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C.4.1 Definition

Carsons formula is based on the following assumptions (more details can be found in [19],[20], [34]): a. The conductors are perfectly horizontal above ground, and long enough so that three-dimensional end effects can be neglected (this makes the field problem two-dimensional). The sag is taken into account indirectly by using the average height above ground. The aerial space is homogeneous without loss, with permeability 0 and permittivity 0 . c. The earth is homogeneous with uniform resistivity , permeability 0 and permittivity 0 , and it is bounded by a flat plane with infinite extent, to which the conductors are parallel. The earth behaves as a conductor. The spacing between conductors is at least an order of magnitude larger than the radius of the conductors.

b.

d.

The elements of the series impedance matrix can be calculated from the geometry of the tower configuration, Fig. 117, and from the characteristics of the conductors. For self impedances:

Z ii = Z int + Z ext + Z g

And for mutual impedances Z ij = Z ij '+ Z gm where: Z int Z ext Z g Z ij ' Z gm

(78)

(79)

is the internal impedance of the wire, [/m], is the external impedance of the wire, [/m], is Carsons correction term for earth self impedance, [/km], is the mutual impedance of the two conductors i and j, [/km], is Carsons correction term for earth mutual impedance, [/km],

The symbols used in Eqs. (78) and (79) are explained in the following, Appendix C.4.2. 195

C.4.2.1 Terms in Eqs. (78) and (79)

i

2r i

X ij d ij

Dij

2hi

2h j

Images

i'

Z ij ' = j (

0 Dij ln ) 2 d ij

(80)

0 1 ( ) 2 4

(81)

Z ext = jLii = j

0 2h (ln i ) 2 ri

(82)

Carsons correction terms for earth return effects The ground self impedance

Z g = Rg + jX g

196

(83)

The ground mutual impedance Z gm = Rgm + jX gm The symbols used in Eqs. (80) to (84) are explained in the following: (84)

C.4.2.2 Terms in Eqs. (80) to (84) Carsons correction terms for earth return effects For self resistance

Rg = 4 10 7 b1k 1 + b2 [(C2 ln k )k 2 ] + b3k 3 d 4 k 4 ... 8

(85)

1 X g = 4 10 7 (0.6159315 ln k ) + b1k 1 d 2 k 2 + b3k 3 b4 [(C4 ln k )k 4 ] + ... 2

(86)

1 2 2 b1k m cos + b2 [(C2 ln k m )k m cos 2 + k m sin 2 ] = 4 10 8 + b k 3 cos 3 d k 4 cos 4 ... 4 m 3 m

7

Rgm

(87)

1 1 2 3 (0.6159315 ln k m ) + b1k m cos d 2 k m cos 2 + b3k m cos 3 = 4 10 2 b [(C ln k )k 4 cos 4 + k 4 cos 4 ] + ... m m m 4 4

7

X gm

(88)

The symbols used in Eqs. (85) to(88) are explained in the following:

The coefficients bi , Ci and d i are constants which can be calculated as follows:

197

Coefficients b

2 6

b1 =

(89)

b2 =

1 16

sign , i = 3, 4, 5, ... i (i + 2)

(90)

bi = bi 2

(91)

Note sign=1 and changes after each successive term (sign=1 for i=1,2,3,4 and sign=-1 for i=5,6,7,8 etc.)

Coefficients C

C2 = 1.3659315 and (92)

1 1 Ci = Ci 2 + + , i = 4, 6, 8, ... i i+2

Coefficients d

(93)

di =

bi , i = 3, 4, 5, ... 4

(94)

k = 4 5 10 4 (2hi ) f /

and

(95)

k m = 4 5 10 4 ( Dij ) f /

The angle is indicated in Fig. 120

(96)

(97)

198

Other symbols

hi Dij d ij ri is the average height above ground of conductor i, [m], is the distance between conductor i and the image of conductor j, [m], is the distance between conductors i and j, [m], is the radius of conductor i, [m], is the angular frequency, [rad], is the ac resistance of the conductor, [/km], is the internal inductance of the conductor, [H/km], Carsons correction term for self resistance due to the earth, [/km], Carsons correction term for mutual resistance due to the earth, [/km], Carsons correction term for self reactance due to the earth, [/km], Carsons correction term for mutual reactance due to the earth, [/km].

Rint Lint

Rg Rgm Xg X gm

199

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