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Introduction History of Internet Client Server System History of World Wide Web URL Internet Addressing Web Browser Connecting to the Internet Applic tions of Internet !m il " iling List #ews group $ile %r nsfer &rotocol %elnet Internet %elephony 'ideo Conferencing !(Commerce )nline Shopping !(" r*eting !(Advertisement !(Customer Rel tionship " n gement !(& yment !(W llet

INTRODUCTION Internet is networ* of networ*s th t connect computers ll over the world+ It is collection of government, c demic, commerci l, individu l, nd other sites+ %he Internet mi-es computing nd communic tion technologies HISTORY OF INTERNET In ./0/ the dep rtment of defense 12)23 USA cre ted sm ll networ* of four computers c lled AR&A#!% 1Adv nced Rese rch Pro4ects Administr tion Networ*3+ %his networ* w s set up for the milit ry purpose+ %he prim ry go l of AR&A#!% w s to llow multiple users to send nd receive inform tion simult neously over the s me communic tion p th +%he networ* oper ted with using %C&+ techni5ue c lled p c*et switching

%he AR&A#!% w s successful nd m ny universities 4oined the networ*+ %his AR&A#!% w s divided into two p rts "IL#!% nd AR&A#!%+ "IL#!% w s used for milit ry rel ted sites nd AR&A#!% for non(milit ry sites+ %hese two networ*s were connected together by using I& Internet &rotocol+ %he combined set of protocol is c lled %C&6I&+ 2uring the ./789s networ*s li*e the BI%#!% nd the US!#!% c me into being+ Around ./:89s #S$#!% 1N tion l Science Found tion Networ*3 w s cre ted+ %his growing web w s the birth of the Internet+ FEATURES OF INTERNET It llows sh ring of inform tion glob lly+ Se rch engines c n be used to find inform tion on ny topic+ !(m il services en ble to communic te with other users+ Ch t f cility helps to inter ct with other users+ &ermits l unching of one9s own web site+ It provides pl tform to dvertise nd m r*et products+ Sever l dist nce educ tion courses re v il ble )nline shopping en bles customers to purch se products from nywhere BBS #ews Services re v il ble )rg ni; tions c n collect nd compile inform tion from their offices

nytime in the world, nd p y through credit c rd or debit c rd+

spre d over huge geogr phic l re + Sh rew re softw re c n be downlo ded+

CLIENT SERVER SYSTEM ! ch computer on the Internet is c lled the host computer+ " ny of the host computer on the internet offer services to other computers on the Internet+ Computer which provides services for other computers is c lled server+ %he server computer runs

server softw re to provide services for other computers+ A host computer c n run more th n one server progr m+ A host computer m y run m il servers, web server, $%& server, IRC server, etc+ " il severs 1S"%& server nd &)& server3 h ndles incoming nd outgoing m il+ Web server stores web sites+ $%& severs stores files+ IRC server helps to converse with other users+ &rogr ms, which re5uest services to server, re c lled clients+ " il clients receive mess ges from, send mess ges to converse with other users+ HISTORY OF World Wide Web %he WWW is series of servers ll over the world th t cont ins millions of p ges of inform tion+%im Berners Lee of C!R# 1the !urope n )rg ni; tion for #ucle r Rese rch3 developed the World Wide Web nd sever l communic tion protocols+ %he World Wide Web is distributed system of interlin*ed p ges th t include te-t, picture, sound nd other inform tion+ In )ct .//<,%I" B!R#!RS L!! founded n org ni; tion c lled the World Wide Web C)#S)R%IU" 1W=C3+ %he W=C is st nd rdi; tion org ni; tion+ Web technologies st nd rdi;ed by the W=C re c lled Recommend tions 1e+g+ H%"L3+ %he three prim ry hosts of the W=C re "I% 1" ss chusetts Institute of %echnology3, %he !urope n Rese rch Consortium for Inform tion nd " them tics 1!RCI"3 nd >eio University in ? p n+ UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL) ! ch web p ge h s uni5ue ddress c lled Uniform Resource Loc tor+ Web file from the computer on which it resides+ server+ Web client9s re5uests file from the web+ $%& IRC client re5uests IRC server to client re5uests for file tr nsfer between computers+

browsers utili;e the URL to retrieve Usu lly, form t of URL consists of 0 p rts

&rotocol, server 1dom in3, p th @ filen me e+g+ httpA66www+-y;+com6tutor6st r6m in+html &rotocolA http World Wide WebA www 2om in n meA -y;

2om in typeA C)" & thA tutor6st r6 $ilen meA m in+html Although most ddresses include www, web p ge c n reside on the p rt of the

Internet th t is not found on www+ Http is the w y web server @ clients communic te over the networ*+ 2om in n me is uni5ue nd c se sensitive n me+ & th specifies the hier rchic l loc tion of the file computer+ 2om in type ( type of org ni; tion or country to which host belongs+ Http URL represents document v il ble from the www server+ $tp URL represents the Internet file tr nsfer protocol service %elnet URL llows remotely logging into screen @ *eybo rding s computer system nd using your loc l termin l+ It h s only the service n me @ hostn me v stly distributed

telnetA66hostn me" il to ddressA m ilto ddress represents Internet em il service #ews URLA %his represents the Usenet news service+ Usenet is bulletin bo rd service org ni;ed into thous nds of speci l Internet sub re s+ newsAnews server

INTERNET ADDRESSING !very computer th t is on the Internet h s its own uni5ue ddress+ !very person who w nts to use the Internet h s his6her own ddress 1e+g+ em il id3 All the Internet ddresses follows the s me form User !"e # do"!i ! ch person h s dom in must be uni5ue+ ! ch p rt of dom in is c lled the sub dom in+ %he sub dom ins re sep r ted by periods+ %he n me is constructed so th t e ch sub dom in tells something bout the computer+ %he rightmost sub dom in is c lled the top(level dom in+ user n me c lled !"e user I2+ %he first p rt of the ddress is the

user I2+ %he user id itself is not necess rily be uni5ue, combin tion of user Id nd

To$ le%el Do"!i %he w y to underst nd n ddress is to re d from right to left+ In gener l there re two types of top level dom ins )rg ni; tion l dom ins Beogr phic l dom ins+

)rg ni; tion l dom ins re b sed on n ddressing scheme developed before the d ys of intern tion l networ*s+ Do"!i ' Com ' edu ' int Me! i & commerci l org ni; tion educ tion l Institution intern tion l )rg ni; tion milit ry networ*ing org ni; tion non profit org ni; tion

+ net + org

)nce the Internet e-p nded intern tion lly new more specific top level dom ins bec me necess ry+ %o meet this need new system of dom in w s developed in which two letter bbrevi tions represents n entire country+ %here re m ny such top(level dom ins one for every country on the Internet+ Do"!i + t + u +c + ch +de +d* + es + fr + gr +ie + 4p Me! i & Austri Austr li C n d Swit;erl nd 1Confoeder tio Helvetic 3 Berm ny1 2eutschl nd3 2enm r* Sp in 1!sp rn 3 $r nce Breece Republic of Irel nd ? p n

+ n; + u* + us

#ew Ce l nd United >ingdom 1!ngl nd, Scotl nd, W les, #orthern Irel nd3 United St tes+

IP Address ! d DNS %he dom in ddress is converted into number intern lly+ %he p rt of the Internet th t *eeps tr c* of ddresses is c lled the 2#S 2om in # me System+ 2#S is service c lled upon to tr nsl te dom in n mes to nd from I& ddresses+ I& ddresses re in the form t --- + --- + ---+ + --- where e ch --- is c lled octets+ %his form t is *nown s dotted decim l not tion+ ! ch I& ddress is divided into two p rts th t defines the networ* I2 nd host I2+ ! ch nd every networ* h s its own uni5ue networ* I2+ %he networ* I2 is used to identify the system9s th t re loc ted on the s me physic l networ*+ All the systems on networ* must h ve the s me networ* I2+ %he host I2 identifies the host within networ*+ Host I2 is uni5ue within networ*+ Address cl sses( the ddress cl ss defines the bits for the networ* I2 nd the host I2+ It lso defines the number of networ*s nd the number of host th t c n be dded to the networ*+ Address (l!sses( the ddress cl ss defines the bits for the networ* I2 nd the host I2+ It lso defines the number of networ*s nd the number of host th t c n be dded to the networ*+ %here re E ddress cl sses+ Cl ss A ddress cl ssA In cl ss A ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor*I2+HostI2+HostI2+HostI2 %he first octet represents the networ* I2+ In the networ* I2 of cl ss A ddress, the high order bit in bin ry form t is lw ys set to 8+ %he ne-t seven bits complete the networ* I2+ %he rem ining D< bits in the l st = octets represent the host I2+ %here c n be m -imum of .D0 networ*s nd ppro-im tely .7 million hosts6networ*+ Cl ss B ddress cl ssA In cl ss B ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor* I2+#etwor*I2+HostI2+HostI2 %he first D octets represent the networ*I2+ In the networ*I2 of cl ss B ddress, the two high order bits in bin ry form t re lw ys set to .8+ %he ne-t .< bits in the first D octets completes the networ* I2+ %he .0 bits rem ining in the l st two octets represent the hostI2+ %here c n be m -imum of .0,=:< networ*s nd ppro-im tely 0E888 host6networ*+ Cl ss C ddress cl ssA In cl ss C ddress cl ss the I& ddress form t is #etwor*I2+#etwor*I2+#etwor*Id+HostI2 number from 8 to DEE+ ! ch I& ddress is =D bits in length nd is composed of four :(bit fields %C&6I&

%he first = octets represent the networ*I2+ In the networ* I2 of cl ss C ddress, the = high order bits in bin ry form t re lw ys set to ..8+ %he ne-t D. bits in the first = octets completes the networ* I2+ %he : bits rem ining in the l st octet represent the host I2+ %here c n be m -imum of D million networ*s nd DE< hosts6networ* in cl ss C ddress cl ss+

Cl ss 2 Address cl ssA Cl ss 2 ddress cl ss is used for multic sting for number of hosts in the networ*+ )nly the hosts th t re registered for the multic st ddress ccept the p c*et d t + %he four high order bits re lw ys set to bin ry ...8+ Cl ss ! is reserved for future use+ %he high order bits in cl ss ! re set to bin ry nil+

WE) )ROWSER Web browser is progr m th t communic tes with web servers on the Internet+ It llows users to ccess the web9s content+ %he web browsers inter ct with web, the oper ting system nd other plug ins+ 1plugins re progr ms th t c n be plugged into web browser to dd multimedi c p bilities to it3+ E*!"$le "o;ill $irefo-( "o;ill $ound tion( Lynu- )S S f ri( Apple Computers ( "AC )S 1m cintosh3 Internet !-plorer 0 ("icrosoft( Windows F& Internet !-plorer :( "icrosoft( 'ist )S )per WE) LANGUAGES $or the communic tion between the client system nd sever system, there must be well defined set of l ngu ges nd protocols th t re independent of the h rdw re or oper ting system+ %hey re HTML %he hyperte-t " r*up L ngu ge is the univers l l ngu ge of the web+ It is used to design st tic web p ge+ +AVA ? v is progr mming l ngu ge developed by Sun "icrosystems th t c n be used to cre te pplets or progr ms th t e-ecute within web p ge+ +!%!S(ri$, ? v Script is the first web scripting l ngu ge origin lly c lled Live Script introduced in #etsc pe # vig tor D+8 in .//E+ Web scripting l ngu ges combine scripting with H%"L to cre te inter ctive web p ges+ ? v Script is llows to l ngu ge

for e-tending H%"L to embed sm ll progr ms c lled scripts in web p ges+ Applets nd scripts speed up the inter ctivity of web p ges+

V) S(ri$, 'B Script w s developed to use either s Inform tion server+ CGI - se%er side s(ri$,i & Common B tew y Interf ce is specific tion th t llow progr ms to run on web servers+ CBI scripts c n be written using &erl, C or 'B+ CBI e-ecutes on the server+ 1? v Script pplic tions e-ecute on the client web browser+3+ %he dis dv nt ge of CBI is the d t must be sent to the web server nd b c*, response time m y be slow+ CBI c n re d nd write files on the server+ PHP . S(ri$,i & l! &/!&e Cold$usion ( t g b sed server side technology c n be used to build powerful d t b se( client side scripting l ngu ge for

"icrosoft Internet !-plorer or s server side scripting l ngu ge for "icrosoft Internet

intensive web pplic tions+ &ython( )b4ect )riented Scripting L ngu ge ASP'Ne, It is one of the technologies th t comprise the "icrosoft +#!% fr mewor*s+ It is server side technology for cre ting dyn mic web p ge+ It lso gives full server side ob4ect oriented function lity+

CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET %o connect the Internet the user needs to h ve the following components .+ Tele$0o e li e is to nother+ D+ Mode" or Ne,1or2 (!rd medium through which the d t is tr nsferred from one computer

#etwor* c rd lso c lled

#etwor* Interf ce C rd #IC is h rdw re th t llows

computer to connect to the Internet through networ* or high speed Internet connection such s LA#, c ble modem or 2igit l Subscriber line 12SL3 =+ I ,er e, Ser%i(e Pro%ider (ISP Co e(,io 3

%o ccess Internet the user should register with n IS& nd get n I& ccount, IS&s re comp nies th t llow the users to get connected to the Internet for n mount+ World net, Americ online 1www+ ol+com3, "icrosoft networ* 1www+msn+com3, #et ;ero 1www+net;ero+net3 re some of the popul r IS&Gs+ <+ Web bro1ser so3,1!re Internet ccess comes in online+ B ndwidth nd cost re two consider tions when deciding which commerci l IS& service to use+ B ndwidth refers to the mount of d t th t c n be tr nsferred through communic tion "edium in fi-ed mount of time+ 2ifferent IS&s offer different types of high speed connection, c lled bro db nd connection, which include 2SL 12igit l Subscriber Line3, c ble modem, integr ted service digit l networ* 1IS2#3 nd slower di l up connection e ch of which h s different b ndwidth nd cost+ DSL 2SL is bro db nd services th t llow computers to be connected to ll times to the Internet over e-isting phone lines, without interfering with telephone services+ 2SL re5uires speci l modem provided by the IS&+ ADSL ADSL /ses n upgr ded phone line, ll digit l technology nd support simult neous Internet processing nd phone use+ A2SL is optimi;ed for the w y m ny people use the internet( more downlo ds th n uplo d+ %he line is symmetric, bec use it h s more c p city for d t received by your computer 1such s gr phics, video, udio nd softw re upgr des3 th n for d t th t you send 1such s em il nd browser comm nds3+ A2SL is one of f mily of 2SL products+ v riety of connection choices nd ccount types nd

this depends on who provides the service nd wh t h rdw re nd softw re you use to get

C!ble Mode"s %r nsmit the d t over the c bles th t bring television to homes business+ " ny users sh re the b ndwidth+ %his sh ring c n reduce the b ndwidth v il ble to e ch person when m ny use the system simult neously+ ISDN IS2# is v il ble from ll loc l telephone comp nies+ 1Integr ted Service 2igit l #etwor*3 provides Internet service over either digit l or st nd rd telephone lines+ IS2# re5uires speci li;ed h rdw re c lled termin l d pter 1%A3+ IS2# is n upgr ded phone line th t c n be used for f ster Internet ccess nd for regul r voice c lls+ Using one line you c n t l* on the phone while you re surfing the web+ IS2# is ll digit l, which me ns th t does not h ve to be converted to n n log sign l+ Di!l/$ Co e(,io modem nd phone line to di l into 1&oint to &oint

2i lup service uses

&rotocol3 &&& ccount on n Internet providers computer+ "ost IS&s support modems t speed of .<+< *bps, D:+: *bps, nd E0 *bps+ Hou connect only when you w nt to use Internet services nd disconnect 1h ng up3 when you re done+ If computer is connected to the Internet, the user usu lly c nnot receive voice c lls during this time+ If the voice c lls do not connect, the Internet connection is interrupted+ %o prevent this users often inst ll n e-tr phone line dedic ted to Internet service+ DSS 2igit l S tellite Systems or direct Bro dc st s tellite get Internet inform tion by s tellite+ We receive d t from the Internet t high speed vi s tellite+ But to send d t to the Internet you need di lup connection nd n IS&+ Web TV We c n ccess the Internet by using your %'+ %o use web %' we need receiver th t connects both %' nd to nd receive d t + Wireless I ,er e, A((ess ( re5uires tt ching c5uire s tellite ccess s tellite dish is needed+ speci l r dio modem to the l ptop+ %o %' phone line+ We c n both use %' screen s

monitor nd remote control to browse the web+ With the option l *eybo rd you c n send

Se!r(0i & ,0e I ,er e, A se rch engine is words or Internet+ d t pplic tion th t retrieves the inform tion b sed on phr se th t you enter+ " ny web sites provide se rch engines th t e-plore the

SEARCHING USING SEARCH ENGINES Se rch engines such s Boogle 1www+google+com3, y hooI 1www+y hoo+com3 ll the web 1www+ lltheweb+com3, Alt vist 1www+ lt vist +com3 nd Lycos 1www+lycos+com3 store inform tion in d t repositories c lled d t b ses th t f cilit te 5uic* inform tion retriev l+ SEARCHING THE SEARCH ENGINES Using multiple se rch engines m y provide the best results in finding the desired content 5uic*ly+ Sites such s "S# 1www+msn+com3 nd met cr wler 1www+met cr wler+com3 use met se rch engines, which do not m int in the d t b ses+ Inste d, they send the se rch criteri to other se rch engines nd ggreg te the results+ A$$li(!,io s o3 I ,er e, %here re v rious pplic tions v il ble in Internet+ %hey re !(" il, 'ideo Conferencing etc+, E.M!il !m il llows the user to send d t in the form of te-t, pictures, sound nd video to remote computer on the Internet+ %hese !m il services re cre ted by comp nies on specific web services nd c n be ccessed by nyone nywhere in the world t nytime+ Some of the f mili r servers th t offer free !m il services on the Internet re y hoo, Rediff nd hot m il etc+ %here re three things th t you must h ve to send nd receive em il+ %hese include 1 3 n internet em il ccount, 1b3 A connection to the Internet nd 1c3 A softw re pplic tion th t h ndles em il 1c lled client3 1ci3

E."!il !((o/ , ("!il id) Hour em il Service &rovider ssigns you your e(m il ddress+ It is the ddress th t will uni5uely identify you on the Internet+ Internet e(m il ddress ll loo* li*e user n me J dom in+com+ %he first p rt of the ddress is the user n me+ It is em il service providerGs computer+ 1# me of the server computer3 S,e$s ,o (re!,e ! e"!il.!((o/ , .+ System must h ve net connection D+ Choose web browser by clic*ing its icon 1eg+ "o;ill firefo-, Internet !-plorer3

n me th t you

choose or th t your em il service provider ssigns you+ %he dom in is the n me of your

%ype URL of the e(m il service provider on the ddress b r of the browser e-A www+gm il+com, www+y hoom il+com , etc+,

<+ Clic* cre te n ccount E+ %he pplic tion progr m prompts the user to enter $irst n me L st n me Login n me & ssword Security 5uestion 0+ Clic* on I ccept , greeing to the terms nd service provided by the service 7+ %his will cre te m il id for the user+

%o send e(m il to someone, you must *now the recipients Internet K e(m il ddress+ Re(ei%i & I (o"i & Mess!&es 2epending upon the type of connection th t you h ve, you m y downlo d e(m il from the m il server to your computer or you m y re d your e(m il while it is v il ble on the m il server+ " il server receives nd store em il mess ges in m il bo-es by using c lled &ost )ffice &rotocol or &)&=+ %o re d your em il you need n em il pplic tion lso c lled en bles you to re d it+ Se di & A,,!(0"e ,s m il client or pop client such s outloo* or !udor + A m il server collects your em il @ your m il client protocol

%o send

file by em il, you cre te

mess ge to which you c n tt ch the file ddress menu comm nd or by clic*ing toolb r

the mess ge s usu l nd type

sub4ect+ Hou c n lso type te-t in the body of the

mess ge+ %hen tt ch the file by choosing

button 1depending on which em il progr m you use3+ Some em il pplic tions support dr gging @ dropping the file th t you w nt to tt ch K dr g it from windows e-plorer or folder window to the open mess ge+

Re(ei%i & A,,!(0"e ,s 2ifferent em il pplic tions h ndle tt chments differently+ Hou need to open the mess ge nd then open or s ve the tt chment before you c n do nything else with it+ When you delete mess ge with n tt chment stored with it you lso m y delete the tt chment+ %o be ble to use the tt chment l tter, you need to s ve the tt chment+ )ther pplic tions utom tic lly s ve the tt chment to s ved, without h ving need to open the mess ge folder th t you specify+

Such pplic tions llow you to open the tt chments right from the folder where it is

MAILING LIST " iling list is collection of n mes nd ddresses used by n individu l or n list, so the group of subscribers is referred to s Lthe org ni; tion to send m teri l to multiple recipients+ %he term is often e-tended to include the people subscribed to such m iling listL, or simply Lthe listL+ T4$es o3 "!ili & lis,s Announcement list is used prim rily s one(w y conduct of inform tion nd c n only be Lposted toL by selected people+ %his m y lso be referred to by the term newsletter+ Dis(/ssio lis,5 )n discussion list, subscriber uses the m iling list to send mess ges to ll the other subscribers, who m y nswer in simil r f shion+ %hus, ctu l discussion nd inform tion e-ch nges c n h ppen+ " iling lists of this type re usu lly topic(oriented 1for e- mple, politics, nd scientific discussion, 4o*e contests3+

Some m iling lists re open to nyone who w nts to 4oin them, while others re5uire n pprov l from the list owner before one c n 4oin+ ?oining c lled LsubscribingL nd le ving list is c lled LunsubscribingL+ m iling list is

#!WS BR)U&
A Usenet newsgroup is repository usu lly within the Usenet system, for mess ges posted from m ny users in different loc tions+ #ewsgroups re technic lly distinct from, but function lly simil r to, discussion forums on the World Wide Web+ #ewsre der softw re is used to re d newsgroups+ %ypic lly, the newsgroup is focused on newsgroups llow the posting of mess ges on p rticul r topic of interest+ Some wide v riety of themes, reg rding

nything member chooses to discuss s on(topic, while others *eep more strictly to their p rticul r sub4ect+ %he news dmin 1the dministr tor of news server3 decides how long rticles re *ept on his server before being e-pired 1deleted3+ 2ifferent servers will h ve different retention times for the s me newsgroupM some m y *eep rticles for s little s one or two wee*s, others m y hold them for m ny 8months+ Some dmins *eep rticles in loc l or technic l newsgroups round longer th n rticles in other newsgroups+ %here re currently well over .88,888 Usenet newsgroups, but only D8,888 or so of those re ctive+ #ewsgroups v ry in popul rity, with some newsgroups only getting few posts month while others get sever l hundred 1 nd in few c ses couple of thous nd3 mess ges d y+ A web site c lled 2e4 #ews beg n rchiving Usenet in the mid(.//8s+ 2e4 #ews lso provided se rch ble web interf ce+ Boogle bought the rchive from them complete rchive of nd m de efforts to buy other Usenet rchives to ttempt to cre te

Usenet newsgroups nd postings from its e rly beginnings+ Li*e 2e4 #ews, Boogle h s web se rch interf ce to the rchive, but Boogle lso llows newsgroup posting+ #on(Usenet newsgroups re possible nd do occur, s priv te individu ls or org ni; tions set up their own nntp servers+ !- mples include the newsgroups "icrosoft runs to llow peer(to(peer support of their products nd those t newsA66news+grc+com+ How newsgroups wor*

' rious org ni; tions nd institutions host newsgroup servers+ "ost Internet service providers host their own news servers, or rent ccess to one, for their subscribers+ %here re lso number of comp nies who sell ccess to premium news servers+ !very host of news server m int ins greements with other news servers to

regul rly synchroni;e+ In this w y news servers form networ*+ When user posts to one news server, the mess ge is stored loc lly+ %h t server then sh res the mess ge with the servers th t re connected to it if both c rry the newsgroup, nd from those servers to servers th t they re connected to, nd so on+

FTP (3ile ,r! s3er $ro,o(ol) $ile tr nsfer protocol is n Internet tool for uplo ding nd downlo ding files between computers+ A file tr nsfer must t *e pl ce between the client+ $%& client softw re c n be client nd server+ When $%& servers receives file re5uest from n $%& client, it sends copy of th t file b c* to sep r te st nd lone progr m+ $%& client c p bility is incorpor ted into web browsers or provided s p rt of oper ting system+ Some files on $%& servers m y be ccessible to the gener l public, while others re ccessible only by priv te users such s customers or members of the org ni; tion th t runs the server+ A $%& site begin with ftpA66+ etc + $%& sites consist of files with inform tion on boo*s, music, softw re, g mes, im ges, sounds, multimedi , coursew re

It llows two or more users to e-ch nge te-t, im ge, nd udio mess ges in re l time, provided th t the users h ve comp tible mess ging services+ Communic ting by I" is lso c lled (0!,,i &' I" clients th t f cilit te connections between specified *nown users 1often using LBuddy ListL, L$riend ListL or LCont ct ListL3, where s online 9ch t9 lso includes web( b sed pplic tions th t llow communic tion between 1often nonymous3 users in multi(user environment+ Inst nt mess ging includes ddition l fe tures+ $or e- mple, users c n see e ch other by using web c mer s, or t l* directly for free over the Internet using microphone

nd he dphones or loudspe *ers+ " ny client progr ms llow file tr nsfers s well, lthough they re typic lly limited in the permissible file(si;e+

TELNET 1Telecommunic tion nd Ne,wor*3 %he telnet client computer runs client pplic tion, which the user c n inter ct with nother m chine 1telnet server3 which runs telnet server pplic tion+ %he users c n login to the remote computer nd give comm nds s if it is loc l computer+ %C&6I& is used for tr nsmission of inform tion between telnet client nd telnet server+ %elnet does not h ve file tr nsfer c p bility+ %elnet c n be used to edit files, ccess inform tion, run progr ms nd edit files using telnet comm nds+

INTERNET TELEPHONY Internet is used s web browsers+ tr nsmission medium for telephone c lls+ Cool % l* nd

#et"eeting re telephony pplic tions+ %he telephony pplic tions re integr ted with 'oice )ver Internet &rotocol 1')I&3 helps in tr nsmission of nd softw re+ %he inform tion+ Internet %elephony re5uires speci li;ed h rdw re telephones6 udio(e5uipped person l computers3

re5uired h rdw re for Internet telephony gener lly consists of end devices 1tr dition l nd g te*eepers th t provide c ll dmission control, b ndwidth m n gement, ddress tr nsl tion

VIDEO CONFERENCING 'ideo technology uses the s me technology s IRC, but lso provides sound nd video pictures+ It en bles direct, f ce(to(f ce communic tion cross networ*s+ A video conferencing system h s two or more p rties in different loc tions, which h ve the bility to communic te using combin tion of video, udio nd d t + A videoconference c n be person to person 1referred to s point(to(point3 or c n involve more th n two people 1referred to s multipoint3 nd the video conferencing termin ls re often referred to s endpoints+

In this form of meeting, p rticip nts in remote loc tions c n view e ch other nd c rry on discussion vi web c mer s, microphones nd other communic tion tools+ %he following five elements re common to ll video conferencing endpointsA
.+ D+

C!"er!5 %he c mer c ptures live im ges to send cross the networ*+ Vis/!l Dis$l!4A It displ ys the im ges of the people t *ing p rt in the videoconference+ A/dio S4s,e"A It includes both microphones to c pture udio from the endpoint nd loudspe *ers to pl y b c* the udio received from other endpoints cross the networ* connection+



Co"$ressio 5 'ideos re very b ndwidth(intensive nd they t *e

long time to

lo d+ %herefore, video systems include technologies, often referred to s codecs, to compress nd decompress video nd udio d t , llowing tr nsmission cross networ* connection in ne r(re l time+

User I ,er3!(e ! d Co ,rol S4s,e"5 %he user interf ce llows the users to control inter ctions, for e- mple, pl cing c lls, storing nd loc ting numbers nd d4ust environment settings such s volume+ %he control system h ndles the underlying communic tion th t t *es pl ce between endpoints+

Co""er(e ,0ro/&0 I ,er e,5 E.Co""er(e !(commerce refers to buying nd selling goods nd service online+ It integr tes communic tion, d t m n gement nd security c p bilities, which llow org ni; tions to e-ch nge inform tion bout the s les of goods nd services+ O li e S0o$$i & )nline shopping is shopping through Internet+ %here re few online shopping methods b sed on contr ct, consumption nd p yment+ Consumers p y online nd consume online 1eg+ online g ming softw res, music3 Consume online nd p y offline 1eg+ m trimoni l ds3 Cont ct nd p y online nd consume offline 1eg+ %r vel, boo*s, clothes nd electronic goods3

)nline shopping en bles customers to purch se product from nywhere nytime in the world+ )nline shopping llows consumers to ch t live online with service gent 1customer support represent tive3 when they h ve 5ueries while shopping on the Internet+ )nline shoppers gener lly use Credit c rds+ )nline businesses en ble users to cre te ccounts nd p y by ltern tive me ns such s debit c rd, che5ue, post l money order nd money boo*ers to m *e p yments+

E.M!r2e,i &

!(" r*eting is the process of conducting m r*eting ctivities nd chieving m r*eting ob4ectives through electronic medium+ !(" r*eting involves the use of online networ*s, computer communic tion nd digit l inter ctive medi to the m r*eting ob4ectives of the org ni; tion+ Business org ni; tions dopt m r*eting t ctics li*e em il, b nner ds, referr ls nd video ds to ttr ct nt ret in customers+ eg+ www+# u*ri+com " r*et segment tion is essenti l for loc ting, comp ring nd utili;ing m r*eting opportunities+ A m r*et segment consist of buyer groups with simil r w nts+ B sed on m r*eting segment tion, m r*eting progr mmes " r*et segment tion helps nd pl ns c n be fr med effectively+ m r*eter to *now beforeh nd the *ind of products or

services th t c n be sold on Internet nd to whom the products c n be sold+ A m r*et c n be segmented into three c tegories+ Beogr phic segment tion divides the m r*et into different geogr phic units such s n tion, st te nd cities, etc+ 2emogr phic segment tion is b sed on demogr phic ch r cteristics such s se-, ge, m rit l st tus, educ tion, income, etc+ &sychogr phic segment tion Buyers re divided into v rious groups b sed on soci l cl ss, lifestyle nd person lity ch r cteristics+

E.M!r2e,i & Mi* " r*eting mi- decisions helps in implementing effective m r*eting m n gement+ %he following four elements constitute m r*eting mi.+ D+ =+ <+ !(product or service !(price !(pl ce !(promotion

%hese elements re combined to chieve m r*eting ob4ectives such s incre se in profit incre se in s les volume reduction in promotion cost

E.$rod/(, Bood profit c n be chieved only when the product is s tisf ctory+ %he m r*eters must provide complete inform tion bout product or service+ E.$ri(e %he price set by m r*eters should ttr ct the customers nd should cover the cost nd gener te revenues to the org ni; tion+ E.$l!(e Cert in goods re directly delivered to the customers through online 1eg+ music, softw re3+ If E.$ro"o,io &romotion is the method dopted by the " r*eter to inform nd persu de buyers to ccept or recommend the product+ MAR6ETING STRATEGIES $ollowing re the m r*eting str tegies th t c n be opted by Business org ni; tion to ttr ct nd ret in customers .+ E."!il "!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 Business org ni; tions dvertise their products or services through em il+ D+A33ili!,e M!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 business org nis tion del y in delivery, the site m y not ttr ct customers for future tr ns ctions+

Low budget web sites use ffili te m r*eting str tegy to gener te revenues+ Affili te9s firm web site lin*ed to nother org ni; tions web site, which offers the product for s le+ " r*eters p y ffili tes to forw rd customers to their web sites+ =+ Vir!l M!r2e,i & s,r!,e&4 %he customer informs other persons bout the products nd service of org ni; tion+ 7' )r! d Le%er!&i & s,r!,e&4 An org ni; tion lever ges its domin nt position by dding more fe tures to the web site SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMI8ATION When customer chec*s through the se rch engine loo*ing out for product or service, m r*eters w nt their comp ny9s web site to ppe r mong the top .8 returned listings+ %he method of h ving p rticul r URL listed ne r the top of sever l engine results is c lled se rch engine optimi; tion+ business

S,e$s i %ol%ed i 3or"/l!,i & ! e."!r2e,i & $l! Access the m r*et opportunities, Identify the t rget udience Set the m r*et ob4ectives+ 2evelop nd implement the m r*eting mi$ocus on m r*et str tegies Control the m r*eting pl ns Customer s tisf ction nd m r*et results+

E. ADVERTISING Advertising on the Internet is c lled online dvertising or e( dvertising For"!, o3 !d%er,isi & o 1eb+


er !d( %he b nner cont ins

short te-t or gr phics to promote

product or

service+ %he b nner d is n ob4ect on the web p ge+ It provides dvertiser9s web site+

hyperlin* to the


Po$/$ !d( &opup d ppe rs in its own window, when the user opens or closes web p ge+


I ,ers,i,i!l !d( Interstiti l d opens in one9s own browser window when the user clic*s lin* to new web p ge+ %he d ppe rs for few moments nd close utom tic lly before the intended web p ge gets lo ded+


Co/$o s. Cert in comp nies provide discount coupons to their members which they c n print nd use for both online nd offline ret iners+ When customer clic*s on cert in coupons m r*eter gets to *now the type of products the customer is interested+


Re1!rd $ro&r!"s+ When consumers purch se product on Internet they get rew rd points+ )nce the rew rd points get ccumul ted it is used for the purch se of products in future+


P!4 $er !d%er,isi & %ie1 ( comp nies p y customer to view their dvertisement )! er s1!$$i &( It involves direct e-ch nge of lin*s between web sites+


Comp ny A m y gree to displ y b nner of comp ny B which in turn will displ y the b nner of comp ny A in the form of lin*+


Tr!(2i & ( %he response of the viewer of the d or e(m il c n be tr c*ed by pl cing tiny files c lled coo*ies on viewer9s computer+ It helps *now offers th t evo*e good response+ dvertisers to receive inform tion on wh t type of consumers re responding to different offers nd lso to


E."!il A e(m il h s the bility to re ch glob l udience t low cost+ Unsolicited e( m il 1c lled sp m3 cre tes neg tive response nd solicited e(m il is well received by customers+

E.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT !(CR" is business str tegy dopted to study bout the needs of the customers

in order to develop rel tionship with them+ It ims to underst nd, forec st nd m n ge the needs of customers of n org ni; tion+ CR" involves identifying, ttr cting nd ret ining customers so th t the org ni; tion c n m *e profit in the long run+ %echnologists help org ni; tions to collect det iled inform tion bout the customers beh viour, preferences, t stes, needs nd buying p ttern+ %hese inform tions is used by m r*eters to t *e right decisions on e(m r*eting mi-+ Ad%! ,!&es o3 ,e(0 olo&ies e !bled )/si ess 9' Red/(,io o3 (os,:(o ,!(, S les represent tive should p y full ttention 1to customer3 one (to(one inter ction+ Web b sed ch t or e(m il involves rel tively low cost per cont ct+ ;' Cre!,io o3 I ,i"!,e Rel!,io s0i$ %he convers tion nd refined method of nswering 5ueries help to develop bond ge between the represent tives nd the customer+ <' Red/(,io o3 0/"! errors Computer en bled communic tion results in less error in rel tion to tr c*ing orders, identifying the customer b se nd verifying the ch nges+ =' >/!li,4 o3 1or2 %he inter ction between the customers nd the represent tives re gener lly monitored in computer medi ted communic tions+ 7' Good re,/r o i %es,"e ,(ROI) Low cost per cont ct, outsourcing of customer support functions nd filling up the customer represent tive post with tempor ry nd se son l wor* force gener te good return to ny org ni; tion ? Ge er!,e Re%e /e Ret ining customers nd using inter ctive service tools to sell ddition l products decre se cost nd incre se revenue+ %hey en ble business org ni; tions to shorten their s les cycle nd incre se *ey s les perform nce metrics such s revenue6 s les represent tive, ver ge order si;e nd revenue6customer

PHASES OF E.CRM %here re three ph ses of !(CR"+ %hey re s follows Ac5uisition of customers !nh ncement Retention of customers %he web should dr w the ttention nd interest of the customers+ %he !( m r*eting tools nd str tegies must ttr ct nd c5uire new customers+ D+E 0! (e"e , %he rel tionship between the business nd the customer should be enh nced by providing better customer service, superior 5u lity, fle-ibility, nd convenience t low cost+ =+ Re,e ,io o3 (/s,o"ers An org ni; tion c n c5uire profit only if the customers re ret ined in the long run+ Business org ni; tion c n ret in customers if only the customers re s tisfied with the service+ Ret ining customers is e sier th n ttr cting new customers+ E. CRM WOR6 MODEL !(CR" focuses on utom ting the process to deliver customer v lue s tisf ction+ It helps to cre te nd ret in customers+ Customers inter ct with business org ni; tions through v rious communic tion ch nnels li*e WWW, c ll centers, field s lespeople nd business ssoci tes+ " ny org ni; tions lso h ve multiple lines of business th t lso inter ct with s me customers !CR" system en bles customers to c rry out shopping ny time vi ny ch nnel, in ny l ngu ge or currency+ %his system cre tes centr l repository of customer records+

.+A(@/isi,io o3 (/s,o"ers

Coo2ies A coo*ie is te-t file th t is pl ced on the user9s h rd dis* by web p ge server+ Coo*ies c n be re d only by web server in the dom in th t issued the coo*ie+%he

purpose of coo*ie is to tell the web server th t the user h ve returned to specific p ge+ Coo*ies help in !(m r*eting nd improving the profit of e(business +Coo*ies c n tr c* how visitor got into n e(business web site+

Coo2ies 1ere "!i l4 desi& ed %o ccur tely tr c* how m ny different users visited the website+ %o llow web visitors to oper te more efficiently+ %o provide better response time repe t visitors to !(Bussiness websites+

Coo2ies $ro%ide ,0e 3ollo1i & i 3or"!,io ,o ,0e e."!r2e,er + E.PAYMENT An electronic p yment involves ny *ind of non c sh p yment+ 2ifferent modes of electronic p yment included c rd b sed or electronic instruction for fund tr nsfers+ Authenticity, integrity, uthori; tion nd confidenti lity re the *ey security re5uirements th t should be t *en c re of while m *ing e(p yments+ Co"$o e ,s o3 Ele(,ro i( s4s,e" Buyer Seller p yment g tew y Buyers b n* issuer of p yment instrument Sellers b n* 1 c5uirer3 How the visitor n vig ted the web site &oint of entry nd point of e-it Ret ils of products selected nd pl ced within the shopping b s*et+ %he dvertisement seen by the visitor

Ele(,ro i( F/ d Tr! s3er !$% is popul r electronic p yment method+ It tr nsfers money v lue from one different b n* through utom ted cle ring or telephone

b n* ccount to nother in the s me or

houses+ %he customer termin l c n be n utom tic teller m chine, &C termin l + !$% on internet re5uires the encryption of mess ges+

Credi, (!rd Credit c rds re the most popul r p yment method for cybersp ce shopping+ Co"$o e ,s o3 (redi, (!rd $ro(essi & .+ Customers credit c rd( provides the funds needed for the tr ns ction+ D+ Shopping c rt( serves s collection point for necess ry inform tion including credit c rd d t , product type, nd 5u ntity, shopping inform tion nd more+ =+ B tew y ( securely tr nsfers encrypted d t from the shopping c rt to merch nts ccount <+ Internet merch nt ccount ( verifies the credit6 debit ccount for the necess ry funds nd only pproved tr ns ctions re processed nd pl ced on chec*ing ccount+ E+ Chec*ing ccount receives nd holds the money g ined from pproved online s les+ $unds c n be withdr wn t ny time through n A%" or t your loc l b n*+ Pl!4ers i ,0e (redi, (!rd s4s,e"
.+ D+

C!rd 0olders ( consumer or purch ser who uses credit c rds to p y merch nts Mer(0! ,( %he entity th t ccepts credit c rds nd offers goods or services in e-ch nge for p yments C!rd Iss/er ( A fin nci l institution1b n*3 th t est blishes n ccount c rd holders nd issues credit c rds A(@/irer ( A fin nci l institution th t est blish c5uirer the vouchers of uthori;ed s les slips n ccount for merch nts nd



E+ C!rd )r! d (B n* c rd ssoci tions of issuers nd c5uirers 1'is @ " ster C rd3 re cre ted to protect nd dvertise the c rd br nd


Credi, (!rds re issued by n gency such s " ster or 'is + It gives predetermined spending limit to the holder of the c rd+ Consumers ctu lly p y fter tr ns ction on credit c rd+ Credit c rd h ve revolving credit rr ngements, llows customers to m *e minimum p yment in e ch billing cycle+


Debi, (!rds ( issued by

b n* or

fin nci l institution in which the c rdholder h s v riety of tr ns ction in n online

n ccount+ %he c rd en bles consumers to ccess the ccount for tr ns ctions+ %he consumer ctu lly p ys immedi tely for

debit c rd+ A%" c rd h ve the fe tures of debit c rd+A debit c rd is n ltern tive to c rrying che5ueboo* or c sh

S,ored %!l/e (!rds re issued by fin nci l nd non fin nci l institutions+ Consumers p y before the tr ns ction on stored v lue c rd+ Some of the stored v lue c rds re prep id c rds nd bus c rds+ Some stored v lue c rds m y lso be sm rt c rds if they cont in integr ted microchip+


S"!r, (!rds re pl stic c rds with n integr ted microchip+ It is stored v lue c rd+ sm rt c rd c n simult neously be n I2, credit c rd, stored v lue c rd nd repository of person l inform tion such s telephone numbers or medic l history+ It supports microp yments+

E.WALLET A server e(w llet stores customer inform tion on belong to institution+ Free1!re softw re is v il ble for free but the uthor ret ins the copyright softw re permits redistribution but not modific tions m y lso h ve other restrictions on its commerci l use remote server+ A remote server m y fin nci l merch nt or w llet publisher+ A client e(w llet stores customers inform tion

on user9s computer+ It h s the memory for storing the b l nce of n ccount in

E*!"$le Adw re 1Spyw re3 is distributed s freew re+ It re5uires the user to view dvertisement to use the softw re S0!re1!re www+sh rew re+com + It is v il ble for free tri l nd must be registered nd p id for if you decide to use it+ Do1 lo!d ( refers to the ctivity of moving or copying the document, progr m or other d t from the internet or other interconnected computers to ones own computer

U$lo!d ( refers to the ct of moving d t from one computer to nother usu lly to server or remote computer+ O li e ( refers to getting connected to www through Internet in computer+ O33li e ( it refers to ctions performed on the system when the user is not connected to the Internet+

I ,er e, %he Internet is networ* th t connects computers ll over the world+ %he m in ob4ective of Internet is to en ble sh ring of inform tion nd communic tion mong the computers connected to the Internet+ I ,er e, A((essi & Me,0od %here re two methods of ccessing Internet+ %he method chosen by the user depends on the purpose for which the user intends to the Internet+ 2edic ted ccessing method In this type of ccess the user the userGs computer is connected to the Internet ll the time+ It provides direct lin* to the Internet+ 2i l up ccess In di l up ccess the userGs computer is connected to the Internet through service provider+ 1IS&3 ISP A INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER %o ccess Internet by di l up ccess the user should register with n IS& nd get n I& ccount+ Service providers re comp nies th t llow the userGs to get connected to the Internet for price ch rged monthly or nnu lly+ DNS (Do"!i N!"i & S4s,e") 2om in # ming System is method of ddressing the computer by using n mes+

IP ADDRESS ! ch host computer on the Internet h s uni5ue number c lled n I& ddress+ I& ddresses re in the form t ---+---+---+--- where e ch --- is number from 8 to DEE+ MODEM (Mod/l!,or:De"od/l!,or) It is device th t llows the computers to communic te with one nother through telephone lines+ Computers underst nd only digit l sign ls 1. nd 83+ %he telephone lines c rry only n log sign ls+ When computer tr nsmits d t to nother computer vi telephone line, the modem t the tr nsmitting end converts the digit l sign l to the n log sign l 1"odul tion3 nd the modem t the receiving end converts the n log sign l b c* to the digit l sign l 12emodul tion3+ PROTOCOL Is the st nd rd set of rules th t need to be the est blished for communic tion between computers in networ* 1%C&6I&, $%&3+ )RIDGE Is device th t connects s me type of networ* such s two LA#s using s me topologies+ GATEWAY Is n interf ce th t en bles dissimil r networ*s to communic te, such s LA# with WA# or two LA#s using different topologies+ REPEATER An log sign ls tend to become we *er when it tr vels over long dist nce networ*s+ Repe ter is device used to strengthen the sign ls so th t the sign l c n tr vel over ddition l c ble segments+ %hus repe ter c n be used to overcome ttenu tion 1sign l we *ening3 problems+ ROUTER Is device th t routes d t cross multiple networ*s+ It c n connect networ*s th t use different rchitectures nd protocols+ WWW A THE World Wide Web

A distributed system of interlin*ed p ges th t include te-t, pictures, sound nd other inform tion+1It is series of server ll over the world th t cont ins millions of p ges inform tion3+ WE) SERVER Web Server is computer connected to the Internet th t runs p r gr ph th t t *es responsibility for storing, retrieving nd distributing some of the webGs files+

WE) CLIENT : WE) )ROWSER Web Client 6 Web Browser is BUI gr phic l user interf ce b sed client softw re th t llows the user to n vig te the www nd view web p ges on the computer screen+ Internet e-plorer, #etsc pe # vig tor HTML Hyper %e-t " r*up L ngu ge+H%"L is n encoding scheme used to cre te web document+ H%"L is the univers l l ngu ge of web+ HTTP Hyper %e-t %r nsfer &rotocol+http is the communic tion protocol used to tr nsfer hyperte-t documents on the web+ URL Uniform resource loc tor+ It is st nd rd ddressing scheme in the web+ URL cont ins inform tion bout the loc tion of specific resource on the web+ WE) PAGE A web p ge is n H%"L document th t is stored on web server nd th t h s URL so th t it c n be ccessed vi the web+ WE) SITE Web Site is collection of web p ges belonging to p rticul r person or org ni; tion+ HOME PAGE Is the first hyperte-t document displ yed when the user ccess web site+