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What is the legacy of Futurism. expounded in Russolo`s 1913
manifesto. as manifest in studio composition?
'While I was listening to vour overwhelming Futurist Music with mv Futurist Friends
[..]. a new art came into mv mind which onlv vou can create. the Art of Noises. the
logical consequence of vour marvellous innovations.`
[1]
Luigi Russolo`s 1913 maniIesto The Art oI Noises` caused incalculable change in the
thinking oI early 20th century composers. At the time. most were still trying to
rekindle the dying embers oI late Romanticism. Repercussions Irom its Iirst
publication on March 11
th
1913 resonate throughout music oI the 20th century and
beyond into the 21
st
. The year was |as Mariorie PerloII entitled it|. the Futurist
Moment`
|2|
.
The Art oI Noises` was a letter written to Franceso Balilla Pratella as a response to
his composition Futurist Music For Orchestra` and three maniIestos oI Futurist music
oI 1912. Russolo was also inspired by F.T.Marinetti`s Futurist maniIesto oI 1909.
which stated give musical animation to crowds. great industrial shipyards. trains.
transatlantic steamers. battleships. automobiles and aeroplanes`
|3|
. He also drew
insight Irom the prominent Futurist artist and theorist Umberto Boccioni with his
admiration Ior speed. war. youth and machinery.
Although Francesco Balilla Pratella was at the time the composer most strongly
associated with the Futurist movement. The Art oI Noises` raised Luigi Russolo as
the Iigurehead Ior Futurist music and bequeathed him an indelible legacy as one oI
the Iirst experimental musicians and the godIather oI Noise.
The legacy oI Futurism and Russolo`s The Art oI Noises` is something that critics
are only recently beginning to appreciate. aided by the giIt oI circumspection and
increased lenience toward the Futurist`s extroverted militant Fascist politics.
The radical and pugnacious statements in Russolo`s maniIesto brought into
consideration the deIinition oI music and opened up a vast and inIinite world oI sound
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 1
material to composers. The maniIesto shepherded in the birth oI noise sounds and
noise making instruments |like Russolo`s own Iirst prototypes oI the Intonarumori`|.
The Intonarumori` or Noise Intoners` were instruments designed to maniIest the six
Iamilies oI noises-sounds described in The Art oI Noises`. By means oI a crank that
rotated a wheel inside a large wooden sound box with connected metal horn. a catgut
string was vibrated. By manipulating the crank the perIormer could alter the volume
oI sound created and by means oI a small lever on top oI the sound box. the tension oI
the string. This lever allowed the pitch oI the string to be altered by small. even
microtonal amounts and Ior the use oI glissando as an eIIect.
Microtonality was a recognized concept that had existed previously but the
experiments oI Russolo teamed with the invention oI the Theremin in 1919 by the
Russian born Lev Termen Iuelled the potential Ior a much deeper utilization oI it in
composition. The concept oI utilizing intervals oI less than a semi-tone is apparent in
compositions throughout the 20
th
century Irom Charles Ives` Three Quarter-tone
Impressions` |1924| right through to the 1980 spectral microtonal Gondwana` by
Tristan Murail.

Russolo`s position as a composer. perIormer and instrument inventor invigorated the
role oI the composer in music. a rarity since the Middle Ages. The creation oI new
instruments has played a vital part in the role oI a composer ever since. John Cage
shared this penchant Ior adapted or newly created instruments`
|4|
and one can trace
this lineage right through Irom Harry Partch
|5|
and Les Paul to the present day with
the automated Iuturistic mechanics oI Felix Thorn
|6|
and Pierre Bastien
|7|
.
With the arrival oI World War One. Russolo embodied his militant ideals and ioined
the Motorcycle Corps along with many other leading lights oI the Italian Futurist
movement. He emerged iniured but alive as other inIluential Iigures such as Umberto
Boccioni lost their lives. Futurism Iloundered during the devastation oI World War
One. but it`s momentum continued aIterward despite popular misconception. Russolo
continued his investigations into new instrumentation throughout the 1920s with the
invention oI the keyboard-operated Rumorarmonio`. an early version oI what was to
become known as a prepared piano and the production oI an enharmonic bow. which
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 2
produced metallic sounds Irom conventional string instruments.
The only existing score Irom Russolo`s experiments in notation Ior his Intonarumori`
shows sustained pitches as dots in quartertones on the stave combined with slanted
lines representing glissandos. It can be considered alongside F.T.Marinetti`s Iamous
Futurist work Zang Tumb Tumb / Bombardamento di Adrianapoli / Parole in
Liberta` |1912| as amongst the Iirst examples oI a graphic score and the birth oI
scores that not only stored musical thought but also portrayed musical discourse. The
onomatopoeically titled score Ior Zang Tumb Tumb` portrays the beginnings oI a
compositional Ireedom. literally Words in Freedom` and the release Irom notative
stricture within music and writing. Earle Brown's unusually notated FOLIO` |1952-
3|. Cornelius Cardew`s Treatise` |1963-67| and the work oI Anthony Braxton
particularly serve to compound and develop these experiments.
'All of those that can be made bv the mouth of a man without resorting to speaking
or singing.`
[1]
In Zang Tumb Tumb` Marinetti dismissed punctuation and hacked up language into
its most essential elements. The inIluence oI both Russolo and Marinetti can be seen
in the work oI Aleksei Kruchenykh and Velemir Khlebnikov. two Russian Futurists
who were experimenting along similar lines. They invented the name Zaum` Ior their
abstraction oI language in poems. the Iirst oI which was released in 1917. The style
later became recognised and named as Sound Poetry. The style oI Zang Tumb Tumb`
and Zaum` can be seen reIlected in more recent works such as the screams oI
Diamanda Galas on her 1982 album The Litanies oI Satan`.
The Futurists introduced a style oI perIormance that broke down the imagined barriers
between perIormer and audience. Their perIormances regularly inspired riots and
intentionally conIronted the audience. with the perpetrators alighting Irom the stage
and interacting amongst the crowd.
'Awav' Let us break out. since we cannot much longer restrain our desire to create
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 3
finallv a new musical realitv. with a generous distribution of resonant slaps in the
face. discarding violins. pianos. double basses and plaintive organs. Let us break
out''
[1]
Drawing inIluence Irom and in reaction to the vibrancy and radicalism oI the Futurist
maniIestos and perIormances. Hugo Ball and Emily Hennings Iounded the Cabaret
Voltaire` in Zurich in 1916. spawning the Dadaist movement. These perIormances oI
poetry evolved into what became known as Happenings` eventually producing the
PerIormance art` oI today. Other key Dadaist Iigures that utilised typographic
variations in the style oI Marinetti include Raoul Hausmann and Kurt Schwitters.
'Futurism taught its successors to be tvpographicallv alert.`
[8]
Schwitters` 40-minute work Ursonate` |1922| is renowned as one oI the earliest
recorded and greatest sound poems in existence and owes much to Marinetti`s
concept oI Parole In Liberta` |Words in Freedom`|.
The American born Ezra Pound. spokesman Ior the Vorticists |a short lived British
movement which bore similarities to Futurism| praised The Art oI Noises` as
Iollows:
'The dawn of a new age in music in which the sounds of machines. labour and
factories could be organised into a vibrant 20
th
centurv musical art form`
[9]
This is not to say that the Futurists directly caused the birth oI Dadaism. PerIormance
Art and Sound Poetry. merely that their inIluence was strongly Ielt. even iI sometimes
in reaction against their extravagant maniIestos. The Dadaists themselves in many oI
their iournals and maniIestos proclaimed Futurism to be a mere propaganda tool`.
The Futurists legacy in sound poetry is part oI a long lineage. Lines oI inIluence can
be drawn all the way back Irom Theocritus to George Herbert and on to the language
oI Lewis Carroll`s 1871 poem Jabberwocky`. The latter particularly maniIests itselI
in Russolo`s categorization oI the Intonarumori` into groups with words such as
Rombi` |rumbles|. Fischi` |whistles|. Bisbigli` |whispers| and Stridori`
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 4
|screeches|.
Futurism`s cause celebre nevertheless was to be Russolo and Marinetti`s call Ior the
conquering oI the use oI noise-sounds in composition. Conventional instrumentation
would be cast down to achieve this purpose.
'We must break out of this limited circle of sounds and conquer the infinite varietv of
noise-sounds`
[1]
In 1914 Luigi Russolo and F.T Marinetti gave the Iirst concert oI Futurist music
named Four Networks oI Noises`. The perIormance utilized sounds oI the city. cars
and airplanes. Futurist music perIormances occurred in Italy right up until World War
Two. Their inIluence seeped into the consciousness oI composers worldwide through
baIIled newspaper columnists and maniIestos published by the wealthy Marinetti.
In 1922. Arsenii Avraamov created the colossal extravagance SinIoniya Gudkov` or
Symphony oI the Factory Sirens` involving artillery guns. inIantry regiments and
Iactory sirens. In 1923 Nikolai Foregger created his Noise Orchestra` and George
Antheil began work on Ballet Mecanique`. written to accompany a Iilm by the
Dadaist Fernand Leger oI the same title. Ballet Mecanique` included three airplane
propellers. a siren. and a series oI electric bells. In true Futurist style it caused a riot at
its premiere in Paris.
Other composers inspired by the Futurist 'noise-sounds` included Maurice Ravel.
Serge Diaghilev and Igor Stravinsky. The Russian art critic Diaghilev was a Iirm
supporter oI Russolo and introduced him to a network oI world-renowned musicians
thus Iurther propagating his ideas. Igor Stravinsky arranged to meet with Russolo to
see the Intonarumori` perIorm and was most enamoured. wishing to utilise them in
his compositions. This unIortunately never transpired.
In 1927 the French composer Edgar Varese used drums and sirens to produce the
composition 'Ionization¨. Varese wanted to 'expand the possibilities oI music within
the tradition oI an autonomous artwork¨
|10|
echoing the Futurists wont Ior
compositional exploration and the inclusion oI all sounds.
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 5
Charles Ives also gained inspiration. with his instructions Ior the pianist to use a 14-/
inch piece oI wood to produce a cluster chord in his 2
nd
Piano Sonata. Olivier
Messaien`s 1935 piece entitled La Nativite du Seigneur` was among his Iirst to
involve transcribed melodies Irom birdsong. something that later became a strong
theme in his work. It wasn`t merely in Western culture that the Futurist ideas oI
machines. microtonality and noise were Ielt. One can trace these new ways oI
thinking across the world to Silvestre Revueltas and Carlos Chavez in Mexico.
Amadeo Roldan in Cuba and Kosaku Yamada in Japan.
For some oI these composers. Futurism undoubtedly did not have a direct inIluence.
Russolo and the Futurists must however be given credit Ior being the Iirst to release
the notions oI noise sounds. noise instruments and microtonality out into the musical
ether.
The next well-trodden step in the study oI the legacy oI Futurism within Studio
Composition is to pass the baton on to the experiments oI Pierre SchaeIIer and the
studios oI RadiodiIIusion Francaise in Paris. Pieces such as Etude aux Chemins de
Fer` and Etudes de Bruits` oI 1948 used sounds such as steam engines. whistles.
sauce pan lids and record manipulation. We should note that SchaeIIer at the time oI
his Iirst experiments in the studios oI RadiodiIIusion Francaise said that he knew
nothing about Russolo
|11|
. Pierre Henry. who worked with SchaeIIer between 1949
and 1958. notes the Iollowing about the inIluence oI the Futurists.
'I can´t reallv sav that I felt close to Italian futurists. I thought of them as fascists and
not as artists. Of course it was glorifving for them to sav we could make noise. but
there alwavs has been noise. even classical composers would add a cannon shot in
their work.`
[12]
Many composers have disregarded the Futurists on account oI their extroverted
Fascistic politics and warmongering; others Ielt their inIluence more keenly:
'Wherever we are. what we hear is mostlv noise. When we ignore it. it disturbs us.
When we listen to it. we find it fascinating. The sound of a truck at fiftv miles per
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 6
hour. Static between the stations. Rain.`
[13]
The above is Irom The Future oI Music: Credo` by John Cage |1961|. Whilst
undertaking a Iellowship at the Wesleyan Centre oI Advanced Studies in 1960. Cage
was invited to put together a list oI written works he Iound most inIluential. Russolo's
The Art oI Noises` was included. He previously reIerred to The Art oI Noises` in a
1948 lecture at the liberal arts college Vassar.
Marinetti`s Futurist Radiophonic Theatre` oI 1933 was perhaps the most thorough
investigation oI the Art oI Noises` and is one oI the Iirst examples oI sound collage
and the use oI Concrete` sounds. In Marinetti`s maniIesto Ior this work he talked oI
The reception. ampliIication and transIiguration oI vibrations emitted by matter`
|14|
.
This concept oI ampliIying microscopic audio material has now been realised in detail
in Studio Composition with the advent oI suIIiciently sensitive microphones. It has
become a speciality oI composers such as LieI Brush and Richard Lerman.
'The art of noise must not limit itself to imitative reproduction. It will achieve its
most emotive power in the acoustic eniovment. in its own right.`
[1]
The Art oI Noises` paved the way Ior the modern day audience to appreciate a beauty
derived Irom the balance between nature. the excitement oI the city and technological
noises. It ratiIied composition derived Irom recordings and samples oI the natural
sounds and proposed Ior them to be considered as equal |or better| than tonal music.
Within the work oI ambient composer Brian Eno and the pioneering oI soundscapes
by R. Murray SchaIer we see these ideas extrapolated.
'I like to work with all the complex sounds on the wav out to the horizon. to pure
noise. like the hum of London. If vou sit in Hvde Park iust far enough awav from the
traffic so that vou dont perceive anv of its details. vou iust hear the average of the
whole thing. And its such a beautiful sound. For me. thats as good as going to a
concert hall at night.` [Brian Eno]
[15]
Marcel Duchamp. inIluenced by Futurism`s portrayal oI movement and spirit oI
adventure created a small but signiIicant series oI music pieces around the time oI
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 7
Russolo`s maniIesto. One oI these Erratum Musical`. which historians estimate was
created in 1913 may in Iact be one oI the Iirst examples oI an Aleatory` composition
in existence. The piece was written Ior three voices. and each voice had a set oI 25
cards with one note on it. The cards were mixed up and Duchamp pulled out one at a
time. writing the series oI notes out Ior each voice thus determining what each singer
would sing. The Aleatory` method oI composition and related Chance Operations`
became accepted methods oI working Ior composers including Pierre Boulez. John
Cage and James Tenney and showed remarkable results in Louise and Bebe Barron`s
entirely electronic soundtrack oI the Iuturistic Iilm Forbidden Planet` |1956|.
Forbidden Planet` also marks the moment when Futurism became closely linked with
ideas oI Space travel. Time travel and Science Fiction.
In the 1960s. the BBC Radiophonic Workshop |the title perhaps a nod towards
Marinetti`s Futurist Radiophonic Theatre`| established themselves as a household
name with their pioneering collaged soundtracks to the cult Sci-Fi TV show Dr
Who`. One oI their members Daphne Oram. created the technique oI Oramics`. This
involved alerting characteristics oI sound by drawing onto strips oI 35mm Iilm read
through photoelectric cells. Visually these strips bear striking similarities to Russolo`s
score Ior his Intonarumori`.
'So bv extending the sonic further and further. Im on the hunt. Im chasing for. Im
trving to find out new perceptions. perceptions that have alwavs been there. but
havent vet been grasped and havent vet been connected to anvthing else vet. Its this
exploration into the unknown.`
[16]
Futurism`s progressive intention and identity transmogriIied into popular culture in
the Sixties and Seventies. It appeared in literature with Philip K. Dick`s Do Androids
Dream oI Electric Sheep?` |1968|. laced with themes oI war. exploration and galactic
contemplation and was reinterpreted in combination with Black culture in the
movement towards AIroIuturism. The late 1950s compositions oI Sun-Ra and George
Russell were laden with extra-terrestrialism and complex Iuturistic production styles
that seemed to evoke Marinetti`s cry oI 'Let`s Murder The Moonshine¨
|17|
.
Whilst AIrika Bambaataa Iurthered AIroIuturistic studio composition in the 1980s
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 8
with the Ioundations oI Hip-hop and sampling |which can be perceived as a kind oI
aural time-travel|. this galactic Iuturism was also strongly inIluential upon Pop-
Iuturist David Bowie`s studio recordings. the work oI German electronic music
pioneers KraItwerk |especially their album Autobahn` in 1974| and within the late
1980`s production values oI Trevor Horn and The Art oI Noise` |named in tribute to
Russolo`s maniIesto|.
Russolo`s need Ior a new musical reality and conquering oI noise-sounds is presently
maniIest in oIt brutalist Iashion in the studio compositions oI the American
experimental duo Matmos. Their 2001 album A Chance to Cut Is a Chance to Cure`
consists primarily oI samples oI plastic surgery and liposuctions. This air oI
experimentalism and Iuturist thought is also apparent in the works oI the Icelandic
Biörk |her almost entirely vocal work Medulla particularly echoes Marinetti`s Zang
Tumb Tumb`| and in Robin Rimbaud`s work under his alias Scanner`.
'Bolder than a professional musician could be. unconcerned bv mv apparent
incompetence and convinced that all rights and possibilities open up to daring. I have
been able to initiate the great renewal of music bv means of the Art of Noises.`
[1]
Russolo was a non-musician and openly declared himselI thus. He treated this Iact as
an advantage that lent him a new perspective. This opened the door to the concept oI a
composer who was a non-musician. Some 70 years later this concept entered the
popular mainstream at Iull throttle with the Punk and Noise genres.
'In fact I don´t consider mvself a real musician. I´m in the dictionarv as a musician. It
makes me laugh. A good researcher is what I am.`
Pierre Schaeffer interviewed bv Tim Hodgkinson [1986]
[18]
.
The Velvet Underground. Iormed in 1965 were the Iirst band to really mainstream the
use oI noise in their studio albums. John Cale resounded Russolo`s enharmonic bow
by placing electric guitar strings on a violin and producing 'a drone |that sounded|
like a iet engine!¨
|19|
. Lou Reed later went on to create his seminal 1998 album
Metal Machine Music` in a Futuristic enthral to the power oI the machine.
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 9
Einstürzende Neubauten. with their music video homage to Luigi Russolo Blume`
Irom the 1993 album Tabula Rasa` Iurther attributed the Noise movement to its
Futurist Ioundation. Merzbow. named aIter a Kurt Schwitters piece. carry on
Futurism`s belligerent Iascist mentality concerning the utilization oI noise into the
present day.
'Sometimes I would like to kill the much too noisv Japanese bv mv own Noise. The
effects of Japanese Culture are too much noise evervwhere. I want to make silence bv
mv Noise. Mavbe. that is a fascist wav of using sound.`
[Masama Akita from Merzbow interviewed bv Chad Henslev]
[20]
Sound Art` also laid its roots in Futurism and with now commonplace installation oI
works in galleries around the world. we can see a break away Irom the perIormance
oI compositions in concert halls. these hospitals Ior anaemic sounds`
|1|
. Particularly
notable examples oI Futuristic Sound Art` include La Monte Young`s Four Dreams
oI China` created in the 1960s. Young achieves with these compositions a balance
between natural and machine sounds.
'The motors and machines of our industrial cities will one dav be consciouslv
attuned.`
[1]
AIter World War One. Futurist protagonists became particularly enraptured by Ilight.
leading to their striking Aeropaintings` - the collaborative work oI Luigi Russolo and
Fedele Azari in 1918. They created the Futurist Aerial Theatre`. tuning the engines oI
airplanes so that the pilot might control pitch. volume and timbre. Curiously car
companies oI the present day are now Iaced with the paradox oI having to compose
car sounds Ior the near silent Electric Car |Lotus are a particular pioneer!
|21|
|. The
Futurist`s enthusiasm Ior the technology oI Ilight also endures in recent compositions.
Karlheinz Stockhausen`s Helikopter-Streichquartett`. the third scene oI Mittwoch
aus Licht` completed in 1993 is a particularly Iine example.
'Our ear is not satisfied and calls for ever greater acoustical emotions`
[1]
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 10
Futurism signiIicantly popularised the idea oI maniIestos on music. One can see this
echoed into the present day within such writings as John Cage`s Silence` |1939| and
Mark Amerika`s Avant-Pop ManiIesto` |1993|. Between the years oI 1909 and 1916
the Futurists created nearly IiIty maniIestos on music. theatre. poetry. sculpture and
painting which were published all over the world.
It is interesting to note that George Antheil`s mechanical ballet has only recently been
given a Iully realised perIormance |by Paul Lehrman in May 2006
|22|
|. It is only now
with computers oI suIIicient power and interIaces such as Jazzmutant`s Lemur` that
the mechanised control oI all oI the instruments in accordance with Antheil`s wishes
has been made possible. This is an important Iactor when considering the legacy oI
Futurism. Only in Iuture generations with the advent oI appropriate machinery. were
their ideas able to become accurately realised in perIormance and composition.
'This musical evolution is paralleled bv the multiplication of machines. which
collaborate with man on everv front.`
[1]
Observing the modern incarnation oI studio composition. one begins to wonder how
much the legacy oI The Art oI Noises` has led to composer`s subservience in the Iace
oI these mechanics. Marshall McLuhan`s notion oI Technological Determinism`
|23|
seems relevant now more than ever. Perhaps the multiplication rate oI machines and
interlinked social and cultural changes are beginning to outstrip the evolution oI
studio composition leaving composers with untold decades oI unchartered territory to
explore? This territory is the eternal responsibility oI the Futuristic composer: to
ignore the endless Retro` and Post` revivalisms and progress in solidarity with
Marinetti`s deIining credo.
"We want no part oI it. the past"
|3|
Word Count: 2876
Bibliography
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 11
|1| Russolo. L. |1913| The Art of Noises trans. Barclay Brown |New York. Pendragon. 1986|
|2| PerloII. M. |2003| The Futurist Moment. Avant-Garde. Avant Guerre. and the Language
of Rupture. University OI Chicago Press; 1 edition
|3| Marinetti. F.T. |1909| Futurist manifesto`
|4| Nicholls. D. |2008| The Cambridge Companion to John Cage. Cambridge University
Press |page 18|.
|5| Partch. H. (1974). Genesis of Music |New York: Da Capo Press|.
|6| Felix`s Machines More inIormation available: http://www.lcc.arts.ac.uk/48070.htm
|Accessed 14/01/2009|
|7| Pierre Bastien - More inIormation available: http://www.pierrebastien.com/ |Accessed
14/01/2009|
|8| Sinker. M. |2002| Destrov all music - The Futurists Art Of Noises in Undercurrents
The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music. |Continuum. London / New York.| p.189.
|9| Levi. Erik |2000|. Futurist Influences upon Earlv Twentieth-Centurv Music`. in
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|10| Sangild. T. |2002| The Aesthetics of Noise. |Datanom. Copenhagen|
|11| SchaeIIer. P. |Jul-December 1959|'La galleria sotto I suoni. ovvero il futuro anteriore.`
La Biennale di Venezia 9:36-37 pages 65-71.
|12| Modulations`. 1998 (USA). Directed by Iara Lee |Caipirinha Productions|.
|13| Cage. J. |1961| Silence. Lectures and Writings |Hanover. NH: University Press oI New
England / Wesleyan University Press| page 3.
|14| Marinetti. F.T and Masnata. P. |1933| The Radio. F. T. MARINETTI and PINO
MASNATA`. An English translation Irom http://www.kunstradio.at/theorie/` |Published
01/07/2007. accessed 19/12/2008|
|15| Russo. M and Warner. D |2004| Rough Music. Futurism. and Postpunk Industrial Noise
Bands` in Audio Culture. Readings In Modern Music.` |Continuum. London / New York.|
p.64.
|16| Eshun. K. |1998| More Brilliant Than The Sun |Quartet Books. Great Britain| p.191
|17| Marinetti. F.T. |1909|` The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism` reprinted in F.T.
Marinetti. Let´s Murder the Moonshine. Selected Writings`. trans. R. W. Flint and A. A.
Coppotelli (Los Angeles: Sun and Moon Classics. 1991). p. 49
|18| Tim Hodgkinson interviews Pierre SchaeIIer |1986|. Recommended Records Quarterly
Magazine. Vol.2. No.1. published 1987.
|19| Bockris. V and Malanga. G. |1983| Up-Tight. The Jelvet Underground Storv (Quill.
New York) p.13.
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 12
|20| The Beautv of Noise` |1997| An Interview with Masami Akita of Merzbow.` conducted
by Chad Hensley. Seconds 42.
|21| Green Car Congress. August 2008. Lotus Engineering Develops Sound Simulation
Technologv for Electric Drive Jehicles`. Available Irom:
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/08/lotus-engineeri.html |Accessed 20/12/2008|
|22| New Music Box. March 2006. Washington D.C.. Sanctioned Racketeering` Available
Irom: http://www.newmusicbox.com/article.nmbx?id÷4561 |Accessed 20/12/2008|
|23| McLuhan. M. |1989| The Man and his Message. Edited by George Sanderson and
Frank Macdonald; Introduction by John Cage. |Fulcrum. US|
Additional reading.
Collovini. Diego. |1997| Luigi Russolo. Un apprendice al futurismo. |Venezia: Supernova|.
Cook. N and Pople. A. |2004| The Cambridge Historv of Twentieth-centurv Music
|Cambridge University Press. UK|
Holmes. T and Matk. M |2008| Electronic and Experimental Music. Technologv. Music. and
Culture |Routledge. UK|
Kirby. M. |1971| Futurist Performance |PAJ Publications. New York|

Licht. A |2007| Sound Art` |Rizzoli. New York|
Reynolds. S |2005| Rip it up and start again |Faber and Faber. London|
Ross. A |2008| The Rest is Noise |Fourth Estate Ltd. New York|
Szwed. J.F. |1998| The Lives and Times of Sun Ra |Da Capo Press. New York|
Varese. E. |1936| The Liberation of Sound Irom Contemporarv Composers on
Contemporarv Music. |1998| Expanded Edition. ed. Elliott Schwartz and Barney Childs |Da
Capo. New York|
22166487 |Sonic Art in Theory| 13

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