Secondary storage (sometimes called auxi iary storage or externa !e!ory) differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using intermediate area in primary storage. Secondary storage does not lose the data when the device is powered down it is non!volatile. Per unit" it is typically also an order of magnitude less e#pensive than primary storage. Conse$uently" modern computer systems typically have an order of magnitude more secondary storage than primary storage and data is %ept for a longer time there. &n modern computers" "ard dis# dri$es are usually used as secondary storage. Some other e#amples of secondary storage technologies are' % as" !e!ory (e.g. US& % as" dri$es or %eys)" % o''y dis#s (or dis%ettes) ( co!'act disc( !agnetic ta'e( 'a'er ta'e( 'unc"ed cards" standalone RA) dis#s" and Io!ega *i' dri$es+ The secondary storage is often formatted according to a file system format" which provides the abstraction necessary to organi(e data into files and directories" providing also additional information (called metadata) describing the owner of a certain file" the access time" the access permissions" and other information. The amount of data that can be stored on a storage device is measured in %ilobytes ()/)*) and megabytes (+*). The more information a device can hold" the more convenient it is to use.

, flash drive may refer to' • US* flash drive • Solid!state drive -othing moves mechanically in a flash drive. the term drive persists because computers read and write flash!drive data using the same system commands as for a mechanical dis% drive" with the storage appearing to the computer operating system and user interface as /ust another drive. 0lash drives are very robust mechanically" and can withstand anything that does not actually brea% the circuit board or connector. US& % as" dri$e , US& % as" dri$e consists of flash memory data storage device integrated with a US* (Universal Serial *us) 1.1 or 2.3 interface. US* flash drives are typically removable and rewritable" much smaller than a floppy dis%" and most weigh less than 43 g (1 o(). Storage capacities in 2335 can be as large as 267 8* with steady improvements in si(e and price per capacity. Some allow 1 million write or erase cycles and have a 13!year data retention cycle. 0lash drives use the US* mass storage standard" supported natively by modern operating systems such as 9indows" +ac :S ;" <inu#" and other Uni#!li%e systems. , flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a US* connector" insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic" metal" or rubberi(ed case which can be carried in a poc%et or on a %ey chain" for e#ample. The US* connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive" although it is not

US* flash drives also are called t"u!.udio players +usic storage and mar%eting &n arcades *rand and product promotion *ac%up ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Ad$antages0 • • • =ata stored on flash drives are impervious to scratches and dust" and flash drives are mechanically very robust ma%ing them suitable for transporting data from place to place and %eeping it readily at hand. 0lash drives also store data densely compared to many removable media. USES • • • • • • • • • • • • Personal data transport Secure storage of data" application and software files System administration . US* connection allowing plugging into a port on a personal computer" but drives for other interfaces also e#ist. dri$es( /u!' dri$es( 'en dri$es( #ey dri$es( to#ens( or simply US& dri$es.pplication carriers Computer forensics and law enforcement *ooting operating systems 9indows >ista and 9indows ? @eady *oost . Compared to hard drives" flash drives use little power" have no fragile moving parts" and for low capacities are small and light. . +ost flash drives use a standard type!. The inventor of the US* 0lash drive is disputed by several companies" but most recogni(e =ov +oran of +!Systems (now owned by San=is%) as the inventor. +ost US* flash drives derive their power from the US* connection" and do not re$uire a to be damaged if unprotected. Some devices which combine the functionality of a digital audio player with flash! drive!type storage re$uire a battery for the player function.

The flash drives present a simple bloc%!structured logical unit to the host operating system" hiding the individual comple# implementation details of the various underlying flash memory devices. The operating system can use any file system or bloc% addressing scheme. 9rite!protection ma%es a device suitable for repairing virus!contaminated host computers without ris% of infecting the US* flash drive itself. • +ost US* flash drives do not include a write!protect mechanism" although some have a switch on the housing of the drive itself to %eep the host computer from writing or modifying data on the drive. <eaving the flash drive out to dry completely before allowing current to run through it has been %nown to result in a wor%ing drive with no future problems. drawbac% to the small si(e is that they are easily misplaced" left behind" or otherwise lost. Some computers can boot up from flash drives. • . • • • . Some flash drives retain their memory even after being submerged in water" even through a machine wash" although this is not a design feature and not to be relied upon. but hard drives have a higher minimum price" so in the smaller capacities (17 8* and less)" US* flash drives are much less e#pensive than the smallest available hard drives. Disad$antages0 <i%e all flash memory devices" flash drives can sustain only a limited number of write and erase cycles before failure. Compared to other portable storage devices" for e#ample e#ternal hard drives" US* flash drives have a high price per unit of storage and are only available in comparatively small capacities.• 0lash drives implement the US* mass storage device class so that most modern operating systems can read and write to them without installing device drivers.

. so id1state dri$e (SSD) is a data storage device that uses solid!state memory to store persistent data. .+ or =@.+ Chips and a custom controller card that emulated a hard dis%. as there are no mechanical delays" they usually en/oy low access time and latency. The Sharp PC!6333" introduced in 15B4" used 12B %ilobyte (12B )*) solid!state storage cartridges" containing bubble memory.n SS= emulates a hard dis% drive interface" thus easily replacing it in most applications. The pac%age included a rechargeable battery to preserve the memory chip contents when the array was not powered. &n 15?B StorageTe% developed the first modern type of solid!state drive. Inter!ediate .mdahl and Cray.n SS= using S@.Interna s o% a ty'ica US& % as" dri$e 3 US* connector 4 US* mass storage controller device 5 Test points 6 0lash memory chip 7 Crystal oscillator 8 <C= 9 9rite!protect switch (:ptional) : Space for second flash memory chip So id1state Dri$e . 9ith no moving parts" solid!state drives are less fragile than hard dis%s and are also silent (unless a cooling fan is used).+ dis%. &n the mid!15B3s Santa Clara Systems introduced *at@am" an array of 1 megabit =&P @. DEVELO2)ENT The first ferrite memory SS= devices" or au#iliary memory units as they were called at the time" emerged during the era of vacuum tube computers. *ut with the introduction of cheaper drum storage units" their use was discontinued.+ (instead of flash memory) is often called a RA)1 dri$e" not to be confused with a @. however" the prohibitively high price of the built!to!order SS=s made them $uite seldom used. <ater" in the 15?3s and 15B3s" SS=s were implemented in semiconductor memory for early supercomputers of &*+" . The original usage of the term Asolid!stateA (from solid!state physics) refers to the use of semiconductor devices rather than electron tubes but" in the present conte#t" has been adopted to distinguish solid!state electronics from electromechanical devices.

flash!based SS= uses a small amount of =@.+ as a cache" similar to the cache in Dard dis% drives. &n addition" non!volatility allows flash SS=s to retain memory even during sudden power outages" ensuring data persistence. . hard) platters with magnetic surfaces. They are often pac%aged in standard dis% drive form factors (1. the -o%ia -51)" digital audio players" digital video players" digital video recorders" personal digital assistants and video game consoles. as" dri$es +ost SS= manufacturers use non!volatile flash memory to create more rugged and compact devices for the consumer mar%et.  -ARD DIS. .B!" 2. &n 233B low end netboo%s appeared with SS=s. =uring the 1553s" the need for large! scale" reliable storage" independent of a particular device" led to the introduction of embedded systems such as @.+ SS=s and some designs are slower than even traditional D==s on large files" but flash SS=s have no moving parts and thus see% times and other delays inherent in conventional electro!mechanical dis%s are negligible. &n the 21st century" D== usage e#panded into consumer applications such as camcorders" cellphones (e. Components' Cache' .6!" and 4. directory of bloc% placement and wear leveling data is also %ept in the cache while the drive is operating. These are necessary to maintain data integrity such that the data in the cache can be flushed to the drive when power is dropped. These flash memory!based SS=s" also %nown as flash drives" do not re$uire batteries. -istory D==s (introduced in 1567 as data storage for an &*+ accounting computer) were originally developed for use with general purpose computers. &n 2335 SS=s began to appear in laptops. some may even hold power long enough to maintain data in the cache until power is resumed.&=s" networ% attached storage (-.e. DESIGN AND .UNCTION . "ard dis# dri$e (often shortened as hard dis%" hard drive" or D==) is a non!volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid (i. Since then" SS=s have been used successfully as hard dis% drive replacements by the military and aerospace industries" as well as other mission!critical applications. DRIVE .&n 1556 )1Syste!s introduced flash!based solid!state drives.6!inch). 0lash memory SS=s are slower than =@. These applications re$uire the e#ceptional mean time between failures (+T*0) rates that solid!state drives achieve" by virtue of their ability to withstand e#treme shoc%" vibration and temperature ranges.-) systems that provide efficient and reliable access to large volumes of data.n SS= is commonly composed of DRA) $o ati e !e!ory or primarily NAND % as" non1 $o ati e !e!ory+ .nother component in higher performing SS=s is a capacitor or some form of batteries. Cnergy storage' .S) systems" and storage area networ% (S.g.

.1B millimetres (1B3"333 nm) thic%. :lder dis%s used iron(&&&) o#ide as the magnetic material" but current dis%s use a cobalt!based alloy.3? millimetres (?3"333 nm) and 3. They read the data bac% by detecting the magneti(ation of the material.FBG with an outer layer of carbon for protection. typical D== design consists of a spindle that holds one or more flat circular dis%s called ' atters" onto which the data are recorded. =iagram of a computer hard dis% drive .Tec"no ogy D==s record data by magneti(ing ferromagnetic material directionally" to represent either a 3 or a 1 binary digit. The platters are made from a non! magnetic material" usually aluminum alloy or glass" and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material" typically 13E23 nm in thic%ness for reference" standard copy paper may be between 3.

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