer+ " ny of the host computer on the internet offer services to other computers on the Internet+ Computer which provides services for other computers is c lled server+ %he server computer runs

server softw re to provide services for other computers+ A host computer c n run more th n one server progr m+ A host computer m y run m il servers, web server, $%& server, IRC server, etc+ " il severs 1S"%& server nd &)& server3 h ndles incoming nd outgoing m il+ Web server stores web sites+ $%& severs stores files+ IRC server helps to converse with other users+ &rogr ms, which re5uest services to server, re c lled clients+ " il clients receive mess ges from, send mess ges to converse with other users+ HISTORY OF World Wide Web %he WWW is series of servers ll over the world th t cont ins millions of p ges of inform tion+%im Berners Lee of C!R# 1the !urope n )rg ni; tion for #ucle r Rese rch3 developed the World Wide Web nd sever l communic tion protocols+ %he World Wide Web is distributed system of interlin*ed p ges th t include te-t, picture, sound nd other inform tion+ In )ct .//<,%I" B!R#!RS L!! founded n org ni; tion c lled the World Wide Web C)#S)R%IU" 1W=C3+ %he W=C is st nd rdi; tion org ni; tion+ Web technologies st nd rdi;ed by the W=C re c lled Recommend tions 1e+g+ H%"L3+ %he three prim ry hosts of the W=C re "I% 1" ss chusetts Institute of %echnology3, %he !urope n Rese rch Consortium for Inform tion nd " them tics 1!RCI"3 nd >eio University in ? p n+ UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL) ! ch web p ge h s uni5ue ddress c lled Uniform Resource Loc tor+ Web file from the computer on which it resides+ server+ Web client9s re5uests file from the web+ $%& IRC client re5uests IRC server to client re5uests for file tr nsfer between computers+

browsers utili;e the URL to retrieve Usu lly, form t of URL consists of 0 p rts

&rotocol, server 1dom in3, p th @ filen me e+g+ httpA66www+-y;+com6tutor6st r6m in+html &rotocolA http World Wide WebA www 2om in n meA -y;

2om in typeA C)" & thA tutor6st r6 $ilen meA m in+html Although most ddresses include www, web p ge c n reside on the p rt of the

Internet th t is not found on www+ Http is the w y web server @ clients communic te over the networ*+ 2om in n me is uni5ue nd c se sensitive n me+ & th specifies the hier rchic l loc tion of the file computer+ 2om in type ( type of org ni; tion or country to which host belongs+ Http URL represents document v il ble from the www server+ $tp URL represents the Internet file tr nsfer protocol service %elnet URL llows remotely logging into screen @ *eybo rding s computer system nd using your loc l termin l+ It h s only the service n me @ hostn me v stly distributed

telnetA66hostn me" il to ddressA m ilto ddress represents Internet em il service #ews URLA %his represents the Usenet news service+ Usenet is bulletin bo rd service org ni;ed into thous nds of speci l Internet sub re s+ newsAnews server

INTERNET ADDRESSING !very computer th t is on the Internet h s its own uni5ue ddress+ !very person who w nts to use the Internet h s his6her own ddress 1e+g+ em il id3 All the Internet ddresses follows the s me form User !"e # do"!i ! ch person h s dom in must be uni5ue+ ! ch p rt of dom in is c lled the sub dom in+ %he sub dom ins re sep r ted by periods+ %he n me is constructed so th t e ch sub dom in tells something bout the computer+ %he rightmost sub dom in is c lled the top(level dom in+ user n me c lled !"e user I2+ %he first p rt of the ddress is the

user I2+ %he user id itself is not necess rily be uni5ue, combin tion of user Id nd

To$ le%el Do"!i %he w y to underst nd n ddress is to re d from right to left+ In gener l there re two types of top level dom ins )rg ni; tion l dom ins Beogr phic l dom ins+

)rg ni; tion l dom ins re b sed on n ddressing scheme developed before the d ys of intern tion l networ*s+ Do"!i ' Com ' edu ' int Me! i & commerci l org ni; tion educ tion l Institution intern tion l )rg ni; tion milit ry networ*ing org ni; tion non profit org ni; tion

+mil
+ net + org

)nce the Internet e-p nded intern tion lly new more specific top level dom ins bec me necess ry+ %o meet this need new system of dom in w s developed in which two letter bbrevi tions represents n entire country+ %here re m ny such top(level dom ins one for every country on the Internet+ Do"!i + t + u +c + ch +de +d* + es + fr + gr +ie + 4p Me! i & Austri Austr li C n d Swit;erl nd 1Confoeder tio Helvetic 3 Berm ny1 2eutschl nd3 2enm r* Sp in 1!sp rn 3 $r nce Breece Republic of Irel nd ? p n

+ n; + u* + us

#ew Ce l nd United >ingdom 1!ngl nd, Scotl nd, W les, #orthern Irel nd3 United St tes+

IP Address ! d DNS %he dom in ddress is converted into number intern lly+ %he p rt of the Internet th t *eeps tr c* of ddresses is c lled the 2#S 2om in # me System+ 2#S is service c lled upon to tr nsl te dom in n mes to nd from I& ddresses+ I& ddresses re in the form t --- + --- + ---+ + --- where e ch --- is c lled octets+ %his form t is *nown s dotted decim l not tion+ ! ch I& ddress is divided into two p rts th t defines the networ* I2 nd host I2+ ! ch nd every networ* h s its own uni5ue networ* I2+ %he networ* I2 is used to identify the system9s th t re loc ted on the s me physic l networ*+ All the systems on networ* must h ve the s me networ* I2+ %he host I2 identifies the host within networ*+ Host I2 is uni5ue within networ*+ Address cl sses( the ddress cl ss defines the bits for the networ* I2 nd the host I2+ It lso defines the number of networ*s nd the number of host th t c n be dded to the networ*+ Address (l!sses( the ddress cl ss defines the bits for the networ* I2 nd the host I2+ It lso defines the number of networ*s nd the number of host th t c n be dded to the networ*+ %here re E ddress cl sses+ Cl ss A ddress cl ssA In cl ss A ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor*I2+HostI2+HostI2+HostI2 %he first octet represents the networ* I2+ In the networ* I2 of cl ss A ddress, the high order bit in bin ry form t is lw ys set to 8+ %he ne-t seven bits complete the networ* I2+ %he rem ining D< bits in the l st = octets represent the host I2+ %here c n be m -imum of .D0 networ*s nd ppro-im tely .7 million hosts6networ*+ Cl ss B ddress cl ssA In cl ss B ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor* I2+#etwor*I2+HostI2+HostI2 %he first D octets represent the networ*I2+ In the networ*I2 of cl ss B ddress, the two high order bits in bin ry form t re lw ys set to .8+ %he ne-t .< bits in the first D octets completes the networ* I2+ %he .0 bits rem ining in the l st two octets represent the hostI2+ %here c n be m -imum of .0,=:< networ*s nd ppro-im tely 0E888 host6networ*+ Cl ss C ddress cl ssA In cl ss C ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor*I2+#etwor*I2+#etwor*Id+HostI2 number from 8 to DEE+ ! ch I& ddress is =D bits in length nd is composed of four :(bit fields %C&6I&

%he first = octets represent the networ*I2+ In the networ* I2 of cl ss C ddress, the = high order bits in bin ry form t re lw ys set to ..8+ %he ne-t D. bits in the first = octets completes the networ* I2+ %he : bits rem ining in the l st octet represent the host I2+ %here c n be m -imum of D million networ*s nd DE< hosts6networ* in cl ss C ddress cl ss+

Cl ss 2 Address cl ssA Cl ss 2 ddress cl ss is used for multic sting for number of hosts in the networ*+ )nly the hosts th t re registered for the multic st ddress ccept the p c*et d t + %he four high order bits re lw ys set to bin ry ...8+ Cl ss ! is reserved for future use+ %he high order bits in cl ss ! re set to bin ry nil+

WE) )ROWSER Web browser is progr m th t communic tes with web servers on the Internet+ It llows users to ccess the web9s content+ %he web browsers inter ct with web, the oper ting system nd other plug ins+ 1plugins re progr ms th t c n be plugged into web browser to dd multimedi c p bilities to it3+ E*!"$le "o;ill $irefo-( "o;ill $ound tion( Lynu- )S S f ri( Apple Computers ( "AC )S 1m cintosh3 Internet !-plorer 0 ("icrosoft( Windows F& Internet !-plorer :( "icrosoft( 'ist )S )per WE) LANGUAGES $or the communic tion between the client system nd sever system, there must be well defined set of l ngu ges nd protocols th t re independent of the h rdw re or oper ting system+ %hey re HTML %he hyperte-t " r*up L ngu ge is the univers l l ngu ge of the web+ It is used to design st tic web p ge+ +AVA ? v is progr mming l ngu ge developed by Sun "icrosystems th t c n be used to cre te pplets or progr ms th t e-ecute within web p ge+ +!%!S(ri$, ? v Script is the first web scripting l ngu ge origin lly c lled Live Script introduced in #etsc pe # vig tor D+8 in .//E+ Web scripting l ngu ges combine scripting with H%"L to cre te inter ctive web p ges+ ? v Script is llows to l ngu ge

for e-tending H%"L to embed sm ll progr ms c lled scripts in web p ges+ Applets nd scripts speed up the inter ctivity of web p ges+

V) S(ri$, 'B Script w s developed to use either s Inform tion server+ CGI - se%er side s(ri$,i & Common B tew y Interf ce is specific tion th t llow progr ms to run on web servers+ CBI scripts c n be written using &erl, C or 'B+ CBI e-ecutes on the server+ 1? v Script pplic tions e-ecute on the client web browser+3+ %he dis dv nt ge of CBI is the d t must be sent to the web server nd b c*, response time m y be slow+ CBI c n re d nd write files on the server+ PHP . S(ri$,i & l! &/!&e Cold$usion ( t g b sed server side technology c n be used to build powerful d t b se( client side scripting l ngu ge for

"icrosoft Internet !-plorer or s server side scripting l ngu ge for "icrosoft Internet

intensive web pplic tions+ &ython( )b4ect )riented Scripting L ngu ge ASP'Ne, It is one of the technologies th t comprise the "icrosoft +#!% fr mewor*s+ It is server side technology for cre ting dyn mic web p ge+ It lso gives full server side ob4ect oriented function lity+

CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET %o connect the Internet the user needs to h ve the following components .+ Tele$0o e li e is to nother+ D+ Mode" or Ne,1or2 (!rd medium through which the d t is tr nsferred from one computer

#etwor* c rd lso c lled

#etwor* Interf ce C rd #IC is h rdw re th t llows

computer to connect to the Internet through networ* or high speed Internet connection such s LA#, c ble modem or 2igit l Subscriber line 12SL3 =+ I ,er e, Ser%i(e Pro%ider (ISP Co e(,io 3

%o ccess Internet the user should register with n IS& nd get n I& ccount, IS&s re comp nies th t llow the users to get connected to the Internet for n mount+ World net, Americ online 1www+ ol+com3, "icrosoft networ* 1www+msn+com3, #et ;ero 1www+net;ero+net3 re some of the popul r IS&Gs+ <+ Web bro1ser so3,1!re Internet ccess comes in online+ B ndwidth nd cost re two consider tions when deciding which commerci l IS& service to use+ B ndwidth refers to the mount of d t th t c n be tr nsferred through communic tion "edium in fi-ed mount of time+ 2ifferent IS&s offer different types of high speed connection, c lled bro db nd connection, which include 2SL 12igit l Subscriber Line3, c ble modem, integr ted service digit l networ* 1IS2#3 nd slower di l up connection e ch of which h s different b ndwidth nd cost+ DSL 2SL is bro db nd services th t llow computers to be connected to ll times to the Internet over e-isting phone lines, without interfering with telephone services+ 2SL re5uires speci l modem provided by the IS&+ ADSL ADSL /ses n upgr ded phone line, ll digit l technology nd support simult neous Internet processing nd phone use+ A2SL is optimi;ed for the w y m ny people use the internet( more downlo ds th n uplo d+ %he line is symmetric, bec use it h s more c p city for d t received by your computer 1such s gr phics, video, udio nd softw re upgr des3 th n for d t th t you send 1such s em il nd browser comm nds3+ A2SL is one of f mily of 2SL products+ v riety of connection choices nd ccount types nd

this depends on who provides the service nd wh t h rdw re nd softw re you use to get

C!ble Mode"s %r nsmit the d t over the c bles th t bring television to homes business+ " ny users sh re the b ndwidth+ %his sh ring c n reduce the b ndwidth v il ble to e ch person when m ny use the system simult neously+ ISDN IS2# is v il ble from ll loc l telephone comp nies+ 1Integr ted Service 2igit l #etwor*3 provides Internet service over either digit l or st nd rd telephone lines+ IS2# re5uires speci li;ed h rdw re c lled termin l d pter 1%A3+ IS2# is n upgr ded phone line th t c n be used for f ster Internet ccess nd for regul r voice c lls+ Using one line you c n t l* on the phone while you re surfing the web+ IS2# is ll digit l, which me ns th t does not h ve to be converted to n n log sign l+ Di!l/$ Co e(,io modem nd phone line to di l into 1&oint to &oint

2i lup service uses

&rotocol3 &&& ccount on n Internet providers computer+ "ost IS&s support modems t speed of .<+< *bps, D:+: *bps, nd E0 *bps+ Hou connect only when you w nt to use Internet services nd disconnect 1h ng up3 when you re done+ If computer is connected to the Internet, the user usu lly c nnot receive voice c lls during this time+ If the voice c lls do not connect, the Internet connection is interrupted+ %o prevent this users often inst ll n e-tr phone line dedic ted to Internet service+ DSS 2igit l S tellite Systems or direct Bro dc st s tellite get Internet inform tion by s tellite+ We receive d t from the Internet t high speed vi s tellite+ But to send d t to the Internet you need di lup connection nd n IS&+ Web TV We c n ccess the Internet by using your %'+ %o use web %' we need receiver th t connects both %' nd to nd receive d t + Wireless I ,er e, A((ess ( re5uires tt ching c5uire s tellite ccess s tellite dish is needed+ speci l r dio modem to the l ptop+ %o %' phone line+ We c n both use %' screen s

monitor nd remote control to browse the web+ With the option l *eybo rd you c n send

Se!r(0i & ,0e I ,er e, A se rch engine is words or Internet+ d t pplic tion th t retrieves the inform tion b sed on phr se th t you enter+ " ny web sites provide se rch engines th t e-plore the

SEARCHING USING SEARCH ENGINES Se rch engines such s Boogle 1www+google+com3, y hooI 1www+y hoo+com3 ll the web 1www+ lltheweb+com3, Alt vist 1www+ lt vist +com3 nd Lycos 1www+lycos+com3 store inform tion in d t repositories c lled d t b ses th t f cilit te 5uic* inform tion retriev l+ SEARCHING THE SEARCH ENGINES Using multiple se rch engines m y provide the best results in finding the desired content 5uic*ly+ Sites such s "S# 1www+msn+com3 nd met cr wler 1www+met cr wler+com3 use met se rch engines, which do not m int in the d t b ses+ Inste d, they send the se rch criteri to other se rch engines nd ggreg te the results+ A$$li(!,io s o3 I ,er e, %here re v rious pplic tions v il ble in Internet+ %hey re !(" il, 'ideo Conferencing etc+, E.M!il !m il llows the user to send d t in the form of te-t, pictures, sound nd video to remote computer on the Internet+ %hese !m il services re cre ted by comp nies on specific web services nd c n be ccessed by nyone nywhere in the world t nytime+ Some of the f mili r servers th t offer free !m il services on the Internet re y hoo, Rediff nd hot m il etc+ %here re three things th t you must h ve to send nd receive em il+ %hese include 1 3 n internet em il ccount, 1b3 A connection to the Internet nd 1c3 A softw re pplic tion th t h ndles em il 1c lled client3 1ci3

E."!il !((o/ , ("!il id) Hour em il Service &rovider ssigns you your e(m il ddress+ It is the ddress th t will uni5uely identify you on the Internet+ Internet e(m il ddress ll loo* li*e user n me J dom in+com+ %he first p rt of the ddress is the user n me+ It is em il service providerGs computer+ 1# me of the server computer3 S,e$s ,o (re!,e ! e"!il.!((o/ , .+ System must h ve net connection D+ Choose web browser by clic*ing its icon 1eg+ "o;ill firefo-, Internet !-plorer3
=+

n me th t you

choose or th t your em il service provider ssigns you+ %he dom in is the n me of your

%ype URL of the e(m il service provider on the ddress b r of the browser e-A www+gm il+com, www+y hoom il+com , etc+,

<+ Clic* cre te n ccount E+ %he pplic tion progr m prompts the user to enter $irst n me L st n me Login n me & ssword Security 5uestion 0+ Clic* on I ccept , greeing to the terms nd service provided by the service 7+ %his will cre te m il id for the user+

%o send e(m il to someone, you must *now the recipients Internet K e(m il ddress+ Re(ei%i & I (o"i & Mess!&es 2epending upon the type of connection th t you h ve, you m y downlo d e(m il from the m il server to your computer or you m y re d your e(m il while it is v il ble on the m il server+ " il server receives nd store em il mess ges in m il bo-es by using c lled &ost )ffice &rotocol or &)&=+ %o re d your em il you need n em il pplic tion lso c lled en bles you to re d it+ Se di & A,,!(0"e ,s m il client or pop client such s outloo* or !udor + A m il server collects your em il @ your m il client protocol

%o send

file by em il, you cre te

mess ge to which you c n tt ch the file ddress menu comm nd or by clic*ing toolb r

the mess ge s usu l nd type

sub4ect+ Hou c n lso type te-t in the body of the

mess ge+ %hen tt ch the file by choosing

button 1depending on which em il progr m you use3+ Some em il pplic tions support dr gging @ dropping the file th t you w nt to tt ch K dr g it from windows e-plorer or folder window to the open mess ge+

Re(ei%i & A,,!(0"e ,s 2ifferent em il pplic tions h ndle tt chments differently+ Hou need to open the mess ge nd then open or s ve the tt chment before you c n do nything else with it+ When you delete mess ge with n tt chment stored with it you lso m y delete the tt chment+ %o be ble to use the tt chment l tter, you need to s ve the tt chment+ )ther pplic tions utom tic lly s ve the tt chment to s ved, without h ving need to open the mess ge folder th t you specify+

Such pplic tions llow you to open the tt chments right from the folder where it is

MAILING LIST " iling list is collection of n mes nd ddresses used by n individu l or n list, so the group of subscribers is referred to s Lthe org ni; tion to send m teri l to multiple recipients+ %he term is often e-tended to include the people subscribed to such m iling listL, or simply Lthe listL+ T4$es o3 "!ili & lis,s Announcement list is used prim rily s one(w y conduct of inform tion nd c n only be Lposted toL by selected people+ %his m y lso be referred to by the term newsletter+ Dis(/ssio lis,5 )n discussion list, subscriber uses the m iling list to send mess ges to ll the other subscribers, who m y nswer in simil r f shion+ %hus, ctu l discussion nd inform tion e-ch nges c n h ppen+ " iling lists of this type re usu lly topic(oriented 1for e- mple, politics, nd scientific discussion, 4o*e contests3+

Some m iling lists re open to nyone who w nts to 4oin them, while others re5uire n pprov l from the list owner before one c n 4oin+ ?oining c lled LsubscribingL nd le ving list is c lled LunsubscribingL+ m iling list is

#!WS BR)U&
A Usenet newsgroup is repository usu lly within the Usenet system, for mess ges posted from m ny users in different loc tions+ #ewsgroups re technic lly distinct from, but function lly simil r to, discussion forums on the World Wide Web+ #ewsre der softw re is used to re d newsgroups+ %ypic lly, the newsgroup is focused on newsgroups llow the posting of mess ges on p rticul r topic of interest+ Some wide v riety of themes, reg rding

nything member chooses to discuss s on(topic, while others *eep more strictly to their p rticul r sub4ect+ %he news dmin 1the dministr tor of news server3 decides how long rticles re *ept on his server before being e-pired 1deleted3+ 2ifferent servers will h ve different retention times for the s me newsgroupM some m y *eep rticles for s little s one or two wee*s, others m y hold them for m ny 8months+ Some dmins *eep rticles in loc l or technic l newsgroups round longer th n rticles in other newsgroups+ %here re currently well over .88,888 Usenet newsgroups, but only D8,888 or so of those re ctive+ #ewsgroups v ry in popul rity, with some newsgroups only getting few posts month while others get sever l hundred 1 nd in few c ses couple of thous nd3 mess ges d y+ A web site c lled 2e4 #ews beg n rchiving Usenet in the mid(.//8s+ 2e4 #ews lso provided se rch ble web interf ce+ Boogle bought the rchive from them complete rchive of nd m de efforts to buy other Usenet rchives to ttempt to cre te

Usenet newsgroups nd postings from its e rly beginnings+ Li*e 2e4 #ews, Boogle h s web se rch interf ce to the rchive, but Boogle lso llows newsgroup posting+ #on(Usenet newsgroups re possible nd do occur, s priv te individu ls or org ni; tions set up their own nntp servers+ !- mples include the newsgroups "icrosoft runs to llow peer(to(peer support of their products nd those t newsA66news+grc+com+ How newsgroups wor*

' rious org ni; tions nd institutions host newsgroup servers+ "ost Internet service providers host their own news servers, or rent ccess to one, for their subscribers+ %here re lso number of comp nies who sell ccess to premium news servers+ !very host of news server m int ins greements with other news servers to

regul rly synchroni;e+ In this w y news servers form networ*+ When user posts to one news server, the mess ge is stored loc lly+ %h t server then sh res the mess ge with the servers th t re connected to it if both c rry the newsgroup, nd from those servers to servers th t they re connected to, nd so on+

FTP (3ile ,r! s3er $ro,o(ol) $ile tr nsfer protocol is n Internet tool for uplo ding nd downlo ding files between computers+ A file tr nsfer must t *e pl ce between the client+ $%& client softw re c n be client nd server+ When $%& servers receives file re5uest from n $%& client, it sends copy of th t file b c* to sep r te st nd lone progr m+ $%& client c p bility is incorpor ted into web browsers or provided s p rt of oper ting system+ Some files on $%& servers m y be ccessible to the gener l public, while others re ccessible only by priv te users such s customers or members of the org ni; tion th t runs the server+ A $%& site begin with ftpA66+ etc + $%& sites consist of files with inform tion on boo*s, music, softw re, g mes, im ges, sounds, multimedi , coursew re

INSTANT MESSAGING
It llows two or more users to e-ch nge te-t, im ge, nd udio mess ges in re l time, provided th t the users h ve comp tible mess ging services+ Communic ting by I" is lso c lled (0!,,i &' I" clients th t f cilit te connections between specified *nown users 1often using LBuddy ListL, L$riend ListL or LCont ct ListL3, where s online 9ch t9 lso includes web( b sed pplic tions th t llow communic tion between 1often nonymous3 users in multi(user environment+ Inst nt mess ging includes ddition l fe tures+ $or e- mple, users c n see e ch other by using web c mer s, or t l* directly for free over the Internet using microphone

nd he dphones or loudspe *ers+ " ny client progr ms llow file tr nsfers s well, lthough they re typic lly limited in the permissible file(si;e+

TELNET 1Telecommunic tion nd Ne,wor*3 %he telnet client computer runs client pplic tion, which the user c n inter ct with nother m chine 1telnet server3 which runs telnet server pplic tion+ %he users c n login to the remote computer nd give comm nds s if it is loc l computer+ %C&6I& is used for tr nsmission of inform tion between telnet client nd telnet server+ %elnet does not h ve file tr nsfer c p bility+ %elnet c n be used to edit files, ccess inform tion, run progr ms nd edit files using telnet comm nds+

INTERNET TELEPHONY Internet is used s web browsers+ tr nsmission medium for telephone c lls+ Cool % l* nd

#et"eeting re telephony pplic tions+ %he telephony pplic tions re integr ted with 'oice )ver Internet &rotocol 1')I&3 helps in tr nsmission of nd softw re+ %he inform tion+ Internet %elephony re5uires speci li;ed h rdw re telephones6 udio(e5uipped person l computers3

re5uired h rdw re for Internet telephony gener lly consists of end devices 1tr dition l nd g te*eepers th t provide c ll dmission control, b ndwidth m n gement, ddress tr nsl tion

VIDEO CONFERENCING 'ideo technology uses the s me technology s IRC, but lso provides sound nd video pictures+ It en bles direct, f ce(to(f ce communic tion cross networ*s+ A video conferencing system h s two or more p rties in different loc tions, which h ve the bility to communic te using combin tion of video, udio nd d t + A videoconference c n be person to person 1referred to s point(to(point3 or c n involve more th n two people 1referred to s multipoint3 nd the video conferencing termin ls re often referred to s endpoints+

In this form of meeting, p rticip nts in remote loc tions c n view e ch other nd c rry on discussion vi web c mer s, microphones nd other communic tion tools+ %he following five elements re common to ll video conferencing endpointsA
.+ D+

C!"er!5 %he c mer c ptures live im ges to send cross the networ*+ Vis/!l Dis$l!4A It displ ys the im ges of the people t *ing p rt in the videoconference+ A/dio S4s,e"A It includes both microphones to c pture udio from the endpoint nd loudspe *ers to pl y b c* the udio received from other endpoints cross the networ* connection+

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Co"$ressio 5 'ideos re very b ndwidth(intensive nd they t *e

long time to

lo d+ %herefore, video systems include technologies, often referred to s codecs, to compress nd decompress video nd udio d t , llowing tr nsmission cross networ* connection in ne r(re l time+
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User I ,er3!(e ! d Co ,rol S4s,e"5 %he user interf ce llows the users to control inter ctions, for e- mple, pl cing c lls, storing nd loc ting numbers nd d4ust environment settings such s volume+ %he control system h ndles the underlying communic tion th t t *es pl ce between endpoints+

Co""er(e ,0ro/&0 I ,er e,5 E.Co""er(e !(commerce refers to buying nd selling goods nd service online+ It integr tes communic tion, d t m n gement nd security c p bilities, which llow org ni; tions to e-ch nge inform tion bout the s les of goods nd services+ O li e S0o$$i & )nline shopping is shopping through Internet+ %here re few online shopping methods b sed on contr ct, consumption nd p yment+ Consumers p y online nd consume online 1eg+ online g ming softw res, music3 Consume online nd p y offline 1eg+ m trimoni l ds3 Cont ct nd p y online nd consume offline 1eg+ %r vel, boo*s, clothes nd electronic goods3

)nline shopping en bles customers to purch se product from nywhere nytime in the world+ )nline shopping llows consumers to ch t live online with service gent 1customer support represent tive3 when they h ve 5ueries while shopping on the Internet+ )nline shoppers gener lly use Credit c rds+ )nline businesses en ble users to cre te ccounts nd p y by ltern tive me ns such s debit c rd, che5ue, post l money order nd money boo*ers to m *e p yments+

E.M!r2e,i &

!(" r*eting is the process of conducting m r*eting ctivities nd chieving m r*eting ob4ectives through electronic medium+ !(" r*eting involves the use of online networ*s, computer communic tion nd digit l inter ctive medi to the m r*eting ob4ectives of the org ni; tion+ Business org ni; tions dopt m r*eting t ctics li*e em il, b nner ds, referr ls nd video ds to ttr ct nt ret in customers+ eg+ www+# u*ri+com " r*et segment tion is essenti l for loc ting, comp ring nd utili;ing m r*eting opportunities+ A m r*et segment consist of buyer groups with simil r w nts+ B sed on m r*eting segment tion, m r*eting progr mmes " r*et segment tion helps nd pl ns c n be fr med effectively+ m r*eter to *now beforeh nd the *ind of products or

services th t c n be sold on Internet nd to whom the products c n be sold+ A m r*et c n be segmented into three c tegories+ Beogr phic segment tion divides the m r*et into different geogr phic units such s n tion, st te nd cities, etc+ 2emogr phic segment tion is b sed on demogr phic ch r cteristics such s se-, ge, m rit l st tus, educ tion, income, etc+ &sychogr phic segment tion Buyers re divided into v rious groups b sed on soci l cl ss, lifestyle nd person lity ch r cteristics+

E.M!r2e,i & Mi* " r*eting mi- decisions helps in implementing effective m r*eting m n gement+ %he following four elements constitute m r*eting mi.+ D+ =+ <+ !(product or service !(price !(pl ce !(promotion

%hese elements re combined to chieve m r*eting ob4ectives such s incre se in profit incre se in s les volume reduction in promotion cost

E.$rod/(, Bood profit c n be chieved only when the product is s tisf ctory+ %he m r*eters must provide complete inform tion bout product or service+ E.$ri(e %he price set by m r*eters should ttr ct the customers nd should cover the cost nd gener te revenues to the org ni; tion+ E.$l!(e Cert in goods re directly delivered to the customers through online 1eg+ music, softw re3+ If E.$ro"o,io &romotion is the method dopted by the " r*eter to inform nd persu de buyers to ccept or recommend the product+ MAR6ETING STRATEGIES $ollowing re the m r*eting str tegies th t c n be opted by Business org ni; tion to ttr ct nd ret in customers .+ E."!il "!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 Business org ni; tions dvertise their products or services through em il+ D+A33ili!,e M!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 business org nis tion del y in delivery, the site m y not ttr ct customers for future tr ns ctions+

Low budget web sites use ffili te m r*eting str tegy to gener te revenues+ Affili te9s firm web site lin*ed to nother org ni; tions web site, which offers the product for s le+ " r*eters p y ffili tes to forw rd customers to their web sites+ =+ Vir!l M!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 %he customer informs other persons bout the products nd service of org ni; tion+ 7' )r! d Le%er!&i & s,r!,e&4 An org ni; tion lever ges its domin nt position by dding more fe tures to the web site SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMI8ATION When customer chec*s through the se rch engine loo*ing out for product or service, m r*eters w nt their comp ny9s web site to ppe r mong the top .8 returned listings+ %he method of h ving p rticul r URL listed ne r the top of sever l engine results is c lled se rch engine optimi; tion+ business

S,e$s i %ol%ed i 3or"/l!,i & ! e."!r2e,i & $l! Access the m r*et opportunities, Identify the t rget udience Set the m r*et ob4ectives+ 2evelop nd implement the m r*eting mi$ocus on m r*et str tegies Control the m r*eting pl ns Customer s tisf ction nd m r*et results+

E. ADVERTISING Advertising on the Internet is c lled online dvertising or e( dvertising For"!, o3 !d%er,isi & o 1eb+
.+

)!

er !d( %he b nner cont ins

short te-t or gr phics to promote

product or

service+ %he b nner d is n ob4ect on the web p ge+ It provides dvertiser9s web site+

hyperlin* to the

D+

Po$/$ !d( &opup d ppe rs in its own window, when the user opens or closes web p ge+

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I ,ers,i,i!l !d( Interstiti l d opens in one9s own browser window when the user clic*s lin* to new web p ge+ %he d ppe rs for few moments nd close utom tic lly before the intended web p ge gets lo ded+

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Co/$o s. Cert in comp nies provide discount coupons to their members which they c n print nd use for both online nd offline ret iners+ When customer clic*s on cert in coupons m r*eter gets to *now the type of products the customer is interested+

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Re1!rd $ro&r!"s+ When consumers purch se product on Internet they get rew rd points+ )nce the rew rd points get ccumul ted it is used for the purch se of products in future+

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P!4 $er !d%er,isi & %ie1 ( comp nies p y customer to view their dvertisement )! er s1!$$i &( It involves direct e-ch nge of lin*s between web sites+

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Comp ny A m y gree to displ y b nner of comp ny B which in turn will displ y the b nner of comp ny A in the form of lin*+

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Tr!(2i & ( %he response of the viewer of the d or e(m il c n be tr c*ed by pl cing tiny files c lled coo*ies on viewer9s computer+ It helps *now offers th t evo*e good response+ dvertisers to receive inform tion on wh t type of consumers re responding to different offers nd lso to

/+

E."!il A e(m il h s the bility to re ch glob l udience t low cost+ Unsolicited e( m il 1c lled sp m3 cre tes neg tive response nd solicited e(m il is well received by customers+

E.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT !(CR" is business str tegy dopted to study bout the needs of the customers

in order to develop rel tionship with them+ It ims to underst nd, forec st nd m n ge the needs of customers of n org ni; tion+ CR" involves identifying, ttr cting nd ret ining customers so th t the org ni; tion c n m *e profit in the long run+ %echnologists help org ni; tions to collect det iled inform tion bout the customers beh viour, preferences, t stes, needs nd buying p ttern+ %hese inform tions is used by m r*eters to t *e right decisions on e(m r*eting mi-+ Ad%! ,!&es o3 ,e(0 olo&ies e !bled )/si ess 9' Red/(,io o3 (os,:(o ,!(, S les represent tive should p y full ttention 1to customer3 one (to(one inter ction+ Web b sed ch t or e(m il involves rel tively low cost per cont ct+ ;' Cre!,io o3 I ,i"!,e Rel!,io s0i$ %he convers tion nd refined method of nswering 5ueries help to develop bond ge between the represent tives nd the customer+ <' Red/(,io o3 0/"! errors Computer en bled communic tion results in less error in rel tion to tr c*ing orders, identifying the customer b se nd verifying the ch nges+ =' >/!li,4 o3 1or2 %he inter ction between the customers nd the represent tives re gener lly monitored in computer medi ted communic tions+ 7' Good re,/r o i %es,"e ,(ROI) Low cost per cont ct, outsourcing of customer support functions nd filling up the customer represent tive post with tempor ry nd se son l wor* force gener te good return to ny org ni; tion ? Ge er!,e Re%e /e Ret ining customers nd using inter ctive service tools to sell ddition l products decre se cost nd incre se revenue+ %hey en ble business org ni; tions to shorten their s les cycle nd incre se *ey s les perform nce metrics such s revenue6 s les represent tive, ver ge order si;e nd revenue6customer

PHASES OF E.CRM %here re three ph ses of !(CR"+ %hey re s follows Ac5uisition of customers !nh ncement Retention of customers %he web should dr w the ttention nd interest of the customers+ %he !( m r*eting tools nd str tegies must ttr ct nd c5uire new customers+ D+E 0! (e"e , %he rel tionship between the business nd the customer should be enh nced by providing better customer service, superior 5u lity, fle-ibility, nd convenience t low cost+ =+ Re,e ,io o3 (/s,o"ers An org ni; tion c n c5uire profit only if the customers re ret ined in the long run+ Business org ni; tion c n ret in customers if only the customers re s tisfied with the service+ Ret ining customers is e sier th n ttr cting new customers+ E. CRM WOR6 MODEL !(CR" focuses on utom ting the process to deliver customer v lue s tisf ction+ It helps to cre te nd ret in customers+ Customers inter ct with business org ni; tions through v rious communic tion ch nnels li*e WWW, c ll centers, field s lespeople nd business ssoci tes+ " ny org ni; tions lso h ve multiple lines of business th t lso inter ct with s me customers !CR" system en bles customers to c rry out shopping ny time vi ny ch nnel, in ny l ngu ge or currency+ %his system cre tes centr l repository of customer records+

.+A(@/isi,io o3 (/s,o"ers

Coo2ies A coo*ie is te-t file th t is pl ced on the user9s h rd dis* by web p ge server+ Coo*ies c n be re d only by web server in the dom in th t issued the coo*ie+%he

purpose of coo*ie is to tell the web server th t the user h ve returned to specific p ge+ Coo*ies help in !(m r*eting nd improving the profit of e(business +Coo*ies c n tr c* how visitor got into n e(business web site+

Coo2ies 1ere "!i l4 desi& ed %o ccur tely tr c* how m ny different users visited the website+ %o llow web visitors to oper te more efficiently+ %o provide better response time repe t visitors to !(Bussiness websites+

Coo2ies $ro%ide ,0e 3ollo1i & i 3or"!,io ,o ,0e e."!r2e,er + E.PAYMENT An electronic p yment involves ny *ind of non c sh p yment+ 2ifferent modes of electronic p yment included c rd b sed or electronic instruction for fund tr nsfers+ Authenticity, integrity, uthori; tion nd confidenti lity re the *ey security re5uirements th t should be t *en c re of while m *ing e(p yments+ Co"$o e ,s o3 Ele(,ro i( s4s,e" Buyer Seller p yment g tew y Buyers b n* issuer of p yment instrument Sellers b n* 1 c5uirer3 How the visitor n vig ted the web site &oint of entry nd point of e-it Ret ils of products selected nd pl ced within the shopping b s*et+ %he dvertisement seen by the visitor

Ele(,ro i( F/ d Tr! s3er !$% is popul r electronic p yment method+ It tr nsfers money v lue from one different b n* through utom ted cle ring or telephone

b n* ccount to nother in the s me or

houses+ %he customer termin l c n be n utom tic teller m chine, &C termin l + !$% on internet re5uires the encryption of mess ges+

Credi, (!rd Credit c rds re the most popul r p yment method for cybersp ce shopping+ Co"$o e ,s o3 (redi, (!rd $ro(essi & .+ Customers credit c rd( provides the funds needed for the tr ns ction+ D+ Shopping c rt( serves s collection point for necess ry inform tion including credit c rd d t , product type, nd 5u ntity, shopping inform tion nd more+ =+ B tew y ( securely tr nsfers encrypted d t from the shopping c rt to merch nts ccount <+ Internet merch nt ccount ( verifies the credit6 debit ccount for the necess ry funds nd only pproved tr ns ctions re processed nd pl ced on chec*ing ccount+ E+ Chec*ing ccount receives nd holds the money g ined from pproved online s les+ $unds c n be withdr wn t ny time through n A%" or t your loc l b n*+ Pl!4ers i ,0e (redi, (!rd s4s,e"
.+ D+

C!rd 0olders ( consumer or purch ser who uses credit c rds to p y merch nts Mer(0! ,( %he entity th t ccepts credit c rds nd offers goods or services in e-ch nge for p yments C!rd Iss/er ( A fin nci l institution1b n*3 th t est blishes n ccount c rd holders nd issues credit c rds A(@/irer ( A fin nci l institution th t est blish c5uirer the vouchers of uthori;ed s les slips n ccount for merch nts nd

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E+ C!rd )r! d (B n* c rd ssoci tions of issuers nd c5uirers 1'is @ " ster C rd3 re cre ted to protect nd dvertise the c rd br nd

E.PAYMENT METHODS
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Credi, (!rds re issued by n gency such s " ster or 'is + It gives predetermined spending limit to the holder of the c rd+ Consumers ctu lly p y fter tr ns ction on credit c rd+ Credit c rd h ve revolving credit rr ngements, llows customers to m *e minimum p yment in e ch billing cycle+

D+

Debi, (!rds ( issued by

b n* or

fin nci l institution in which the c rdholder h s v riety of tr ns ction in n online

n ccount+ %he c rd en bles consumers to ccess the ccount for tr ns ctions+ %he consumer ctu lly p ys immedi tely for

debit c rd+ A%" c rd h ve the fe tures of debit c rd+A debit c rd is n ltern tive to c rrying che5ueboo* or c sh
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S,ored %!l/e (!rds re issued by fin nci l nd non fin nci l institutions+ Consumers p y before the tr ns ction on stored v lue c rd+ Some of the stored v lue c rds re prep id c rds nd bus c rds+ Some stored v lue c rds m y lso be sm rt c rds if they cont in integr ted microchip+

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S"!r, (!rds re pl stic c rds with n integr ted microchip+ It is stored v lue c rd+ sm rt c rd c n simult neously be n I2, credit c rd, stored v lue c rd nd repository of person l inform tion such s telephone numbers or medic l history+ It supports microp yments+

E.WALLET A server e(w llet stores customer inform tion on belong to institution+ Free1!re softw re is v il ble for free but the uthor ret ins the copyright softw re permits redistribution but not modific tions m y lso h ve other restrictions on its commerci l use remote server+ A remote server m y fin nci l merch nt or w llet publisher+ A client e(w llet stores customers inform tion

on user9s computer+ It h s the memory for storing the b l nce of n ccount in

E*!"$le Adw re 1Spyw re3 is distributed s freew re+ It re5uires the user to view dvertisement to use the softw re S0!re1!re www+sh rew re+com + It is v il ble for free tri l nd must be registered nd p id for if you decide to use it+ Do1 lo!d ( refers to the ctivity of moving or copying the document, progr m or other d t from the internet or other interconnected computers to ones own computer

U$lo!d ( refers to the ct of moving d t from one computer to nother usu lly to server or remote computer+ O li e ( refers to getting connected to www through Internet in computer+ O33li e ( it refers to ctions performed on the system when the user is not connected to the Internet+

I ,er e, %he Internet is networ* th t connects computers ll over the world+ %he m in ob4ective of Internet is to en ble sh ring of inform tion nd communic tion mong the computers connected to the Internet+ I ,er e, A((essi & Me,0od %here re two methods of ccessing Internet+ %he method chosen by the user depends on the purpose for which the user intends to the Internet+ 2edic ted ccessing method In this type of ccess the user the userGs computer is connected to the Internet ll the time+ It provides direct lin* to the Internet+ 2i l up ccess In di l up ccess the userGs computer is connected to the Internet through service provider+ 1IS&3 ISP A INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER %o ccess Internet by di l up ccess the user should register with n IS& nd get n I& ccount+ Service providers re comp nies th t llow the userGs to get connected to the Internet for price ch rged monthly or nnu lly+ DNS (Do"!i N!"i & S4s,e") 2om in # ming System is method of ddressing the computer by using n mes+

IP ADDRESS ! ch host computer on the Internet h s uni5ue number c lled n I& ddress+ I& ddresses re in the form t ---+---+---+--- where e ch --- is number from 8 to DEE+ MODEM (Mod/l!,or:De"od/l!,or) It is device th t llows the computers to communic te with one nother through telephone lines+ Computers underst nd only digit l sign ls 1. nd 83+ %he telephone lines c rry only n log sign ls+ When computer tr nsmits d t to nother computer vi telephone line, the modem t the tr nsmitting end converts the digit l sign l to the n log sign l 1"odul tion3 nd the modem t the receiving end converts the n log sign l b c* to the digit l sign l 12emodul tion3+ PROTOCOL Is the st nd rd set of rules th t need to be the est blished for communic tion between computers in networ* 1%C&6I&, $%&3+ )RIDGE Is device th t connects s me type of networ* such s two LA#s using s me topologies+ GATEWAY Is n interf ce th t en bles dissimil r networ*s to communic te, such s LA# with WA# or two LA#s using different topologies+ REPEATER An log sign ls tend to become we *er when it tr vels over long dist nce networ*s+ Repe ter is device used to strengthen the sign ls so th t the sign l c n tr vel over ddition l c ble segments+ %hus repe ter c n be used to overcome ttenu tion 1sign l we *ening3 problems+ ROUTER Is device th t routes d t cross multiple networ*s+ It c n connect networ*s th t use different rchitectures nd protocols+ WWW A THE World Wide Web

A distributed system of interlin*ed p ges th t include te-t, pictures, sound nd other inform tion+1It is series of server ll over the world th t cont ins millions of p ges inform tion3+ WE) SERVER Web Server is computer connected to the Internet th t runs p r gr ph th t t *es responsibility for storing, retrieving nd distributing some of the webGs files+

WE) CLIENT : WE) )ROWSER Web Client 6 Web Browser is BUI gr phic l user interf ce b sed client softw re th t llows the user to n vig te the www nd view web p ges on the computer screen+ Internet e-plorer, #etsc pe # vig tor HTML Hyper %e-t " r*up L ngu ge+H%"L is n encoding scheme used to cre te web document+ H%"L is the univers l l ngu ge of web+ HTTP Hyper %e-t %r nsfer &rotocol+http is the communic tion protocol used to tr nsfer hyperte-t documents on the web+ URL Uniform resource loc tor+ It is st nd rd ddressing scheme in the web+ URL cont ins inform tion bout the loc tion of specific resource on the web+ WE) PAGE A web p ge is n H%"L document th t is stored on web server nd th t h s URL so th t it c n be ccessed vi the web+ WE) SITE Web Site is collection of web p ges belonging to p rticul r person or org ni; tion+ HOME PAGE Is the first hyperte-t document displ yed when the user ccess web site+