# 8/11/13

Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation …

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The human perception of loudness
Loudness factor (volume) and Loudness gain (ratio)
Volume is a subjective term that tries to describe the strength of the sound perception through our sense of hearing.
The perceived loudness is a psycho-acoustic quantity that depends on the sound pressure level, the frequency spectrum, and the time behavior of the sound. Level, Volume, and Loudness: The perceived volume or loudness of sound is a complex phenomenon, not entirely understood by experts. One widely-agreed method of assessing loudness is by measuring SPL with a sound pressure level meter, which is the sound pressure level in decibels (dB). In audio production communities, this is called level. The level of an audio signal is one way of measuring the signal's perceived loudness and is part of the information stored in an audio file. The term "loudness" or "volume" is a problem because it belongs to psychoacoustics and this personal (subjective) feeling is really difficult to "measure". The volume knob. Gain and volume Change the loudness level. Level and loudness

A volume increase of 6 to 10 dB in gain level should give a sense of doubling in loudness, the psychoacousticians tell us. The loudness of N = 1 sone is equivalent to 40 phons, which is the loudness level of LN = 40 dB of a sine wave (sinusoid) with a frequency of f = 1000 Hz.

Converion of Decibels (Level) to a Factor (Ratio) Conversion of a Factor (Ratio) to Decibels (Level)
www.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-loudness.htm 1/10

The calculator works in both directions of the ↔ sign. Conversion: Factor.232 times ↔ Level change Δ Lloud Psychoacoustics quantity (perceived): 3 dB Two cars. gain) you have always to indicate if the energy quantity (power). How loud? A good question: "Are two cars twice as loud as one car? And if not.414 times ↔ Level change Δ Lp Field quantity (measured): 3 dB Ratio or factor z Loudness (volume of the sound): 1. Energy quantity x is field quantity y (amplitude rms) squared: x ~ y2. field quantity (amplitude) or the psychoacoustic loudness quantity is meant. ratio. gain to Level value (Decibel dB Gain) and vice versa Simply enter the value to the left or the right side. Ratio or factor x Acoustic intensity (power): 2 times ↔ Level change Δ LI Energy quantity (calculated): 3 dB Ratio or factor y Sound pressure (voltage): 1.com/calculator-loudness.htm 2/10 .sengpielaudio.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … Using the term factor (ratio. by what factor are two cars louder than one car?" The addition of two identical sound sources results in an increase of the sound level of (+)3 dB www.

8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … . The level change Δ Lloud = 3 dB shows as psychoacoustic quantity the factor of the perceived psychoacoustic loudness (volume) z = 1.htm 3/10 .232.414. 3.414.com/calculator-loudness. What is sound? More questions: How much is doubling of noise levels? Doubling of sound levels? Level in dB and their different factors www. sound pressure. 2. or sound intensity? The typical question is: A "sound" has to be doubled. It is apparent that for sound there are three different factors that must be kept scrupulously apart. How many more times is this? Should the decibel value of the sound to be doubled? Need the sound pressure in pascals to be doubled? Should the sound intensity in watts per square meter (W/m2) to be doubled? Need the psycho-acoustically perceived loudness to be doubled? Well? Actually this is never clear for the questioner. The level change Δ LI = 3 dB shows as energy quantity the calculated factor of the energy (power) x = 2. Which factor is required? Loudness. The above calculator gives the following results for the factors: 1.414. see: Total level adding of two equal loud non-coherent acoustical sound sources Power summing non-coherent (90°) √ (1² + 1²) = 1.That equals a sound pressure factor (amplitude) of 1. The level change Δ Lp = 3 dB shows as field quantity the factor of measured the voltage (sound pressure) y = 1..sengpielaudio..

16 3 2 1.8 Volume quantity Loudness Gain GL in dB +40 +33. Power Gain.232 1 0.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-loudness.414 1.5 +0.9 ±0 −0.516 √2 = 1. Voltage Gain.htm Energy quantity Power.81 +1.8 ±0 −1.54 +6 +3.9 Field quantity Voltage Gain GV in dB +24 +20 +18 +12 +10 +9. Energy Gain GP in dB +12 +10 +9 +6 +5 +4.62 +3 +1.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … Table: Factor.6 +15.22 +30 +20 +16. and Loudness Gain Factor Ratio P2/P1 V2/V1 L2/L1 16 10 8 4 √10 = 3.77 +3 +1.812 www.85 +10 +6 +5 +3 ±0 −3 4/10 .

85 −16.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-loudness.8 4 6.54 −10 −12 −18 −20 −24 GV = 20×log (V2/V1) −5 −6 −10 −15.8 7 8.0 9 9.81 −3 −4.5 −1.660 1/2 = 0.77 dB compared to the case that only one source is available.77 −5 −6 −9 −10 −12 GP = 10×log (P2/P1) −3 −3.500 1/3 = 0.1 1/16 = 0. n = 3 equally loud non-coherent sound sources result in a higher level of 10 × log10 3 = +4.0625 V2/V1 = 10(GV in dB/20) −1.8 16 12.6 −20 −30 −33.0 12 10.125 1/10 = 0.0 3 4.0 20 13.htm 5/10 .0 5 7. n = number of equal loud sound sources.333 1/√10 = 0.22×log (x ) Adding of equal loud non-coherent sound sources Level increase Δ L for n equal loud sound sources Number of n equal Level increase loud sound sources Δ L in dB 1 0 2 3. n = 2 equally loud non-coherent sound sources result in a higher level of 10 × log10 2 = +3.22 −40 GL = 33.5 10 10.62 −6 −9.01 dB compared to the case that only one source is available.0 Formulas: Δ L = 10 × log n or n = 10(ΔL/10) Δ L = level difference.707 0.5 8 9.316 1/4 = 0.25 1/8 = 0.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … 0.0 6 7. n = 4 equally loud non-coherent sound sources result in a higher level of www.

Sound intensity Factors and their levels in decibels (dB) Sound intensity cause . Equal strong non-coherent sound sources Number of sound sources n: 4 ↔ Increase of level Δ L: 6 dB The total level in dB is the level of one sound source plus the increase of level in dB. n =10 equally loud non-coherent sound sources result in a higher level of 10 × log10 10 = +10. Adding (combining) levels of equal loud sound sources Simply enter the value to the left or the right side.htm 6/10 .02 dB compared to the case that only one source is available.Sound pressure .8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … 10 × log10 4 = +6.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-loudness. Sound loudness . The calculator works in both directions of the ↔ sign.loudness perception www.00 dB compared to the case that only one source is available.sound pressure effect .

8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … From: http://www.com/calculator-loudness. www.sengpielaudio. Calculations.de/html/was_ist_larm_.Decibel Voltage Gain/Loss and Power (energy) quantity Conversion: Factor.Conversions.html Conversion of field quantity .dB calculator Conversion of sound units (levels) What is an amplitude to describe a sound wave? Common Gains and Losses Expressed in Decibels Notice: Power gain is not used in audio engineering. and Formulas Subjectively perceived loudness.htm 7/10 .Voltage Loss and Power Loss Levels and References of the Sound Quantities .bv-elbtal. and intensity How to calculate decibels? . or Gain to a Level Value (Gain Decibels dB) and vice versa Amplifier Conversion .Gain / Loss Calculation: amplification (gain) as factor (ratio) and damping (loss) as level in decibels (dB) Calculation: Voltage Gain and Power Gain . objectively measured sound pressure. Ratio.

0 2....1.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … Gain/loss as a ratio factor (out/in) 1000:1 100:1 10:1 5:1 4:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 1:4 1:5 1:10 1:100 1:1000 Gain/loss as a factor 1000 100 10 5 4 2 1 0.100 0.22 dB −33.00 dB ● 0..htm .6 10 3.00 dB −40.00 dB +13..02 dB −6.16 = √10 2..125 −40 dB 0..5 0.0 ... half.00 dB +20.99 dB −10.00 dB −20.0 = double +6 dB 1..1.00 dB +99.0.99 dB +6.0 .98 dB +12..52 times +3 dB 1..01 0.00 dB +40.00 dB −60.00 dB ● −20.sengpielaudio.01 dB ● 0.5 = half 0...04 dB −13.5 = half −20 dB 0. How many decibels (dB) level change is double.707 times 0. Ratio means "how many times" or "how much" .660 times −10 dB 0.00 dB +6...316 0..816 times −6 dB 0. or four times as loud? How many dB to appear twice as loud (two times)? Here are all the different ratios.com/calculator-loudness.00 dB −10.66 dB 20 dB loudness reinforcement (sensation) is 4 times the loudness factor.22 dB +20.01 dB ● −6.00 dB −30.25 −30 dB 0.00 dB +10...2 0... Level Change Volume Loudness Voltage Sound pressure 100 31..44 dB −99.1 0.00 dB +60.1..02 dB ● −12.0100 Acoustic Power Sound Intensity 10000 1000 100 10 4.04 dB +6...00 dB +20.0316 0.22 dB +23. 20 dB voltage gain (amplitude) is 10 times the voltage (amplitude) factor.01 0.02 dB +3.66 dB +66.02 dB ● 0.0 = double .00 dB −3.5 = half 0.25 0..23 times .0 = double 1.0 .0.1 0.0625 www.00 dB −23. 20 dB power gain is 100 times the power factor Sound Level Comparison Chart and the Ratios Table of sound level dependence and the change of the respective ratio to subjective volume (loudness).001 Gain/loss in dB Gain/loss in dB Gain/loss in dB Energy quantity Field quantity Psycho quantity (Power gain) (Voltage gain) (Loudness gain) +30.−3 dB 0. objective sound pressure (voltage).0001 8/10 +40 dB 16 +30 dB 8 +20 dB 4 +10 dB 2.001 0.. Doubling of loudness....414 times = √2 .98 dB −20..22 dB −66. and sound intensity (acoustic power).44 dB +33.00 dB +10.±0 dB .00 dB −6.25 0.

Voltage Gain. The level of −3 dB is equivalent to 81. like a sound pressure or an energy quantity. Factor.66) of the initial loudness. that is 100% (factor or ratio = 1).5) of the initial voltage. Amplitude multiplier Power multiplier For a 10 dB increase of the sound level we require ten times more power from the amplifier.5) and the level of −6 dB is equivalent to 25% (factor = 1/4 = 0.7071).com/calculator-loudness. Loudness or loudness level (volume). size dB change Psycho size Field size Energy size Loudness multipl. that is 100% (factor or ratio = 1). Power Gain.sengpielaudio.7% (factor = 0. like a sound intensity? That is why the calculator gives two answers: www. This applies to the field quantity voltage or sound pressure.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … Log. The level of the output loudness level is 0 dB. and the level of −6 dB is equivalent to 66% (factor = 2/3 = 0. and Loudness Gain The level of the output power level is 0 dB. and the level of −6 dB is equivalent to 50% (factor = 1/2 = 0. The level of −3 dB is equivalent to 70.htm 9/10 . This increase of the sound level means for the sound pressure a lifting of the ratio 3.25) of the initial power. energy size) A typical question: "16 dB how many times?" Answer: Do they mean a field quantity. field size) Level L in decibel (dB) = 10 × log (y) y = factor (power. Level L in decibel (dB) = 20 × log (x) x = factor (amplitude.812). This applies to the energy quantity power or sound intensity. that is 100% (factor or ratio = 1). Loudness and volume are highly subjective. That belongs to the domain of psychoacoustics.2% (factor = 0. This applies to the loudness quantity. The level of −3 dB is equivalent to 50% (factor = 0.16. The level of the output voltage level is 0 dB.

31 or the factor is: 39.8 (energy quantity). c) amplification factor at the cutoff frequency (break frequency).com/calculator-loudness. c) voltage gain 37 dB ≡ amplification factor 70. b) voltage gain at the cutoff frequency (break frequency) in dB.sengpielaudio.htm 10/10 .312 (field quantity squared) = 39. calculate the following: a) voltage gain in dB. Gain Voltage factor Power factor decibels (dB) field quantity energy quantity reset calculate calculate calculate Questions: For an amplifier with an amplification factor of 100.7 at the cutoff frequency. back Search Engine home www.8 depending on field quantity or energy quantity. Answers: a) amplification factor 100 ≡ voltage gain 40 dB b) gain at the cutoff frequency is 3 dB less − so it is 37 dB.8/11/13 Loudness level gain volume dB factor conversion ratio gain level in decibels dB field quantity energy size power voltage damping convert to factor attenuation … The factor is: 6. 6.