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Internal Structure of City

Urban Land Use Pattern

Types of Land Use

There are different types of land use such as Commercial land use Residential land use Industrial land use Institutional land use Transportation land use Recreational land use

Functional Segregation
Similar activities tend to aggregate together because of Similar locational requirements and External economies of scale different types activities are separated from each other because Different locational requirements Different rent-paying ability Conflicts amongst them

Bid Rent Mechanism

Land rent decreases with increasing distance from city centre competition for land and accessibility push up the land value/rent different land use has different rent curve because they have different demand for accessibility and space

Commercial land use

needs large number of people to support their business Greater market threshold highest demand for accessibility require less space Can afford higher rent

Residential land use

Accessibility is not important require more space (especially high class residential area) cannot afford high rent

Industrial land use

Accessibility is not very important
require large area of space

cannot afford high unit rent There is great difference between light and heavy industry

Bid Rent Curve

Rent ($/m2)

commercial industrial

City centre

Distance (km)

Bid Rent Curve

Rent ($/m2)

industrial residential

City centre

Distance (km)

Demand for Space

High order retailing business locates nearer to _______________ comparing with wholesaling business because it can afford higher rent and occupies ____________ space. High class residential area locates ____________________ city centre so as to get more space. Heavy industries locate in suburban because ____________________ is needed.

Concentric Model
C.B.D. Transition Zone Low class residential Middle class residential Commuters zone

Industrial area can be found along the __________and river railway __________because

Low class residential areas are located next to ___________and C.B.D. ___________________ because industrial area

High class residential area can sea shore also be found next to _________ the Governors house and _______________________ because
It is also be located away from industrial area __________________ because

Some land uses are mutually exclusive Some land uses are mutually support This will lead to segregation and aggregation of land uses

Mutual Relationship between Different Types of Land Use

Impact of transport network

Industrial area
Middle class residential area

High class residential area

Low class residential area

Multiple Nuclei Model



Harris & Ullman

Multiple nuclei Model

Concentric Model

Sectoral Model

Other Factors
Government planning
New town planning Land use zoning Urban renewal

Physical factors e.g. Relief Historical factors Behavioural factors

Central Business District(C.B.D.) is heart located at __________ of the city. Since the C.B.D. is near to the docks and harbour, it is believed that the port early function of the city was ____. The rise of regional centres because

At some junction of arterial / major transport routes Relatively high accessibility Especially accessible to the local population Reach the market threshold of some middle order goods / services

Hierarchy of Business Centre

Regional business centres

Community business centres


Rent Distance
community function regional function


If the level of accessibility of the street junction deteriorates as a result of urban blight, how would the bid-rent curves and land use pattern be affected? Rent


Main road Higher accessibility

Side street

Regional centre Mong Kok, Causeway Bay

Community Centre Neighbourhood Centre

Shun Lee Shopping centre Shun On Shopping centre

specialized functional commercial areas

External economies of scale / Agglomeration benefits Reputation Similar requirements Ancillary services e.g. Golden Shopping Centre

highway-oriented shopping ribbons



Harris & Ullman

Multiple nuclei Model

Concentric Model

Sectoral Model

Vertical Zonation
Zone A
Shipping Trading

Fitness Trading Audit firm Accounta nt Dentist Jewelry Residenti al Residenti al Labour union Travel agent Boutique

Zone B Zone C
Residenti al Residenti al Residenti al

Trading Solicitor Accounta nt Doctor Airline

Residenti al Residenti al Fast food Supermar ket

City centre

Residenti al Residenti al Residenti al Chinese Herb

Residenti al Residenti al

Distance from city centre

Zone A is Central Business District Zone B is Mixed land use zone Zone C is Residential area

Central Business District

Characteristics of CBD
heart of city focus of major transport routes highest accessibility limited space keen competition of land use highest rent tall buildings modern buildings high order retailing business airline companies traffic congestion vertical zonation Central District Tsim Sha Tsui

Mixed land use

Urban decay slum / poor living environment lack of open space traffic congestion Pollution hawkers poor sanitation high crime rate

Mixed land use

Lower buildings vertical zonation - commercial land use occupies the lower floors residential land use occupies the upper floors higher order shops are located at main streets; lower order shops are located at side-streets factories and workshops are found in back street

Urban Population Density

Population Density

City Centre


Change of Population Population Density over time


Urban expansion
City Centre



Western Vs Non-western Cities

Western City Non-western City

Suburbanization counter-urbanization Good transport network Good economic development Well-developed C.B.D.

Rural-urban migration influx of population Poor tarnsportation development Poor economic development Limited high order business

Urban sprawl, suburbanization, counter-urbanization Urban push Rural pull