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# 1

ENGR 4810U
NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES
Reza Ghafouri,
Winter 2013
Lecture 7
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 1
Fission neutron thermal fission
For
the average number of neutrons emitted per each neutron
absorbed that causes a fission reaction
(thermal fission factor)
# of fast neutrons from thermal fission
= -------------------------------------------------------------------
thermal neutron absorbed in fuel
the number of neutron emitted per each neutron absorbed in the
fissile materials
a
f
v
E
E
= q
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 2
2
for a single fissile material
fraction of neutrons absorbed that leads to fission
: capture to fission ratio
a
f
a
f
o
o

E
E
o o o
o
o
o

+
=
+
=
1
1
f
f
a
f
o
q
+
=
1
v
Isotope
U-233 2.49 2.29
U-235 2.42 2.07
Pu-239 2.87 2.11
Pu-241 2.92 2.15
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 3
Neutron Balance
Rate of change in
the number of
neutrons
Neutron
Production
Rate
Neutron
Absorption
Rate
Neutron
Leakage Rate
=
-
-
losses
fission) of (rate fission) per neutron of (# | v
f
E =
|
a
E =
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 4
3
Neutron Balance
Accumulation: Production minus Losses
= 0 (for critical reactor)
> 0 (for supercritical reactor)
< 0 (for subcritical reactor)
Infinite multiplication factor ( )
Leakage is zero for infinite core
infinite core and no leakage
a
f
a
f
k
E
E
=
E =
E =
=

v
|
| v
Absorption
Production

k
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 5
Four factor formula
y probabilit escape resonance p
factor fission fast
fuel by the absorbed neutrons of fraction
factor n utilizatio neutrons f
absorbed neutron per produced neutrons of number
=
=
=
=
=
c
q
c qfp k =

## Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 6

4
Fast fission factor
Fast fission factor
# of neutrons (thermal +fast) fission
= -------------------------------------------------------
# of fast neutrons from thermal fission
NL eff
P k k

=
core finite for y Probabilit Leakage - Non =
NL
P
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 7
reactor core consists of more than one single fissile
material
for UO
2
with a mixture of
235
U and
238
U
only fissile material is
235
U and absorption cross section of oxygen
is small
a
i
i f
fuel
v
E
E
=

) (
q
238 235
235
235
a a
f
fuel
v
E + E
E
= q
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 8
5
Energy spectrum
prompt neutrons emitted at different energies
population of prompt neutrons exhibits a distribution
for thermal fission of
235
U the prompt neutron energy spectrum
can be described using
5 . 0 036 . 1
) 29 . 2 sinh( 453 . 0 ) ( E e E
E
= _
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 9
Neutron Transport Equation (TE)
state of neutron can be
described completely by 7
variables
position in space
x,y,z or r,,, or r,,z
direction of motion (,)
kinetic energy
time
X
Y
Z
O

O d

v
|
x
y
z
u
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 10
6
Neutron Transport Equation (TE)
Nuclear angular flux:
number of neutrons per unit
area per unit time at point r
at time t with energy
between E and E+dE
moving in direction
inside solid angle
Rate of change of
neutron density
Sources losses
=
-
O O

) ,

, , ( dEd t E r |
O

d
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 11
Neutron Transport Equation (TE)
source term
) , '

, ' , ( ) , '

, ' , ( )

'

## , ' ( ' '

) ,

, , ( ) ( )] ,

, , (

[
) ,

, , ( 1
' '
t E r S t E r E E d dE
t E r E t E r
t
t E r
s
E
t
O + O O O O =
O + O O V +
c
O c
} }
O
|
| |
|
v
) , '

## , ' , ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ' ' ) ( ) , '

, ' , (
' '
t E r E E d dE E S t E r S
f
E
ext
O E O + = O
} }
O
| v _
nonfission external
source
fission expectrum
number of
neutrons per
fission
total macroscopic
cross section
differential
scattering cross
section
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 12
7
Transport Equation (TE)
The equation
Is exact except for neglecting neutron/neutron interaction
cannot be solved analytically keeping all seven variables even in
the simplest geometries
Real reactor has complicated geometry
Practical way to solve the various approximations of the
TE equation based on a small number of variables
dependent of time (t) steady state
included transport approximation
not included diffusion approximation
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 13
Diffusion approximation
Flux and neutron current
) , '

, ' , ( ) , '

, ' , ( )

'

## , ' ( ' '

) ,

, , ( ) ( )] ,

, , (

[
) ,

, , (
' '
t E r S t E r E E d dE
t E r E t E r
t
t E r
s
E
t
O + O O O O =
O + O O V +
c
O c
} }
O
|
| |
|
v
1
) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' ) , ( ) ( ) , (
'
E r S E r E E dE E r E E r
s
E
t
+ = + V
}
| | J
}
}
O O O =
O O =
t
t
|
| |
4
4

, , (

) , (

, , ( ) , (
d E r E r
d E r E r
J
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 14
8
diffusion equation
Diffusion approximation is not valid
for the place that the neutron flux
varies drastically over short
distance
D: diffusion coefficient

tr
: neutron transport cross section
angle scattering the cosine the of average
3
1
: ) ( ) ( ) (
) , ( ) , J(

|
E E E
D
E r D E r
s t tr
tr
E E = E
E
=
V =
(i) ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' ) , ( ) ( )) , ( (
'
E r S E r E E dE E r E E r D
s
E
t
+ = + V V
}
| | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 15
Diffusion - Ficks law
Ficks law define the diffusion of particle from the region of
higher concentration to the region at lower concentration
dx
dC
J
x
_ =
Diffusivity Constant
[cm
2
/s]
Net Current
[cm
-2
s
-1
]
Particle Concentration
[mol/cm
3
]
Position
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 16
9
Ficks law
in terms of particle flux
in 3D
: neutron current
density or net flow of
neutron passing through
unit area
) , ( ) , ( t r D t r J

| V =
dx
d
D J
x
|
=
) , ( t r J

## Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 17

Neutron current density
Assumptions
no neutron source
homogeneous medium
angular neutron distribution in
the medium is isotropic
uniform neutron flux
infinite medium
+
=
z z z
J J J
X
Y
Z

u
dV
dA
r
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 18
10
Neutron current density
neutrons scattered per unit time from volume dV
number of neutron pass through the unit area dA
for spherical coordinates
dV r
s
) (

| E
2
4
cos
) (
r
dA
dV r
s
t
u
|

E
u u d drd r dV sin
2
=
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 19
assuming the medium is only weakly absorbing
tot
~
s
flux approximation
index 0 denotes the origin point. In spherical coordinates
for z
} } }
= =
E
E
=
t

t
u
u u u |
t
2
0
2
0
sin cos ) (
4
r
r s
z
d drd r e J
tot

0
0
0
0
) ( |
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ =
z
z
y
y
x
x r
| | |
| |

} } }
= =
E
(

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
E
=
t

t
u
u u u u
|
|
t
2
0
2
0
0
0
sin cos cos
4
r
r s
z
d drd r
z
e J
tot
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 20
11
Net neutron flow
upward current flow through the area dA from the lower hemisphere
( limit is from to /2
total net flow in z direction
0
0
6
1
4
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
E
+ =

z
J
s
z
| |
0
0
6
1
4
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
E
=
+
z
J
s
z
| |
0
3
1
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
E
= =
+
z
J J J
s
z z z
|
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 21
Diffusion coefficient
for anisotropic scattering as a function of transport cross section (
is the mean free path)
average cosine of scattering angle (A is atomic mass number)
s
D r D r J
E
= V =
3
1
) ( ) (

|

) 1 ( 3
1

3 3
1
3
2
cos
1
_______

E
= =
E
=
= + =
= E E = E
s
tr
tr
tr
s tot tr
D D
A
for a weakly
absorbing medium
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 22
12
Example: Diffusion coefficient of graphite at 1eV
cm 0.916
) 055 . 0 1 ( 385 . 0 3
1

) 1 ( 3
1
385 . 0 ) 10 8 . 4 )( / 10 08023 . 0 (
055 . 0
12 3
2
3
2
cos
1 2 24 3 24
_______
=

=
E
=
= = = E
=

= = + =

s
s s
D
cm cm cm nucl N
A
3 23
23
/ 10 8023 . 0
12
6 . 1 10 022 . 6
cm nuclei
A
N
N
a
=

= =

Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 23
Diffusion length
represent the distance a neutron passes from the point of
thermalization to the point of absorption
ML: the distance from the point where a neutron is born to the
point where it is thermalized

) 1 ( 3
1

2
E E
=
E
=
s a a
D
L
Moderator
D
[cm
-1
]

a
[cm
-1
]
L
[cm]
ML
[cm]
H
2
O 0.144 0.0189 2.75 5.6
D
2
O 0.810 0.00007 161 11
Be 1.850 0.00053 21.2 9.2
Graphite 1.600 0.00031 52.5 18.7
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 24
13
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 25
Multigroup diffusion equations
Energy range is divided
into G Groups with g
th
group having boundaries
E
g
and E
g-1
Group flux
integrate Eq (i) term by
term
E
0
=E
max
E
1
E
2
E
g-1
E
g
E
g+1
E
G-1
E
G
=E
min
Group g
Group G
G g dE E r r
g
g
E
E
g
, 1 | ) , ( ) (
1
= =
}

| |
(ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [
] ) , ( ) ( ) , ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
A
B
C D
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 26
14
(i) ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' ) , ( ) ( ) , (
'
E r S E r E E dE E r E E r D
s
E
t
+ = + V V
}
| | |
equation
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 27
Multigroup calculation uses average
quantities of parameters like flux, cross-
section, diffusion coefficients , etc. for
each group
requires:
basic nuclear data for all the isotopes
involved
cross-section, (E), (E)
system geometry and composition
boundaries of energy groups
Energy range is divided into G Groups
with g
th
group having boundaries E
g
and
E
g-1
E
0
=E
max
E
1
E
2
E
g-1
E
g
E
g+1
E
G-1
E
G
=E
min
Group g
Group G
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 28
15
Multigroup diffusion equations
Group flux
integrate Eq (i) term by term
G g dE E r r
g
g
E
E
g
, 1 | ) , ( ) (
1
= =
}

| |
(ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [
] ) , ( ) ( )) , ( ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
(i) ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' ) , ( ) ( )) , ( (
'
E r S E r E E dE E r E E r D
s
E
t
+ = + V V
}
| | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 29
For term A
average diffusion coefficient for group g is defined as
)) ( ) ( ( )) , ( ) , ( (
1
r r D dE E r E r D
g g
E
E
g
g
| | V V = V V
}

) (
) , ( ) , (
) , (
) , ( ) , (
) (
1
1
1
r
dE E r E r D
dE E r
dE E r E r D
r D
g
E
E
E
E
E
E
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
|
|
|
|
V
V
=
V
V
=
}
}
}

## (ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [

] ) , ( ) ( )) , ( ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
A B
C D
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 30
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For term B
where
For term C
average group to group transfer
scattering cross section
dE E r r
dE E r E
g
g
g
g
E
E
g t
E
E
t
}
}

1
1
) , ( ) (
) , ( ) (
,
|
|
dE E r
dE E r E
r
g
g
g
g
E
E
E
E
t
g t
}
}

=
1
1
) , (
) , ( ) (
) (
,
|
|

} }
}

}
} }
=

=
=
=
=
=

G
g
g
g g
s
G
g
E
E
E
E
s
E
E
G
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
s
r r
E r E E dE dE
E r E E dE dE
E r E E dE dE
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
1 '
'
'
1 '
1 '
0
) ( ) (
) ' , ( ) ' ( '
) ' , ( ) ' ( '
) ' , ( ) ' ( '
1 1 '
'
1 1 '
'
1 max
|
|
|
|
(ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [
] ) , ( ) ( )) , ( ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
A
B
C D
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 31
For term D
S
ext
=0 except at startup
fraction of neutrons emitted

} }
} } }
=

E + =
E + =
G
g
E
E
f
E
E
ext g
E
E
E
f
E
E
ext g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
E r E E dE E dE S
E r E E dE E dE dES r S
1 '
,
0
1 '
'
1
1 max 1
) ' , ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ' ) (
) ' , ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ' ) ( ) (
| v _
| v _

=
E + =
G
g
g g f g ext g g
r S r S
1 '
' ' ,
) ( ) ( ) ( | v _
) (
) , ( ) ( ) (
) (
'
'
r
E r E E dEv
g
f
g f
|
i
v
}
E
= E

=
=
G
g
g
1
1 _
(ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [
] ) , ( ) ( )) , ( ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
A
B
C D
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 32
17
Collecting all terms, Eqn. (ii) becomes
Or
removal cross section: the difference between total and in-
group scattering
G g r r r
r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g
g
g g
s
g g t g g
, 1 | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
1 '
'
'
,
= E + =
+ V V

= =

| v _ |
| |
G g r r r
r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g g
g
g g
s
g g R g g
, 1 | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
# '
'
'
,
= E + =
+ V V

=

| v _ |
| |
(ii) ] ) , ( ) ' , ( ) ' ( ' [
] ) , ( ) ( ) , ( [
1
1
'
} }
}

+ =
+ V V
g
g
g
g
E
E
s
E
E
E
t
E r S E r E E dE dE
E r E E r D dE
|
| |
A
B
C D
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 33
) (
,
r
g R

## Multigroup diffusion equation

steady state was assumed- reactor is exactly critical
k balances the equations for noncritical conditions
G g r
k
r r r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g g
g
g g
s g g R g g
, 1 | ) ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
# '
'
'
,
= E = + V V

=

| v _ | | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 34
18
G g r
k
r r r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g g
g
g g
s g g R g g
, 1 | ) ( ) (
1

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
# '
'
'
,
= E =
+ V V

| v _
| | |
E
0
=E
max
E
1
E
2
E
g-1
E
g
E
g+1
E
G-1
E
G
=E
min
Group g
Group G
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 35
Critically calculation
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 36
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Critically calculation
initial guess for the fission source
and k
calculation of flux for the first group
calculation of flux for the rest of
groups successively
new source and k are calculated
using the fluxes
new source and k are compared
with the previous ones to get
convergence (typical values are
-3
to 10
-5
)
Desired values are obtained
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 37
One-group diffusion equation
One-group diffusion- homogeneous without reflector
commercial reactor are heterogeneous with reflectors
) (
1
) ( ) (
2
r
k
r r D
f a
| v | | E = E + V
Leakage + Absorption = Source
G g r
k
r r r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g g
g
g g
s g g R g g
, 1 | ) ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
# '
'
'
,
= E = + V V

=

| v _ | | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 38
20
One-group diffusion special case
for source we have
factor tion multiplica infinite
fuel by the absorbed neutrons of fraction
factor n utilizatio neutrons f
absorbed neutron per produced neutrons of number
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
,
,
,
,
= =
=
=
E
E
=
=
E
E
=
E = E = E
E
E
E
E
= E

f k
r k r f r r
a
fuel a
fuel a
f
a a a
a
fuel a
fuel a
f
f
q
v q
| | q | v | v
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 39
One-group diffusion
using diffusion length and
buckling reactor criticality equation
we have

2
a
D
L
E
=
1) - (
1

2
2
k
k
L
B

=
0 ) ( ) (
2 2
= + V r B r | |

1
2 2
B L
k
k
+
=

) (
1
) ( ) (
2
r
k
r r D
f a
| v | | E = E + V
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 40
21
One-group diffusion
Laplacian operator
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
dz
d
dr
d
r dr
d
dr
d
r dr
d
z y x
+ + = V
+ = V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
Rectangular CS
Spherical CS
Cylindrical CS
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 41
One-group diffusion
Reactor with slab geometry with thickness a
boundary conditions
symmetry at origin
Bx C Bx A x
B
dx
d
sin cos ) (
0
2
2
2
+ =
= +
|
|
|
0
2
0
= |
.
|

\
|

a
|
0
0
=
= x
dx
d|
2 /
0
a
|
a d
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 42
22
One-group diffusion
from second BC
first BC gives
Bx A x
C
Bx CB Bx AB
dx
x d
x
cos ) (
0
0 ) cos( ) sin( |
) (
0
=
=
= + =
=
|
|
,...
5
,
3
, 1,3,5,...) (n
2 2
2
cos 0 ) (
0
0
0
B B B
a
n a
B
a
A x
t t t t
|
= = = |
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= =
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 43
One-group diffusion
geometric buckling
for critical reactor (k=1) the material buckling must be equal to
geometrical buckling
therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
cos ) (
a
x
A x
t
|
0
a
t
A x
a L
k
B B
g m
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=

max
2
0
2
2 2
) 0 (
1

| |
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
max
cos ) (
a
x
x
t
| |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 44
23
Further studies beside textbook.
Tatjana Jevremovic, Nuclear Principles in
Engineering
R. A. Knief, Nuclear Engineering, Theory and
Technology of Commercial Nuclear Power
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 45
Two-group equations
almost all neutrons are fast X
f
=1 and X
th
=0

R
=
a
there is no group below the thermal one to which neutrons
may be lost
approximate for bare, homogenous reactor
the flux has the same space dependence in both groups
)] ( ) ( ) ( ) [(
1
) ( ) (
,
2
r r
k
r r D
th th f f f f f f f R f f
| v | v _ | | E + E = + V
)] ( ) ( ) ( ) [(
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
,
2
r r
k
r r r D
th th f f f f th f s th th a th th
| v | v _ | | | E + E = E + V

0 ) ( ) (
2 2
= + V r f B r f
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 46
G g r
k
r r r r r r D
G
g
g g f g
G
g g
g
g g
s g g R g g
, 1 | ) ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( (
1 '
' '
# '
'
'
,
= E = + V V

=

| v _ | | |
24
Two-group equations
using
f(r): space dependence

f
and
th
constants are independent of space
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
r f r
r f r
th th
f f
| |
| |
=
=
0 ) (
1
] ) [(
1
[
,
2
= E E +
th th f f f f f R f
k k
B D | v | v
0 ) (
,
2 1
= + + E

th th R th f s
D | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 47
Two-group equations
Schematic representation (by T. Jevremovic)
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 48
25
Two-group equations
six-factor formula
P
NFL
: fast nonleakage probability
P
TNL
: thermal nonleakage probability
2
,
2
,
2 1
2
,
) ( ) (
B D B D B D
k
th th a
th f
f f R
s
f f R
f f
+
E
+
E
+
+
E
=

v v
TNL FNL
P fpP k cq =
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 49
Two-group equations
shape of neutron flux by two-group equations is similar to
one group equation but the magnitude of flux is different
reactor power
E
f
: energy release per fission
2 1
,
2

E
+
=
s
th a th
th
f
B D
|
|
} }
+ = dV r f E dV r f E P
th f th f f f f f , ,
) ( ) ( | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 50
26
Numerical solution
Discretization of flux
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 51
Numerical solution
Accuracy of this approximation depends on how fast the
function f(x) changes over x=x
i
-x
i-1
The size of mesh x should be definitely less than one
mean free path
x <
attenuation of neutron
) / exp( ) exp( ) ( | x x x
t
= ~
63 0 1 1 1 . ) exp( ) / exp( . = = = Atten
G g N i x
i g g
, & , | ) (
,
1 1 = = =| |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 52
27
Transport approximation P
N
and S
N
Isotropic scattering
azimuthal angle does not play a role in scattering collisions
for polar angle transport equation in operator form
this equation is written in operator form because the principles of the
transport approximations will be discussed, not the actual derivatives
u cos =
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , , ( | E r S E r E r T =
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 53
Transport approximation P
N
and S
N
There are two general methods for treating the angular
variable beyond this point:
series expansion in terms of Legendre polynomials or
numerical solution using discretization.
The first approach leads to the P
N
method and the second to the S
N
method.
using Legendre polynomial

=
=
1
,
) ( ) ( ) , (
i
l l g g
P r r | |
G g r S r r T
g g g
, 1 | ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( = = |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 54
28
Transport approximation, P
N
Legendre orthogonality property
substituting back in previous eqn. and using orthogonality
we get
G g d P r S d P P r r T
m g m
l
l l g g
, 1 | ) ( ) , ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , (
1
1
1
1
0
,
= =
} }

=
|
= = = , 1 and , 1 | ) ( ) ( ) (
, , ,
l G g r S r r T
l g l g l g
|
lm m l
l
d P P o
}

+
=
1
1
1 2
2
) ( ) (
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 55
Transport approximation, P
N
The derivation of the equation results in the elimination of
the angular variable at the expense of going from one
equation to an infinite number of equations
In practice, the series is truncated after N terms; i.e., one sets
P
N
approximation
particular difficulty: coupling between coefficients
N l r
l g
> = | 0 ) (
,
|
) ( , ) ( , ) (
1 , , 1 ,
r r r
l g l g l g +
| | |
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 56
29
Transport approximation, S
N
S
N
method based on discretization of the angular variable
compute the flux at N points: N distinct directions in range of
derivatives involving are handled using
The integral is represent numerically
Ws are proper weights chosen for the particular numerical integration
1 1 s s
N n r r
n g N g
, 1 | ) ( ) , (
,
= =| |
}

=
=
1
1
1
,
) , (
M
m
m g m g
T W r T d
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 57
The Monte Carlo method
understanding that the behavior of a single neutron is not
at all deterministic
knowing everything about a neutron (energy, position,
direction of motion) and the properties of the medium in
which it travels does not allow one to predict that particles
future with certainty.
a neutron-nucleus collision is a stochastic phenomenon
i.e., there is a probability for the collision to take place, a probability
given by a nuclear cross section.
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 58
30
The Monte Carlo method
Once the collision takes place, its outcome is also another stochastic
phenomenon
There is a probability (a cross section) that the neutron
reemitted (scattering),
stay in the nucleus (capture),
cause the emission of one or more other particles (p,n,),
cause fission, etc.
following individual neutrons with identical initial parameters may lead
that the individual histories of the neutrons would be different.
But the average of outcomes of interest (e.g., flux, radiation dose,
etc.), based on the results from the histories of many neutrons, the
calculations would show that averages agree quantitatively with the
corresponding measured quantities.
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 59
The Monte Carlo method
Using probability density
function (pdf) f(x)
probability that a value of a
variable x is between x and
x+dx is f(x)dx
Cumulative distribution
function is defined as
probability of the variable is
less or equal to x
}
=
x
x
dx x f x F
1
) ( ) (
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 60
31
The Monte Carlo method
Procedure:
guess a random number
between 0 and 1
find the corresponding x by
inverting the cumulative
distribution function
using probability distribution
function and the calculated x
value we are able to create
the parameter by having its
mean value and standard
deviation
) (
) (
1
RN F x
x F RN

=
=
( )
( )
(

=
2
2
2
exp
2
1
X X
X x
x f
o t o
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 61
The Monte Carlo method
Consider a neutron of energy E entering a medium.
Assume that answers are needed to the questions:
Where does the first collision take place?
What type of collision is it?
What is the direction of motion of the neutron after the collision?
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 62
32
The Monte Carlo method
Distance that the neutron will have a first interaction
probability of a collision between s and s+ds
for a uniform medium
cdf is
selecting a random number RN
determine the distance to the first interaction
}
= =
=
s
t
t t
s ds s f s F
ds s ds s f
0
) exp( 1 ) ( ) (
) exp( ) (
t
t
t
RN
s RN s
s RN

= =
=
) 1 ln(
) 1 ln(
) exp( 1
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 63
The Monte Carlo method
Probability that the outcome of the collision become
absorption
if the scattering cross section
s
and the absorption cross section

a
the probability that the outcome of collision becomes absorption:
a
/
t
the probability that the outcome of collision becomes scattering:
s
/
t
Therefore for a random number RN
probabilities are
absorption event
scattering event
t a
t a
RN
RN
E E >
E E s
/
/
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 64
33
The Monte Carlo method
Direction of neutron motion
azimuthal and polar angle
azimuthal angle is equally probable
selecting a random number
}
= =
s s =
|
t
|
|
t
|
t | |
t
| |
0
2 2
1
) (
2 0 | )
2
1
( ) (
d F
d d f
t | t |
t
|
| 2 0 | 2
2
) ( s s = = = RN RN F
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 65
The Monte Carlo method
For polar angle

s
is the total scattering cross section
in isotropic cross section the differential scattering cross section is
independent of the polar angle
for random number RN
s
s
s
s
d
F
d
d f
o
u u u o
u
o
u u u o
u u
u
}
=
=
0
sin ) (
) (
sin ) (
) (
t u u s s =

0 | ) 2 1 ( cos
1
RN
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 66
34
The Monte Carlo method
The most useful aspect of MC method is its ability to
represent and study phenomena in complicated
geometries
common features in MC method
description of the physical process
formulation of the probability model
definition of the basis estimating a random variable
construction of sampling distributions, using random numbers
processing of samples and statistical analysis of data.
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 67
Nuclear cross section data
Cross-section data obtained either by calculation, or
experiment, or by a combination of the two
At BNL, all the information about nuclear cross sections is
stored in a huge computer-data library known as the
Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF)
File A: .the data in file A are, generally, incomplete in terms of their
evaluation, and for this reason the information contained there and
known as ENDF/A is used only by the specialists who evaluate the
cross sections.
File B contains the evaluated cross-section data known as
ENDF/B, the data used by all persons involved in reactor physics
calculations.
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 68
35
Nuclear cross section data
Information contained in ENDF/B (for 200 isotopes)
decay constant
type of decay
Cross-section values, as a function of neutron energy, from very
low energies up to 20 MeV, as well as scattering cross-section
values, as a function of the scattering angle, for the same energy
range
resonance parameters
fission product yields
secondary neutron energy and angular distribution [ fission
neutrons, this is the value of x(E), the fission neutron energy
spectrum].
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 69
Cross section library
Cross-section collapsing
multigroup constant
A set of multigroup constants
is known as a cross-section
library
H h
dE E
dE E E
h
h
h
h
E
E
E
E
h
, 1 |
) (
) ( ) (
1
1
= =
}
}

|
| o
o
G g
E r
E r r
r
h
h
h
h
h
h h
g
, 1 |
) )( (
) )( ( ) (
) ( =
A
A
=

|
| o
o
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 70
36
CANDU models/codes
Cell calculation-lattice
code
four factor formula
POWDERPUFS-V
Supercell
MULTICELL
Finite-core (RFSP)
finite difference diffusion in
two energy group
71
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 71
Objectives
To guarantee that the new core will deliver the energy it is designed
for
guarantee that the fuel can reach the desired burnup
To ascertain that the safety characteristics of the fuel are equal to
or better than those reported in the safety analysis report
Mechanical and thermal design of each assembly
Determination of enrichment and number of fresh assemblies
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 72
37
Safety parameters of the core fall into three categories.
core reactivity parameters
temperature coefficient, fuel Doppler reactivity coefficient,
delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, boron
worth
control rod worth parameters
differential and total rod worth, verification of rod insertion
limits
other neutronic parameters
boron dilution effect, control rod ejection, loss-of-coolant
accident, steamline break, core power peaking factors
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 73
In addition to the parameters mentioned, the following
must be known as a function burnup
fission neutron poison worth (mostly xenon)
boron concentration (for PWRs); control rod position (for BWRs).
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 74
38
Reactivity balance in LWRs
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 75
1. collection of mechanical data
and material composition for
each assembly.
2. calculation of the temperature of
the fuel;
thermal-hydraulic codes
provide such information.
3. neutronic calculations:
starting point is the cross
information provided by
ENDF/B, and after
generation of cross-section
libraries.
nuclear physics cacluations
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 76
39
one of the principal design objectives in evaluating core
the determination of the power density distribution
within the core as a function of core life.
core is designed to produce a certain thermal energy Q, with a
fixed number of assemblies
with the same output Q, a BWR requires about three times more
assemblies than a PWR
in both types the fuel assemblies are placed in the core in such a
way that the core shape approximates a cylinder
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 77
Average power per assembly
individual assemblies do not all produce the same power
depending on fuel, poison contents, location
core is loaded such that the power profile across the core is as flat as
possible
j: assembly,
V
j
: volume of j assembly
P
j
: power produced by assembly
E
f
: energy per fission
q(r): power density

}
=
E = =
G
g
j gj fgj
V
f j
V E dV r q P
j
1
) ( |
ly respective group by flux and
section cross fission of value average : and
gj
o
fgj
E
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 78
40
average power per assembly
by following the power produced by an assembly during its life in
core the burnup of that assembly can be determined
summation over the G groups suppressed for simplicity in writing
fraction of the average power produced by assembly j
N
V E
N
P
P
N
j
j j fj f
=
E
= =
1
|

=
E
E
= =
G
g
j j fj
j j fj j
j
V
V N
P
P
NP
1
|
|
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 79
all assemblies have the same volume
Note the average nuclear parameters and are involved. For the flux,
relative values can be used, which incidentally are the values given by the
diffusion codes that compute these fluxes.
power of assembly j is
Ion-line computer at the power plant records the fractions NP for all of the
assemblies.
NP
j
are determined from signals proportional to the assembly power, obtained by
detectors either permanently mounted on certain assemblies

=
E
E
= =
G
g
j fj
j fj j
j
N
P
P
NP
1
|
|
P NP P
j j
. =
fj
E
j
|
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 80
41
Example
Consider a reactor with P=2441 MW(th)
and N = 157 assemblies. Figure shows,
in one quarter of the core, the burnup
and the relative power distribution, i.e.,
the fractions NPj.
what is the power produced by
assemblies 15G, 8H, and 9D?
solution:
the average power
using NP
j
values
P(15G)=0.62x15.55=9.64 MW(t)
P(8H)=0.95x15.55=14.77 MW(t)
P(9D)=1.16x15.55=18.04 MW(t)
mbly MW(t)/asse 55 15 157 2441 . / = = P
Mar. 14, 2013 Reza Ghafouri ENGR4810- Nuclear Fuel Cycles 81