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Motor Control Fundamentals 9 - Hazardous Locations - Class II



Motor Control Fundamentals - Industrial Wiki - Technology Transfer

1 Motor Control Functions 1.1 Types of Enclosures 1.1.1 NEMA 1 - General Purpose 1.1.2 NEMA 3 - Dust-Tight, Rain-Tight 1.1.3 NEMA 3R - Rainproof, Sleet-Resistant 1.1.4 NEMA 4 - Watertight 1.1.5 NEMA 4X - Watertight Corrosion Resistant 1.1.6 NEMA 7 - Hazardous Locations 1.1.7 NEMA 9 - Hazardous Locations - Class II 1.1.8 NEMA 12 - Industrial Use 1.1.9 NEMA 13 - Oil-tight, Dust-tight 1.2 Types of Controllers 1.2.1 Manual Controller 1.2.2 Semiautomatic Controller 1.2.3 Automatic Controller 1.3 Control Devices and Symbols 1.3.1 Primary Control and Pilot Control Devices 1.3.2 Contacts 1.3.3 Pushbutton Switches 1.3.4 Toggle Switches 1.3.5 Indicating Lights 1.3.6 Coils, Relays, and Contactors 1.4 Magnetic Contactors 1.4.1 Types of Magnetic Contactors 1.4.2 Inrush Current 1.4.3 Ratings 1.4.4 Voltage Variations 1.4.5 AC Hum 1.4.6 Magnetic Blowout 1.4.7 Magnetic Coil Control Circuits Magnetic Coil Data Holding Circuit Interlocks Interlocks 1.4.8 Overloads 1.4.9 Ambient Compensation 1.4.10 Rotary Switches 1.4.11 Automatic Switches 1.4.12 Float Switches 1.4.13 Pressure Switches 1.4.14 Timer 1.4.15 Limit Switches 1.4.16 Foot Switches 2 Control Circuits 2.1 Diagrams 2.2 Circuit Analysis 2.2.1 Three-Wire Control 2.2.2 Two-Wire Control 2.2.3 Common Control 2.3 Control Power Transformers 2.4 Hand-Off-Auto Controls 2.5 Interlocking Methods for Reversing Control 2.5.1 Mechanical Interlocking 2.5.2 Pushbutton Interlocks 2.5.3 Auxiliary Contact Interlocking 2.6 Sequence Control 2.7 Motor Control Center Power Supplies 2.8 MCC Single-Line Diagrams 2.9 Elementary Diagram Analysis 2.10 Standard Device Numbers 2.11 Developing a Control Circuit

Motor Control Functions

The main functions of a motor controller are to start and stop the motor and to protect the motor, machine, and operator. The controller may also be called upon to provide other functions that could include reversing, jogging or inching, plugging, operation at various speeds or at reduced current levels, and controlling motor torque.

The purpose of controller enclosures is to provide protection of operating personnel by preventing accidental contact with energized components. In certain applications, the controller is protected from a variety of environmental conditions including water, rain, snow, sleet, dirt, non-combustible dust, oils, coolants, and 9 - Hazardous Locations - Class II



Motor Control Fundamentals - Industrial Wiki - Technology Transfer

lubricants. Motor control centers are designed to meet the requirements of the National Electrical Code (NEC), specifically Article 430 for motors and motor control centers and Article 500 for electric equipment in hazardous locations.

Types of Enclosures
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and other organizations have established standards of enclosure construction for control equipment. Common types of enclosures, per NEMA classification numbers are:

NEMA 1 - General Purpose
This type of enclosure is primarily intended to prevent accidental contact with the enclosed apparatus. It is suitable for general purpose applications indoors where not exposed to unusual service conditions. A NEMA 1 enclosure serves as protection against dust and light indirect splashing but is not dust-tight.

NEMA 3 - Dust-Tight, Rain-Tight
This enclosure type is designed to provide suitable protection against specified weather hazards. A NEMA 3 enclosure is suitable for application outdoors, on ship docks, canal locks, construction work, and for application in subways and tunnels. It is also sleet-resistant.

NEMA 3R - Rainproof, Sleet-Resistant NEMA 4 - Watertight NEMA 4X - Watertight Corrosion Resistant
These types of enclosures are generally constructed along the lines of NEMA 4 enclosures, except they are made of a material that is highly resistant to corrosion. F this reason, they are ideal in applications, such as paper mills and chemical facilities, where contaminants could destroy an enclosure over a period of time.

This type protects against interference in operation of the contained equipment due to rain and resists damage from exposure to sleet. It is designed with conduit h and external mounting as well as drainage provisions.

Watertight enclosures are designed to meet the following hose test: "Enclosures shall be tested by subjection to a stream of water. A hose with a one-inch nozzle sh be used and shall deliver at least 65 gallons per minute. The water shall be delivered on the enclosure from a distance of not less than 10 feet and for a period of fiv minutes. During this period, it may be directed in any one or more directions as desired. There shall be no leakage of water into the enclosure."

NEMA 7 - Hazardous Locations
This type of enclosure is designed to meet the application requirements of the NEC for Class I hazardous locations. Class I hazardous locations are those in which flammable gases or vapors are, or may be, present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.

NEMA 9 - Hazardous Locations - Class II
Class II locations are those that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust. The letter or letters following the type number indicate the particular

group of hazardous locations as defined by the NEC for which the enclosure is designed. The designation is incomplete without a suffix letter or letter. Example, NEM 9, Class II, Group F.

NEMA 12 - Industrial Use
This enclosure is designed for use in those industries where it is desired to exclude such materials as dust, lint, fibers, oil seepage, or coolant seepage. There are no conduit openings or knockouts in the enclosure, and mounting is by means of flanges or mounting feet.

NEMA 13 - Oil-tight, Dust-tight
conduit entry is provided as an integral part of a NEMA 13 enclosure, and mounting is by means of blind holes rather than mounting brackets.

These generally are of cast construction, gasketed to permit use in the same environments as NEMA 12 devices. The basic difference is that, due to the case housing

Types of Controllers Manual Controller
A manual controller is one having its operations controlled or performed by hand at the location of the controller, as shown in Figure 1. Perhaps the most popular single type in this category is the manual, full-voltage motor starter in the smaller sizes. 9 - Hazardous Locations - Class II


Figure 2: Semiautomatic Control for a Motor The key to classification as a semiautomatic control system lies in the fact that all the pilot devices are manually operated and that the motor starter is the magnetictype. Semiautomatic control provides flexibility of control by allowing remote and mult control locations in installations where manual control would otherwise be impractical. This type of controller is characterized by the fact that the operator must m a switch or push a button to initiate any change in the condition of operation of the apparatus being operated. can be had by the use of a switch with fusing of the delayed-action type. Figure 2 shows a simple semiautomatic control scheme for a motor. such as a limit switch or float switch. however. and pipe-threading machines. an automatic pilot device is some type of control device.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . which provides overload protection for the motor.Class II 4/30 . A manual controller is easily identified because it has no automatic functions of control. the operator then pushes the STOP button. There are probably more machines operated by semiautomatic control than by either manual or automatic. which provides the same functions as those achieved by the manual full-voltage motor starter.Hazardous Locations . Using the magnetic starter. a contrasted to the manual control requirement that the control point be at the starter. Semiautomatic Controller A semiautomatic controller uses a magnetic starter (a switch operated by an electromagnet) and one or more manual devices such as pushbuttons and other simila equipment. have two components: a manually operated switch and a circuit protective device. The manual starter generally provides overload protectio for the apparatus being powered. In the evening. Examples of this type of control are very common in small metalworking and woodworking shops that use small drill presses. or when the plant is shut down. that functions independent of operato action to initiate a change in the operating condition of a motor or machine. this change may be initiated from any convenient location. Figure 3 shows an automatic con scheme for a motor.Technology Transfer Figure 1: Manual Control for a Motor A manual starter is used frequently where the only control function needed is to start and stop the motor. Another good example is the exhaust fan generally found in machine shops and other industrial operations.Industrial Wiki . Automatic Controller An automatic controller is a magnetic starter in which functions are controlled by one or more automatic control or pilot devices. www. and it continues to run throughout the day. As shown. and the fan shuts down until needed 9 . therefore. In this installation. A manual controller must. This type of control requires the operator to initia any change in the attitude or operating condition of the machine. Manual control.techtransfer. the operator or maintenance person generally pushes the START button for the fan in the morning when the plant opens. lathes.

Now. Automatic control systems are found in many applications. The chart shown in Figure 5 shows standard symbols us in motor control circuits. troubleshooting. When the water gets low. When a control system uses one or more automatic devices.Class II 5/30 . a tank that must be kept filled with water between definite limits and a pump to replace the water as it is needed.techtransfer. Most symbols used have been standardized throughout the industry to assure uniformity.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . Control Devices and Symbols Understanding. such as large power plants. and repairing control systems requires a knowledge and understanding of the physical devices that are used in control circuits and the symbols and terminology that are used to designate those devices on wiring diagrams. where they are used to control many mechanical systems in machine shops where precision machines. Consider.Technology Transfer Figure 3: Automatic Control for a Motor Some systems may use a combination of manual and automatic devices in the control circuit. the float switch will close the circuit and start the motor. at which time the float will open the circuit and stop the motor. and in the home. such as drill presses and lathes. where automatic contro systems are used to control such common household machines as dishwashers and washing machines.Industrial Wiki . If we ring a bell to let them know when the water is low and again when it is high. This would be semiautomatic control. are automatically controlled for better accuracy and efficiency. let us replace the manual starter with a magnetic starter and put a pushbutton station at the foreman's desk. The motor will now run until the water reaches the high level. it requires less operator attention and functions more reliably and accurately. for example. suppose we install a float switch that will close the circu when the water reaches a predetermined low level and open it when it reaches a predetermined high level.Hazardous Locations . we have manual control. If we equip the pump moto with a manual starter and station a person at the pump to turn it on and off as needed. Figure 4 shows American National Standard Graphical Symbols for Electrical Diagrams. they can do other work and just push the proper button when the bell rings. Although the automatic system is more expensive to 9 . it is class as an automatic controller. Now. www.

com/resources/wiki/entry/2323/#NEMA 9 .Class II 6/30 .Industrial Wiki .Technology Transfer Figure 4: American National Standard Graphical Symbols for Electrical Diagrams www.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals .Hazardous Locations .techtransfer.

there are generally two primary control devices used. but is used to energize and de-energize the coil of the starter. For any given controller.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . in that it connects the motor or load to the line.techtransfer. Figure 6: Basic Motor Control Circuit In this example. which energizes the contactor coil and closes the main line 9 . opens the main line contacts. These are the disconnecting means. it would be classed as a pilot control device. An example (Figure 6) would be a magnetic contactor controlled by a toggle switch used to energize and de-energize the contactor. float switches. or M coil. To start the motor. Switching the toggle switch OFF deenergizes the contactor coil. Pilot control devices are those that control or modulate the primary control devices.Technology Transfer Figure 5: Standard Wiring Diagram Symbols Primary Control and Pilot Control Devices All components used in motor control circuits may be classed as either primary control devices or pilot control devices. which energizes the motor. Pilot devices are things such as pushbuttons.Hazardous Locations . A primary control device is one that connects the load to the line. The switch does not connect the load t the line. whether it is manual or automatic. and www. the contactor. and de-energizes the motor. pressure switches. such as a motor starter.Industrial Wiki . th toggle switch is switched ON. would be classed as a primary control device. and thermostats. or circuit breaker (usually a manual device).Class II 7/30 . Therefore.

and symbol 11 has one normally open and one normally closed contact. Note the relay coil and coil terminals." A contactor. Two other terms often used in conjunction with contacts. When found in a circuit diagra the switch positions should be labeled as OFF or ON. As defined by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). causes other devices t function. In an arrangement o this type. They may represent line contacts on a starter. and most common. It may be a relay coil or a main line contactor. Normally. condition unless stated otherwise. the color of the li is designated by the appropriate letter in the circle. and Symbol 2 is a normally closed (NC) contact. or any other ty of control device that has electrical contacts." It is important to recognize the difference between the two.a relay is "a device that is operated by a variation in the conditions of one electric circuit to effect the operation of other devices in the same or another electric circuit. Note that all circuits are shown in the deenergized. Indicating Lights Coils. and Contactors Symbol 12. Relays. www. represent manual contacts of a toggle type of switch. A "b" contact will normally be open when its associated coil is energized. as well as the main contactor. shorting or bridg of the first and second set of contacts occurs. is referred to as break-before-make contact arrangement. When more than one set of contacts are operated by moving one handle or pushbutton. The second arrangement is referred to as make-before-break. contacts on a limit switch or relay.Technology Transfer magnetic contactor. one set of contacts opens before the next set of contacts closes. FAST or SLOW. for a short period. where one contact is normally open and the other normally closed. pilot devices are what make a motor controller adaptable to fit a multitude of applications. There may be many pilot devices used in parallel and series combinations to control the function of starting and stopping performed by the primary control device. Symbol 1 is a normally open (NO) contact. which are included in the motor starter. shown in Figure 7. these contacts are referred to as momentary. When a contact goes closed. are actually pilot devices used to control the primary device whenever the motor is overloaded. Symbol 10 has two normally open contacts. The dotted lines represent any form of mechanical linkage that will make the two contacts operate together. This "a" and "b" notation holds true for auxiliary contactors and relays.Class II 8/30 . From manual switches to automatic control devices. whereas the contactor is the primary unit. doing its work in the main power circuit. as in symbols 8 and 9. for instance. These same "a" contacts will open when the associated coi de-energized. Because the switch returns to its original position. If not. and Symbol 6 contacts are norma closed. is "a device for repeatedly establishing and interrupting electric power circuit. Symbols 15 and 16 are discussed later in this text. A drawing showing the basic construction of a relay is shown in Figure 8. the drawing notes should annotate whether the circuit is in the energized or deenergized state. such as RL for red or GL for green. that is. Symbol 7 is a toggle switch of the single-pole. This arrangement is used when it is necessary to ensure continuity of power to a circuit during the switching 9 . This spring returned type switch will return to its normal position when released by the operator. Contacts Symbols 1 and 2 represent electrical contact devices (see Figure 7). are make and break. Therefore.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . they are generally connected by dotted lines. or shelf. serving a secondary role. Relays and contactors are electromagnetic devices in the sens that magnetic forces are produced when electric currents are passed through coils of wire. Symbols 13 and 14 shown in Figure 7 represent a coil. is a pilot or indicating light that is indicated chiefly by the short lines radiating out from the center circle. One other method that is used frequently to show pushbuttons that have two sets of contacts is shown in symbols 10 and 11. This type of switch has maintaining contacts. when the switch is being switched from one position to the next. Figure 7: Basic Symbols Used on Motor Control Circuits The designations "a" or "b" associated with a set of contacts are used to identify the state of the contacts (open or closed) in reference to the main operating device. noting particularly that the relay. and its contacts are only closed or open for the moment (however long) the switch is pushed.Hazardous Locations . respectively. Recall that circuit diagrams are shown in their de-energized condition. "a" contact will normally be closed when its associated coil is energized and its main contacts are closed. on the other hand.techtransfer. during the contact transfer. contacts are closed or opened by the motion plungers or pivoted armatures. The first." Pushbutton Switches Toggle Switches Symbols 3 and 4. in response to such forces. In this arrangement. either relay contacts or switch contacts. The overload relays. Remember. it is said to "mak and when the contact opens. it is said to "break. double-throw (SPD type. once switched to a different position. however. thus operating the opposite of an "a" contact. shown in Figure 7. Pilot devices vary greatly with their function and intended use. that not electrical drawings will indicate the state of contacts with this designator.Industrial Wiki . or other appropriate labeling. Switches can be designed to operate in one of two ways. Symbols 5 and 6. represent manually operated pushbutton switches with normally open and normally closed contacts. shown in Figure 7. Symbol 5 contacts are normally open. the switch will stay in that position.

Figure 10: Simple Control Circuit Showing Seal-In Contact mA Magnetic Contactors Magnetic contactors are electromagnetically operated devices that serve to provide a safe.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . a coil. Auxiliary contacts are frequently used to seal in a coil. "Sealing in" is when a parallel path for current flow is formed to keep a coil energized after the original path o current flow is interrupted. Also. contacts C2 are closed and C1 are open.Technology Transfer Figure 8: Relay Construction This relay has one set of NO (C1) and one set of NC (C2) contacts. The path for current flow on each set of contacts is through the movable contacts to the common terminal. The coil is supported by. and an armature. The auxiliary contacts are then available for use in the control circuit of this or another machine. and the stationary contacts with terminal connections for line and load wiring. The alternating magnetic flux (if it is an AC contactor) produces heat . note from the picture that the contacts are normally encased to protect the contact 9 . Figure 9: Contactor Construction Contactor assemblies are frequently made with main contacts that serve to connect and disconnect the main power circuit and auxiliary contacts (both normally op and normally closed) that operate with the main contacts. The magnetic circuit o this type of contactor consists of a magnet assembly. In the de-energized state. but this is not always the case Figure 10 shows a simple control circuit using a magnetic contactor to illustrate sealing in. which is reduced by the use of laminated cores. convenient way to connect and disconnect circuits. Note the solenoid assembly. The magnet assembly is simply the stationary part of the contactor. the magnet assembly to induce magnetic flux in www. Auxiliary contacts of the coil being sealed in are commonly used to complete the parallel path for current. When the coil is energized.Hazardous Locations . Figure 9 shows a contactor assembly drawing. the coil attracts the movable contacts to closed contacts C1 a open contacts C2.techtransfer. moving armature and contact assembly.Industrial Wiki . The current flowing through the coil causes a magnetic flux to be set up in the iron the coil is physically wrapped around. and surrounds part of.Class II 9/30 .

it completes part of the magnetic circuit. This is because. and thu when the coil is energized due to the air gap. This is because.The armature and contacts move in a straight vertical line. Bell Crank . the increased impedance of the circuit will reduce the second coils current so that the second device will either not pick up or will pick up but not seal. residual magnetism is inherent in the magnet assembly.Hazardous Locations . AC magnetic coils should. The coil current drops off until the armature seals into its CLOSED position.Technology Transfer the iron when the coil is energized. The impedance of the coil is low. it will draw a high inrush current. it is held tightly against the magnet assembly. Types of Magnetic Contactors There are four basic types of electromagnetic contactors (Figure 12): ● ● ● ● Clapper Type . coil.A bell crank converts the vertical movement of the armature into a horizontal motion. thus closing the moveable contacts against the stationary contacts. Notice in Figure 11 that an air gap exists even when the armature is in the sealed position. the air gap gets smaller and 9 . When the armature has been attracted to its sealed position (closed). therefore. and armature. Longer contact life and reduced contact bounce result from lessened shock on armature pickup. Ratings www. when the coil is de-energized. As the armature moves closer to the magnet assembly.The armature and the contacts move horizontally in a straight line. Figure 12: Magnetic Contactors Inrush Current Magnet coils that are energized by AC voltage should never be connected in series.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . This inrush current is typically 6 to 10 times the sealed-in value. including the magnet.It contains a hinged armature that pivots to seal in. which moves toward it. Figure 11: Magnetic Contactor Assembly The armature is the moving part of the magnetic circuit.Class II 10/30 . When energized. When the armature has sealed in.techtransfer. Horizontal Action . Vertical Action . if one contactor seals in ahead of the second. The air gap in the iron circuit prevents the residual magnetism from being strong enough to keep the armature held in its sealed-in position. the coil induces a magnetic flux in the iron core and attracts the armature. Figure 11 shows the essential parts. When a magnetic controller is in its OPEN position.Industrial Wiki . be connected in parallel. a large air gap exists between the armature and the magnet assembly.

Industrial Wiki . limit switch. If the applied voltage to a magnetic contactor is too high. will cause small mechanical vibrations. Blowout coils are installed for contacts opening under AC and DC loads. In addition.Technology Transfer The ratings of magnetic coils are usually given in volt-amperes. It will quickly burn up. or PLC signal Relay contacts or timers taking the place of pilot devices www. ● There is a broken shading coil. Figure 13: Magnetic Blowout Coil Figure 14: Lengthening the Arc Magnetic Coil Control Circuits Although the power circuit can be single-phase or three-phase. resulting in a continuous draw of inrush current. causing the armature to be unable to properly seat. This humming. Inside these arc chutes are heavy copper coils.techtransfer. in turn. Excessive heat will result. There will be a low coil current applied that will reduce the magnetic pull. Figure 13 shows a section of a magnetic blowout coil with an arc conducting between the contacts.Hazardous Locations . the begins to deflect due to the blowout coil field. the arc is lengthened and extinguished by the magnetic field setup due to a current-carrying conductor. This. bounce. this may result in a contactor that picks up but does not seal. ● There is misalignment between the armature and the magnet assembly. An example would be a coil rated at 600 VA inrush current and 60 VA sealed-in current. The inrush current would then be 600/120 =5 amps. This serves to keep the armature sealed in as the alternating current falls through zero 120 times-per-second. At first. and this will cause early failur the insulation of the coil. liquid level.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . similar effects occur. the control circuit to the magnet coil is always single-phase. The control circuit includes: ● ● ● ● The magnet coil The contacts of the overload relay assembly Momentary or maintained contact pilot device such as a pushbutton. Contacts that are subject to frequent interruption of large currents suffer a destructive burning if the arc is not suppressed or extinguished. pressure. This noise is mainly because of the changing magnetic pull due to the alternating flux in the magnet. have arc chutes installed. Magnetic Blowout Some larger magnetic contactors. Figure 14 shows the process of lengthening the arc. especially verti action. or VA. that is. Since the blowout coil is in series with the main line contacts. This will cause the armature to close with excessive force. the strength of the magnetic field setup and the resultant extinguishing action will be in proportion to the size o the arc. as the contacts open further. Finally the arc is so lengthened that it is extinguished and unable to conduct. and shortened contact life. the magnetic pull will be higher. the coil will draw more than its designed current. or blowout coils. Shading coils are small copper turns placed near the magnet pole faces that have an induced magnetic flux 90 degrees out-of-phas with the magnetic assembly itself. especially older clapper models. ● The operating voltage drops too low. and it moves near the tip of the horns. Voltage Variations When the applied voltage is too low. the magnetic field lengthens the arc. 9 . and changing magnetic fluxes. Magnetic blowout coils work on the principle of motor action. AC Hum Excessive chattering and loud humming can result when: AC magnetic contactors have a certain hum associated with their operation.Class II 11/30 . On some types. Another effect is chattering as the coil strains to pick up and seal in its armature. will result in a wearing the contact faces. T electric arc is similar to that found during the welding process. These mounted above the main contacts and are in series with them to provide arc suppression.

and 10% above. in general. thus keeping the M coil energized when the START button is released. such as in a two-speed motor control circuit or a control circuit for controlling the direction (forward or . Auxiliary contacts of the coil being sealed in are commonly used to complete the parallel path for current. DC coils have corresponding limits of 20% below. Published charts list identification numbers. The M coil also closes the M contacts. Figure 16 a simple control circuit using a magnetic contactor to illustrate sealing in.Technology Transfer ● Auxiliary contact on the starter. These are typically mounted on the upper-left portion of magnetic contactors. the M coil is energized.Class II 12/30 Control circuits frequently control more than one contactor. may be required in certain control schemes Figure 15 shows a Size One starter control circuit. ratings. These charts list the rated voltage and the coil volt-amperes for both inrush and sealed 9 .techtransfer. either manual or automatic. It closes when the coil is energized to form a holding circuit for the starter after the START button has been released. nomin rating. Multifunction controllers frequently do not use M but rather more specific designations such as F or R for forward and reverse. The M coil is now sealed in. The starting sequence for Figure 16 is shown below. Interlocks www. When th START button is pushed. designed as a holding circuit interlock. energizing the motor. but this is not always the case. The "M" designation used here is frequently used in control circuits to designate the mai contactor that controls the switching of line power to the device being controlled. which will close the M contacts. Auxiliary contacts are frequently used to seal in a coil. Sealing in creates a parallel path for current flow to keep a coil energized after the original path of current flow interrupted.Hazardous Locations . Figure 15: Size One Starter Control Circuit Magnetic Coil Data Holding Circuit Interlocks The holding circuit interlock is a normally open (NO) auxiliary contact provided on standard magnetic starters and contactors.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . AC magnetic coils. nominal rating. Figure 16: Simple Control Circuit Starting sequence is a series of events that occurs to energize a machine once the sequence has been initiated by a pilot device. and operating characteristics of magnetic coils. are designed to operate on line voltages fluctuating as much as 15% below. and 10% above.Industrial Wiki .

A magnetic trip element uses an electromagnet in series with the circuit load. whereas a heavy overload will cause a almost instantaneous opening of the circuit. An overload condition. which open the coil circuit when used on magnetic controllers. therefore. and the element bends. The overload relay does not give short-circuit protection. causing a set of contacts to open in the control circuit and open the main line contactor. Short-circuit protection is provided by installing either a fused disconnect or a circuit breaker ahead of the motor in the main feeder lines. the coil would be energized.Class II 13/30 . When heated. as shown in Figure 17 Figure 17: Melting-Pot Relay for a Thermal Overload When the metal is heated beyond the melting point. under short-circuit condition the relay might hold long enough to allow considerable damage to the motor and other equipment. shown in Figure 18. the ratchet releases. First is an electrical interlock. Older controllers use two overloads. The second method employed is a mechanical interlock. Overload protection is achieved in almost all controllers by placing heating elements in series with the motor leads on multiphase motors. The current that a motor draws while running is directly proportional to the load on the motor. The opposite would be true if contactor B was energized. shown previously in Figure 7. The overload relay is sensitive to the percentage of overload. and the main line contactor tr open. In many situations such as this. A "b" contact from each contactor is in series with the operating coil from the other contactor. A mechanica linkage that prevents both contactors from being closed at the same time connects them. its open "b" contact would prevent energizing contactor B. a small overload will take some time to trip the relay. whether caused by mechanical o electrical fault.Industrial Wiki . equipment damage could result if both contactors were closed at the same time. but motion of the contact assembly would be physically blocked. Overloads Symbol 15. Thus. With normal curr the electromagnet is not affected. while newer units are required to have three overloads in accordance with chang in the National Electrical Code.Technology Transfer reverse) on a motor. the relay opens a set of contacts in the control circuit. uses a bimetallic element. Overload relays are devices found on all motor controllers in one fo or another. The first uses a low-melting-point metal that holds a ratchet assembly. the two contactors are physically mounted side-by-side in the control box.techtransfer. represents the heating element of an overload relay. There are three types of overload relays in general use today.Hazardous Locations . the heating elements releas mechanical trip to drop out the line contacts. To accomplish this. If one contactor was closed and something occurred to energize the other contactor. When used on manual starters or controllers. if contactor A was energized.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . The second type of overload device. Two methods are used to provide an interlock to prevent this from occurring. It is quite possible that. and t main line contactor trips open. will result in increased current flow. the metals expand at different rates. www. These heater elements activate electrical 9 . Figure 18: Bimetallic Type of Thermal Overload Figure 19 shows the third type of overload relay the magnetic type. As load current increases above the setpoint. however. The bimetallic element is made of two different metals bonded together. The resultant motion releases a trip mechanism that opens contacts in the control circuit.

an ambient-compensated overload relay should be 9 . This arrangement makes possible the control of several circuits with a single switch. Some rotary switches are made with several layers or levels. pressu or an electrical quantity. such as the toggle. After the overload relay has been tripped. there is no need to turn an automatic switch on or off. To compensate for temperature variations that the controller may be subjected to. either automatically or manually. symbol 16. Rotary Switches Rotary switches can be manual or automatic switches.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . and a TV channel selector switch. Each of these requires operator act to initiate a change in a control system. the mechanism used to select the contact moves in a circular motion and must be turned.15 operating under normal conditions. which sense some limit such as fluid level. is a rotary selector switch. Any switch that turns a circuit on or off without operator action is an automatic switch. Figure 21 shows the symbols for various automatic switches commonly use www. are a light switch. A rotary switch is a multicontact switch with the contacts arranged in a full or partial circle. Even the switch that turns on the light in a refrigerator when the door is opened is an automatic switch.Hazardous Locations .Technology Transfer Figure 19: Magnetic Overload Overload relays must be reset after each tripping. Limit switches. or rotary switches already covered. it may not trip consistently at the same level or motor current if the temperature of the controller has changed. Ambient Compensation Bimetallic overload relays that are ambient-compensated are designed for one particular situation: when the motor is at a constant temperature and the controller located somewhere else where the temperature varies.techtransfer. Charts tend to show averages of normal full-load currents. Selection tables are usually based on continuous duty motors with a service factor of 1. If standard overload relays are used.Class II 14/30 . The thermostat will turn a furnace or air conditioner on or off by responding to the temperature in a room. The automatic reset type should not be used except on equipment that is so designed. Refer to the motor nameplate for full-load current and not to published charts. The last symbol in Figure 7. Its trip point is not affected by temperature. a dryer start button. Automatic switches are not always as simple as the examples given above. The distributor electrically turns on the spark plug circuit at the proper time by responding to the mechanical rotation of a shaft. are automatic switches that are sometimes quite complicated. A manual switch is a switch that is turned on or off by an operator. The full-load current of a specific motor may be different. and so it will consistently trip at the same value of current. Examples of common manual switches. There can be no danger to life or equipment from the restarting of the motor. Factors that determine the overload relay thermal units or overload heaters are: ● Motor full-load current ● Type of motor ● Possible difference in ambient temperature between motor and controller Motors with the same speed and horsepower do not necessarily have the same full-load current. Two examples of automatic switches are a thermostat and the distributor in a motor vehicle. mechanical movement. it requires a little time to cool so that there is some delay before resetting can be accomplished. Instea of a pushbutton or toggle.Industrial Wiki . Automatic Switches An automatic switch is a switch that is controlled by a mechanical or electrical device. An automobile distributor and the ignition switch on a motor vehicle are rotary switches (Figure 20). Figure 20: Rotary Snap Switch Switches can be either automatic or manual. pushbutton. The surrounding temperature affects standard thermal overload relay .

operated by a mechanical linkage. as well as other pilot devices. it would lift the float. double-throw action of the contacts were desirable. This mechanical motion is used to operate one o more sets of contacts.Industrial Wiki . it would make the lower set of contacts. thus moving the contact end of the level downward and either making or breaking the contact. then one stationary contact could be mounted above and one below the center of the arm.techtransfer. and if the float were all the way down would make the upper set of contacts. Many different types of thermostats are availab www. Bellows Type Symbols 5 and 6 shown in Figure 21 represent temperature-activated switches. depending on whether stationary contact were mounted above or below the 9 . They consist of one or more sets of contacts. Figure 22: Float Switch As the water level rises.Technology Transfer Figure 21: Symbols of Various Automatic Switches Float Switches Symbols 1 and 2 shown in Figure 22 represent normally open and normally closed liquid-level or float switches. either normally open or normally closed. If the float were all the way up.Hazardous Locations . Float switches take many forms in their physical o mechanical construction.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . The simplest mechanical arrangement for a float switch. represent normally open and normally closed vacuum or pressure switches. A typical pressure switch design using a bellows as the pressure-sensing element is shown in Figure 23. If a single-pole. Many float switc units. Pressure Switches Symbols 3 and 4. shown in Figure 22 would be a pivoted arm having the contacts fastened to one end and a float suspended from the other end. Figure 23: Pressure Switch.Class II 15/30 . more commonly called thermostats. use a mercury switch in place of metallic contacts. shown in Figure 21. The type of detector is determined by the system requirements. Most devices of this type have a means to adjust th setpoint of the sensing device. Two other common sensing elemen used are the diaphragm and the bourdon tube.

Many of these relays also have an adjustment that can be varied to change the time delay. the timing relays for su installations are generally non-cyclical. motor-starting circuits.Hazardous Locations . Paddle Type Timer Symbols 9. The dashpot is usually provided with a bypass near its upper limit of travel so that the contact is permitted to close with a snap action. Figure 25: Flow Switch. the mechanical motion o the sensing elements is used to operate a set of contacts. timers are used to separate events in a control-starting sequence that occurs instantaneously from those that are delay Instantaneous events are those that occur as soon as a start circuit is initiated. 11. and 12 shown in Figure 21 represent timer contacts that are normally operated by a timing relay.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . A dashpot timer. Many types of timing relays are availab that can be adjusted to give time delays of as little as a fraction of a second to as much as several minutes. such as traff signal controllers and sequentially operated. dashpot. In addition. shown in Figure 25. or other gas through a pipe or duct and to transform this flow or lack of flow into the opening or closing of a set of contacts. Figure 24: Thermostat.Technology Transfer that employ different methods of sensing temperature.Industrial Wiki . a valve is included in its construction to allow the oil to flow freely as the plung falls when the relay is de-energized. Motor-controlled timers are generally used for operations that are repeatable. A simple motor timer found in many homes is used to control the wash cycles of automatic washing machines. Delayed events are those that have some type of controlled delay provided by a pilot device. the only delay being the time it takes coils to operate or contacts to open or close. uses a pivoted arm that has contacts on one end and a paddle or flag on the other end.Class II 16/30 . The end with the paddle or fla inserted into the pipe so that the flow of liquid or gas causes a lever to move and open or close the contacts. shown in Figure 26. The two most common are bellows and bimetallic strips. 10. moves slowly through a bath of oil and closes a contact at end of its stroke. Snap action allows quick-closing contacts to minimize arcing during the closing cycle.techtransfer. This type of relay and contact arrangement provides two important advantages of automatically controlled circuits: sequencing and delaying events in a control system. Common designs are pneumatic. One type of flow switch. consists of a plunger which. and motor-controlled timers. A typical thermostat is shown in Figure 24. when the coil of the timer is energized. Thus. www. As in the pressure switch. Moreover. Bellows Type Symbols 7 and 8 represent flow switches that are used to sense the flow of liquid. air. extremely long time 9 . Since most industrial control systems do not run through unattended repetitive cycles. up to several hou are possible with timing relays that are motor-driven.

two-pole double-throw. Figure 28 shows a typical foot switch. such as that shown in Figure 27 . or roller protruding from the switch that will be bumped or pushed by some piece of moving equipment (Figure 27). Some timers may be equipped not only with contacts that are delayed but with contacts that operate instantaneously. 14. This movement is then used to operate a set of contacts. Symbols 11 and 12. Switches of this type are often used in applications that require the machine or process cycle to be started a time when the operators hands are both engaged in loading or handling the materials. Limit switches use an arm. or other arrangements to suit a specific need. presented in Figure 21. Limit switches vary widel size and design. and sewing machines. Figure 28: Industrial Foot Switch www.Hazardous Locations . represent timer conta that have timed closing after energization (TCAE) and timed opening after energization (TOAE).9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . and 16. Symbols 9 and 10. respectively. The airflow passes through an adjustable orifice so the time delay is adjustable. lever. symbol 16 represents the opposite. rugged devices for heavy industrial use. and symbol 15 represents a normally open limit switch. 15.techtransfer. The time delay of a timing relay can be applied when the relay is energized or when it is 9 . Typica examples of foot switches are punch presses. Figure 27: Limit Switch Symbols 13 and 14 of Figure 21 show limit switches in their normally open or closed condition. and smaller. It uses the restricted airflow across a diaphragm to create the time delay.Industrial Wiki . more accurate and precise units that use m switches that can operate on very minute movements of the operating lever. drill presses. Foot-operated switches are frequently employed for such purposes. Limit Switches Symbols 13. shown in Figure 21. represent ti contacts that have timed opening after de-energization (TOAD) and timed closing after de-energization (TCAD). Foot Switches Symbols 17 and 18 of Figure 21 represent foot switches. There are large. also shown previously. which is h closed.Class II 17/30 . represent direct-actuated limit switches. respectively.Technology Transfer Figure 26: Time Delay Relay. Foot switches are actually limit switches enclosed in a convenient and rugged casi for foot operation and are available in a variety of contact arrangements such as single-pole double-throw. Dashpot Type Another popular timer is the pneumatic timer.

In t way. Circuit Analysis There are two basic types of control circuits: three-wire and two-wire. a deliberate action must be performed. In two-wire control." Figure 30 shows a three-wire LVP control circuit. only two wires are required. unless specified with a node or dot. Line diagrams. Figure 30: Three-Wire LVP Control Circuit Two-Wire Control www. contacts. ensuring a measure of 9 . are shown on horizontal lines between two vertical lines. These designations stem from the fact that for three-wire circuit control. wiring diagrams often look like an enormous maze of parallel and crossing lines that make it difficult.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . However. and pushbuttons.Industrial Wiki . To restart the motor after a power failure. The connections of line diagrams are drawn such that both the function and sequence of operation can be readily determined. by its nature. but when power returns or comes back up to . A low-voltage condition or loss of incoming pow will cause the starter to "drop out. are not connected. are shown as broken lines.Class II 18/30 A two-wire control circuit is. Wires are shown as crossing each other and. such as relays. vertical lines always represent the power source. Figure 29 shows a simple control circuit and its components.Hazardous Locations . Control devices. such as those found on double-pole switches and between mechanical interlocks. Wiring diagrams give the needed information for actually wiring the circuit and allow a troubleshooter t physically trace the wires. only three wires are required from the ordinary across the line motor starter to the control components. Diagrams Electrical circuits are generally shown by one of two types of diagrams: line diagrams and wiring diagrams. also known as elementary diagrams. or maintaining contact across the push-button START switch.Technology Transfer Control Circuits Simple control circuits are sometimes referred to as lad d er d iag rams in that they are drawn to resemble a ladder. Mechanical connections. to ke the circuit energized after the push-button has been released. This type of scheme provides low-voltage protection. if not impossible. A wiring diagram includes all the components in the circuit and shows the physical relationships between them. the starter connected for three-wire control will not p up automatically since the maintaining contact around the start switch is now open. When power is restored. do not show components in their actual physical locations. for someone to recognize and understand the operation of the circuit. the pushbutton must be pressed. Figure 29: Simple Control Circuit and Components Wiring diagrams will not have wires jumping one another. Three-Wire Control A three-wire circuit uses momentary contact START-STOP buttons and a holding circuit interlock. a low-voltage release circuit. A reduction or loss of voltage stops the motor. Line diagrams simplify the circuit to a degree necessary to understand the operation of the circuit.techtransfer.

In the AUTOMATIC position. For example.Industrial Wiki . this voltage may need to be reduced to 120 volts. float switch.Class II 19/30 . Other variations include separate control and control through a control power transformer.000 volts. Other systems are also required to be grounded. the motor will restart. the voltage of the control circuit is always the same as the power circuit. When the control circuit is tied back to lines 1 and 2 of the starter. two-wire circuit must normally have one of its conductors grounded. ● Ground detectors are installed on the control system. or any other type of control device can control this contact. and relays. there may be cases where a ground fault on the hot leg of a grounded control circuit c cause a hazard to personnel by blowing the protective fuse or operating a circuit breaker and thus shutting down the entire industrial process in a sudden. Control Power Transformers It is sometimes desirable to operate pushbuttons or other control circuit devices at some voltage lower than the motor voltage. A fuse is often used to protect the X1 side of the transformer secondary while the other side is grounded NEC Section 250 states the requirement for grounding the secondary of 120-volt control transformers. or industrial facility. For example. A sudden shutdown to a ground fault in the hot leg a grounded control circuit would be objectionable in this instance. This type of restart can be a safety hazard to both personnel and machinery since power may return without warning. supervision will ensure that only persons qualified in electrical work will maintain and serve the contr circuits. This typ of circuit is shown in Figure 31. Hand-Off-Auto Controls When it is desired to select the function of a motor controller either manually or automatically.Technology Transfer nominal value. Figure 32: Typical Control Circuit When the switch is turned to the HAND position. the motor will run whenever the contact in line with the M coil is closed. and the term common control is used to describe this relationship. contactors. the M coil is energized continuously and the motor runs. unexpec way.21(3) provides an exception to this rule. ● Whether in a commercial. any 120-volt. Figure 33: Three-Position Double-Break Selector Switch www. The coil circuit can be connected to any single-phase power source and the controller would be operable. although they have no bearing on this aspect of motor control centers. NEC 250. Figure 31: Two-Wire LVR Control Circuit Common Control The coil circuit of a magnetic starter or contactor is distinct from the power circuit. three-position selector 9 . Figure 33 shows a three-position. According to the rule.techtransfer. ● The circuit is derived from a transformer that has a primary rating less than 1. double-break selector switch. This specific requirement has caused some difficulty when applied to control circuits derived from the secondary of a control transformer that supplies pow to the operating coils of motor starters. This may result in excessive loss of production time and/or damage to equipment that is stopped abruptly. ● Continuity of control power is required. a hand-off-automatic switch is used. A timing relay. A 120-volt control circuit may be operated ungrounded provided ALL of the following conditions are met: ● The system is used exclusively for the control circuit. if the main service is 4 volts.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . Figure 32 shows a typical contr circuit with a standard duty. institutional.Hazardous Locations . This is used for manual or automatic control in much the same way as the previous circuit. provided the coil voltage and frequency match the service to which it is connected.

one for the forw direction and one for the reverse direction (Figure 35).com/resources/wiki/entry/2323/#NEMA 9 .Hazardous Locations . the dotted line will be broken in the middle and angled with a solid bar at the middle junction. To accomplish this. dropping the forward coil out and energizing the reverse ( coil.techtransfer. the F coil is energized.Class II 20/30 .Industrial Wiki . reversing starters reverse the motor direction. since this may cause the overload relays to overheat and disconnect the motor from the circuit. Figure 36: Pushbutton Interlocking When the forward pushbutton is pressed.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . Three basic metho of interlocking are: ● Mechanical interlocking ● Pushbutton interlocking ● Auxiliary contact interlocking Mechanical Interlocking Mechanical interlocks are assembled at the factory and are physically located between the forward and reverse contactors. When magnetic starters are used. Figure 34: Reversing Starter Reversing starters in conformity with NEMA standards interchange lines L1 and L3 or phases A and C. Pushbutton Interlocks This method is an electrical method of preventing both starter coils from energizing together. Pressing the reverse pushbutton automatically breaks the circuit in line with the F coil. Often. NEMA specifications require a starter to be derated or to select the next larger size starter whenever it is going to be used for plugging or reversing rate of more than five times-per-minute. The interlock locks one contactor out at beginning of the stroke of either contactor to prevent both from closing simultaneously. and the normally open F auxiliary contact closes to maintain the circuit to operate the motor in the forward direction. as shown in Figure 34. Figure 36 shows an example of pushbutton interlocking.Technology Transfer Interlocking Methods for Reversing Control Simply interchanging any two of the three incoming leads can reverse a three-phase motor. two starters are needed. A broken or dotted line indicates a mechanical interlock. This would cause a short circuit. Reversing the direction of motor rotation on a repeated basis is not recommended. Figure 35: Reversing Contactor Line Connections Interlocking is used to prevent both contactors from being energized simultaneously or closing at the same time. www.

Figure 38 shows a standard starter wired for sequence control.Technology Transfer Auxiliary Contact Interlocking This method is also an electrical interlock. Familiarity with the symbols and conventions of single-line diagrams both switchgear and motor control centers is necessary to understanding the overall conception of the motor control center as a unit. Many motors can be started automatically with one START-STOP button. The result is the second starter is prevented from starting until after the M coil is energized. Figure 37: Electrical Interlocking In the forward direction.Hazardous Locations .9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals .com/resources/wiki/entry/2323/#NEMA 9 . This is required whenever auxiliary equipment associated with a machine. Sequence Control A method by which starters are connected so that one cannot be started until another is energized is called sequence control.techtransfer. as shown in Figure 39. the normally closed contact (F) on the forward contactor opens to prevent the reverse contactor from being energized.Industrial Wiki . as shown in Figure 37. such as a priming pump for a drain pump. must be operating to prevent damage to the main machine.Class II 21/30 The power supplies to motor control centers are usually circuit breakers located in switchgear. Figure 39: Automatic Sequence Control Motor Control Center Power Supplies www. It consists of normally closed auxiliary contacts on the forward and reverse contactors. Figure 38: Sequence Control The control circuit of the M2 coil is wired through the maintaining contacts of the M 1 coil. Standard symbology was .

Figure 43 is a one-line diagram of a 480-volt substation powering many motor control centers. ground fault 9 . whereas the bottom number indicates the trip rating of the breaker This annotation denotes that the trip rating is adjustable. It can consist of either an adjustable setting on the breaker faceplate or a rating plug that is inserted into a special socket. Figure 40: Standard Electrical Symbols and Conventions The Rotating Apparatus column of Figure 40 shows one-line elementary and plan symbols for various motors. Under the Switching and Protective Apparatus column of Figure 40. Figure 40 shows some standard electrical symbols and conventions. The absence of a number indicates 1. Figure 41 shows other apparatus and devices associated with motor control centers. Many modern breakers have this feature. and the lower number indicates the frame size. These rating plugs are often shipped separately from the breakers and must be checked upon installation to ensure that they are installed according to the specifications and prints. This means there are two main breakers and a tie breaker. An example is: The top number. wire and terminal connection location symbols. Ma times. long time pickup. and PL input/output symbols. The static trip devices shown on the motor starters rated above 600 volts. motor-starting current.Industrial Wiki . The K symbol located in the box above the tie breaker and in the circle beside the main breakers indicates that these breakers are mechanically interlocked with a key system. and others. This indicates that only two breakers can be shut at any one time.800 RPM. This is not true in all one-line diagrams. This diagram indicates that this substation is a main-tie-main bus scheme.techtransfer.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . long time delay. conduit and raceways. The dashed lines connect both mains and the tie.Hazardous Locations . in this instance. and the top number will indicate the frame size. phase failure. these two numbers will be interchanged. are denoted by the abbreviation ST. Note that the number inside the circle indicates horsepower. Other significant items to be seen: ● ● ● ● Transformer ratings and connections Breaker ratings and accessories Current transformer ratios Motor control center drawing numbers www. These are micro-log (digital) units that are adjustable over a wide range of available parameters including ground fault pickup.Class II 22/30 . indicates the trip rating of the breaker. and the number at the lower right of the circle indicates speed in RPM. as well as some circuit breakers.Technology Transfer discussed in a previous section. instantaneous overcurrent. notice the numbers located to the left of the circuit breakers.

The number and letter combinations shown at the lower edge of the dotted lines indicate which position each starter bucket is located in the motor control center.Technology Transfer Figure 41: Standard Symbology MCC Single-Line Diagrams Figure 42 and Figure 43 are one-line diagrams of 480-volt. www. Manufacturers vary in regard to this labeling.Class II 23/30 . Each starter is labeled by size. so refer to the drawing that pictorially shows the mot control center and all bucket position labels. MCC 3 is powered from 480-volt substation number 2. 1.techtransfer. written next to the starter.Hazardous Locations . F example. MCC 3 indicates this with "Size 5.200-amp trip circuit breaker. Be certain to become familiar with all symbols on these diagrams." for example.Industrial Wiki .9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . MCC 12 simply places a number beside the starter. 2D indicates that this starter is in section 2. The motor control centers in-breake a 1. An ammeter and a voltmeter monitor the voltage and current drawn by the motor control 9 .600-amp frame. The upper left portions of both prints show the incoming power supply. a well as all abbreviations. three-phase motor control centers. Current transformer and potential transformer ratios are indicated as well as the number of each one required. position D.

for motor number 301M1. 11. is at coordinate 08E. 480V One-Line Diagram Figure 43: Three-Phase.Industrial Wiki . and the letters run horizontally across the top of the page. an input from a programmable logic controller (PLC) is inserted in the control circuit. This symbol. These numbers indicate which lines (vertical numbers) have contacts or electrical connections to this coil.Hazardous Locations . 480V One-Line Diagram Elementary Diagram Analysis Refer to Figure 9 . a SP. the M coil is described as a contactor and has the numbers 1.Class II 24/30 . 0 indicates a PLC output 072 indicates the PLC rack and slot 01 indicates the point www. 3. Notice how some devices listed at the righ sides of each diagram have a reference number. Instead of start switch. for several starters located in motor control center 3. The PLC input at coordinate 08E has the number 0:072/01 above it. 2. for motor number 301M1. The first thing to notice is the absence of a start switch.techtransfer. Coordinate numbers are located vertically down each diagram.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . 6. SP indicates a spare. an elementary diagram.Technology Transfer Figure 42: Three-Phase. For example.

Control power disconnect device 56. Thermal relay 50. Time-delay closing relay 3. AC circuit breaker 5. Figure 44: PLC Elementary Diagram Standard Device Numbers The following is a list of standard numbers for labeling switchgear devices. AC time overcurrent relay To simplify electrical diagrams. Distance relay 69. Level switch 24.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . Electrically operated rheostat 23.techtransfer. Shunting or discharge switch 65. Instantaneous overcurrent relay 51. allow the designer to produce an uncluttered drawing by minimizing the amount of writing. Reserved for future application 72. Overspeed device 60. Synchronizing check device 73. Interlocking relay 49. Apparatus thermal device 74. Anode circuit breaker 55. Standard numbers are commonly used instead of standard abbreviations. like abbreviations. Unit sequence switch 58. Electrically operated valve 68. Ground-protective relay 17. Power factor relay 9 . Current balance relay 14. Position-changing mechanism 28. many switchgear devices are not labeled with reference to their function. Equalizer circuit breaker 70. Accelerating or decelerating device 66. Voltage balance relay 13. such as those shown at coordinates 11J and 12J. Master contactor 52. memorizing the numbers is not necessary. Exciter or DC-generator relay 6. Jogging device 19. Reserved for future application 59. Governor 18. Isolating contactor 77. Starting circuit breaker 54. These standard numbers. Rectifier failure relay 11.Technology Transfer PLC input signals. Stopping device 53. Numbers commonly used will become as familiar to you as common abbreviations. Load-resistor contactor 26. Speed/frequency matching device 63.Class II 25/30 . Pulse transmitter www. Undervoltage relay 75. Time-delay relay 15. Master element 2.Hazardous Locations . This list can be used for quick reference. Overvoltage relay 12. Pressure switch 16. Synchronous-speed device 61. Reserved for future application 64. Blocking relay 21. Underspeed device 62. DC circuit breaker 25. Starting-to-running transition device67. Flame detector 76. Standard numbers for switchgear devices: 1. have a similar address number. Field application relay 9.Industrial Wiki . Short-circuiting or grounding device 10. High-speed DC circuit breaker 7. Temperature-control device 71. AC directional overcurrent delay 20. Reversing device 57. Permissive-control device 22. Alarm relay 27. 4. DC overcurrent relay 29.

Device in which the primary function is to connect a machine to its source of starting voltage 7 Anode Circuit Breaker .Device that makes or breaks the necessary control circuits to place equipment into or out of service when the required conditions exist 4 generally controlled by a master element (device 1). air. Line switch 90. also functions if the temperature of the protected apparatus. or tests 30 31 32 33 Annunciator Relay .Device that raises or lowers the temperature of a machine or other apparatus (or of any medium) when its temperature falls 23 below or rises above a predetermined value. Unit sequence starting relay 45. undercurrent relay. gas. described later Checking (or Interlocking) Relay .Class II 26/30 . allows a 3 operating sequence to continue. circuit breaker. Field circuit breaker 42. Undercurrent/underpower device 38.Direct-connected speed switch that functions when a machine overspeeds Synchronous-Speed Device . such as a protective or time-delay relay Time-Delay Starting (or Closing) Relay . AC reclosing relay 80. a load-limiting or shifting resistor.Industrial Wiki . Sequence device 35. Separate excitation device 9 . Atmospheric condition monitor 46.Device (knife switch. which places equipment into or out of operation.Device that provides a given amount of time delay before or after any operation in a switching sequence or protecti 2 relay system.Device in which the primary function is to place and hold equipment out of service 6 Starting Circuit Breaker . Annunciator relay 31.Device that matches and holds the speed (frequency) of a machine or a system equal (approximately equal) to that of 15 another machine.Device (centrifugal-speed switch. Phase sequence voltage relay 48. Auxiliary motor 89. stops the sequence. Mechanical condition monitor 40. Flow switch 81.Switch that opens or closes a shunting circuit around any piece of apparatus (except a resistor) such as a machine field. a 17 machine armature. Voltage/power directional relay 93. Phase-angle relay 79.Contactor that is used expressly to disconnect one circuit from another to perform emergency operations. Automatic transfer relay 84. Directional power relay 33. voltage relay. Operating mechanism 85. example is a thermostat that switches on a space heater in a switchgear assembly when the temperature falls below the predetermined value. function of valve may be indicated by insertio 20 of a descriptive word. Manual transfer device 44.Switch that makes or breaks contact when the main device or piece of apparatus.Breaker that controls the equalizer or current-balancing connections for a machine field or for regulating equipment in a multi-u 22 system Temperature-Control Device . or a reactor. source. Tripping relay 95 to 99 Used for specific applications The following gives a brief description of the function of each of the switchgear devices in the previous list. control power includes auxiliary power that supplies small motors and heaters 9 Reversing Device .Motor-operated valve that is used in vacuum. or any other 26 medium exceeds a predetermined limit.Device that functions when the speed of a machine falls below a predetermined value Speed/Frequency Matching Device . Device 73s function.Device that permits or causes the paralleling of two AC sources when they are within the desired limits of 25 frequency. or provides a check of the position of the devices or the predetermined conditions for any purpose Master Contractor . Polarity device 37.Device that causes the automatic transfer of a machine from the starting to the running power connection Electrically Operated Valve .Device that is used in the anode circuits of a power rectifier to interrupt the rectifier current if an arc-back occurs Control Power Disconnecting Device . or any other type of device) that opera 13 at approximately the synchronous speed of a machine 14 Underspeed Device . DC reclosing relay 83. slip frequency relay. decreases below a predetermined limit 27 Undervoltage Relay . switching of a load resistor. Position switch 34.Initiating device (control switch. or pull-out fuse block) that is used to connect or disconnect the control power to 8 and from the control bus or equipment. true except as specifically provided by devices 62 and 79.Technology Transfer 78. Voltage directional relay 92. Frequency relay 82. Regulating device 91. Lockout relay 87.Hazardous Locations . or similar lines. the necessary permissives.Device that connects a circuit. such as a gas turbine or steam boiler 29 Isolating Contactor . Field changing contactor 94.Device that closes circuits used to increase or decrease speed of a machine 19 Starting-to-Running Transition Contactor .Relay that operates in response to the position of other devices or to the predetermined conditions in equipment.e.Device that functions on a desired value of power flow in a given direction or upon reverse power resulting from arc back in the anode or cathode circuits of a power rectifier Position Switch . such as a power rectifier. such as Brake.9/4/13 30. water. and protective devices 5 Stopping Device . may also be arranged to perform a lockout function Separate Excitation Device .Device that is used to reverse a machines field or to perform any other reversing function 10 Unit Sequence Switch . also excluded 18 Accelerating (Decelerating) Device .Device that functions when the temperature of the field of a machine.Switch that changes the sequence in which units may be placed into or out of service in a multi-unit system 11 Reserved for future application 12 Overspeed Device . excludes devices that perform the shunting operations that are necessary when a machine is started by Device or 42. voltage relay. to a source of separate excitation during the starting sequence. phase angle. Carrier receiver relay 86. oil. done either directly or 1 through a permissive device. float switch. in the function name (i. etc). maintenance.techtransfer. Incomplete sequence relay Motor Control Fundamentals .Device that monitors the presence of the pilot or main flame in apparatus.Relay that functions on a given value of undervoltage 28 Flame Detector . electrically operated brake valve) 21 Distance Relay . such as the shunt field of a synchronous converter. Reverse-phase relay 47. reaches a given www.Relay that functions when the circuit impedance or reactance increases or decreases beyond predetermined limits Equalizer Circuit Breaker . Brush operating device 36. Bearing protective device 39. Field relay 41. a capacitor. also energizes the excitation and ignition circuits of a power rectifier Directional Power Relay . Device Function and Description Number Master Element .Non-automatically reset device that gives a number of visual indications upon the functioning of a protective device. Differential relay 88. or system 16 Reserved for future application Shunting (Discharged) Switch . a liquid. and voltage Apparatus Thermal Device . Running circuit breaker 43. which has no device function number. different from a device that provides automatic temperature regulation between close limits (90T device) 24 Reserved for future application Synchronizing (Synchronism-Check) Device ..

which indicates abnormally low field excitation Field Circuit Breaker . or stopping sequences are not properly completed within a predetermined time Machine (Transformer) Thermal Relay . in a multi-unit system. or a volta and current www. or contain negative phase sequence components above a given amount Phase-Sequence Voltage Relay . and test positio DC Overcurrent Relay . or power flow. or level. smok and fire Reverse-Phase (Phase-Balance) Current Relay .01 seconds or less. or indicating resistance in a power circuit. position and locks it out. or seal failure Field Relay . normally an auxiliary relay.Relay that functions on the failure of the insulation of a machine. also cooperates with other devices to block trips or reclosures on an out-of-step condition Permissive Control Device . also functions on an excessive value of the reactive component o armature current in an AC machine. a visual or audible alarm Position-Changing Mechanism .Relay that functions on a desired value of AC overcurrent flowing in a predetermined direction Blocking Relay .Hazardous Locations . functions if the normal starting. two currents. whic may eventually result in excessive bearing temperature Mechanical Condition Monitor . that is used to operate. expansion. stopping.Relay that functions on a predetermined value of polyphase voltage in the desired phase sequence Incomplete Sequence Relay .techtransfer. Level.Rheostat that is used to vary the resistance of a circuit in response to some means of electrical control Level Switch .Device that functions on excessive bearing temperature or on other abnormal mechanical conditions.Device that operates or permits the operation of another device on a predetermined polarity only Undercurrent (Underpower) Relay . or Flow Relay .Relay that operates on a given difference in voltage between two circuits Current Balance Relay . examples of abnormal conditions are excessive vibration. or in any other apparatus. or a specified number of successive operations within a given time of each other. not applied to a device connected in the secondary circuit or neu of a current transformer.Relay that functions when the current.Relay that functions when the current in a DC circuit exceeds a given value Pulse Transmitter .Manually operated device that transfers the control circuits to modify the plan of operation of the switching equipment of some of the devices Unit Sequence Starting Relay . lowers.Relay that functions when the polyphase currents are 9 .Device in which the function is to allow only a specified number of operations of a given device or equipment.Device that closes or interrupts an AC power circuit under normal conditions. or opening operati in an automatic sequence Liquid or Gas Pressure.Time-delay relay that serves in conjunction with the device that initiates the shutdown. also functions o flashover to ground in a DC machine.Device that connects a machine to its source of running voltage after the machine has been brought up to the desired speed on th starting connection (motor starter) Manual Transfer (Selector) Device .Relay that automatically controls the application of field excitation to an AC motor at some predetermined point in the slip cycle Short-Circuiting (Grounding) Device .Industrial Wiki .Technology Transfer position Motor-Operated Sequence Switch .Relay that functions if one or more of the power rectifier anodes fail to fire Overvoltage Relay . in one position. see Devices 71 and 80 Ground Protective Relay .Relay that returns the equipment to the normal.Circuit breaker that closes or interrupts a DC circuit under normal conditions. on the failure or the non-availability of the norma preceding unit Atmospheric Condition Monitor .Relay that operates when the power factor in an AC circuit rises above or falls below a predetermined value 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Field Application Relay . or stored energy. of machine field current. a powe rectifier.Device that applies or removes the field excitation of a machine Running Circuit Breaker . or on a given rate-of-chang of these values. shifting.Relay that initiates a pilot signal for blocking a trip on external faults in a transmission line. flow.Relay that operates on a given difference in the current input or output of two circuits Time-Delay Stopping (Opening) Relay . transformer. under predetermined conditions.Device that functions upon the occurrence of abnormal atmospheric conditions such as fumes. or off.Relay that functions on a given low value.Circuit breaker that functions to reduce the current in the main circuit in 0. or current transformers connected in the power circuit of a normally grounded system Governor .Relay that functions when the temperature of a machine armature or other load-carrying winding (element). or a power transformer (including a power rectifier transformer) exceeds a predetermined value Instantaneous Overcurrent Rate-of-Rise Relay . also detects grounds on normally ungrounded windings or circuits.Relay that functions to start the next available unit. decreases below a predetermined value Bearing Protective Device .Relay that operates on given values of liquid pressure. unbalanced. also interrupts the circuit under fault or emergency conditions Exciter (DC Generator) Relay . also interrupts the circuit under fault or emergency conditions Load Resistor Contactor . and prevents the circuit breaker or the equipment from being operated in the other position Electrically Operated Rheostat . or other sequentia switching operations Brush-Operating (Slip-Ring Short-Circuiting) Device .Mechanism that is used to move a removable circuit breaker unit to and from the connected. or shifts the position of the brushes in a machine or that short-circuits its sli rings. device that short-circuits.Power. stopping. or grounds.Relay that functions at a predetermined phase angle between two voltages.9/4/13 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Motor Control Fundamentals .Device that functions upon the occurrence of an abnormal mechanical condition (except that associated with bearings as covered under Device 38). or operate in conjunction with. operating. a circuit in response to automatic or manual means Power Rectifier Misfire Relay . also used to switch a space heater in a circuit and to switch a light on the regenerative load resistor of a power rectifier or other machine into or out of a circuit Alarm Relay .Generally. shock. also engages or disengages the contacts of a mechanical rectifier Polarity Device . or the placing of an equipmen into operation.Generates and transmits pulses over a telemetering or pilot-wire circuit to the remote indicating or receiving device Phase Angle Measuring (Out-Of-Step Protective Relay) .Switch that operates on given values or on a given rate-of-change of level DC Circuit Breaker . also a device that functions to energize a circuit periodically or that is used to permit intermittent acceleration (jogging) of a machine at low speed for mechanical positioning AC Directional Overcurrent Relay . disconnected. manually operated switch that permits the closing of a circuit breaker.Class II 27/30 .Relay that functions instantaneously on an excessive value of current or on an excessive rate of current rise used to indicate a fault in the apparatus or circuit being protected AC Time Overcurrent Relay . functions after the occurrenc of a DC overcurrent or excessive rate-of-current rise Power Factor Relay .Relay that functions on a given value of overvoltage Voltage Balance Relay .Contactor that is used to shunt or to insert a step of load limiting.Relay.Device that raises. explosive mixtures. other than an annunciator (Device 30).Relay with either a definite or inverse time characteristic that functions when the current in an AC circuit exceeds a predetermined value AC Circuit Breaker . such as undue wear. or any other apparatus to ground.Relay that forces the DC machine's field excitation to build up during starting or that functions when the machines voltage ha built up to a given value High-Speed DC Circuit Breaker .Multi-contact switch that fixes the operating sequence of the major devices during starting. only assigned to a relay that detects current flow from the frame of a machine (enclosing case or the structure of an apparatus) to ground. eccentricity. or failure.Equipment that controls the gate or valve opening of a prime mover Notching (Jogging) Device . a two-position. tilting. gas pressure.

The function to be performed by the float switch is that of STOP. but be aware that a control circuit can be used to perform the function of any electrical device.900-volt bus and the 4.Complete electrical mechanism (or servomechanism). a contactor. as shown in Figure 47.Switch that operates on a given value or on a given rate-of-change of flow Frequency Relay . Figure 45: Pump Control Circuit Figure 46 shows the physical arrangement of the pump and the two tanks. or energizing and de-energizing a heater. or to permit immediate tripping by other device. or equipment.Technology Transfer AC Reclosing Relay . Therefore. for a tap changer or any piece of apparatus that has no device number Carrier (Pilot Wired Receiver) Relay . blowers.Relay that operates to automatically select between certain sources or conditions in an equipment. generally in response to load circuit conditions Automatic Selective Control (Transfer) Relay . ● The second method of circuit development is when a customer fully understands the requirements. can also perform automatic transfer operations Operating Mechanism . stopping the pump and the fl of water. temperature. such as pumping a tank dry and burning up a pump. it is a manual operation requiring that the START button be pushed whenever the water is too low in the pressure tank. www.Relay that functions on a predetermined value of frequency (either above or below normal system frequency) or rate-of-change of frequency DC Reclosing Relay . confusion could result.9/4/13 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 Motor Control Fundamentals . Regulating Device . Developing a Control Circuit Having been introduced to the common component parts of a control circuit.Industrial Wiki . shown in Figure 45. and th 4.160-volt bus. such as turning on and off lights. power. or other apparatuses Voltage Directional Relay . if this number is used for both buses. should it open automatically. The basic circuit.Relay that operates when the voltage across an open circuit breaker or contactor exceeds a given value in a given direction Voltage and Power Directional Relay . opening and closing a motor-operated valve.160-volt bus relay could be 487. For example. along with the final control components.techtransfer. we will improve upon an installed circuit in a step-by-step manner. The pump is allowed to run until the tank is observed to b full. in one step.. solenoids. However. When the level of the water has reached float switch 1(FS1). the 6. they are sometimes preceded (or followed) by an additional number or letter. etc. The operator then pushes the STOP button. exciters. speed.Electrically operated (hand or electrically reset) device that functions to shut down and hold equipment out-of-service on the occurrence o abnormal condition Differential Protective Relay . such as a series of improvements performed at different times. controls a pump that pumps water from a storage tank into a pressure tank. etc. The designation of a differential relay is 87. and load at a given value between certain limits for machines. or other quantitative difference between two currents or some other electrical quantities Auxiliary Motor (Motor Generator) . rotating magnetic amplifiers. frequency. even though its closing circuit is maintained closed 95 to Used only for specific applications on individual installations where none of the assigned numbered functions from 1 to 94 are suitable 99 When the standard numbers are used on an electrical diagram.Relay that is operated or restrained by a signal used in conjunction with carrier-current or DC pilot-wire. securing the pump and stopping the flow of water into the pressure tank. This is used for more precise identification.Contactor that functions to increase or decrease.Relay that functions to trip a circuit breaker. and the system is designed to meet those requirements.Hazardous Locations . may als prevent the immediate reclosing of a circuit interrupter. current. in an existing installation. the learner should now be able to understand the development of a control circuit. it must be a normally closed contact and must be connected in series with the original STOP button.Protective relay that functions on a percentage.900-volt bus relay could be 687. such as an auxiliary switch.Device that controls a quantity (or quantities) such as voltage. In the following example. Control circuits are usually developed in one of two ways: ● First. a phase angle. etc. fault-direction relaying Lock-Out Relay . thus energizing th pump and starting water to flow into the tank. there may be differential relay protection on two different buses. including the operating motor.Relay that controls the closing and reclosing of a DC circuit interrupter. the value of field excitation on a machine Tripping(Trip Free) Relay .Relay that controls the automatic reclosing and locking out of an AC circuit interrupter Flow Switch . Figure 46: Water System Configuration The owner decides that a float switch should be installed in the pressure tank near the top so that the operator need only push the START button. a magnetic lock. If the two buses are the 6. position switches. Line Switch . This controller is being used to start and stop a motor. tie lines.Switch used as a disconnecting or isolating switch in an AC or DC power circuit when the device is electrically operated or has electrical accessories.Motor used to operate auxiliary equipment such as pumps. its contacts will be opened. changes are frequently made to improve the control functions of a system to either make the operation easier for the operator or improve the system to prevent equipment 9 .Relay that permits or causes the connection of two circuits when the voltage difference between them exceeds a give value in a predetermined direction and causes these two circuits to be disconnected from each other when the power flowing between them exceeds a give value in the opposite direction Field-Changing Contactor . As the original circuit stands.Class II 28/30 .

9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals . air must be let into the tank only when the water level is at its highest position and the pressur below the desired discharge pressure of the tank. When the pressure is lower than the setpoint of the pressure switch.Hazardous Locations .Phase 3 Later. They installed another float switch to maintain the lower level of the tank. the contacts of PS1 will be closed until the pressure increases to normal and open www.Technology Transfer Figure 47: Pump Control Circuit . we can wire it into the circuit. therefore. The new control will perform the function of STOP for the 9 . which will be opened whenever the water level drops to the set level of the float switch. FS1 is activated. wired in series with the other stop components. its contacts must close and complete the circuit to the solenoid. It is. The control function desired is that of START. the storage tank drops so low in water level that the pump cannot pick up water. To achieve this. Figure 50: Pump Control Circuit . Figure 48: Pump Control Circuit . This section of the control circuit requires that the pump be started whene the water reaches a predetermined low level. Figure 49: Pump Control Circuit . and automatic operation are shown in Figure 51. occasionally.Class II 29/30 .Phase 4 energizing of the solenoid valve. If the air pressure is low. The necessary changes to give hand. It will be preferable to have either a definite automatic operation or hand operation as desired by the operator. When the water level reaches its highest point. If the water is below its top level when the pressure drops. as shown in 50. we do not want the solenoid valve to open. Because the control function to be performed is that of STO float switch 3 must have normally closed contacts. w can install a pressure switch in the top of the tank that will sense the pressure in the tank at all times. and the PS1. The float switch (FS2) must have a set of normally open contacts that wil close whenever the water drops to the lowest desired level. The float switch (FS3) was installed and adjusted to open a set of contacts whenever the water in the storage tank reached the desired low level. The circuit in Figure 49 gives a degree of hand operation because the pushbuttons were left in the circuit.Phase 2 After some time of operation. having one normally-open and one normally-closed set of contacts. This pressure switch will perform the function of START for the solenoid valve. as shown in Figure 49. These contacts must be connected in parallel with the original START button to perform the function of start for the motor. as shown in Figure 48. we will install a solenoid valve in the air supply line that will allow air to flow into the tank when the coil of the solenoid valve is energized.Industrial Wiki . off. it is discovered that. we require the function of stop in regard to water level to preven air being put into the tank when it is not desired. This requires a control to prevent the pump from starting whenever the storage tanks water level is low and to stop the pump if it is running and the water reaches this low level in the storage tank. therefore. it is decided that the pressure placed on the line by the pressure tank when it is full is insufficient for the needs of the plant. In order for the pro balance of water level and air pressure to be maintained at all times. Now. the owner decides that it would be more convenient if the pump is started automatically as well as stopped automatically. satisfying the requirements of the circuit as specified. The owner requests the installati of the necessary components and controls to maintain a pressure on the tank by the addition of the proper amount of air to the top of the tank.Phase 1 After operating with this control for some time.techtransfer. The circuit for the solenoid valve is a two-wire control requiring that both FS1 and pressure switch (PS1) be closed in order that air will be placed into the tank by the normally open contacts in the solenoid circuit will close. If float switch (FS1) is of the double-pole variety. This function can be obtained by the installation of a float switch to sense the extreme low level of water in the storage tank. The normally closed contact in the pump circuit will open.

ABOUT US : CONTACT US : PRIVACY POLICY : TERMS OF USE www. if we assume that the circuit was built up little at a time by going back and adding control components to the original manual circuit.. causing FS1 and FS2 to shut If the learner had been charged with the responsibility of developing the final circuit of Figure 51. and motor will stop If control switch remains in AUTO.Final Arrangement The starting sequence for Figure 51 above would be as follows: 1.. Search the site. 2. FS2 will open. Place the controller switch in AUTO. © 2013 Technology Transfer Services. but pump continues to run due to M2 When pressure tank is full. the M coil will be energized: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Storage tank level high enough (FS3 shut) Pressure tank level not too high (FS1 shut) Pressure tank level low enough (FS2 shut) M coil energizes. When the following conditions are met. and the main contacts shut to energize the motor and start pumping water M coil auxiliary contacts M1 and M2 shut M1 has no affect on the automatic control circuit M2 bypasses FS2 As pressure tank fills.9/4/13 Motor Control Fundamentals .Industrial Wiki . the procedure would be the same as that we have followed. FS1 will open.Technology Transfer Figure 51: Pump Control Circuit . All Rights Reserved.techtransfer. the learner would have had certain specifications or requirements to the proper functions or operation of the completed circuit as indicated below: ● ● ● ● Have hand-off-automatic control selection That the pump be controlled so as to maintain the water level in the pressure tank between a high and low point That the pump be prevented from running whenever the water level in the storage tank was below a given point That the pressure on the pressure tank be maintained by adding air to the tank whenever necessary To develop this circuit properly from this set of specifications.Class II 30/30 .com/resources/wiki/entry/2323/#NEMA 9 . M coil de-energizes. entire cycle will be repeated when the water level in the pressure tank drops.Hazardous Locations .