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ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK –UNIT I TO V EE2301-POWER ELECTRONICS V SEM -BATCH (2011-2015) UNIT-I PART-A 1. Why IGBT is very popular nowadays? a. Lower heat requirements b. Lower switching losses c. S m a l l e r snubber circuit requirements 2. What are the different methods to turn on the thyristor? a. Forward voltage triggering b. Gate triggering c. dv/dt triggering d. T e m p e r at u r e triggering e. Light triggering 3. What is the difference between power diode and signal diode? S.No. 1. Power diode Signal diode

Constructed with n-layer, called Drift region is not present. Drift region between p+ layer and n+ layer. 2. The voltage, current and power Lower ratings are higher. 3. Power diodes operate at high Operates at higher switching speed. Speeds. 4. IGBT is a voltage controlled device. Why? Because the controlling parameter is gate-emitter voltage. 5. Power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device. Why? Because the output (drain) current can be controlled by gate-source voltage. 6. Power BJT is a current controlled device. Why? Because the output (collector) current can be controlled by base current. 7. What is the relation between α and β? β= α 1-α 8. What are the different types of power MOSFET? a. N-channel MOSFET b. P -channel MOSFET 9. How can a thyristor turned off? A thyristor can be turned off by making the current flowing through it to zero 10. Define latching current. The latching current is defined as the minimum value of anode current which it must attain during turn on process to maintain conduction when gate signal is removed. .

PART-B

1.

Discuss the different modes of operation of thyristor with the help of static VI characteristics.

The Static V-I Characteristics of an SCR is shown in the figure. Thyristor V-I Characteristics are divided into three regions of operation. These Three regions of operations are: Reverse Blocking Region Forward Blocking Region Forward Conduction Region

Reverse Blocking Region: When the Cathode of the SCR is made positive with respect to the anode, then outer junctions J1 and J3 are reverse biased, whereas junction J2 is forward biased.

Therefore a small leakage current flows through the SCR. This can be observed from the figure that, in the reverse blocking region small current magnitude is observed and it almost remain constant with the rise in the voltage. This Scenario is observed until certain voltage which is called avalanche breakdown voltage. At this particular voltage the depletion regions of the junctions J1 and J3 are broken down and the thyristor conducts in the reverse bias direction. This can be observed from the figure at certain voltage Vbr current flowing through the thyristor increases suddenly to high value. Forward Blocking Region: In this region anode is made positive with respect to the cathode and therefore junction J1 and J3 are forward biased and junction J2 is reversed biased. Hence the thyristor is in forward blocking condition and a small leakage current flows during this condition due to drift of charge carriers. In this condition device does not conduct. Forward Conduction Region: When the thyristor is in forward blocking condition and anode to cathode voltage is increased further and gate circuit is in open condition, then at particular voltage called as forward break over voltage (Vbo) avalanche breakdown occurs and and thyristor starts conducting in forward mode. This conduction process can be seen in the figure through the voltage starts abruptly falling from some hundreds of volts to 1 to 2 volts and suddenly very large current flowing through the SCR. This process of conducting the thyristor damages the device. So in order to conduct the thyristor safely, gate current Ig is provided which results in the reduction in the forward break over voltage less then (Vbo). ith increase in the gate current (Ig) the conduction voltage reduces. This can be observed in the figure.

but when the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR turned ON. This voltage is called Firing voltage.2) Explain the construction of SCR with neat diagram The SCR stand for Silicon Control Rectifier. the junction J1 and J3 become forward bias while the junction J2 become reverse bias. When we apply a clock pulse at the gate terminal. the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR will remain in ON state. When forward bias voltage is applied to the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR. it offers very low resistance. it has tree junction J1 SCR Operation / Working The Silicon Control Rectifier SCR start conduction when it is forward biased. To turn ON the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR we apply clock pulse at the gate terminal which called triggering of Silicon Control Rectifier.01O to 1O. When positive clock pulse is applied at the gate the SCR turns ON. which is in the range of 0. SCR Firing & Triggering The Silicon Control Rectifier SCR is normally operated below the forward break over voltage (VBO). The Silicon Control Rectifier SCR turn ON and OFF very quickly. the junction J2 become forward bias and the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR start conduction. . SCR Construction The Silicon Control Rectifier SCR is consist on four layer of semiconductor which forms PNPN or NPNP structure. At the OFF state the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR provide infinity resistance and in ON state. it is used in industries because it can handle high values of current and voltage. For this purpose the cathode is kept at negative and anode at positive. now if we remove the triggering voltage.

to define the device velocity in changing from conduction state to blocking state and vice versa. the transition of SCR from blocking state to conducting state is called as turn ON mechanism. the switching losses are more. The device's switching characteristics tells us about the switching losses. Losses occurring in the device during switching from ON state to OFF state and OFF state to ON state are known as Switching Losses. Turn ON mechanism:When a positive gate signal is applied to a forward biased SCR. Draw the switching characteristics of SCR and explain it.The time taken for SCR . which is very important parameter to decide the selection of device.At high frequency.3. (16) SCR Switching Characteristics or Dynamic Characteristics: The switching characteristics are important particularly at high-frequency. It is recommended to read Thyristor-Basics & V-I Characteristics for proper understanding of thyristor switching characteristics. This post will discuss about thyristor switching characteristics in detail.

In order to avoid this.9VA The anode current further increases and reaches 0. (2) Application of reverse voltage. To turn off an SCR two things are to be done (1) Reduce the anode current below its holding current level.1IA (10% of its max value)The time taken for anode current to reach 0. due to the charge carriers stored in the four layers. (or) It is the time taken by VA to fall from 0. Turn off time t OFF = trr + tgr trr = Reverse recovery time tgr =Gate recovery time Reverse recovery process is the removal of excessive charge carries from the top and bottom layers of SCR. IA build up in the reverse direction. (Reverse recovery current flows due sweeping out of holes from top p-layer and electrons from bottom n layer) Reverse Recovery Time (trr):It is the time taken for the removal of excessive carriers from top and bottom layer of SCR. Reverse recovery current removes the excessive carriers from junctions J 1 and J3 during the time t1 to t3. During this time the conduction spreads over the entire cross-section of cathode and so electrons spread over all the junctions. At t1. the device will not be able to block this forward voltage due to the fact that excess charge carriers are still at the junctions.9IA is called as rise time(tr).1I A to 0. In other words. reverse biasing of SCR is done to remove the excess charge carriers from all four layers.9I A.urn on time is divided into 3 periods.9V A to 0. it is the time taken for anode voltage to fall from V A to 0.t ON = td + tr + tptd = delay time.9IG the anode current IA starts increasing and reaches 0.1I A is called as delay time(td). When the anode current is zero. Turn OFF mechanism: Turning OFF an SCR means bringing the SCR from conducting state to blocking state. so the device will start conducting even when the gate signal is not applied. current IA = 0 After t1. This decaying causes a reverse voltage to be applied across the SCR. if we apply forward voltage to the SCR.1V A to it's ON state voltage drop(near by zero). the reverse recovery current decreases.to traverse from the blocking state to conducting state is called as turn on time. In other words. The turn OFF time is defined as the time from the instant the anode current becomes zero to the instant SCR reaches its forward blocking ability. tp or ts = peak time (or) spread timewhen the gate current reaches 0. .9IA to maximum value of IA) 90% to 100% of its full value. The time taken by the anode current to increases from 0. it is the time taken by the anode voltage to fall from 0. At t2: When nearly 60% of charges are removed from the outer two layers.1VA Spread Time or Peak time (t s or tp) It is time taken by the anode current to rise from ( 0.

Discuss the different modes of operation of TRIAC with the help of VI characteristics. Gate recovery process is the removal of excessive carriers from J2 junction by application of reverse voltage. Gate current positive (+ve) ΙΙΙ – Mode = MT2 current negative (-ve). Gate current negative (-ve) ΙΙΙ + Mode = MT2 current negative (-ve). The reverse voltage across SCR removes the excessive carriers from junction J2. For example. At t4 all the carriers are removed and the device moves to the forward blocking mode. 3.(8) Triac Symbol and Construction We now know that a “triac” is a 5-layer. on-resistance values have been reduced by a factor of about 10 compared with those of conventional N-channel power MOSFET of comparable size and voltage capability. PNPN in the positive direction and a NPNP in the negative direction. Then a triac has four possible triggering modes of operation as follows. holding currents and trigger voltage levels the same as we would expect from a single SCR. Gate current positive (+ve) Ι – Mode = MT2 current positive (+ve).At t3 all excessive carriers from J1 and J3 is removed. three-terminal bidirectional device that blocks current in its “OFF” state acting like an open-circuit switch. the triac can conduct current in either direction when triggered by a single gate pulse. 5. In operation the epitaxial region is conductivity modulated (by excess holes and electrons) thereby eliminating a major component of the on-resistance. Ι + Mode = MT2 current positive (+ve). 1. Explain the construction and working of IGBT? Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a new high conductance MOS gate-controlled power switch. 4. Gate current negative (-ve) Even though the two thyristors are combined into a single triac device. 2. but unlike a conventional thyristor. Time taken for removal of trapped charges from J2 is called gate recovery time(t gr). . The fabrication process is similar to that of an N-channel power MOSFET but employs an N-epitaxial layer grown on a P+ substrate. they still exhibit individual electrical characteristics such as different breakdown voltages. 4.

The IGBT is a four layer N-P-N-P device with an MOS-gated channel connecting the two Ntype regions.This has the effect of lowering the current gain of the NP-N transistor (αN-P-N) so that αN-P-N + αP-N-P < 1. In the normal mode of operation of an IGBT. rapid switching times. combined with the sintered aluminium contact shorting the N+ and P+ regions. Here we will describe the fabrication and characteristics of a new vertical power MOSFET structure that provides an on-resistance value about one-tenth of that of conventional power MOSFETs of the same size and voltage capability. thereby limiting the practical value of power MOSFETs to applications below a few hundred volts. In this semiconductor device. a positive voltage is applied to the. . However. anode (A) relative to cathode (K). it maintains gate control (does not latch) over a wide range of anode current and voltage. is different in a fundamental way. provides the shunting resistance RS shown in IGBT schematics figure. while similar in structure to the MOS-gated thyristor. The structure and the equivalent circuit of the IGBT and IGBT schematics is shown in figures respectively. The fabrication is like that of a standard N-channel power MOSFET except that the N~ epitaxial silicon layer is grown on a P+ substrate instead of an N+ substrate.Vertical MOSFETs have become increasing important in discrete power device applications due primarily to their high input impedance. except for the presence of the shunting resistance RG in each unit cell. this mechanism results in a significant reduction in the device on-resistance and leads to the acronym IGBTs. This device. the on-resistance of such devices increases with increasing drain-source voltage capability. The heavily doped P+ region in the center of each unit cell. the conductivity of the epitaxial drain region of a conventional MOSFET is dramatically increased (modulated) by injected carriers. and low resistance.Thus latching is avoided and gate control is maintained within a large operating range of anode voltage and current. They are similar to those of an MOS-gated thyristor.

b. What is meant by phase controlled rectifier? It converts fixed ac voltage into variable dc voltage. 4. Portable hand tool drives e. E l e c t r o chemical and electro-metallurgical process d. This explains how igbt works and its mode of operation. which dramatically reduces the on-resistance of the device. Input power factor is improved. b. M a g n e t power supplies f. It prevents the output voltage from becoming negative. as is typical of a thyristor. accompanied by loss of control by the MOS gate. electrons pass into the N~-region (base of the P-N-P transistor). in this case the four-layer device may latch. Mention some of the applications of controlled rectifier. textile m i l l s a n d p a p e r mills employing dc motor drives. PART-A UNIT-II 1. 6.When the gate (G) is at zero potential with respect to K. SCRs are subjected to a peak-inverse voltage of 2Vm in a fully controlled bridge . In this event. L o a d current waveform is improved and thus the load performance is better. What are the advantages of freewheeling diodes in a controlled in a controlled rectifier? a. 5. a. These electrons lower the potential of the N~-region. p r i n t i n g p r e s s .epilayer region. no anode current I A flows for anode voltage VA below the breakdown level VBF. During normal operation. the shunting. T h e load current is transferred from the main thyristors to the freewheeling diode. HVDC transmission system 3. When VA < VBF and the gate voltage exceeds the threshold value VGT. the device may be turned off by lowering emitter current IA below some holding value. which keeps αN-P-N very low. D C traction c. What are the advantages of single phase bridge converter over single phase mid-point converter? a. a. thereby allowing all of its thyristors to regain their blocking states. The excess electrons and holes modulate the conductivity of the high resistivity N-region. forward biasing the P+-N~ (substrateepi-layer) junction. b. causing αN-P-N to increase. However. thereby causing holes to be injected from the P + substrate into the N. for sufficiently large emitter current IA significant emitter injection may occur in the N-P-N transistor. resistor R g keeps the emitter current of the N-P-N transistor very low. What is meant by delay angle? The delay angle is defined as the angle between the zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the thyristor is fired. What is the function of freewheeling diodes in controlled rectifier? It serves two processes. 2. Steel r o l l i n g mills.

What are the different methods of firing circuits for line commutated converter? a. . What is commutation angle or overlap angle? The commutation period when outgoing and incoming thyristors are conducting is known as overlap period. What are the advantages of six pulse converter? a. What is meant by input power factor in controlled rectifier? The input power factor is defined as the ratio of the total mean input power to the total RMS input volt-amperes. 13. I n mid-point converter. As such. The angular period. What is meant by natural commutation? Here the current flowing through the thyristor goes through a natural zero and enable the thyristor to turn off. each secondary winding should be able to supply the load power. Commutation is made simple. Digital firing schemes. 15. PF = ( V1 I1 cos φ1 ) / ( Vrms Irms) where V1 = phase voltage. What are the types of commutation? a. 10. What is meant by commutation? It is the process of changing the direction of current flow in a particular path of the circuit. This process is used in thyristors for turning it off. c. Distortion on the ac side is reduced due to the reduction in lower order harmonics. Hence for same voltage and currnt ratings of SCrs. 12. What is meant by forced commutation? In this commutation. I1 = fundamental component of the supply current. Give an expression for average voltage of single phase semiconverters. Natural commutation b.rectifier. The cosine wave crossing pulse timing control. power handled by midpoint configuration is about b. 8. when both devices share conduction is known as the commutation angle or overlap angle. 9. UJT firing circuit. 7. 11. I n d u c t a n c e reduced in series is considerably reduced. φ1 = input displacement angle. Irms = supply rms current. b. b. c. the transformer rating in mid-point converter is double the load rating. Forced commutation 14. the current flowing through the thyristor is forced to become zero by external circuitry. Average output voltage Vdc = (Vm / π) (1 + cos α ).

PART-B 1. the current through the circuit is zero. The inductor acts as a source and keeps the SCR forward-biased till the energy stored in the inductor becomes zero. but at this instant. the current through the circuit is zero. the diode would start conduction at wt = 0. the current through the circuit would not become zero suddenly because of the inductor. (16) HALF-WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER CIRCUIT WITH AN RL LOAD The operation of the RL circuit supplied by a half-wave controlled rectifier is illustrated in this program. For < wt < 2 . With an SCR. At wt = 0. If a diode instead of an SCR has been used. vs becomes positive. the current through the circuit is not zero and there is some energy stored in the inductor. the conduction does not start till the SCR is triggered. Let vs(t) be defined to E * sin (wt). Let the SCR be triggered when wt = . As wt becomes >0. When vs become negative. When wt = . Then a is called the firing angle and the SCR continues to conduct. . the source becomes zero. Let the current through the circuit become zero at wt = and the value of > . Discuss the working of 1phase half wave controlled rectifier converter with RL load using relevant waveforms.

: The load current waveform The voltage across the SCR The Plot of Output Voltage .

If . and no control is possible when its output voltage tends to become negative since it is clamped at zero volt. When source Vin is positive. free-wheeling operation takes place without allowing the bridge output voltage to become negative. Due to presence of diodes. A semi-controlled full-wave bridge rectifier can be configured in a few ways. then through the load and returns via diode D3. whereas a semi-controlled rectifier circuit is made up of both controlled and uncontrolled rectifiers. Explain the operation of 1phase semi converter and derive the expressions for its average and rms output voltage. The circuit in Configuration 1 contains two SCRs and two diodes.2. This page describes the operation of a single-phase half-controlled rectifier. control is effected only for positve output voltage. (8) A fully-controlled rectifier circuit contains only controlled-rectifiers. SCR S1 can be triggered at a firing angle called and then current flows out of the source through SCR S1 first. In a semi-controlled rectifier. They are show n belo w.

Instead. Vin is negative and SCR S2 is normally triggered when wt = + . During < wt < ( + ) . the devices in conduction are SCR S2 and diode D4. it it is possible to use SCRs as the devices in the bottom-half and diodes as the devices in the top-half. During < wt < ( + ) . diode D4 tends to get forward-biased and it starts conducting. The circuit in configuration 1 has SCRs as the devices in the top-half and diodes as the devices in the bottom-half. During . When < wt < 2 . the output of the bridge circuit would have been negative if we had used a fully-controlled bridge rectifer and if the current flow was continuous. Then diode D3 is reverse-biased and it stops conducting. It is also possible to build a semi-controlled full-wave bridge rectifier as shown by the behaviour of the circuit is the same as described earlier. assuming that the on-state drops across devices in conduction is zero. When the output of the bridge tends to becomes negative just after wt exceeds . SCR S2 and diode D3 would conduct during 0 < wt < . the devices in conduction are SCR S1 and diode D4 and the output of the bridge is clamped at zero.then SCR S1 and diode D3 conduct during < wt < . During ( < wt < 2 . But here we have two diodes D3 and D4 instead of two SCRs. SCR S1 and diode D3 conduct during < wt < . the devices in conduction are diodes D3 and D4 and the output of the bridge is clamped at zero. During < wt < ( + ) . In this circuit.

Yet another configuration is available for semi-controlled bridge rectifier. . During ( + ) < wt < 2 . the device in conduction is diode D and the output of the bridge is clamped at zero. when T1 and T2 are turned ON T3 T4 does not commutate immediately. Fig. the devices in conduction are SCR S2 and diode D4. as shown by the circuit in configuration 3. 15. T1 and T2 are fired at ωt = α. (b) shows the corresponding waveforms. However. the devices in conduction are SCRs S2 and S4.( + ) < wt < 2 . This interval is called “overlap” interval.1(b). Instead. for some interval all four thyristors continue to conduct as shown in Fig. if a source inductance is present the commutation and change of input current polarity can not be instantaneous. 3. In this circuit. Further. Circuit shows a single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance. It is assumed that the thyristors T3 and T4 were conducting at t = 0. For simplicity it has been assumed that the converter operates in the continuous conduction mode. If there were no source inductance T3 and T4 would have commutated as soon as T1 and T2 are turned ON. it has been assumed that the load current ripple is negligible and the load can be replaced by a dc current source the magnitude of which equals the average load current. The input current polarity would have changed instantaneously. Diodes D3 and D4 would conduct during 0 < wt < . Diode D would conduct during 0 < wt < . During < wt < ( + ) . Effect of source impedance in single phase full controlled rectifier. Therefore. SCRs S1 and S3 conduct during < wt < .

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. T1 and T2 starts conducting the full load current. the input current starts changing polarity as the current through T1 and T2 increases and T3 T4 current decreases. At the end of the overlap interval the current through T3 and T4 becomes zero and they commutate.During this period the load current freewheels through the thyristors and the output voltage is clamped to zero. On the other hand. The same process repeats during commutation from T1 T2 to T3T4 at ωt = π + α.

1(b) it is clear that.I0 ∴ ii = I - ii ωt = α = I - ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ I= ii = 2Vi cosα . From the equivalent circuit of the converter during overlap period L di i = vi dt 2Vi cosωt ωL 2Vi cosα = . commutation overlap not only reduces average output dc voltage but also reduces the extinction angle γ which may cause commutation failure in the inverting mode of operation if α is very close to 180º.3) (15.cosωt) .9) ∫ α+π α α+π α +μ vi dωt 2vi sinωt dωt or ∫ 2vi [ cos(α + μ ) − cos( π + α)] π 2vi [ cosα + cos(α + μ )] π vi cosα π 2vi [ cosα − cos(α + μ )] π (15. In the following analysis an expression of the overlap angle “μ” will be determined.1) (15.I 0 ωL for α ≤ ωt ≤ α + μ (15.7) (15.8) (15.cos(α + μ)) .I 0 ωL at ωt = α + μ ii = I0 2Vi (cosα .I 0 ωL 2ωL cosα .2) (15.ωL I 0 π i π \11) . 15.From Fig.5) (15.6) ii(ωt = α) = .10) ∴ V = 0 2 2 = 2 2 2 v cosα .I 0 ωL 2Vi (cosα .cos(α + μ) = I Vi 0 I0 = V0 = I π I V0 = π = = (15.4) (15.

15.Equation 15. Explain the operation of 1phase full converter and derive the expressions for its average and rms output voltage. the leakage current is assumed to be zero. The analysis in this page is based on the assumption that the SCRs are ideal controlled switches. 15. The main purpose of the fully-controlled bridge rectifier circuit is to provide a variable dc voltage from an ac source.11 can be represented by the following equivalent circuit The simple equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.3 represents the single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance as a practical dc source as far as its average behaviour is concerned. The voltage drop across the internal resistance “RC” represents the voltage lost due to overlap shown in Fig.state. Although this resistance accounts for the voltage drop correctly there is no power loss associated with this resistance since the physical process of overlap does not involve any power loss. (8) The operation of this circuit can be understood more easily when the load is purely resistive.1(b) by the hatched portion of the v0 waveform. this is called the “Commutation resistance”. the ON-state voltage drops are zero. . In the OFF. Therefore this resistance should be used carefully where power calculation is involved. It means that when the SCRs are ON. Therefore. The open circuit voltage of this practical source equals the average dc output voltage of an ideal converter (without source inductance) operating at a firing angle of α.

since the load is purely resistive and the SCRs cease to conduct.CIRCUIT OPERATION The circuit of a single-phase fully-controlled bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure above. SCR S4 and back into the source. A three-phase fully-controlled bridge rectifier can be constructed using six SCRs as . the source is marked as vs and it is a sinusoidal voltage source. In this instance. It is preferable to state that the circuit has two pairs of SCRs. In the next halfcycle. with S1 and S4 forming one pair and. the current through the load becomes zero at the instant wt = radians. with 0 < wt < 360o. Hence the conduction or current flow through the load is discontinuous. load resistor R. Key in the firing angle in degrees and click the button. S2 and S3 the other pair. When it is positive. The operation of the circuit is illustrated by animating the functioning of this circuit. After that there is no current flow till the other pair is triggered. 5. the current through the load remains unidirectional. Explain the working of 3phase full converter with R load and derive the expression for the average and rms value. (16) The operation of a 3-phase fully-controlled bridge rectifier circuit is described in this page. For this circuit. SCRs S1 and S4 can be triggered and then current flows from vs through SCR S1. the other pair of SCRs conducts. The source voltage and the output voltage waveforms are also displayed. The circuit has four SCRs. Even though the direction of current through the source alternates from one halfcycle to the other half-cycle. the other pair is triggered when wt = 210o. The main purpose of this circuit is to provide a variable dc output voltage. If wt = 30o when S1 and S4 are triggered. then the firing angle is said to be 30 o. which is brought about by varying the firing angle. When vs changes from a positive to a negative value. Let vs = E x Sin wt.

it can be seen that the bridge circuit has two halves. one SCR from each half conducts when there is current flow. . The three-phase bridge rectifier circuit has three-legs. S3 and S5 and the negative half consisting of the SCRs S2. Alternatively. At any time.shown below. S4. S2 . If the phase sequence of the source be RYB. The three-phase voltages vary as shown below. the positive half consisting of the SCRs S1. S3 . each phase connected to one of the three phase voltages. the SCRs are triggered in the sequence S1. S5 . S6 and S1 and so on. S4 and S6. The operation of the circuit is first explained with the assumption that diodes are used in place of the SCRs.

diode D4 would conduct from 210o to 330o. . diode D6 from 330o to 450o or 90o in the next cycle. only one of the following pairs conducts at any time. Given that the conduction is continuous. diode D1 is reverse-biased before = 30o and it is forward-biased when 30o. range of 30o to 90o 90o to 150o 150o to 210o 210o to 270o 270o to 330o 330o to 360o and 0o to 30o Diode Pair in conduction D1 and D6 D1 and D2 D2 and D3 D3 and D4 D4 and D5 D5 and D6 If SCRs are used. since it is reverse-biased before = 30o. the following table presents the SCR pair in conduction at any instant. diode D3 would conduct from 150o to 270o and diode D5 from 270o to 390o or 30o in the next cycle. It can also be seen that Y-phase voltage is the lowest of the threephase voltages when is in the range from 330o to 450o or 90o in the next cycle. For instance. We also find that R-phase voltage is the lowest of the three-phase voltages when is in the range from 210o to 330o. The bias across D1 becomes zero when = 30o and diode D1 starts getting forward-biased only after =30o. This means that if a synchronizing signal is needed for triggering S1. the output of the bridge rectifier would be the same as that of the circuit with diodes. diode D1 in place of S1 would conduct from 30o to 150o. their conduction can be delayed by choosing the desired firing angle. If diodes are used. Period. and diode D2 would conduct from 90o to 210o. it can start conducting only after = 30o . and that Bphase voltage is the lowest when is in the range from 90o to 210o.It can be seen that the R-phase voltage is the highest of the three-phase voltages when is in the range from 30o to 150o. At any instant barring the change-over periods when current flow gets transferred from diode to another. When vR( ) = E*Sin ( ). In fact. SCR S1 is triggered when = + 30o. The positive rail of output voltage of the bridge is connected to the topmost segments of the envelope of three-phase voltages and the negative rail of the output voltage to the lowest segments of the envelope. S1 is triggered when = 30o. it is seen that D1 starts conducting only after = 30o. When the SCRs are fired at 0o firing angle. that signal voltage would lag vR( ) by 30o and if the firing angle is . When firing angle to SCRs is zero degree. It can also be seen that Y-phase voltage is the highest of the three-phase voltages when is in the range from 150o to 270o and that B-phase voltage is the highest of the three-phase voltages when is in the range from 270o to 390o or 30o in the next cycle. In the same way.

Battery operated vehicles b. Electric braking.Period. Smooth acceleration c. High efficiency b. the phasor position for firing angle is fixed. This diagram illustrates how the rectifier circuit acts as a commutator and converts ac to dc. The applet displays the SCR pair in conduction at the chosen instant. What are the applications of dc chopper? a. The output voltage is specified with the amplitude of phase voltage being assigned unity value. 2. The instantaneous angle can be either set in its text-field or varied by dragging the scroll-bar button. Regeneration . Then as the instantaneous angle changes. Mine haulers f. What is meant by dc chopper? A dc chopper is a high speed static switch used to obtain variable dc voltage from a constant dc voltage. 3. UNIT-III PART-A 1. What are the advantages of dc chopper? Chopper provides a. One way to visualize is to imagine two brushes which are 120 o wide and the device in the phase connected to the brush conducts. The current flow path is shown in red colour in the circuit diagram. You can set the firing angle in the range 0o < firing angle < 180o and you can set the instantaneous angle also. Marine hoists e. the pair that conducts is connected to the thick orange arcs. Fast dynamic response d. The brush that has "Firing angle " written beside it acts as the brush connected to the positive rail and the other acts as if it is connected to the negative rail. Traction motor control in electric traction c. range of + 30o to + 90o + 90o to + 150o + 150o to + 210o + 210o to + 270o + 270o to + 330o + 330o to + 360o and + 0o to + 30o SCR Pair in conduction S1 and S6 S1 and S2 S2 and S3 S3 and S4 S4 and S5 S5 and S6 The operation of the bridge-rectifier is illustrated with the help of an applet that follows this paragraph. The rotating phasor diagram is quite useful to illustrate how the circuit operates. Once the firing angle is set. Trolly cars d.

It is denoted by α. supply voltage appears across the load • When thyristor is OFF. Write down the expression for average output voltage for step down chopper.down chopper or Buck converter. What are the two types of TRC? a. α is the duty cycle 1. Average output voltage for step down chopper V0 = Vs. In a step. the average output voltage is less than the input voltage. What is meant by step-up and step-down chopper? In a step.α 7. Derive the expression for its average dc voltage. Constant frequency control b. • The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch. Write down the expression for average output voltage for step up chopper. Current Limit Control method (CLC) 9. Time Ratio Control (TRC) b. 5.up chopper or Boost converter. What are the two types of control strategies? a. Variable frequency control PART-B 1. . the value of Ton / T is varied in order to change the average output voltage. What is meant by duty-cycle? Duty cycle is defined as the ratio of the on time of the chopper to the total time period of the chopper. What is meant by TRC? In TRC. 10. the voltage across the load will be zero. • When thyristor is ON. Discuss the principle of operation of DC-DC step down chopper with suitable waveforms. (16) Principle Of Step-down Chopper Chopper i0 + V R V0 • A step-down chopper with resistive load. the average output voltage is more than the input voltage.4. 8. Average output voltage for step down chopper V0 = α Vs. α is the duty cycle 6.

d duty cycle . of chopper switching or chopping freq. Average value of output or load current. tON 1 T tOFF Period of switching or chopping period. Time interval for which SCR conducts. Freq.v0 V Vdc t tON i0 V/R Idc t T tOFF Vdc I dc tON tOFF T f Average value of output or load voltage. Average Output Voltage Vdc Vdc but tON t V V tON tON tOFF tON T d V . Time interval for which SCR is OFF.

V T Output power PO But IO VO I O VO R Output power VO2 PO R dV 2 PO R Effective input resistance of chopper Ri Ri V I dc R d The output voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle.Average Output Current Vdc I dc R V tON V I dc d R T R RMS value of output voltage VO 1 T tON 2 vo dt 0 But during tON .V tON . vo 1 T tON V Therefore RMS output voltage VO VO VO V 2 dt 0 V2 tON T d . .

2. (16) . Explain the four quadrant dc chopper operation with RLE load using suitable waveforms.

(8) Methods Of Control • The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods.3. – Pulse width modulation control or constant frequency operation. – Variable frequency control. Pulse Width Modulation • tON is varied keeping chopping frequency „ f’ & chopping period „T‟ constant. Explain time ratio control and current limit control strategies. • To obtain full output voltage range. • Output voltage is varied by varying the ON time tON V0 V tON tOFF t T V0 V t tON tOFF Variable Frequency Control • Chopping frequency ‘f’ is varied keeping either tON or tOFF constant. frequency has to be varied over a wide range. .

Explain the operation of BUCK converter and derive the expression for it.• This method produces harmonics in the output and for large tOFF load current may become discontinuous v0 V tON T v0 V tON T tOFF t tOFF t 4. Principle Of Step-up Chopper .

. When Chopper is ON Voltage across inductor L V Therefore energy stored in inductor = V .tON Where tON ON period of chopper. VO dt V • A large capacitor „C‟ connected across the load. the inductor L is connected across the supply.e. . will provide a continuous output voltage . tON. • Step up choppers are used for regenerative braking of dc motors. • Diode D prevents any current flow from capacitor to the source.I .I + L D + L O A D V Chopper C VO • Step-up chopper is used to obtain a load voltage higher than the input voltage V. • When the chopper is off. Expression For Output Voltage Assume the average inductor current to be I during ON and OFF time of Chopper. the inductor current I is forced to flow through the diode D and load for a period. • Therefore voltage across load is given by VO V L dI i. • When the chopper is ON. • The inductor current ‘I’ rises and the inductor stores energy during the ON time of the chopper. tOFF. • The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the requirement of output voltage and current. • The current tends to decrease resulting in reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L.

Neglecting losses. Explain in detail flyback-SMPS. T tON tOFF VO VO Where d 1 t 1 ON T 1 V 1 d tON duty cyle T V For variation of duty cycle ' d ' in the range of 0 d 1 the output voltage VO will vary in the range V VO 5. energy stored in inductor L = energy supplied by inductor L VItON VO VO VO V ItOFF V tON tOFF tOFF V T T tON Where T = Chopping period or period of switching. • • • Isolated DC-DC requires isolation transformer Two types: Linear and Switched-mode Advantages of switched mode over linear power supply -Efficient (70-95%) -Weight and size reduction Disadvantages -Complex design • .When Chopper is OFF (energy is supplied by inductor to load) Voltage across L VO V Energy supplied by inductor L where tOFF VO V ItOFF OFF period of Chopper.

output electrical isolation 2) step up/down time .varying voltage Basic input .output relationsh ip v1 N1 . v2 N2 i1 i2 N2 N1 Models : .• -EMI problems Types of SMPS -Flyback -forward -Push-pull -Bridge (half and full) SMPS block diagram DC Unregulated EMI FILTER RECTIFIER AND FILTER DC-DC CONVERSITION AND ISOLATION High Frequency rectifier and filter DC Regulated Vo Vref Base/ gate drive PWM Controller error Amp High frequency transformer Basic function : 1) Input .

i1 + V1 N1 N2 i2 + V2 Ideal model i1 + V1 Lm N1 N2 i2 + V2 Model used for most PE application Flyback Converter Vd LM C R + Vo Flyback converter circuit iS i1 iLM N1 + v1 N2 v2 + iD + + vD iC iR Vo Vd + vSW i2 Operation: switch closed Model with magnetising inductance 0 iLM N1 + v1 v1=Vs N2 + v2 + 0 Vo is=iLM Vd v1 Vd Lm iLm dt diLm dt iLm DT Vd Lm diLm dt .

iLm closed iLm opened 0 Vd DT Lm Vo Vd Vo 1 D T N1 Lm N2 D 1 D N2 N1 0 .Switch opened iD N1 + v1 N2 v2= VS + + Vo Vs + vSW iLM v1 But v1 v1 diL m dt Vo N1 N2 v2 Vo Vo Vo N1 N2 Vo N1 Lm N 2 N1 N2 N1 N2 v2 Lm diL m dt iL m dt iL m 1 DT iL m open Vo (1 D)T N1 Lm N2 Voltage across the switch : N vSW Vd Vo 1 N2 Output voltage For steady .state operation.

• Input output relationship is similar to buck-boost converter.e.depending upon D. transformer ratio is present. • Additional term. • Output can be greater of less than input. Flyback waveforms Ps Vd I s P0 2 Vs v1 V0 R I s is related to I Lm as : Is I Lm DT I Lm D T Solving for I Lm Vd I Lm D I Lm V02 R 2 V0 Vd DR -V(N1 /N2) iLm iLM I Lm can written as : I Lm Vd D N2 2 (1 D) R N1 2 is V0 N2 (1 D) R N1 t iD iC DT T Vo/ R t . i.

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I Lm .min I Lm iLm 2 V dDT 2 Lm Vd D N2 2 (1 D) R N1 2 2 Vd DT 2 Lm For CCM.max I Lm Vd D N2 2 (1 D) R N1 I Lm . min 0 Vd D N2 2 (1 D) R N1 Lm min Vd DT 2 Lm Vd D 2 Lm f 2 Vd (1 D) 2 R N1 2f N2 Ripple calculatio n is similar to boost. Maximum peak-peak output voltage: 0. V0 D r V0 RCf Example The Flyback converter has these specifications: DC input voltage: 40V Output voltage: 25V Duty cycle: 0.Max.5W Max peak-peak inductor current ripple: 25% of the average inductor current.5 Rated load: 62. Min inductor current iLm 2 2 I Lm .1V Switching frequency: 75kHz .

Compare CSI and VSI. Input voltage is maintained Input current is constant but constant adjustable The output voltage does not The output current does not depend on 2. i. Commutation circuit is simple as it involves only thyristors 7. HVDC transmission 3. Voltage Source Inverter b. UNIT-IV PART-A 1. determine a) Transformer turns ratio b) Value of magnetizing inductor Lm. For these reasons thyristors are not preferred for inverters. Stand-by aircraft power supplies d. How output frequency is varied in case of a thyristor? The output frequency is varied by varying the turn off time of the thyristors in the inverter circuit. VSI CSI 1. c) Maximum and minimum inductor current. S.e. What are the main classification of inverter? a.Based on the abovementioned specifications. What is meant by inverter? A device that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an inverter. d) Value of capacitor C. b. Current Source Inverter 4. the delay angle of the thyristors is varied 6. 2. What are the applications of an inverter? a. a. What is the main drawback of a single phase half bridge inverter? It require a 3-wire dc supply 8. Induction heating c. CSI does not require any feedback diodes. 5. Give two advantages of CSI. Why thyristors are not preferred for inverters? Thyristors require extra commutation circuits for turn off which results in uncreased complexity of the circuit. UPS e. No. Adjustable speed drives b. depend on the load the load .

Explain the operation of single phase full bridge inverter with a neat sketch. PART-B 1. it contains capacitors and inductors. The magnitude of the output current and its waveform depends on the nature of the load impedance It requires feedback diodes Commutation circuit is complicated i. The magnitude of the output voltage and its waveform depends on the nature of the load impedance It does not requires feedback diodes Commutation circuit is simple i. There are also four different states depending on which swithces are closed. 9. Why diodes should be connected in antiparallel with the thyristors in inverter circuits? For RL loads. .e. An ac output is synthesized from a dc input by closing and opening switches in an appropriate sequence. it contains only capacitors. load current will not be in phase with load voltage and the diodes connected in antiparallel will allow the current to flow when the main thyristors are turned off. 5. What is meant a series inverter? An inverter in which the commutating elements are connected in series with the load is called a series inverter.3. 4. (16) Single Phase Full Bridge Converter Full bridge converter is also basic circuit to convert dc to ac. These diodes are called feedback diodes 10.e.

Hence. S2 and S3 should be be closed in parallel too. The time allowed for switching is called blanking time. switching transition times must be accomodated in the control of switches. . a short circuit would exist across the dc source. Real switches do not turn on or off instantaneously.State 1 2 3 4 Switches Closed S1 & S2 S3 & S4 S1 & S3 S2 & S4 Vo + Vdc -Vdc 0 0 State 1 and State 2 State 3 and State 4 Switches S1 and S4 should not be closed at the same time. Otherwise. Overlap of switch "on" will cause short circuit (shoot-through fault) across the dc voltage source.

. (16)  180 degree Conduction  For this mode of operation. 561. 345.  The sequence of firing is: 123. each device conducts 180 degrees.  The gating signals are shifted from each other by 60 degrees. 234. 612.2. Explain the operation of 180 degree conduction mode operation of inverter. 456.

Q6 conduct . Q5.Phase Voltages for 180 Conduction Mode 1 Operation 0 t 3 Req i1 van vbn R Vs Req vcn i1 R R 3R 2 2 2Vs 3R i1 R 2 Vs 3 2Vs 3 Q1.

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xb(t) and xc(t) with space distribution of 120o apart is given by: x 2 x a ( t ) ax b ( t ) a 2 x c (t ) 3 a = ej2 /3 = cos(2 /3) + jsin(2 /3) a2 = ej4 /3 = cos(4 /3) + jsin(4 /3) x – can be a voltage. current or flux and does not necessarily has to be sinusoidal x 2 x a ( t ) ax b ( t ) a 2 x c (t ) 3 Space Vector Modulation v 2 va (t ) avb (t ) a 2vc (t ) 3 Let‟s consider 3-phase sinusoidal voltage: .4.Three phase Pulse Width Modulation Definition Space vector representation of a three-phase quantities xa(t).

743(Vm) v 2 v a (t ) avb (t ) a 2 vc (t ) 3 .9511(Vm) vb = -0.208(Vm) vc = -0. t = (3/5) (= 108o) va = 0.v 2 v a ( t ) av b ( t ) a 2 v c ( t ) 3 Let‟s consider 3-phase sinusoidal voltage: At t=t1.

magnitude Vm v 2 v aN av bN a2 v cN v Nn (1 a a2 ) 3 Sa.Let‟s consider 3-phase sinusoidal voltage Three phase quantities vary sinusoidally with time (frequency space vector rotates at 2 f. v v 2 Vdc S a aSb a 2 Sc 3 2 v a ( t ) av b ( t ) a 2 v c ( t ) 3 . vaN = VdcSa. Sb. vaN = VdcSb. Sc = 1 or 0 vaN = VdcSa.

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5. • In multiple-pulse modulation. all pulses are the same width • Vary the pulse width according to the amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the center of the same pulse . Explain about sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

UNIT-V PART-A 1. What are the applications of ac voltage controllers? a. Domestic and industrial heating b. Lighting control c. Speed control of single phase and three phase ac motors d. Transformer tap changing 2. What are the advantages of ac voltage controllers? a. High efficiency b. Flexibility in control c. Less maintenance 3. What are the disadvantages of ac voltage controllers? The main drawback is the introduction of harmonics in the supply current and the load voltage waveforms particularly at low output voltages. 4. What are the two methods of control in ac voltage controllers? a. ON-OFF control b. Phase control

5. What is the difference between ON-OFF control and phase control? ON-OFF control: In this method, the thyristors are employed as switches to connect the load circuit to the source for a few cycles of the load voltage and disconnect it for another few cycles. Phase control: In this method, thyristor switches connect the load to the ac source for a portion of each half cycle of input voltage. 6. What is the advantage of ON-OFF control? Due to zero-voltage and zero current switching of thyristors, the harmonics generated by the switching action are reduced. 7. What is the disadvantage of ON-OFF control? This type of control is applicable in systems that have high mechanical inertia and high thermal time constant. 8. What is the duty cycle in ON-OFF control method? Duty cycle K = n/ (n + m), where n = no. of ON cycles, m = no. of OFF cycles. 9. What is meant by unidirectional or half-wave ac voltage controller? Here the power flow is controlled only during the positive half-cycle of the input voltage. 10. What are the disadvantages of unidirectional or half-wave ac voltage controller? a. Due to the presence of diode on the circuit, the control range is limited and the effective RMS output voltage can be varied between 70.7% and 100%. b. The input current and output voltage are asymmetrical and contain a dc component.If there is an input transformer, sdaturation problem will occur c. It is only used for low power resistive load.

(16) . Discuss the working of 3 phase to single phase cyclo-converter with neat voltage and current waveform.PART-B 1.

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Describe the operation of single phase full wave a. Also derive the expression for average value of output voltage.2. .c voltage controller with the help of voltage and current waveform.

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3.(16) . Discuss the working of three phase to three phase cyclo-converter with neat voltage and current waveform.

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Explain integral cycle control. .4.

Explain about power factor control and matrix converter.5. .

JEYA SUDHA Assoc. .K.STAFF: Mrs. Prof. Mrs.SOBANA Assoc.S. Prof.