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3.

Stopping Power and Range for Nuclei
Stopping power and range values can be deduced for any ion in a non-crystalline material based on semiempirical proton stopping power values. The theory of ion-solid interactions is well established, but too complete
to present here. It has been discussed in detail, e.g., by Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmark1, where the authors also
describe the computer program TRIM2 which can be used for calculating stopping power and range for ion/target
combinations with Z≤92.
Nuclear Stopping: The total stopping power St , is the sum of the electronic stopping power, Se , due to interactions with target electrons, and the nuclear stopping power, Sn , due to interactions with target nuclei.

St = Se + Sn .

(1)

For sufficiently high projectile energies, St ≈Se .

Sn , in units of eV/(1015 atoms/cm2), for any projectile with energy E (kev), is given by
8.462Z 1Z 2M 1Sn (ε)
Sn (E ) = hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
,
(M 1 + M 2)(Z 10.23 + Z 20.23 )

(2)

where the reduced ion energy, ε, is defined as
32.53M 1M 2(E /M 1)
ε = hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
,
Z 1Z 2(M 1 + M 2)(Z 10.23 + Z 20.23 )

(3)

M 1 and M 2 are the projectile and target masses (amu), and Z 1 and Z 2 are the projectile and target atomic
numbers. For ε≤30 keV,
ln(1 + 1.1383ε)
Sn (ε) = hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
.
2(ε + 0.01321ε0.21226 + 0.19593ε0.5)

(4)

For ε>30 keV, unscreened nuclear stopping is used, and Sn (ε) simplifies to
lnε
Sn (ε) = hhh .

(5)

S can be converted to units of MeV/(mg/cm2) by multiplying by 0.6022/M 2.
Experimental proton stopping power data are summarized by Anderson and Ziegler3. Reliable data are
available for many elements over a wide range of energies. However, in order to obtain values for all elements
over a continuous range of proton energies, the authors fit curves through the available experimental data to generate coefficients for use in a semi-empirical parameterization of the stopping power as a function of proton energy
E (keV) and the target atomic number Z 2. Se is assumed to be proportional to E 0.45 for E <25 keV, except for
Z 2≤6, where it is proportional to E 0.25; for 25 keV≤E ≤10 MeV, Ziegler et al. use

where, for protons of energy E(keV),

1
1
h1
hh = hhhhhh
+ hhhhhh
Se
SLOW
SHIGH

(6)

SLOW = A 1E A + A 3E A

(7)

2

4

and

SHIGH

A6
A 5ln( hhh + A 7E )
E
= hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
,
EA

(8)

8

and the coefficients Ai for each Z 2, available from TRIM2 (which supersedes reference 1), are shown in Table 1.
For 10 MeV≤E≤2 GeV, TRIM2 includes four additional coefficients A 9 through A 12, shown in Table 2, for use in the
parameterization

E
lnE
lnE
Se = A 9 + A 10( hhhh ) + A 11( hhhh )2 + A 12( hhhh ) .
lnE
E
E

(9)

hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
1
J.F. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of "The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in
Matter", Pergamon Press, New York (1985).
2

TRIM version 92.16, J.F. Ziegler and J.P. Biersack; updated version of a computer code for calculating stopping and ranges,
described in reference 1.
3
H.H. Andersen and J.F. Ziegler, Hydrogen Stopping Powers and Ranges in All Elements, Vol. 2 of "The Stopping and Ranges of Ions
in Matter", Pergamon Press, New York (1977).

0041329 0.0039867 2.38 1.82211 3508.09343 0.71801 6.89192 39.14586 1.0048456 6.011701 19 0.09503 0.60822 6907.87550 3654.020072 73 1.25573 1.52496 2207.39568 0.039385 61 0.0043718 6.94 1.41378 1712.86315 29.62712 9.0040244 1.42056 0.16 0.59782 0.59110 17.038208 42 1.0041768 4.37755 2.42 0.12200 3.93302 1703.95182 2380.46741 745.51113 2340.79066 155.04703 2659.85 0.01695 2.0043646 2.47883 4972.90776 64.25420 0.39005 1.00000 4.11 0.29568 3370.62946 0.027469 26 0.67 0.85 0.056471 48 0.Table 1.71418 10.50318 0.35700 0.0042282 4.034780 68 0.13998 0.03 0.02070 6.60445 0.020940 10 1.197218 50 0.34 0.87 0.019713 72 0.69 0.012879 16 1.86202 3093.30 1.07429 0.82737 0.12746 0.015196 21 0.35083 0.03 0.27090 0.23528 0.57 0.57945 3503.23 0.67413 2.0033008 1.56787 0.36 0.24198 0.17 0.97754 0.76816 7113.89261 1468.79687 443.22475 0.27070 0.06114 0.12220 0.72591 3.99430 0.42316 0.55813 0.78509 806.03522 1784.39 0.27937 2725.046200 13 0.0040667 4.08 0.23810 2.0041386 0.02743 0.0043237 2.30187 0.85818 3314.33802 0.033329 3 0.036278 64 0.0050512 0.77977 0.57801 30.018427 9 1.24058 0.40380 0.97411 2.46258 1779.0044455 2.66 0.96924 0.12220 10.80 0.32734 3931.60801 0.88562 0.11477 1.0044813 8.014195 55 0.31451 1. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Z2 vF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1 1.023184 28 1.97896 130.008303 59 0.89075 0.0037736 0.0050300 3.04860 1.67533 0.19294 0.93 0.74171 0.83437 1410.58550 0.97697 1604.32893 1920.01 0.54 0.87810 0.86359 2980.36830 0.07330 0.75 0.62860 0.32636 0.80 0.53562 1030.009771 2 1.94264 2493.60885 1550.02762 7831.0035443 0.30 0.55 0.27638 2982.97 0.93 0.98 0.68715 5.040944 29 1.84912 15.84 0.02111 1401.13728 0.04500 0.68 0.94282 744.81652 16252.31 0.31301 1.95146 1185.84151 1666.27012 0.04290 4.24 0.36420 1120.026393 56 0.016588 31 0.00059 3.94028 5292.55379 4.018980 4 1.13157 0.30 0.13 0.97470 0.0044716 4.88205 0.02986 1.56769 1678.10169 0.00000 0.84 0.43289 4.047294 75 1.89696 0.37511 2829.85 1.036301 .11 0.0040491 4.0042098 4.02 0.01775 0.08820 0.0041149 5.93 0.36552 0.02900 0.67668 3001.00000 3.45 0.28151 2829.17 0.73391 0.016366 32 0.86175 115.83128 0.89794 0.0041935 5.0036215 0.68121 6.25420 6.85837 0.49857 0.020269 7 1.032123 43 1.99098 6264.21323 0.38597 0.39 0.00470 16.007659 17 1.42 0.00000 6.040801 67 0.0040960 4.93232 2063.15147 0.0045417 6.49715 1.42470 0.017061 35 0.92484 3344.45 0.00000 0.043031 60 0.20320 1200.97933 6267.51310 4.54773 3505.408824 58 0.46891 0.12410 0.12 0.46160 0.52651 0.90754 5156.117895 49 0.00000 0.59 0.91597 3166.0043737 1.035662 66 0.41057 2164.0050147 1.0042968 0.42 0.23372 0.030107 25 1.56 0.60 0.0040961 1.36827 0.39 0.85669 1268.21 0.00110 1898.36159 2252.82 0.72460 1.0041243 1.99 0.83398 1786.0043042 0.39 0.93983 0.0041344 3.00 0.17547 1919.10952 0.048982 14 0.030514 65 0.70 1.90 0.16383 0.32 0.52 0.09030 7.09 0.0048836 2.55 0.14700 0.86907 27.01217 0.38844 1337. Coefficients for low-energy proton electronic stopping power parameterization.53198 0.75109 0.83 0.15 0.016392 71 0.36 0.73 0.74093 2.90 0.07869 1.72067 1546.64547 0.07810 0.83 0.39 0.81858 995.70 0.0041916 5.26 0.12874 0.01472 2324.10 0.98598 1232.92705 0.90 0.39869 0.06610 2.61740 0.01311 0.34235 1954.56057 0.46107 0.02444 0.68 0.04227 7988.91028 1282.77931 0.18 0.69500 0.0044506 0.51675 2003.0043880 3.0043051 1.52345 0.61380 2130.011270 40 1.81707 7.97575 1714.76002 0.17813 0.85397 18493.61 0.009236 37 0.58030 0.22 1.14230 5.0041715 0.69319 0.53267 0.30141 0.0042179 3.35211 0.85296 2342.88936 26.86054 7.49404 1825.85293 0.01171 3997.68 0.95877 786.029955 62 0.010722 8 1.57548 0.0043096 4.85235 1704.97411 3.57 0.021577 11 1.34846 0.038679 57 0.03789 0.020398 22 0.92361 6323.22 0.53089 0.73052 1803.83048 3.50371 2184.036789 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 76 1.90094 3.006527 39 0.26412 0.066512 52 1.031620 15 0.03 0.33073 0.60452 0.86135 0.36326 2187.51428 1160.55 0.37 0.008231 18 1.29 0.86326 72.68049 5.50 0.90099 23.28 0.025363 27 1.17 0.00000 2.23881 2805.50679 2519.0040992 6.07345 1.95944 1151.241737 63 0.020240 6 1.055319 69 0.038529 5 1.55257 2076.18 0.57026 2300.95 0.46834 2857.62 0.59082 2346.79677 503.61 0.71 0.32177 0.43 0.12 0.133160 51 0.21 0.049650 30 0.77773 11.93612 0.17 0.68203 4.006805 36 0.08 0.87820 389.71972 0.57957 2218.97184 17.0043038 0.0041054 1.89309 67.50113 1837.0040603 4.95218 6376.75613 0.77990 0.024958 74 1.07 0.050263 23 1.025669 24 1.32976 1688.99 0.189258 20 0.26608 0.10621 1930.62 0.54054 6631.0041169 0.62 0.76 0.35440 0.37755 3645.0041007 4.31 0.01 0.83713 1221.49 1.81959 4766.85805 69.42411 1919.08723 0.28 0.90519 0.66 0.0053358 1.81644 0.30 0.82454 17964.53154 2931.31977 0.51 0.45763 1363.88 0.00470 0.47418 0.06189 0.76285 1867.76803 0.93155 7.84 0.04017 2911.52184 3961.0040511 3.65391 0.81081 0.39 0.27544 0.00 0.00 0.41024 4005.47169 0.18517 0.11 0.99783 0.22 0.09725 0.011844 41 1.54 0.80 1.71007 0.23 0.0042203 5.71453 3.92 0.87958 302.72287 0.48900 0.0042937 3.62025 2161.0041458 6.02 0.64564 0.58 0.014359 54 0.57428 1626.50004 2824.31327 3891.41003 4403.0038455 0.63788 1116.0040901 4.72 0.0040203 1.77 0.82483 0.0040596 5.87424 0.87043 1473.0051414 3.20000 4.0044292 3.10544 0.85510 1461.80 0.27 1.42 0.89678 27.00000 1.71074 14.28590 0.67 0.89992 2376.05 0.0044775 3.95 0.92760 3166.93891 0.12128 2477.0043809 5.73 0.03156 2.83796 1579.95083 917.0043024 2.0042177 5.99623 2006.95000 3.90410 1473.47697 0.026160 53 0.68532 1.23 0.62 1.68434 1428.89 0.0041782 4.37671 0.26 0.0040486 4.76512 2003.64072 0.49453 4234.81 0.18 0.46080 0.14730 0.59 0.0050829 4.24 0.37764 4713.90289 7431.72 0.0038346 0.029342 46 1.85249 1885.87011 0.0042119 7.70263 7.61 0.69476 0.025008 34 1.57861 1267.67 0.22895 0.52986 0.71202 2.00000 3.081835 12 0.0051049 5.85917 1918.062440 44 1.44249 1801.0041918 9.67911 0.82269 1110.036448 47 1.35 0.032235 45 1.83039 0.34620 2287.030874 33 1.0040306 0.0040553 4.92 0.97284 1037.87823 3411.92060 0.00000 0.27254 1872.90649 45.23810 0.07 0.03909 0.61884 14.00000 2.61889 0.47961 2719.0040814 4.30 0.19 0.0043134 9.25677 0.57598 0.33879 2938.25623 0.0044740 5.0049079 2.82 0.027165 70 0.0040829 4.027757 38 0.98170 628.72 0.

97814 0.63253×10-7 7 2.26601×10 91 2.81 0.49027×106 4.27026×10 4.31024×10 3.00254×10-2 2.35842 4760.47984×106 3.61762×10 1.25893×103 -1.50285×10-1 5.61720×106 3.13989×103 -1.76210×10-1 6.19156×103 -1.77425×10-1 9.22875×10 -8.81380×106 4.06590×10-1 7.30450×103 -1.78260×106 5.38496×104 6.50960×10-1 8.88836 3966.66577 0.81909×10-1 6.20559×103 -9.16 0.11897×10 2.48248×10-1 8.48824 0.62905×106 5.56347×10-7 66 2.65922×10-7 82 2.81829×105 2.92839 0. Coefficients for low-energy proton electronic stopping power parameterization.21919×10 4.75858×10-7 hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh .0039695 6.19975×10-1 7.27594×105 1.91082 1417.25289×10-1 7.68159×10-7 26 8.21 0.18179×10 75 2.85351×102 1.95911×103 -1.25672×10 9.54 0.09546×10 -2.48602×10 -3.09530 0.74463×103 -1.80746 29.34695×10 -7.47397×103 -2.15297×103 -2.85549×10-1 9.05229×103 -1.59960×103 -2.015058 82 0.78534×10 84 2.99558×106 5.06469×10-7 -1 3 5 -7 34 1.0039744 6.31881×106 3.24194×10-7 88 2.77 0.71675×10-1 9.52977×10-1 5.20336×10-1 4.15753×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 16 5.31501×10 2.15 0.08558×10 3.27608×10 2.85222 0.20857 0.80044×103 -1.16 0.83540×105 1.32296×10-7 -3 2 4 -8 2 7.65692×10-1 9.31358×10-1 7.12264 5687.92193×10-7 11 4.05489×10 2.0036901 0.99197×10-1 7.42129×106 3.03749×103 -2.52122 4619.92099 0.09956 0.55377×106 5.36106×10-1 5.74509×10-1 9.012042 86 0.78858×103 -2.96 0.27765×10-1 7.64117×10 55 1.97 0.00351 0.66122 2505.14705×10 1.32273×10 78 2.27100×10-7 17 6.12622×106 4.37308×103 -3.88437 1576.67825×10 67 2.91492×10-7 86 2.82763×10 -4.30771×10 62 1.022816 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Table 2.83401×10-1 6.28264×10 2.70 0.86804 1658.62856×10 2.31014×10 77 2.41457×105 2.08873×10-1 7.70085×105 2.52962×103 -1.011747 87 0.28790 2.015401 79 1.17923×10-3 1.02570 2.08183×106 4.51 0.61772×10-2 1.91888×10-2 3.11796×10-1 7.10651×10 59 1.97379×10 2.06403×10-2 2.16807×103 -1.52331×103 -1.62147×106 3.25513×10-7 92 2.48542 4586.07755×103 -7.66321×103 -1.03342×10-8 47 1.48729×106 4.95891×10 71 2.46266×106 5.56 0.95813×10 -5.42794×10-7 79 2.89345×10-7 70 2.62426×105 1.08710×10 2.18267 0.84240×10-7 85 2.12 0.43645×10-7 -2 2 4 -8 3 1.011029 83 0.45809×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 22 7.37897×10 -1.01829×106 4.81065 5.61215×106 3.61611×10-7 23 7.69987×103 -2.84280×106 4.96956×10-7 33 1.42995 0.62469×103 -2.21905×10-7 -1 3 6 -7 37 1.61524×10-7 -1 3 6 -7 45 1.62232×10-8 50 1.19253×10-8 53 1.75340×10 1.58932×10-1 5.22804×10-7 76 2.93146×10-7 30 1.11202×10 7.37846×10 -1.90072×10-1 6.41923 3.70207×103 -2.32027 4866.92256×10 48 1.35299×10-1 8.95780 33.01440×106 2.14077×10-1 7.22819×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 18 6.85616×103 -1.08937×105 1.43040×10-7 -1 3 6 -7 41 1.27369×10 1.97154×103 -2.04404×106 4.44268×10 3.76177×10-1 6.12374 0.92190×103 -2. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Z A A A A A A10 A11 A12 Z 2 9 10 11 12 2 9 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1 4.0036195 0.18576×106 4.31 0.80360×103 -1.0040524 4.91405×10 1.36101×10-7 20 7.07107×10-7 -1 3 5 -7 35 1.53822×106 3.03813×10 3.10 0.011935 84 0.28632×103 -2.09324×10 1.39460×102 -2.66333×103 -1.47420×106 5.33 0.53520×10-1 8.65844×10-7 -2 2 4 -8 6 2.69242×10 -9.58884×106 5.62536×10-1 8.87219×10-1 9.87545×106 4.60761×10-1 5.21626×10 -2.88930 2053.97036×103 -1.81747 930.027690 78 1.18963 0.14779×103 -5.46553×10-7 40 1.012839 80 0.58005×10-8 57 1.01158×10 58 1.77715×106 4.99456×10 -6.16 0.78654 15.35950×10 4.74553×10-7 8 2.41996×106 3.70703 4595.84912 7.78728×10-2 3.88083 2323.22200 0.16864 1.44270×103 -1.79689 0.88773 2173.78437×106 5.50 0.57037×10 65 2.21279×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 29 9.79628×10-1 9.54250 3246.19599×106 4.47965×106 3.0039806 3.69 0.39186×10-7 39 1.65096 3754.006219 89 0.76889×10-7 27 9.04568×103 -4.45968×103 -2.88833 2888.60975×103 -2.15124 0.10080×104 6.51464 36.96734×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 13 4.43638 9.26463×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 19 6.0040540 11.007130 85 0.59200×10-7 -1 3 6 -7 44 1.61892×10 -4.88005×10 7.45124×10 3.65660×106 5.52185×104 3.87969×10 3.28151×10-7 -1 3 5 -7 38 1.68822×10-1 6.50701×105 1.0040374 2.44245×106 4.18025×103 -2.11707×10-7 14 4.43834×103 -6.10030×10 2.03901×10-1 7.52678 4040.47955×103 -1.54282 0.44400×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 21 7.25960×106 3.41345×106 4. Coefficients for high-energy proton electronic stopping power parameterization.84849×10 49 1.43497×106 3.51461×106 5.97060×10-1 6.24536 0.43317×103 -2.81810×106 4.16522×10-2 3.42977 5180.35 0.38 0.40468×10-1 5.47 0.06019×105 2.87169×10 -7.98400×10-2 1.36538×103 -1.55788×10-1 5.40824 0.08265×10-2 3.40031×10-7 63 2.23522×10-1 7.86747 6990.32120×10 -1.71378×103 -2.16476×10-7 89 2.0040431 7.30 0.15560 0.0040588 8.78771×103 -9.16992×103 -2.49344×10-7 43 1.27679×10 -1.37140×10 52 1.14 0.31 0.69271 0.28110×10-1 8.18382×10-7 36 1.82146×10-7 -2 3 5 -8 9 3.71185×10 -2.53618 3091.13619×10 4.92452×106 4.88362×10-1 6.53771×10-2 6.49584×10 2.38802×103 -2.26686×10 2.98990×10-7 -1 3 5 -7 32 1.82863 2065.33404×10 -6.54295×10-7 -2 2 4 -8 5 1.0040041 5.58341 0.85353×10 -5.80265×103 -2.93086×10-1 6.57190×10-1 8.70308×10 3.16002×103 -2.23310×10 61 1.87865×103 -1.61386×10 2.40758×105 8.78465×106 5.01267 0.35610 4464.62546×10 -1.94915×106 5.47382×10-7 4 1.43183×103 -1.56540×10 81 2.75890 0.38183×10-1 8.02778×10-7 10 3.01321×10-7 72 2.43663×10 5.84798×10 83 2.97212×10-7 -1 3 5 -7 31 1.55052×106 3. (continued) Z2 vF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 77 1.99690×10 -2.72250 1890.28578×10 1.07594×103 -7.32588×10-1 4.85602 1508.45714×10 64 2.80519×10-7 69 2.55928×10 51 1.34885×10 2.10728×103 -2.90 0.41184×10-1 8.40957×10-7 42 1.88433 9.30531×10 2.48654×104 8.07103×103 -1.86689×10 2.20210×103 -1.12123×10 5.67157×103 -1.0040510 3.72 0.53336×10 -6.35674×105 2.20349×10 90 2.09676×10 74 2.63804×10 -6.60771×10-2 1.40467×10-8 56 1.08537×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 12 4.76368×103 -6.011282 91 1.91805×106 4.24460×10 -5.26999×10 3.89812 1033.25450×106 3.44759×10-1 8.32087 0.65304×106 5.97089×10 1.98599×106 4.17242×10 4.55519×10 1.80782×10 68 2.04266×10-2 1.35075×103 -6.01510×10 2.23883×103 -2.52509×10 80 2.27431×106 4.28482×103 -2.56765×10 1.37 0.69021×106 5.90236 0.10147×10-1 4.62649×105 2.73395×102 1.95396×10 87 2.87794 2481.66401 3.15392×10-7 60 1.13253×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 15 5.20915 0.96061×10-2 1.64665×103 -2.81862×10 4.21551×10 1.97111×10 -1.0039973 3.81714×106 4.73988×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 28 9.57783×10-7 -2 3 5 -7 25 8.73337×10-1 6.47029×103 -2.55387×103 -5.06443×10-7 73 2.47257 0.43357 1.23810 3.0036003 0.89050×103 -2.02448×10 1.55391×106 5.0039432 1.60218×10-1 8.46717×10 5.77658×106 4.09978×10 1.0039661 7.009201 88 0.83950×10 -2.42092×103 -1.30043×10-1 4.92833×103 -2.56486×10-7 24 8.27 0.59993×10-7 46 1.01064×10-1 3.Table iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1.44650×103 -2.95374×10-8 54 1.52 0.82865×10-1 9.85772 1691.46509×103 -8.02 0.011627 90 0.73087 5.34124 0.86383 1602.64200×10-1 5.24222 0.70174 0.009191 92 1.17630×10 4.89235 5295.17372×10-1 7.89124 3213.008853 81 0.26 0.

1266B + 0. is given in terms of ion velocity v 1 (≡ √ddddd 2E /M 1).001429B 2 − 0.2865 − 0. St (1H). where it is proportional to v 10. Hubert.6 − ln hhhh )2 M1 (12) where corrects for the polarization of the target atoms by the projectile (the "Z 13 effect"). Λ = hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Z 11/3 (1 − (1−q )/7) (16) The effective ion velocity.F. otherwise it is proportional to the ion velocity. and q is the degree of ionization of the ion given by a 0 is the Bohr radius (0. An alternate parameterization based on S(4He) has been derived by Hubert et al. 2 M Z1 1 (15) and Λ is the ion screening length defined in reference 1 as 2a 0(1−q )2/3 . Here. High-energy proton stopping Se ≈St . 2/3 2 15 vF v 0Z 1 3vF (18) and for v 1<vF .Proton stopping.5≤E /M 1≤500 MeV/nucleon on various targets. For ions heavier than protons. Gauvin. Proton stopping for 1 kev≤ E ≤ 10 GeV and Z 2≤92. except for Z 2=6 or for Z 1≤19 in Z 2=14 or 32 band-gap materials.00005Z 2)exp−(7. and H.6 − (ln hhhh ))2 .75vF 2v 12 1 v1 hhhh yr = hhhhhhh [1+( )− hhh ( hhh )4] . Data Nucl.38157yr − 0. For 4He ions. the electron stopping power in a given material can be calculated from the proton stoping power in the same material using the generalized scaling relation Seref (γZ 1)2 Se = h hhhhhhhh . These relations hold for ion velocities greater than vF /Z 12/3 . Se is proportional to velocity. Bimbot.75 .3167yr0. For v 1≥vF . R. Ziegler et al.02402B 3 + 0. St (4He) can then be obtained from equations (1) and (2). Janni. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh 4 J. have been tabulated by Janni4. 147(1982). calculated using the parameterization in equation (9). otherwise. based on a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental data (for 20 keV≤E ≤1 MeV). 2 (Z ref 1 ) (10) 1 where Seref and Z ref 1 are for a reference ion ( H) moving at the same velocity (same energy/nucleon) as the projectile for which Se is to be calculated. Data Tables 27. At. is plotted on the upper curves in Figure 3.1 parameterize γ as a function ofB =ln(E /M 1) as follows: γ2 = 1−exp(−0. v1 vF2 hhhh yr = hhhhhhh (1+ ).007 + 0. (13) − ) is the Bohr velocity.5. γZ 1 is the effective charge for the projectile of interest.3 − 1. γ = q + 0. C is a correction factor incorporating the experimentally established Z 13 . Data and Nucl. for 10 MeV≤E ≤2 GeV is given on the lower curves in Figure 3.008983yr2) . (14) C is given by 1 E C = 1 + hhh (0.5(1−q )(v 0/vF )2ln[1 + (2ΛvF /(a 0v 0))2]C .0015Z 2)exp−(7. 5 F.803yr0. Data Tables 46. 1(1990). They tabulate stopping powers and ranges for ion beams with 2≤Z 1≤103 and 2.6 − 0. v 0Z 12/3 5v 12 (17) 0. calculated with TRIM2 using the above parameterization.529177A q = 1 − exp(0. v 0(=e2/h ° ). These values agree within 10% with those plotted in Figure 3. where vF is the Fermi velocity for the target material (which is included in Table 1).01135B 4 − 0. For ions with Z 1>2. At. yr . (11) E c = 1 + (0. in various target materials for 10 kev≤ E ≤100 MeV. Se (4He) is given by equation (10) for E (4He)>4 keV. .001475B 5)c 2 .18 + 0.

the initial value of Rp is calculated at E 1=10 eV/nucleon as M2 2E 1 h hhhhhhhhhh . is given in Figure 4.Range: The pathlength for a projectile of energy E 0 in the stopping material is calculated from E0 Rt (E 0) = ∫ St−1dE . TRIM includes a Monte Carlo calculation which provides a full statistical accounting of the projectile’s interaction with its stopping medium. multiplying ( hhhh ) in equation (3).6022ρ hhh hhhhhhhh Qn = h hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh ( ). At the higher energies.2St + µSn (21) ° by and Qn is the second moment of the nuclear energy loss. and f ε is the factor E ° . Rp <Rt because of significant angular deflections of the projectile in collisions which become important when the energy is low enough for nuclear collisions to become significant. equation (20) yields Rp in units of A °. With Sn and St in units of eV/A M1 The projected range for protons in various target materials. the quantity which is most often measured is the projected (mean) range Rp . the projected range and the pathlength are nearly identical. . also provide an algorithm for calculating Rp and its longitudinal and transverse standard deviations (range straggling) which provides calculational simplicity while giving satisfactory agreement with the full Monte Carlo calculations. given in units of (eV)2/A 4M 1M 2 fS 0.197ε + 6. which is the mean distance travelled by the projectile in its incident direction. it involves iterating the differential equation 4E 2 − 2E µSn + µQn Rp (E 0) ∆E 0 Rp (E 0+∆E 0) = Rp (E 0) + [ hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh ] h hhh . E 2(2ESt − µQn ) (20) M1 Here. f S is the factor multiplying Sn (ε) in equation (2). µ= hhhh . and the contribution of Sn is negligible. 1.0494 M fε (M 1 + M 2) (4 + 0. (19b) E1 However. 2 −1. calculated with TRIM for 10 keV≤E ≤100 MeV and by integrating the higher energy inverse stopping power Se using the parameterization of equation (9) for 100 MeV≤E ≤2 GeV. To second order.684ε ) 2 (22) where ρ is the target material density (g/cm3).691 −1. Ziegler et al. (19a) 0 which can also be expressed as E0 Rt (E 0) = Rt (E 1) + ∫ St−1dE .

Proton stopping powers in various targets for 10 keV<E<2 GeV Stopping power (MeV/(mg/cm2)) 10-1 C Al Fe Sn Ta U 10-2 C Al Fe Sn Ta U E in GeV 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 Energy (MeV) 101 102 .100 Figure 3.

Proton projected ranges in various targets for 10 keV<E<2 GeV 107 C Al Sn Fe Ta U 106 105 104 Range (µm) 103 102 Al 101 C Sn 100 10-1 10-2 10-2 Fe Ta U 10-1 100 101 Energy (MeV) 102 103 104 .Figure 4.