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You are on page 1of 9

CONVEX SPACES

TIAN-YUAN KUO, YOUNG-YE HUANG, JYH-CHUNG JENG, AND

CHEN-YUH SHIH

Received 25 October 2004; Revised 13 July 2005; Accepted 1 September 2005

We establish a coincidence theorem in S-KKM class by means of the basic dening prop-

erty for multifunctions in S-KKM. Based on this coincidence theorem, we deduce some

useful corollaries and investigate the xed point problem on uniform spaces.

Copyright 2006 Tian-Yuan Kuo et al. This is an open access article distributed under

the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,

and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

A multimap T : X 2

Y

is a function from a set X into the power set 2

Y

of Y. If H, T :

X 2

Y

, then the coincidence problem for H and T is concerned with conditions which

guarantee that H( x) T( x) }= for some x X. Park [11] established a very general

coincidence theorem in the class U

k

c

of admissible functions, which extends and improves

many results of Browder [1, 2], Granas and Liu [6].

On the other hand, Huang together with Chang et al. [3] introduced the S-KKM class

which is much larger than the class U

k

c

. A lot of interesting and generalized results about

xed point theory on locally convex topological vector spaces have been studied in the

setting of S-KKM class in [3]. In this paper, we will at rst construct a coincidence theo-

rem in S-KKM class on generalized convex spaces by means of the basic dening property

for multimaps in S-KKM class. And then based on this coincidence theorem, we deduce

some useful corollaries and investigate the xed point problem on uniform spaces.

2. Preliminaries

Throughout this paper, Y) denotes the class of all nonempty nite subsets of a nonempty

set Y. The notation T : X Y stands for a multimap from a set X into 2

Y

\ . For a

multimap T : X 2

Y

, the following notations are used:

(a) T(A) =

_

xA

T(x) for AX;

(b) T

(c) T

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Fixed Point Theory and Applications

Volume 2006, Article ID 72184, Pages 19

DOI 10.1155/FPTA/2006/72184

2 Coincidence and xed point theorems in S-KKM class

All topological spaces are supposed to be Hausdor. Let X and Y be two topological

spaces. A multimap T : X 2

Y

is said to be

(a) upper semicontinuous (u.s.c.) if T

Y;

(b) compact if T(X) is contained in a compact subset of Y;

(c) closed if its graph Gr(T) =(x, y) : y T(x), x X is a closed subset of X Y.

Lemma 2.1 (Lassonde [9, Lemma 1]). Let X and Y be two topological spaces and T : X

Y.

(a) If Y is regular and T is u.s.c. with closed values, then T is closed. Conversely, if Y is

compact and T is closed, then T is u.s.c. with closed values.

(b) If T is u.s.c. and compact-valued, then T(A) is compact for any compact subset A of

X.

Let X be a subset of a vector space and D a nonempty subset of X. Then (X, D) is

called a convex space if the convex hull co(A) of any A D) is contained in X and X

has a topology that induces the Euclidean topology on such convex hulls. A subset C of

(X, D) is said to be D-convex if co(A) C for any A D) with A C. If X = D, then

X =(X, X) becomes a convex space in the sense of Lassonde [9]. The concept of convexity

is further generalized under an extra condition by Park and Kim [12]. Later, Lin and Park

[10] give the following denition by removing the extra condition.

Denition 2.2. A generalized convex space or a G-convex space (X, D; ) consists of a

topological space X, a nonempty subset D of X and a map : D) X such that for each

A D) with A = n +1, there exists a continuous function

A

:

n

(A) such that

J A) implies

A

(

J

) (J), where

J

denotes the face of

n

corresponding to J A).

A subset K of a G-convex space (X, D; ) is said to be -convex if for any A K D),

(A) K.

In what follows we will express (A) by

A

, and we just say that (X, ) is a G-convex

space provided that D =X.

The c-space introduced by Horvath [7] is an example of G-convex space.

For topological spaces X and Y, (X, Y) denote the class of all continuous (single-

valued) functions from X to Y.

Given a class of multimaps, (X, Y) denotes the set of multimaps T : X 2

Y

be-

longing to , and

c

the set of nite composites of multimaps in . Park and Kim [12]

introduced the class U to be the one satisfying

(a) U contains the class of (single-valued) continuous functions;

(b) each T U

c

is upper semicontinuous and compact-valued; and

(c) for any polytope P, each T U

c

(P, P) has a xed point.

Further, Park dened the following

T U

k

c

(X, Y) for any compact subset K of X, there is a

U

c

(X, Y) such that (x) T(x) for each x K.

(2.1)

Tian-Yuan Kuo et al. 3

A uniformity for a set X is a nonempty family of subsets of X X such that

(a) each member of contains the diagonal ;

(b) if U , then U

1

;

(c) if U , then V V U for some V in ;

(d) if U and V are members of , then U V ; and

(e) if U and U V X X, then V .

If (X, ) is a uniform space the topology induced by is the family of all subsets

W of X such that for each x in W there is U in such that U[x] W, where U[x] is

dened as y X : (x, y) U. For details of uniform spaces we refer to [8].

3. The results

The concept of S-KKM property of [3] can be extented to G-convex spaces.

Denition 3.1. Let X be a nonempty set, (Y, D; ) a G-convex space and Z a topological

space. If S : X D, T : Y Z and F : X Z are three multimaps satisfying

T

_

S(A)

_

F(A) (3.1)

for any A X), then F is called a S-KKM mapping with respect to T. If the multimap T :

Y Z satises that for any S-KKM mapping F with respect to T, the family F(x) : x

X has the nite intersection property, then T is said to have the S-KKM property. The

class S-KKM(X, Y, Z) is dened to be the set T : X Y : T has the S-KKM property.

When D = Y is a nonempty convex subset of a linear space with

B

= co(B) for B

Y), the S-KKM(X, Y, Z) is just that as in [3]. In the case that X =D and S is the identity

mapping 1

D

, S-KKM(X, Y, Z) is abbreviated as KKM(Y, Z), and a 1

D

-KKMmapping with

respect to T is called a KKM mapping with respect to T, and 1

D

-KKM property is called

KKM property. Just as [3, Propositions 2.2 and 2.3], for X a nonempty set, (Y, D; ) a

G-convex space, Z a topological space and any S D, one has T KKM(Y, Z) S-

KKM(X, Y, Z). By the corollary to [13, Theorem 2], we have U

k

c

(Y, Z) KKM(Y, Z), and

so U

k

c

(Y, Z) S-KKM(X, Y, Z).

Here we like to give a concrete multimap T having KKMproperty on a G-convex space.

Let X =[0, 1] [0, 1] be endowed with the Euclidean metric. For any A = x

1

, . . . , x

n

X), dene

A

=

_

n

i=1

[0, x

i

], where [0, x

i

] denotes the line segment joining 0 and x

i

. It

is easy to see that (X, ) is a c-space, and so it is a G-convex space. Let T : X X be

dened by T(x) =[(0, 0), (0, 1)] [(0, 0), (1, 0)]. If F : X X is any KKM mapping with

respect to T, then for any A =x

1

, . . . , x

n

X), since T(

A

) F(A) and (0, 0) T(0, 0),

we infer that (0, 0) T(x

i

) F(x

i

) for any i = 1, . . . , n, so (0, 0)

_

n

i=1

F(x

i

). This shows

that T has the KKM property.

A subset B of a topological space Z is said to be compactly open if for any compact

subset K of Z, K B is open in K. We begin with the following coincidence theorem.

Theorem 3.2. Let X be any nonempty set, (Y, D; ) a G-convex space and Z a topological

space. Suppose s : X D, W : D 2

Z

, H : Y 2

Z

and T s-KKM(X, Y, Z) satisfy the

4 Coincidence and xed point theorems in S-KKM class

following conditions:

(3.2.1) T is compact;

(3.2.2) for any y D, W(y) H(y) and W(y) is compactly open in Z;

(3.2.3) for any z T(Y), MW

M

H

(z);

(3.2.4) T(Y)

_

xX

W(s(x)).

Then T and H have a coincidence point.

Proof. We prove the theorem by contradiction. Assume that T(y) H(y) = for any

y Y. Put K =T(Y). By (3.2.1), K is a compact subset of Z. Dene F : X 2

Z

by

F(x) =K \ W

_

s(x)

_

(3.2)

for x X. Since W(s(x)) is compactly open, F(x) is closed for each x X. The assump-

tion that T(y) H(y) = for any y Y implies that T(s(x)) H(s(x)) = for any

x X, so

}=T(s(x)) K \ H

_

s(x)

_

K \ W

_

s(x)

_

=F(x).

(3.3)

Hence F is a nonempty and compact-valued multimap. Since

_

xX

F(x) =

_

xX

_

K \ W

_

s(x)

__

=K \

_

xX

W

_

s(x)

_

K \ K by (3.2.4)

=,

(3.4)

F is not a s-KKM mapping with respect to T. Hence there is A =x

1

, . . . , x

n

X) such

that

T

_

s(x

1

),...,s(x

n

)

_

n

_

i=1

F

_

x

i

_

. (3.5)

Choose y

s(x

1

),...,s(x

n

)

and z T( y) such that z /

_

n

i=1

F(x

i

). It follows from

z K \

n

_

i=1

F

_

x

i

_

=

n

_

i=1

_

K \ F

_

x

i

__

n

_

i=1

W

_

s

_

x

i

__

n

_

i=1

H

_

s

_

x

i

__

(3.6)

Tian-Yuan Kuo et al. 5

that s(x

i

) W

( z) H

s(x

1

),...,s(x

n

)

H

( z). In particular, y H

the proof.

Corollary 3.3. Let (Y, D) be a convex space and Z a topological space. Suppose H : Y 2

Z

and T KKM(Y, Z) satisfy the following conditions:

(3.3.1) T is compact;

(3.3.2) for any z T(Y), H

(z) is D-convex;

(3.3.3) T(Y)

_

yD

Int(H(y)).

Then T and H have a coincidence point.

Proof. Putting X =D, s : X D be the identity mapping 1

D

and W : D 2

Z

be dened

by W(y) =Int(H(y)) in the above theorem, the result follows immediately.

Here we like to mention that Corollary 3.3 is an improvement for Theorem 4 of Chang

and Yen [4], where except the conditions (3.3.1) (3.3.3), they require T be closed. For

U

k

c

(Y, Z) instead of KKM(Y, Z), Corollary 3.3 is due to Park [11]. We now give a concrete

example showing that Corollary 3.3 extends both of [4, Theorem 4] and [11, Theorem 2]

properly. Let X = [0, 1] and V be any convex open subset of 0 in R. Dene T : X X

by T(x) =1 for x [0, 1); and [0, 1) for x =1, and H : X X by H(x) =(x +V) X.

Then we have

(a) T belongs to KKM(X, X) and is compact;

(b) H

(c) each H(x) is open and T(X)

_

xX

H(x).

Thus, Corollary 3.3 guarantees that T( x) H( x) }= for some x [0, 1]. But, Theorem

4 of Chang and Yen [4] is not applicable in this case because T is not closed. On the

other hand, if T U

k

c

(X, X), then there would exist U

c

(X, X) such that (x) T(x)

for each x [0, 1]. Since X is a polytope, must have a xed a point which is impossible

by noting that T has no xed point. Consequently, T / U

k

c

(X, X), and hence we can not

apply Theorem 2 of Park [11] to conclude that T and H have a coincidence point.

Corollary 3.4. Let X be any nonempty set, (Y, D) a convex space and Z a topological space.

Suppose s : X D, H : Y 2

Z

and T s-KKM(X, Y, Z) satisfy the following conditions:

(3.4.1) T is compact;

(3.4.2) for any z T(Y), H

(z) is D-convex;

(3.4.3) T(Y)

_

xX

Int(H(s(x))).

Then T and H have a coincidence point.

Proof. In Theorem 3.2, putting W : D 2

Z

be W(y) = Int(H(y)) for each y Y, the

result follows immediately.

Lemma 3.5 (Lassonde [9, Lemma 2]). Let Y be a nonempty subset of a topological vector

space E, T : Y 2

E

a compact and closed multimap and i : Y E the inclusion map. Then

for each closed subset B of Y, (T i)(B) is closed in E.

Corollary 3.6. Let X be any nonempty set and Y, C be two nonempty convex subsets of a

locally convex topological vector space E. Suppose s : X Y and T s-KKM(X, Y, Y +C)

satisfy the following conditions (3.6.1), (3.6.2) and any one of (3.6.3), (3.6.3)

and (3.6.3)

.

6 Coincidence and xed point theorems in S-KKM class

(3.6.1) T is compact and closed.

(3.6.2) T(Y) s(X) +C.

(3.6.3) Y is closed and C is compact.

(3.6.3)

(3.6.3)

C =0.

Then there is y Y such ( y +C) T( y) }=.

Proof. Let V be any convex open neighborhood of 0 E and K =T(Y). Dene H : Y

2

Y+C

to be H(y) =(y +C+V) K for each y Y. Each H(y) is open in K and H

(z) =

(z CV) Y is convex for any z K. Moreover,

_

xX

H(s(x)) =

_

xX

__

s(x) +C+V

_

K

_

=

_

s(X) +C+V

_

K

=T(Y) by (3.6.2).

(3.7)

Therefore, it follows from Corollary 3.4 that there are y

V

Y and z

V

K such that z

V

T(y

V

) H(y

V

). Then in view of the denition of H, z

V

y

V

C +V. Up to now, we

have proved the assertion.

() For each convex open neighborhood V of 0 in E, (T i)(Y) (C + V) }= ,

where i : Y E is the inclusion map.

Now take into account of conditions (3.6.3), (3.6.3)

and (3.6.3)

Since Y is closed, so is (T i)(Y) by Lemma 3.5, and then the assertion () in conjunc-

tion with the compactness of C and the regularity of E implies that (T i)(Y) C }=,

that is, there exists a y Y such that T( y) ( y +C) }=. In case that (3.6.3)

holds, since

(T i)(Y) is compact by Lemma 2.1 and since C is closed, the conclusion follows as the

previous case. Finally, assume that (3.6.3)

borhood V of 0, there are y

V

and z

V

in Y such that z

V

T(y

V

) and z

V

y

V

V. Since

T(Y) is compact, we may assume that z

V

y for some y T(Y). Then we also have that

y

V

y. The closedness of T implies that y T( y). This completes the proof.

The above corollary extends Park [11, Theorem 3], which in turn is a generalization to

Lassonde [9, Theorem 1.6 and Corollary 1.18].

We now turn to investigate the xed point problem on uniform spaces. At rst we

apply Theorem 3.2 to establish a useful lemma.

Lemma 3.7. Let X be any nonempty set, (Y, D; ) be a G-convex space whose topology is

induced by a uniformity . Suppose s : X D and T s-KKM(X, Y, Y) satisfy that

(3.7.1) T is compact; and

(3.7.2) T(Y) s(X).

If V is symmetric and satises that V[y] is -convex for any y Y, then there is y

V

Y

such that

V[y

V

] T(y

V

) }=. (3.8)

Tian-Yuan Kuo et al. 7

Proof. Dene H : Y 2

Y

to be H(y) = V[y] for any y Y. By symmetry of V it is

easy to see that H

lows from condition (3.6.2) that for any z T(Y), there is x

0

s(X) such that z =s(x

0

).

Then in view of (s(x

0

), s(x

0

)) V we see that z =s(x

0

) V[s(x

0

)] =H(s(x

0

)), and hence

z

_

xX

H(s(x)), that is T(Y)

_

xX

H(s(x)). Finally, noting H is open-valued and

putting W : D 2

Y

to be W(y) = H(y) for any y D, we see that all the requirements

of Theorem 3.2 are satised. Thus there is y

V

Y such that H(y

V

) T(y

V

) }=, that is

V[y

V

] T(y

V

) }=.

Denition 3.8 [14]. A G-convex space (X, D; ) is said to be a locally G-convex uniform

space if the topology of X is induced by a uniformity which has a base consisting of

symmetric entourages such that for any V and x X, V[x] is -convex.

Recall that the concepts of l.c. space and l.c. metric space in Horvath [7]. If D = X

and

x

=x for any x X, then it is obvious that both of them are examples of locally

G-convex uniform space.

Theorem 3.9. Let X be any nonempty set, (Y, D; ) a locally G-convex space. Suppose s :

X D and T s-KKM(X, Y, Y) satisfy that

(3.9.1) T is compact and closed;

(3.9.2) T(Y) s(X).

Then T has a xed point.

Proof. By Lemma 3.7, for any V there is y

V

Y such that V[y

V

] T(y

V

) }= .

Choose z

V

V[y

V

] T(y

V

). Then (y

V

, z

V

) V Gr(T). Since T is compact, we may as-

sume that z

V

V

converges to z

0

. For any W , choose U such that U U W.

Since z

V

V

converges to z

0

, there is V

0

such that V

0

U and

z

V

U

_

z

0

_

, V with V V

0

, (3.9)

that is,

_

z

V

, z

0

_

U, V with V V

0

. (3.10)

Thus, for V with V V

0

, it follows from

_

y

V

, z

V

_

V U,

_

z

V

, z

0

_

U (3.11)

that (y

V

, z

0

) U U W. Hence y

V

W[z

0

]. This shows that y

V

V

converges to z

0

.

Since T is closed, we conclude that z

0

T(z

0

), completing the proof.

For a topological space X and locally G-convex uniform space (Y, ), dene

T (X, Y) T : X Y is a Kakutani map, that is,

T is u.s.c. with nonempty compact -convex values.

(3.12)

c

(X, Y) denotes the set of nite composites of multimaps in of which ranges are

contained in locally G-convex uniform spaces (Y

i

,

i

) (i =0, . . . , n) for some n.

8 Coincidence and xed point theorems in S-KKM class

Lemma 3.10 (Watson [14]). Let (X, ) be a compact locally G-convex uniform space. Then

any u.s.c. T : X X with closed -convex values has a xed point.

By the above lemma, we see that, in the setting of locally G-convex uniform spaces, the

class is an example of the Parks class U. Therefore, for any locally G-convex uniform

space (X, ),

c

(X, X) KKM(X, X), and so we have the following theorem.

Theorem3.11. Suppose (X, ) is a locally G-convex uniform space. If T

c

(X, X) is com-

pact, then it has a xed point.

Proof. Since X is regular by Kelley [8, Corollary 6.17 on page 188] and T

c

(X, X), it is

u.s.c. and compact-valued, and so it is closed. Now due to that

c

(X, X) KKM(X, X),

we have T KKM(X, X). Since T is compact and closed, it follows from Theorem 3.9

that T has a xed point.

Since any metric space is regular, we infer that for any l.c. metric space (X, d) satisfying

that

x

=x, if T

c

(X, X) is compact, then T has a xed point. This generalizes the

famous Fan-Glicksberg xed point theorem [5].

References

[1] F. E. Browder, The xed point theory of multi-valued mappings in topological vector spaces, Math-

ematische Annalen 177 (1968), 283301.

[2] , Coincidence theorems, minimax theorems, and variational inequalities, Conference in

Modern Analysis and Probability (NewHaven, Conn, 1982), Contemp. Math., vol. 26, American

Mathematical Society, Rhode Island, 1984, pp. 6780.

[3] T.-H. Chang, Y.-Y. Huang, J.-C. Jeng, and K.-H. Kuo, On S-KKM property and related topics,

Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 229 (1999), no. 1, 212227.

[4] T.-H. Chang and C.-L. Yen, KKM property and xed point theorems, Journal of Mathematical

Analysis and Applications 203 (1996), no. 1, 224235.

[5] K. Fan, A generalization of Tychonos xed point theorem, Mathematische Annalen 142

(1960/1961), 305310.

[6] A. Granas and F. C. Liu, Coincidences for set-valued maps and minimax inequalities, Journal de

Math ematiques Pures et Appliqu ees. Neuvi` eme S erie(9) 65 (1986), no. 2, 119148.

[7] C. D. Horvath, Contractibility and generalized convexity, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and

Applications 156 (1991), no. 2, 341357.

[8] J. L. Kelley, General Topology, D. Van Nostrand, Toronto, 1955.

[9] M. Lassonde, On the use of KKM multifunctions in xed point theory and related topics, Journal

of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 97 (1983), no. 1, 151201.

[10] L.-J. Lin and S. Park, On some generalized quasi-equilibrium problems, Journal of Mathematical

Analysis and Applications 224 (1998), no. 2, 167181.

[11] S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous

maps, Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society 31 (1994), no. 3, 493519.

[12] S. Park and H. Kim, Coincidence theorems for admissible multifunctions on generalized convex

spaces, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 197 (1996), no. 1, 173187.

Tian-Yuan Kuo et al. 9

[13] S. Park and H. Kim, Foundations of the KKM theory on generalized convex spaces, Journal of

Mathematical Analysis and Applications 209 (1997), no. 2, 551571.

[14] P. J. Watson, Coincidences and xed points in locally G-convex spaces, Bulletin of the Australian

Mathematical Society 59 (1999), no. 2, 297304.

Tian-Yuan Kuo: Fooyin University, 151 Chin-Hsueh Rd., Ta-Liao Hsiang,

Kaohsiung Hsien 831, Taiwan

E-mail address: sc038@mail.fy.edu.tw

Young-Ye Huang: Center for General Education, Southern Taiwan University of Technology,

1 Nan-Tai St. Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan

E-mail address: yueh@mail.stut.edu.tw

Jyh-Chung Jeng: Nan-Jeon Institute of Technology, Yen-Shui, Tainan Hsien 737, Taiwan

E-mail address: jhychung@pchome.com.tw

Chen-Yuh Shih: Department of Mathmatics, Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

E-mail address: cyshih@math.ncku.edu.tw

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