You are on page 1of 20

1.

The ionic chemical equation are :
a. For reaction : Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq)

ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

the ionic chemical equation is : Zn(s) + 2H+(aq)

Zn2+(aq) + H2(g).

b. For reaction : CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)

CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

the ionic chemical equation is :
CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)

Ca2+(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

c. For reaction : K2O(s) + H2SO4

K2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)

the ionic chemical equation is : K2O(s) + 2H+(aq)
d. For reaction : Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq)

K+ + H2O(l)

Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)

the ionic chemical equation is : OH-(aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l).
2. The Chemical Equation :
a. 2Cr(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 6H2O(l)
b. Cr(OH)3(s) + NaOH(aq)

2K[Cr(OH)4](aq) + 3H2.
Na[Cr(OH)4](aq).

3. The Chemical Equation :
a. 2Al(OH)3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq)

Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 6H2O(l)

form aluminium ion : 2Al(OH)3(s) + 6H+(aq)
b. Al(OH)3(aq) + NaOH(aq)

Al3+ (aq) + 6H2O(l)

Na[Al(OH)4](aq)

form aluminate ion : Al(OH)3(aq) + OH- (aq)

[Al(OH)4]-(aq)

Exercise 15.2
1. a. The conjugate acids of :
Cl- is HCl
CO32- is HCO3NH3 is NH4+
ClO4- is HClO4
SO32- is HSO3b. The conjugate bases of :
HF is FHSO4- is SO42NH4+ is NH3.
HPO42- is PO43H3O+ is H2O
2. The chemical equation between ion HPO42- with water as follows :
a. Base : HPO42- + H2O
b. Acid : HPO42- + H2O

H2PO4- + OHPO43- + H3O+

3. The chemical equation :
a. HCO3-(aq) + F-(aq)
Acid

base

b. HSO4-(aq) + NH3(aq)
Base

Acid

c. HF(aq) + H2O(l)
Acid

base

4. Na2O (s) + H2O (l)

CO32-(aq) + HF(aq)
conjugate base

conjugate acid

SO42-(aq) + NH4+(aq)
conjugate base

conjugate acid

H3O+(aq) + F-(aq)
conjugate acid

conjugate base

2NaOH (aq)

The composition of the resulting solution is 2 mole sodium hydroxide solution.

5 mol L-1 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-] = Kw 1.25 d.3 1. Given by : [OH-]= 1. 2..6. 6. 0.5 c.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 HNO3 HNO3(g) H+ (aq) + NO3-(aq) [H+] = [NO3-] = 5. Is the swimming pool water acidic or basic . x 10 -7 mol/L Asked : a.0 ×10 −14 = 6. 5.Review Exsercise 15. [H+].6 ×10 −7 b.25 x 10-8 − = [OH ] 1.5 mol L-1 HCl H+ (aq)+ Cl-(aq) HCl(g) [H+] = [Cl-] = 1...? a.33 x 10-14 [OH − ] 12 ×10 −2 . Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+]= Kw 1 ×10 −14 = 6. pH = -log [H+] = -log (6. the water of swimming pool is basic.. 1.25 pH is more than7 so.0 ×10 −14 [OH ] = = = 2.25 mol L-1 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+] = Kw 10 −14 = 4 x 10-14 − = [OH ] 0.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2(s) Ba2+ (aq) + 2OH-(aq) [Ba2+] = 6. Hitung Konsentrasi: a.25 mol L-1 KOH K+(aq) + OH-(aq) KOH(s) [K+] =[OH-] = 0.25 x 10-8) = 8-log 6.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 [OH-] = 12 x 10-2 mol L-1 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+] = Kw 10 −14 = = 8.? b.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 = [H+] [OH-] Kw Kw 1.0 x 10-12 mol L-1 [H + ] 5..6 x 10-15 + = [H ] 1.0 ×10 −3 - b.

0 x 10-1 = 1 – log 5 = 0. pH of orange juice = 3. 5.Exercise 15.5 x 10-4 Ca(OH)2 [OH-] = 2 x 6.5 x 10-12 = 12-log 1.433 d.6 x 10-3 mol L-1 HNO3 [H+] = 3.16 x 10-4 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-] = Kw 10 −14 = 3.5 x 10-12 [OH − ] 0. 6.6 x 10-3 = 3-log 3. 0.5 pH = 3.6 = 2.0065 pH= .0 x 10-1 mol L-1 HCl [H+] = 5.log [H+] = -log 1.5 x 10-4 = 1.16 ×10 −4 .5 = 11.0 x 10-1 mol L-1 pH = -log [H+] = -log 5. Calculate pH for: a.69 = 11.16 x 10-11 + = [ H ] 3.8 c.5 -log [H+] = 3.6 x 10-3 pH= -log [H+] = -log 3.3 b.5 [H+] = 3.11 2.3 ×10 −3 pH= -log [H+] = -log 7.0065 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+]= Kw 10 −14 = = 1.4 1.3 x 10-3 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+]= Kw 10 −14 = 7.69 x 10-12 − = [OH ] 1. 3. Calculate [H+] and [OH-] a.69 x 10-12= 12-log 7.0065 mol L -1 KOH [OH-] = 0.

heating b.15 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-] = Kw 10 −14 = = 6.9 x 10-3 + = [ H ] 1.90 pH = 11. pH of household ammonia = 11.b. adding acidic solution .80 pH = 0. Factors that cause [H+] undergoes increasing: a.80 [H+] = 0. [H+] increases.2 ×10 −12 c.2 x 10-12 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-] = Kw 10 −14 = 7.80 -log [H+] = 0.90 -log [H+] = 11.309 x 10-14 [ H + ] 0. it shows the increasing of the acidity of that solution.90 [H+] = 1.15 3. pH of gastric juice = 0. pH decreases from 7 to 5.

1 mol NH3 the value of [H+] of NH3 is higher than NaOH one.1 mol L-1 CH3COOH the value of [H+] of HCl is higher than CH3COOH one. HBr(aq) H+(aq) + Br-(aq) b. H2SO3(aq) 2H+(aq) + SO32-(aq) c. The electrical conductivity of NaOH is greater than NH3 because NaOH undergoes completely inozation. And the value of pH of CH3COOH is higher than HCl one. 0. NaF (aq) Na+(aq) + F.0001 M 3. The electrical conductivity of HCL is greater than CH3COOH because HCL undergoes completely inozation. RbOH(aq) Rb+(aq) + OH-(aq) d.Review Exercise 15. a. 2. It caused by HCl that include into strong acid in order to it can’t be influenced by the value of Ka.1 mol L-1 dan 0. NH3 13 M d.meanwhile CH3COOH undergoes partially ionization. meanwhile NH3 is weak base that influenced by the value of Ka. H2SO4 b.meanwhile NH3 undergoes partially ionization. NaOH 1.21 x 10-5 M c. CH3COOH 0.5 1.(aq) . 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH dan 0. a. b. It caused by NaOH that include into strong base in order to it can’t be influenced by the value of Ka. ionization equation : a. meanwhile CH3COOH is weak acid that influenced by the value of Ka.

NH4+ Ka = H+ + NH3 [ H + ][ NH 3 ] [ NH ] + 4 2.10 ± 5.2 x 10-4 = x2 0.1 mol L – HF .10-3 = 2. CH3COOH.1 − x 7.2 x 10-4 a. HS3.88.2.132.2.10 + 2.080 . H3PO4 Ka = [ H + ][ H 2 PO4 2− [ H 3 PO4 ] ] H+ + ClO- b. The value of [H+] and pH HF H+ + F- [ H + ][ F − ] Ka = [ HF ] x ⋅x 7. NH4+. H2PO4.10-4x – 7. H2CO3.Exercise 15. Ka= 7.1 − x 7.2.2 x 10-4 = 0.2.log 8.10-5 = 0 −4 −7 −4 x12 = − 7. HClO [ H + ][ClO − ] Ka = [ HClO ] H+ + CO3- c.2.10-5 – 7.132.6 1. Ka expressions : H+ + H2PO42- a.132.10-3 pH = -log [H+] = . HCO3 − [ H + ][CO3 ] Ka= [ HCO3 ] d.10-4x = x2 x2 + 7.10-3 2 [H+] = x = 8. The arrangement of decreasing acidity strength: H2SO4.184. Fe(H2O)63+.10 =8. Given by 0.

8. pH CH3COOH > pH HF > pH HCl .M = 1. HCl 0.1 mol L -1 [H+] = 0.1 = 1.1 pH= -log 0.10-3 = 2.0. acidity HCl > HF > CH3COOH.1 = 1 the acidity of HF is weaker than HCl one. .34.34. but stronger than CH3COOH one.87.10 −6 = 1.8.1 mol L -1 [H+] = Ka.10-3. pH= -log 1.b.10 −5. CH3COOH 0.

+ H2O 1 mol OH2. Successive ionization equations of oxalic acid : 4. The number of OH. NaOH + H+ H2O + Na+ 1 mole H+ b. H2C2O4(s) + H2O(l) HC2O4-(s) + H3O+(l) HC2O4-(aq) + H2O(l) C2O42-(s) + H3O+(l) . Ca(OH)2 + 2H+ 2H2O + Ca2+ 2 mole H+ 3. HF + OH- H2O + F 1 mole OHc. HNO3 + OH- H2O + NO3- 1 mole OHb. HCOOH + OH- HCOO. The number of H+ ions that required in the reactions: a. CH3COOH + OH- H2O + CH3COO- 1 mole OHe. Fe(OH)3 + 3H+ 3H2O + Fe3+ 3 mole H+ c.+ 3H2O 3 mole OHf. H2SO4 + 2OH- H2O + SO42- 2 mole OHd.ions that required in the reactions: a.7 1. H3PO4 + 3OH- PO43.Exercise 15.

2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) c. Persamaan Reaksi pada: a. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) b. 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(s) CaCl2(s) + 2H2O(l) AlCl3(s) + 3H2O(l) MgCl2(s) + H2O(l) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) . 2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) 2. 2HCl(aq) + MgO(s) d.Exercise 15. 3HCl(aq) + Al(OH)3 (s) c. 2NaOH(aq) + H2CO3 (aq) NaCO3(aq) + 2H2O(l) d. 2HCl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) b.8 1. Persamaan Reaksi pada: a.

HSO4. NaCO3 = base + H+(aq) . MgI2 = Acid h. Na3PO4 = base e. CO32-(aq) + OH-(aq) HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) c. NH4+ (aq) + H2O(l) d. Ca(ClO)2 = base d.(aq) + H2O(l) + OH-(aq) HF(aq) + OH-(aq) f. KNO3 = netral b. KH2PO4 = base g. The Clasification of solution: a. S2-(aq) + H2O(l) HS-(aq) b. [Fe(H2O)6]3+(aq) + H3O+(aq) NH3(aq) [Fe(H2O)5(OH)]2+(aq) + H3O+(aq) + H2O(l) e. F. AlBr3 = acid f. NH4NO3 = acid c.(aq) + H2O(l) HClO(aq) + OH-(aq) h.9 1. Hydrolysis equations : a. ClO.Exercise 15.(aq) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) + OH-(aq) g. CH3 (aq) + H2O(l) CH3OH(aq) 2.

5. a.015 mol L-1 .10-3 7.5.5.15 C= 0.10 1. 2.10-3 0.015 CaCl2 + 2H2O 7.015 7. HCl 0.10-3 mole 2 HCl + CaCO3 I = 0.135 0 7.5.10-3 0.015 The amount of gastric juice that could be netralized by 750mg CaCO3 is only 0.5. b.15 M dan CaCO3 750mg n CaCO3 = mass/ molar mass = 0.Exercise 15.75g/100g mole-1 = 7.10-3 E= 0.

B2O3 is a weak acidic oxide b. The nature of the bonding and acid-base properties of the following oxides: a. In2O3 is an acidicoxide Br Br2O7 HBrO4 . K2O has ionic bonding. Ga2O3 has ionic bonding. it’s a basic oxide b. Ga2O3. it’s a acidic oxide the acid-base properties of K2O. Br2O7 Elements K Formula of oxide K2O Formula of reaction with KOH Ga Ga2O3 Ga(OH)3 water Formula of reaction with H2O+ K+ H2O + Ga3+ no reaction strong acid Formula of reaction with no reaction no reaction H2O+BrO4- strong base Acid-base properties Moderately Weakly basic Weakly acidic Bonding in solid oxide basic Ionic bonding Ionic bonding Covalent bonding 2. Br2O7 has covalent bonding. The characteristic of B2O3 and In2O3 a.Exercise 15.11 1. it’s a basic oxide c.

= S2- • NH4+ = NH3 • H2O = OH- b. Balanced chemical equations: a. KHC4H4O6 + NaHCO3 b. Al(s) + 3HCl(aq) AlCl3(aq) + b.= H2CO3 • HS. Conjugate acid of: • HCO3. KOH(aq) + Fe(OH)3(s) c. 3HCl(aq) + Al(OH)3(s) d.= H2S • [Fe(OH)(H2O)5]2+ = [Fe(H2O)6]+ • N2H4 = N2H5 5. The chemical equations: a. Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HF(aq) BaF2(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2. Conjugate base of: • HClO3 = ClO3- • HS. KHCO3(s) + HNO3(aq) 3 H2(g) 2 KNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) c. Fe2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) c. LiOH(aq) + H2O(l) c. HClO4(aq) + H2O(l) b. H2SO3(aq) + CaCO3 (s) 2FeCl3 (aq)+ 3H2O(l) AlCl3(aq) + H2O(l) CaSO3(aq) + H2O (l)+ CO2(g) 4. N2H4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O +(aq) + ClO-(aq) Li+ (aq) + OH-(aq) H3O + (aq) + HCOO-(aq) . The formulas of: a. 3NaOH(aq) + Al(s) b. 2NaOH(aq) + SO3 (g) Al(OH)3(aq) +3Na(s) K[Fe(OH)4] (aq) K2[Zn(OH)4] (aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) 3. Balanced chemical equations: a. HCOOH(aq) + H2O(l) d. 2KOH(aq) + Zn(OH)2(s) d.Question And Problems 1. Ionization reactions: a. Fe2O3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2O(l) d.

0. H2O(l) + CN-(aq) HCN(aq) + OH-(aq) Acid: H2O(l). Conjugate acid: HC2O4-(aq) b.301 . Identify the Bronsted Lowry conjugate acid base pairs and predict wether the reaction will occur to a small large extent for each following reaction : a.(aq) Base: CN-(aq). conjugate base: OH. conjugate acid: HS-(aq) d. CH3COOH(aq) + S2-(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + HS-(aq) Acid: CH3COOH(aq).5 mole L-1 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = 2. b. c. d.5 mole L-1 HBr [H+] = 0. gambar diagram a. Calculate [H+]. 7.5 = 1-log 5=0. [OH-]. conjugate base: CH3COO-(aq) Base: S2-(aq). conjugate acid: HCN(aq) c.6. conjugate base: Cl-(aq) Base: F-(aq). HCl(aq) + F-(aq) HF(aq) + Cl-(aq) Acid: HCl(aq).5 pH= -log [H+] = -log 0. conjugate acid: HF(aq) 8. conjugate base: HC2O4-(aq) Base: H2O(l). H2C2O4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HC2O4-(aq) Acid: H2C2O4(aq).10-14 + = [H ] 0. and pH of: a.

096 = 2-log 9. pH=3 pH=3 -log [H+]=3 [H+]=10-3 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = = 10-11 −3 [H + ] 10 .10-3 mole L-1 Ca(OH)2 [OH-]= 2x3.10-13 mole L -1. Coca-cola.0177 = [H+] [OH-] Kw [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = 1. pH= -log 0.096 HCl H+ + Cl- 0.M2 2.096 0.0ml.10-12= 11.6 gram NaOH. 1.M2 M2= 0.15. Calculate [H+] and [OH-] of th following solution : a.096 9.M1=V2.16 mole L -1. Mr = 0.6 40 = 0.096 [H+]=[HCl]=[Cl-]=0.16 mole L-1. d. 250 ml solution.10-3 = [H+] [OH-] Kw Kw 10 −14 = = 1. 250 ml solution V1.0 ml. 2. mol M= = volume gram 1.6= 1. + = [ H ] 0.20.16 pH=-log 6.15= 13.b.10 −3 [H+] = pH=-loh [H+]= -log 1.12=250. 3.25 volume NaOH Na+ + OH[OH ]=[NaOH]=[Na+]=0.10-12 [OH − ] 6.10-14= 14-log 6.096 mole L-1. 12 mole L-1 HCl.096 0. + = [ H ] 0.10-3=6.10-14.\25. Kw = [H+] [OH-] [H+]= Kw 10 −14 = 6.66.04.66.778 c.

5 pH=8. NO3-..10 -log [H+]= 12.10 −13 10.10 −3 c.16. Given by : the concentration of HNO3 is 0. Dish washing detergen.10-13 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = 0..40 pH=2.10-12.98.10 pH=12.5 -log [H+]= 8.10-3. pH=12.20 mole L-1 Asked : the value of H+. pH=8.40 -log [H+]=2.69.b..40 [H+]= 3.94.98.5 [H+]= 3. Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = 2. Baking soda.10 [H+]= 7. + = [ H ] 7.012.94.10 −9 d. .20 mole L -1.16.51. Acid rain. pH=2.10-9 Kw = [H+] [OH-] [OH-]= Kw 10 −14 = = 3.? Answer: HNO3 H+ + NO3- [H+]=[NO3-]=[HNO3]=0. + = [ H ] 3. HNO3. pH=-log [H+]= -log 0.16.2 = 0.10-6 [ H + ] 3.

NaOH.2-x) x x [ H + ][OH − ] Ka= [ HNO2 ] 4..10 −5 = 0 x12 = x= − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 4.025. Na2CO3. (0.6.11.? Answer: HNO2 H+ + NO2-.2 – 9.+ H2O CH3COOH + OH- b..26. H O H H O O -2 O C C C + 2OH + 2H2O C C C H O O O O 14.2 − x ) x2 4.10 −4 = 9.26.10-3= 0.190. H3PO4 . 12. it make basic solution. NH3.5. Given by : the concentration of HNO2 is 0. 15...+ H2O CH3COOH + OH-..2 − x ) -4 x 2 + 4.and Na+. Ba(OH)2 13. HCl.10 −7 + 3.5. thats way.26.10 = (0.will react with water to be CH3COOH and OH-.10-3.5. d.5. The number of acidic hydrogen atom = 2 c. then CH3COO. When sodium etanoate solution undergoes hydrolysis it will make basic solution because CH3COONa ionized to be CH3COO. There are 2 acidic hydrogen atoms in 1 mole acid.26.10-3= 3-log 9. . NaCl. H2SO4.5.10 −4 ± 2. a. The number of Hydrogen atom = 3 b.10-4= x⋅x (0.5. Asked : [ H +] [OH −] [ HNO2 ] and pH.20 mole L-1 Ka=4. Because in water formed OH.033 [HNO2]= 0. Answer: a. NH4Cl.ion.10 −3 2 [H+]=[NO2-]=x = 9. pH= -log 9. CH3COO. meanwhile Na+ cant react with water.2-x= 0.26=2.10-4. to netralize 1 mole acid required 2 mole hydroxide ions. Hydrolysis reaction : CH3COO.10 −4 x − 9.

KCN = base KCN K+ + CN- CN. c.+ H2O H2CO3 + 2OH- f. Na2SO4 e.+ OH- . 3Na+ + PO43-.+ H2O 2NH4+ + S2-.and OH17. (NH4)2S = tergabtung nilai Ka dan Kb. 2K+ + CO32- K2CO3 CO32.+ H3O+ HCO3. the clasification of salt: a. HCO3. HCO3. CaCl2 = netral b.+ H2O H2CO3 + OH- b. a.as a base because its reaction with water produce H2CO3. NH4Br NH4+ + H2O NH4+ + BrNH4OH + H+ h.16. NH4Br= acid.as an acid because its reaction with water produce CO3. H3PO4 + 3OH-. 2Na+ + SO42-.as an acid: HCO3.+ 3H2O d. K2CO3 = base.+ H2O HCN + OH- g. HCO3.as a base HCO3. Na3PO4 PO43. (NH4)2S NH4+ + H2O S2. Na3PO4= base.+ H2O CO32. NH4OH + H+ HS. Cr(NO3)3= acid Cr+3 + 3NO3- Cr(NO3)3 Cr3+ + H2O Cr(OH)3 + 3H+. Na2SO4= netral.

CO2(g) CO2(aq) b. Given by : the mass of CaCO3 is 750 mg and the mass of Al(OH)3 is 200 mg the concentration of HCl is 0.015 CaCl2 + 2H2O 7. Na2O.5.015 The amount of gastric juice that could be netralized by 750mg CaCO3 is only 0.10-3 E= 0.10-3 7.015 mol L-1 3HCl + Al(OH)3 AlCl3 + H2O I = 0.5.5.15 C= E= The amount of gastric juice that could be netralized by 200mg Al(OH)3 is only mol L-1 20.15 M Asked : Chemical equation..5.+ H3O+ 19.? a. Cl2O7 b. Arrangement of oxides in order of increasing acidity : a. Volume HCl that could be netralized: 2 HCl + CaCO3 I = 0..+ H3O+.135 0 7..10-3 0. H2CO3 + H2O HCO3. d. CO2(aq) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq) c.15 C= 0.18. and volume of gastric juice that could be netralized. SiO2. P4O11. Cl2O7 .015 7.+ H2O CO32.10-3 0. Al2O3. K2O. Chemical equilibria: a. Al2O3. HCO3.. SO3. CaCO3 + 2HCl Al(OH)3 + 3HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 AlCl3 + H2O b.