You are on page 1of 152

EAR

TRAINING
FOR

TEACHER

AND

PUPIL

A.

ALCHIN

BOSTON

OLIVER
NEW

DITSON
YORK

COMPANY
CHICAGO

Chas.

H.

Ditson

"

Co.
by Oliver

Lyon
DifsoN

"

Healy

Copyright,

MCMIV,

Company

INTRODUCTION.

The

aim
so

of

this the

work
ear

is to the and

teach

the that

pupil
even

to

think

in

tones

and learn

to to

train

and

feeling

the

tone-deaf
;
to to

may

sing,
at

name,

write

play

what

they

hear and of

harmonize

melodies and

sight, to
not

improvise

accompaniments,
melodic The
effects voice of in the the

recognize
but what the is

appreciate
and
an

only
as

the

music,
express that

harmonic
not

rhythmic
idiot in the

well. best

cannot

felt, and
not

is the hand

proof

fact

skill of hand

Soes

reside

alone, but
is

mind.
to
a

Discriminative
and shall muscle
must

hearing
or

indispensable
all lines of

musical that
"

education,
the lessons

precede
be like

accompany of
a

study,

not

those

shop

or

manufactory,

training of

only.
tone

Every

in

key

has

its

special
the

character

or

color,
is the

guishing distin-

melodic

effect, aside
and when the

from

pitch,

which these

result

of
he

key relationship,
has the basis of the of

pupil perceives
is the

distinctions
of

harmony,

which

natural

outgrowth

this

system
For

ear-training. advantage
of teachers and numbers refer be
to

students
are

who used

have in the of of

ence, prefer-

both The numbers If the

syllablesand
i,

interval

exercises.
the

3,

5, etc.,

always
must

the old

degrees
system
of but

scale.

syllables are
this is
a

used, it
not

the

"Movable
ship relationtones

Do,"

for
; the

system

of

absolute
not

pitch, but
sounds,

key
the

syllables representing
names

fixed the
uses

of

the

scale, the
Different

identical have

with

numbers. for If the the

teachers

different

syllables,and already
the

ours

is the

to

express

key
Do"

relationship only.
habit,
it would be

student
to
use

has

"Fixed

better

numbers

IV

INTRODUCTION.

for only,

this work.
each
"

Isolated

tones
a

mean

but musically, nothing,

related
we

to

other
one

accordingto
of the

fixed of in

law, they establish what


music. Both

call

key,

essentials

syllables
the the

and

numbers

should which and

be

discontinued

when sight-ieading

for relationships is able


"

to

think
"

they stand have been learned sing the music regardless of

and
names.

pupil
.The

Fixed

Do
to

is sufficient for
student

merely mechanical
music. the

work, but wholly


fit the bene-

useless
the well
"

the

of instrumental

Excepting

vocalist the Do."

derives from

vowel

sounds, he
the
same

might just as
sounds
as

use

since letters,

they represent
to

the

Fixed

Applying the Tonic or ke;ynote


and
not

numbers "I

the

scale

or

", the other intervals


middle
a

key, we always being reckoned


same

call the

from

it,
the

from necessarily names syllable represent We have


a

C.

In

the

way

should the

certain Tonic

in placeand relationship in

key

Why } Because Harmony. it is wholly a matter of relative, not absolute pitch. Each chord bears a certain relationship to the Tonic, the name for that relationship in all keys. If C should remaining the same always be Do, regardlessof key, then the C chord should always
group. be the Tonic
as

movable

chord

for

the

same

reason.

The effect.

of pitchis identity 1-2-3-2-1 in the in the

nothing

compared
the
same

with

the melodic
on

key
B.

of C

has

effect

the

ear

as

it would

key

of

the same in as Why should the tune which is remembered both keys be called by different names .' To think an interval, is vastly distance only, different considering from thinking that interval in a definite relationship. For instance,

3-S the

of
same

key, a
tones

minor
are
a

different when third,feels entirely


sung

exactly
G
to

and

thought as

6-8.

Think

above,

as

character distances Some

key and then as 1-5, and note the difference of from the change of relationship. To see these resulting is not enough, their place in key must h"felt.
5-2
teachers that the
are means

of

making

carryingthe color scheme of recognition. Both

much sound

and farther,

and

color

INTRODUCTION.

being

the result of

it naturally follows vibrations,


them
a

that

there is
to

correspondence between
from the
too

; but

whether

it

can

be used
a

any

great advantage, or not, is


snare

question.
; for
to

I would
to

suggest

possible

over-use,

as

many

things tend

distract the

tho,ughts

from other

real and

vital in music that


"

instance,blocks, sticks and

unrelated
word
"

devices

seem

be the fad

justat present.
"

A doctrine as or theory is defined by Webster of thingswhich scheme terminates in speculations without a view is certainly to practice." That a good definition of the theory of the taught. With two or three exceptions, generally it a purely mechanical current operation, hindering, systems make the one's musical rather than faculties, developing or cultivating work being done without reference the two to melody or rhythm, factors that determine the harmony. all-important music
as

The

it is

"

Think from An

you

the great composers


out

wrote

an

unmelodious

bass, and

that worked

the

melody
of

and

accompanying .voices 1
is neither

exhaustive
a

discussion of this

Harmony
a

possiblenor

desirable in
matter

work

kind, but

conscientious
to

included
to

will enable

the student

harmonize

study of the anything he


do not listeners need and

wishes, and
composers, teachers.
'

but

analyze anythinghe may study. We do need students, we intelligent


an

This

is not
a

"acquired
art.

while

you

sleep" method, making mentallylazy,but


the teacher all pupils, for To I would of the

mere

play of

great

It is not and

for the

the

earnest, serious
"

student

teacher.
to

suggest
work
to

give some
sdme

of the work

all of the

pupils. To accordingto
Most hour fervor than that

but not all of the work to pupils, accordingto his needs, and from every one his ability.
of the lack of continued and

all of the

every

one

failures result from


tests
an

perseverance. in which the


no

The
first

both

teacher

pupilis
and
of mark
a

that

of
when

undertakinghas they began. he begins.


A

waned
a

the

goal seems
able really says,
"

nearer

It is

student

to

finish what

prominentwriter

As

thingsrise

VI

INTRODUCTION.

in
must

the

scale

of

value,

the

interval of
value

between

seedtime
increase

and

harvest time for

lengthen.

Increase

means

of

growth."
The of
and idea work of the
use

of

the

Principle
the
"

of

Progression
a

as

basis

this

was

suggested
work

by by
is Mr.

Septonate,"
Klauser,
all of

most

excellent

comprehensive
Some
is of the

Julius by

Milwaukee.

matter

taught
of The of made

theorists,

but
and is

the

cation appliical analyt-

my
of

own,

the

result

extensive order in

teaching
which it

an

study
suggested

the the

classics.

given

has

been

by

development
has of each

my
to

pupils.
condense
as

Every
and

effort

been

briefly

as

possible,

the
of the

success

step

depends
The

upon

thorough
few,
but

ing understandthe

preceding
many.

one.

principles

are

tions applica-

are

C.

A.

ALCHIN.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Sbotion
I.

I.
Pacb
i

Rhythm Sol Key Introduced

14.

5 16.
20.

6 Mi Bird Dictation Introduced 7 30. Songs 9 Exercises


11

37.

CHAPTER

II.

38.
41. 42. 44.

Tonal Cadence

Magnetism
12

13 Re Sight By-Tones Melody Dictation Writing 17 Exercises 18 Introduced 13 Singing Exercises 14 16

45.

48.
52.

CHAPTER Ti Sight Intervals Key Drill Introduced

III.

53. 54.

19
Singing
from

Exercises 19 Ti
20

55.
62,

22

64,

Exercises

to

be

Completed

25

CHAPTER

IV.

65.
67. 69.
70. 71.

Fa

Introduced
from and to be

26
Fa Ey-Tones 27 Completed 26

Intervals Key DEELl

Exercises Piano Dictation

34 35

Studies Exercises vii

76.

36

vui

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Section

V.
Pags

77. 81.

La

Introduced
Singing

4" 40 42

Sight By-Tones Intervals Key

81. 82.

from

La

42 43

83. 84.

Drill Exercises
,

Dictation

50

CHAPTER

VI. S3
54
yj

86. Passing
8q.
,

Tones Tones

Auxiliary Embellishments Appoggiatura Anticipation Suspension Melody Examples Melodies

95.

96.
97.

57
Tones
and

57 ,57
59

98.
102.

Syncopation

Writing
and to be

108.
120.

Corrections Completed

of

Faulty

Work

6i

65
VIL
70 71 71 72

CHAPTER

123.
124. 127. 129.

Hearing

Three
and

Tones

Simultaneously

Major

Minor Chords Chords

Diminished Augmented Three

138.
140.

Positions

of

the

Chords

74

Harmonizing Employing Inversions Exercises Harmonizing Dictation


to

Melodies Four Voices

76
77

146.
147.

78
be

156.
157. 160.

Completed

82

Songs Exercises

83

85
CHAPTER

VIII.
88

163.
164.

Supertonic Melodies Dictation Submediant Exercises Melodies Dictation Mediant


and

Chord Songs
to be

Harmonized

88 92 94

165.
166.

Exercises Chord
for to be

167.
'

Playing Harmonized

95
95 9^

168.

i6g.
170.

Exercises Chord

98

CONTENTS.

IX

Sbctioh

Page

171. 172.

Exercises Songs Dictation SuBTONic Songs


to to

for

Playing
Harmonized
1
" "

98
99
100

be

173.
174.

Exercises Chord
be

102

175.

Harmonized

103

CHAPTER

IX.

,176. 178.

Chromatics Altered Dictation Melodies Exercises Fourth Songs Augmented Fi


IN the to of to

104

Chords Exercises
be

104 108 Harmonized Completed Scale Harmonized Raised


in the

185.
186.

Minor

Mode

109
no

187. 189.
190.

to

be

the

112

be

113 Chord Seventh Chord

191.
192. 193. 194.

Sixth Diminished
of the

115
116 116 117

Seventh Te Employed

Scale

Lowered

CHAPTER

X.

196.
197.
199. 203. 206.

First Harmonizing Second Fifth Sixth Second Fifth Summary General Reduction

of

the

Scale
Melodies

Raised

119 119

of

the

Scale Scale Scale

Raised Raised Raised Lowered Lowered


in

120

of

the

123 124 125

of

the

208.
209.
210.

of

the

Scale Scale Chromatics


for

of

the

125
Chords Dictation 126 126

of

211.

Exercises

Harmonic

312.

132

EAR
FOR TEACHER

TRAINING
AND PUPIL.

CHAPTER Rhythm Sol


Bird Introduced Songs
"

I,
Key Mi Introduced

"

"

"

Dictation

Exercises.

1
.

Begin
one,

with for
to

any

tone

the
one

pupil
can

can

sing
both

the

first space and the


on

is If
see

good
you

nearly every
use can

sing

higher
sound

lower.
F

want

the

piano, let
the

the
tone

teacher and

and

if the
If

pupil
he

remember
two
or

find

it

the he

board. keywill

tries

three
F

times

without
and

success,

have
to

forgotten just
it

how he

the
can

sounded,
find it.
to

it will

be

necessary

hear

again

before

2.
the

It is sometimes
between
a or a

necessary

call the
a

pupil'sattention
tone.

to

difference

singing
it is
a

and

speaking
to

3.

For
F

young
Do
"

pupil
bell.

interesting
lesson in

call

it the let
us

tone

of

bell, the

For

rhythm,

ring

this

bell several

times

$
ringing
the
time. first with the

"jL_"L

left hand

and
a

then

the
tone

right, alternatingto
than

end, the
Next,

left hand

making
sing
two

stronger
weak
tones

the

right,each
strong one,
with the

play

or

after

each ended

excepting
strong

the
or

last, which

is

more

if satisfactory called.
of

beat,
of

pulse,

as

it is sometimes

The
an

essential

principle
time

thythm.
off for
or

is the the
can

regular
ear

recurrence

interval
accent

of

marked

by
be

the

accent.

Whether the

generates

rhythm

only

felt after

rhythm

is estab-

EAR

TRAINING.

lished,is

tant question.In either case, the accent is a very imporfeature of rhythm, and rhythm is the most important element off of music. This grouping of strong and weak pulsts is marli^gd for the eye by puttinga bar before the accented note
a
"

4.
use

Since with

all

English words
cannot

are

it rhythmical,

is advisable to

them

pupilswho
could

otherwise

feel the
the

rhythm.

For

instance,no

one

fail to

recognize it in

little sentence,

of rhythm through "Merrily,merrily sing." Develop a sense with the touch also, by making the tones on your instrument of strength; that is,emphasizing the same the same proportion and in speaking. Doing this without words as a syllables of directing his change of pitchgives the pupilthe opportunity the rhythm. attention to the one thingonly
"

5.

Write

little strokes like this

"

^i
as

you

say the words.


will

Should

we

hold

two one,

strokes,we
like

place a
when

second
we we

mark
the
a

long enough for the first over directly


tone

this, O
a

; and

add

which sterais, half note


and
a

are

also

made

with

stroke

downward,

have

tion concep-

of duration

that is not the

6.

Begin with

acquiredby seeing, merely. first space F again, and rest one


:
"

beat after

like this each stroke of the bell,

i W7.
the How

i
does the bell insist upon

many

times

ringingafter

tones following

Tj"i-

EAR

TRAINING.

8.
measure

How ?

will you

group

these, into

two

or

three

pulse

9.

We

can

establish
and
more

rhythm
to

and
a

not

disturb it in the least


if the accent do
not
occurs

by adding more
at the
same

notes

measure,
measures

regular intervals.
same

The

necessarily
the
same

contain
number

the

number
To

of notes, but

they must

have

of beats.

illustrate:

EHTTOia
beginnerthat the notes joinedtogetherare sung beat or pulse,the first bearinga stronger accent in one than the the syllables of the the proportions as being about the same last, word and "lightly."Say the word "light" and then "lightly," about the same interval of time as requires you will notice that one
Explain to
the the other.

10.

Teachers

will find the

use

pulsea great help in counting,and time and which requirestoo much and etc., instead of "one two-ly," rhythmic feeling. Say "one-ly, for triplets as two and," etc., adding two syllables "one-er-y,twohabit of speaking the unaccented lables syler-y,"etc. The life-long it natural makes and them to in quite play quickly, lightly
"

syllable "ly" fot a halffar preferable to the old "and is altogether too strong for the

of the

the

same

manner.

11.
in it.

Do

not

dictate

an

exercise with

less than

two

accented

tones

quently Anything less contains nothing positivein melody,conseis meaningless. Train the pupil to think in groups and he also to feel the will read much more readily; dynamics, which the should be taught from beginning. Develop the feeling of

progress
to

from

accent

to

accent, and

measure

to measure,

explaining
the

the

pupilthat

this

of feeling

progress

is

rhythm

not

accent,

EAR

TRAINING.

but

the

grouping together
two two
or or more more

of

strong

and

weak,
in
one

"

pulse rhythm
pulse ;
section
measure

arisingfrom rhythm
from from

tones

grouped
in
on a

pulses
so

measure;
to
"

rhythm
as

compounding sections, and


are

the

largergroups,
same

the of

lines of poetry

grouped
in the

into stanzas,

the
as

alternation

strong
groups.

and

weak

large

as

well

the

smaller

rhythmic

1 2.

Add

another

section

to

complete these.

.17

18

EAR

TRAINING.

20

d=4

:i

1E3 g)"

3^
(gi 4

24

Fa=g"

-"

"

"

"

""

-"

"

"-"-"

13.
with the will and

Sound

again and
"

then

give the
the

tone

of another A

bell

"

voice if

possible

if not, with

piano.
or

musical fourth

son per-

always give the third or fifth above, after a few experiments the unmusical one Having
from

the

below,
the

decides

they are

best. 14. selected


the

the
and

below

for in

our

second

note bell,

the distance

F,

the

difference

quality.

F,

the

Do

is strong and bell, has the

stable ;

C, the Sol bell,is strong and


than the

but bright,

and repose stability call it a children The sometimes of the Do tone. going tone, "where is it Back and that gives rise to the question, to going .? Red is the color for Do, and lightblue for Sol. Do, of course. the fist for Do, we use Expressing the quaUty with hand signs, for Sol. and the open hand, palms facing, Although it is play for the young pupil,this unity of action and feeling is not a small of value feature. Suit the action to the word," is an old principle
" " " "

of progressionrather quality

too

well known 15.


Few

discussion. require for teachers have the opportunity


to

ear

trainingonly^
lessons, -vyhich
think of the

but is

are

obligedto

do it in connection

with

the other inclined


to

advantage if the pupil seems an really ear trainingas something unrelated to

his other

work.

EAR

TRAINING.

always a convenience and saving of he the teacher's voice,and a saving of time for the pupil because can to all of his technical exercises. applythe ear-training Do, also called the 16. A key is a family of tones in which stable than any of the others, and the key note," is much more
The

piano and

violin

are

"

onlytone which expresses absolute repose. Any tone may little family, each key note. Do, and will possess its own
the
same

be the
member

distance Do.
to

from

"the

father,"
have be the

as

the A
as

children for the

sometimes

call the

For

instance, if we
not

Mr.

longing Do, the Sol beSol that

that
or

familywill
be ; E

same

to

Mr. F.

Mr.

C, but will be the fourth degree below


the

belongs ever Do, wher-

the latter may


etc.

Sol for A, D

the

Sol for G, B for E,

17.

Find

the and

Sol

belonging to
each
one

B.
; the

To Do

BI?. Ab. Db, Eb.


three times
"

Fj}, Write

sing

twice

using this
18. and

character and

for the

sharps,a
as

and

this for Do

the

flats v.

Think

sing
times

E for

Sol, and

then

above, singing
"

playing three

the

rhythmical effect :

i w
Do you
the
same

^m
each

followingletters, writing as Ab. E, C, Db, sing. F, Bb, A, Fjf, Writing what and, hearing,
the and eye without
one

with

of the

19.
that of

hears
one ear

trains

the

sense

of
sees.

sight with
neously simulta-

vice versa, and

hears what

he

When

sees

the

hears, the hand

should

has its own /i?^/. As each sense difficulty, the development of these three solves the seat of memory, tion, quesof memorizing, and gives the student that much desired when how a thing sounds he sees to know it and studies ability

silently.

EAR

TRAINING.

24,

Sol

naturally

progresses

to

the

Do

above, consequently
our

When we belongsto that particularDo. by figures instead of the staff notation, we dash
over

represent
write
no

melody
a

5 with

little
the

it to represent the

Sol

above

Do, but

sign when

voice progresses

naturally. For instance.

I
would be
I, 5, 3, 5,
i.

25.
ii

Beginning
S.

with

each

letter,find
:
"

the

three

tones

"

3"

For successively.

example

I^S^^^^l i fe^=g='--^i^gg-'^ft--^^
26.
Where shall
we

etc.

place Sing

the

accent

on

the
i

ing: followand

51315131?
S
3 1-5 3
I-

them. first and in four

Omit
then

the

sing

Place

the accent Write these

sing S35153SI,
teacher
should
name

also 353x351.

keys.
the

Begiiming on major and alternately


intervals.
It
seems

27.

various minor

tones,
see

play
the when up.

thirds to difficult to

if the

pupil can

more

recognizethe

intervals

the voices progress

downward, than it does from


as i

the lower tones

28.

Think

and

sing 3 above.

(Do-Mi-Do.)

Think

as

29. your

Some

peopleaim
one

at

everything and
a

hit nothing.
leave the

Direct
some

energiesto
of
success

thing at
been

time

and

do not

it until weak

degree

has

acquired,returning to

points

again and

again,until the mastery is

thorough and

complete.

EAR

TRAINING.

30.
can

The

cuckoo

sings two
:

of these

tones.

See

if the

pupil

tell what

they are

Cuck

-oo,Cuck-oo.
"

31

The
.

quailsings,
"

Bob-White

name

the

tones.

^^^^B
32. and
There is
a

little bird

in

Michigan

that appears

at

sunset

sings,

i
"

^5
morning
the

^
littleTufted little song,

Whip-poor-will, Whip-poor-will." Titmouse

33.

Early

in the

notifies

you of his

locality by his emphatic

i
"

^i
Here,
says.

here,

here."

While

another

warbler

\*-

lYz
"

Twohee-e

"

"

Twohee-e

e."

34.

Who

has not

heard

the

Carolina Wren

call,

w
At
ever

m
"

m
Sweet-heart,Sweet-heart."
Meadow

the

same

time and

of the year the

Lark

announces

the

welcome

cheeringnews,

W"

fe3=g^^a =^
Spring is

here,Springis here."

10 Another

EAR

TRAINING.

littlefellow says,

iE
"

m
What cheer ? What

X
? What
or

i
? What
?

35.
are

Write

these

bird

songs

in three

four

keys.
be

As

they
if the
tain cer-

pitched so high, the


lines and letters for the spaces

staff
are

will representation used.


"

better

added

In

the

keys," means
on.

Do,

not

to begin necessarily

For A Do. song

instance, Do,
the

if ,we and

want

the The

song

key of A will begin


name

for
on

the

cuckoo third

song,

is to be

C|,the
the
notes

above

pupil should

of each

bird

as

teacher

playsit.
If the another

36.
I, while I, and

teacher

is

sings3, and
i

in classes, have one training another 5. Beginning with


"

pupil sing
3 add

5 and

with

5 add

and

3,

as:

tg,^,^-

harmony aids in the development of key feeling which is such an important factor in ear-training. If the pupil is justlearningto read music, have him play and write like this : these in four different places on the staff,
"

The

children love this,and

the

R.H.

^
L.H. R.H.

I
etc.

i WL.H.

that should Playingthem will help much in acquiringa free arm precede fingertechnique. When 5, be sure 3 or you begin with to think the tones as Mi,) 5 i 3, (Sol Do 3 s i (Mi Sol Do,) or and not simply the letters It is a great mistake to E G C, etc. begin every thing with Do ; one should be able to hear, think, and
"

know

how

to

proceed from

any

tone.

EAR

TRAINING.

11

37.
write them

Tell

what the

bird teacher

songs

you
them
"

hear

in

the

following,

and

as

plays

5?=f=5)
iE

gJiLr

Lj

Lrll^^^i^a
"m *=n

i i

^^^^^"

?E=:=5i

it=":

=8=307
-I
"

S-

Elt^Si^^

-9"-

CHAPTER Tonal
Magnetism Singing All Cadence
"

II.
Re
"

"

"

Introduced Melody

"

Sight

Exercises

By-Tones

Writing.

38.
what-

tones

have termed
tones

the

quality

either

of repose because certain


we

or

progression,
of the

"

might

be

tonal have

magnetism,
to
move

strong
to

tendency
nearest

certain
tone

in

directions should because

the the

of but in

repose.
we use

Strictly speaking,
the
term
"

say
it

voice
more

moves,

going tones."

seems

definite

quality to
tones,
and the
2

the
i

young
and 3,

pupil.
are

39.

The

repose

the

magnets,
the latter

the

former
2

attracting 5, 6, 7
and
4

of

the

scale, while
below you the

attracts

only.

In

example
tone

will F

notice
in the

that

C, the

key-note,
which

attracts

every
to

excepting
third
of the

last

"example,

progressed

E, the

key.

i
Following
into Do and

EE

i
resistance, all
tones

the

line
i

of least

of

key

resolve

Mi,

"

and has
:

3.
a

40.
which 3 in

The

fifth

synthetic quality,partaking
of of repose when

of

that with
i

with and 3 in

it is combined the tonic

that and

combined
when the

chord,

progression
It also has

combined

with

and
a

5 of the
lesser

domihant when

chord. it
occurs

quality
with

of repose
a

degree
For

simultaneously

rhythmic

point.

instance,
Chopin.

^M

35
X
12

^m

"

EAR

TRAINING.

13

41.

When
a

repose

tone

and
or

the accent

occur

simultaneously,
a

the effect is
a

completed

group

idea,and

such

close is called

cadence.

(a)

(6)

{c)

i IE
In

a.

=F=^

(d) the

first

example above, C,
measure,

the the the

repose result

tone, falls
is
a

on

the In the

accented

part of the
repose and
as

and
on

cadence.

{b) the
measure,

tone,
the

E, falls
unaccented

unaccented

part of

feelingof of E, the Mi, consequently there is the repose quality small boy understands or feeling of completion. The perfectly by comparing the rhythmic flow or motion to
accented, the
of the river which.cis
so

pulses always progress to the rhythmic progression is stronger than


no

cadence the
case

the current with has


on more

strong it carries
The

large

bodies

it,

seemingly without
influence than
next

resistance. of quality The

rhythmic
so

current

the

the tone,
same

we

are

carried

to the next

accented

point.

applies to principle
i

the

example, (c).
42. Let the teacher resolution it ?

sing Do, Re,


of Re
; to

and

of the scale,and does


i 2

the .'

pupil find
Does Which of Mi

the

what

magnet
ways
"

it

move

also attract
most

is the

Sing it both cadence satisfactory


bright,or
sad and red

i, and

123.

.? What

is the

character

Re, hopeful and

color is orange,

easily changed to
write each Re

1 Hopeful, and the gentle or yellow. The hand-sign,

palm slantingupward.
43.

Sing
Re
I 2

and

in connection

with

all of the

old tones,

approaching it from
Do
two
:
"

successively.
Do Re

Do,
3
2

121.
I.

Mi, 123,

then

combining the
Re

Now

begin with Mi, singing Mi


i.

Mi, 323, Sol, and leap

and
see

Mi which

Re you
a

Do,

32

Next

approach
Mi,
or

Re

from Do.

like better, Sol Re

Sol Re
the

After

larger than

third,the voice should proceed in

oppositedirection,

14

EAR

TRAINING.

hence
and Do. which From and

the

first

example, S
same

3, is the
reason

better.

If will

we

sing Sol
to ,:

Re. above, for the

the

voice

progress

Sing
Re

1251.

is the better? down


to Sol tones

accentingthe Re in both cases How degrees is it from Re up to Sol many .-' What kind of a fifth .? Sing 1213251,
1251,
should be accented.

tell which 2321.

3251. 35251.

3251.

35

Singing from the figurescompels one think the tones to independent of their a positionon the staff, quite necessary and very helpful process whose to of hearing is much one less keen than that of sense Seeing. 44. As the pupilsings the following exercises, the teacher
251. 2521. 2551.
should

play the

Tonic
chord of the

chord

with the and

repose

or

"

magnet

"

tones, and

the Dominant the


sense

with
tones

progression tones. helps


to

It accentuates the harmonic The

character which

establish

should be
chords if

cultivated from

the

beginning.
to

pupil

can

play the

advanced sufficiently
3

do

so.

1= i w
Do

-si-

* ^^i^ss"^sa
Do

Ir

ii=
9

Re

^^^^^^^^^^m^^
15 16

jgp

^jjgp
-#-'

"^

16

EAR

TRAINING.

47

48

49

i W45.
When
"

3
a

g5^S T*^=F#==^
"

it;

mony, harwith the repose is sung tone progression will call with the progressionharmony, we tone or a repose such tones by-tones." Any tone foreign to the harmony then presiding,may be called a by-tone. For example,
"

ih
Re is
a

"Gh-r

I
presiding quality a by-tone in the in a progression

by-tonein
measure measure

the

first

measure

because Mi

the is

of the

is the because

repose it is

harmony.
a

second
measure.

repose

tone

46.

Name

the

by-tonesin

the following :

?=H^

i St

^a

^
^

!"!=:*:

|J|j r|j ntju^a

-1"

^JfTjgTJj

;s^

EAR

TRAINING.

47.

Sing these, beginning on


:

the

various

tones

as

the

lables syl-

indicate

^
^

t
Sol, Do.
Re, Sol.

"m

V^

i \-^E^
Re,
Mi.

^tt=t^

"Sh^

m
Mi. 6

i
Re. Do.

*"

fe

-=*-i

^
Sol. 8
#

^m^^
Sol.

IJ

\o

i
Sol.

10

1
Re.

11

12

"=3=3E

m
Re.

fei^fea

^Sol.
48.
vacant
we

of tonal magnetism, supply the Following the principle places in these little melodies, using only the four tones

have

had,

"

123

and

5.

i
3

4.

'

4^

m i^et

fffi

18

EAR

TRAINING.

49.

Let

the

pupil
great

write

melodies
See

to

short
pussy

sentences
cat.

for my

instance, See
pretty
bells An
rose.

my

big dog.
the

my rain.

See

Patter, patter, falls the

sleighJingle, jingle,
come

ring. Gently, so
can

gently

snowflakes
of do.
or a

down,

etc.

adult pupil
that

select sentences

different

sentimen,t ; any

quotation
words and

is

rhythmical
is

will
accent

Feel

the

rhythm
of
to

of

the

first,exaggerating the
after the
can

emphasis

the
see

words,
if the

melody
be better

made, try it in different


in any

keys

thought
50.

expressed
is used for with

particular key.
fur, delicate
ear

If the

piano

these, develop in the fingersthe


roses,

feeling for quality ;


lightness of
to

instance, smooth
etc.
a

the
sitive sen-

the

snowflakes,
to

The
fact
to

should
lost

be

just as

qualityas
to

pitch

"

sometimes learn.

sight of

in the

of things the pupil has multiplicity Train the A


one

simple,
of
a

natural

expression, for
with

that

is true

art

and

best child
can

method retain

cultivatinga melody
his
is not

beautiful, sympathetic touch.


words is not upon Music
to

much

more

readilythan
directed
as

without

them, but
he

thought
called

wholly
is

to

the

and melody itself,


or

discriminate

closely
scends tran-

to

exercise

his and

imagination. beyond
the the

something
the

that

speech,
the effort
to

first

simple stages,

is belittled

by
not

ex^jress it in words.
and

Cultivate

imagination,the
words

element, spiritual
be needed
to

feelingfor beauty, that


be
too
or

may

give it meaning.
exercise should in
never

51.
in its

An

longfor
at

pupil

to

think To and

entirety,either
a

dictation

the

instrument.

develop
not
as

feeling

or

appreciation of
cultivate the

the

larger rhythms
of

general effect, one pupils do,


For
a

must

habit

thinking in

groups,

in unrelated, isolated tones.


some

is

Playing or reallypitiful.
in

singing note

by

note

52. of

lesson
the

dictation, the
or

teacher

can

play the

cises exer-

"

44

and

pupil name

write.

CHAPTER
Ti

III.

Introduced
FROM

"

Sight
"

Singing
to

Exercises
be

"

Intervals

Ti

Exercises

Completed.

53.
the

Now

let

us

sing

the

first

tone

below the

Do,

the

seventh index the

of

scale, called

Ti. because

Color, violet
that

hand-sign,
in

finger
tone

pointing upward, naturally progresses.


54. 3 7
I 2

is the

direction

which

Sing
I.

Do

Ti

Do,
571.

171.
I

Do

Ti
I. I

Do

Re
2

Do,

i.

571.

I2

I7

I I.
7321.

I2

5 7 3721. 7253,

I I.

i|72|S7|i.
37521. 5721.
I

i|27|s7|i.
712
I.

i|72|s7|i.
752
I.

72

1 5 7~I I-

1=

*=

1=

1=
"*zji.

SB

i w

^
8

g^
,9

^mE^^s^^^m^^^^
10

Ftsfe

tf

11

i*
*-'
"

m^i^m
"

At

1 r"

14

-n-rM

"

^^^

19

20

EAJi

TRAININU.

15

16

i
17

^
?3=

1
18

.aJiiII
\m

a
3^

teTF

^^
-."*a-ra'

19

1=^
ai
20

PJE?
^,
ifznt
I

"l-"'"i ;icgj

i
21

gF^^^
s
*""!-*

r^_+-^5;.

^m^

iE
56.
What How far

t
Sol ? sung ?
"

is Ti

above

What

kind

of

third ?

other Think G

major
"

third have
as

you

Sol

"

Ti, and

sing

^
5

T=^
"X

sfffe
I

^2-

As

Do

Mi,
F^l
I

i
56. Think

III
sing
"

I
fe

Cjf
"

as

Mi

"

Do, and

*
3
I

^gjg
5
as same

The

Ti

"

Sol,
tF^

*^

I*

*=

EAR

TRAINING.

21

57.
we

How
a
"

far is Ti
minor

Re belp.w

What Think

kind A
"

of

third ?
Re
"

Have

found

third

before?

FjJas

Ti"

and

sing

i iE
2

--"^
7
same

"=3t

?^
Sol
"

-^

I I

The

letters again as

"Mi.

i W
68.
Think G
"

'

"\i"Ti
"

P
Re, and sing

Bt^. as

721

The

same

again as
--U- tM=

Mi

"

Sol,

i w
3

^5

i
is Ti below Mi? ?

n
What Think

gjj-J-bJ-J^ 9"si-r
kind B
"

59. Have
we

How had
"

far
a

of E
as

fourth? Ti
"

perfectfourth before

Mi,

and

sing

i
7321

"i"-

1
371
"

i
Do,

The

same

letters

as

Sol

* i i \\j_m gj-f
fi-i^
7

m
is it from

k=^
Ti to Do ?

60.

What Do
"

kind

of

degree
"

Think

"

Ajlas

Ti, and

sing

^^171
Think

Fjf

"

as

Ti

"

Do,

I
,

7
.

22

EAR

TRAINING.

61
sixth ?

What

is the distance from

Re

up to Ti ?

What
2

kind of

Sing, 72SI351
the tone

|3"

2|i.

\2

\. ", T^\

long dash after it two pulses.) 62. Sing the following exercisesi thinking the interval : key indicated by the syllables (Hold

with the

and

i w
Do
Re

3^=*
Do

^r-^^
6

Mi

^^"^

"^

Re

Do

'^

Sol

Mi

10

11

Lu^^
SolTi 12

^
13

SS3

IN

tat

Co 14

Mi

IT

:S-

15
"^2-

i 11^*
"^ Sol
Ti

i
Sol Ti

16

"J^

t; Ti

Cni Sol

^*'

Mi Mi

r"n Do

24

EAR

TRAINING'.

37

38

i
Mi

=w

?5' Jtiz

i
Mi 40

39

m
Sol

11
Re 43 ^

42

m
Sol 44

I *?"

eg
Re

E^
45

^
b,
Pcife

3 W
Ti

^L_H
46

i^
Mi

Ip I

47

"^

'

Ti 48

Mi

i
Ti

ip
a
=s
Select from
the

tej

I
tation, dicuse

preceding
of which until he is

exercises

for the

lessons in

marking
them

those

the

pupil seems
sure.

uncertain, and
Test

again and again


Point
out

quite

for his feeling

*the rhythm very


the

often.
in by-tones the exercises following
:

d:
%j

i^i

i^
6

^^

%-k ^^1^^^

EAR

TRAINING.

25

In

the

last because
should

two

exercises the

the

in

the

second

measure

is

by-tone,
of The

progression
on

quality
hence exercise.

prevails.
A,

The is
a

change

quality
same

occur

the
the

accent,
next

(Do),

by-tone.

thing

occurs

in

t-U"[iA^lM
^"

J"

64.

Complete

these,

employing

Ti

in

each

^
3

tSi

i *5=^"F
-"-aH
6

^^

fe^

CHAPTER
Fa

IV. Completed
Exercises. the other Piano

Introduced

"

Exercises
"

to

be

"

Studies 65.
We will

Dictation

now

sing

tone
a

that

progresses from

to

'"magnet,"
but
a

Mi.

Like
a

Ti, it is

minor
that

degree is,it
name

its

"magnet,"
down
new

unlike

Ti, it is
instead color

down-leader;
up,
as

progresses of this

to tone

cadence,
Fa
;

of is Mi

Ti

does.

The

is

the

green Fa

; the

hand-sign,
then Mi

index Fa

finger pomting
Do, and
you
will

downward.

Sing
to

Mi, and
"

readily see
66.
the
to

which

"magnet
the scheme the

Fa of

belongs.
the
to

Following
tones
"

preceding lessons, progression


"

ing combin-

first

repose
to

and
us

progression

repose, 143. Mi Fa

then Do Mi.

progression
Fa

progression,

let

sing. Do

Fa

Mi,

Do,
Fa

141. Mi. Do Re Mi Fa Mi. Do Mi

Sol

Sol

Fa

Mi.

1543421.

1543243.

1543.

15543.

5243.
Now 123

placing
I.

the 13243.

accent

on

the

progression

tones

"

1353243-

1543251. 15423.
I.

35443.
43221.

35471. 3435251.

1524321.

1535421.

343|257|

343|2S2|i.
471232
I.

353|252|342|i. 353|234l3-2|i. 5|42|3i|25|i.


far above
Do is Fa .'

351I747I1. 3|4S2|i.
What you
same

52

4|342|i.
67.
What
as I

How
other

kind sung

of
}

fourth G

? and C

perfect
143.

fourth Think

have
the

Think
as 2

4, and

sing

letters

5, and

sing

2543.
Think C
same
as

Do

and
as

below
Re

as

Sol, and

sing
Re

Do
Fa

Sol Mi.

Re

Do.

The

letters

Sol

and
26

sing Sol

EAR

TKAINING.

27
3 and
2

Think
G
as

G
I

as

and and

sing 121.
sing
Fa 131.

as

sing 343.
i

353.

again
3421. far
mmor

as

3 and

sing
third?

3454 68.
What

3How

is

above
have you

Re?
sung

What ?

kind A

of C
as

other

third

Think

5 and

sing 3

S 4 4 3the
same

Think

letters

as

4 and

sing 24321.

lends variety and syllables to the work as Singing both figures of tones, and the well as to fix the distances and individuality change of keys compels one to think the .characterand exact in key. of the tones relationship 69. Sing a few of these with the chord accompaniment as calls for a new tone The new chord, the Subdominant, indicated. and if both

progression chords

are

employed,

the

Subdominant

should

precede the Dominant.


3

:^t^^-i-j^:^
I IV
I I

-g^

sy

jEg^^^
I IV I

I
V
I

IV

g =^ ^"1
I

1=
"g" -zp-

f=:*
I IV I

^
V
I

"=jt
IV

I
n

IV

7
.

ij^

^^m
IV

5=
IV

4=1=
:^

=1
-JS^-

10

i"

1==?* i
12

!i

11

ii^

i^

IH

28
13

EAR

TRAINING,

14

15

4"""'"'^
Do Sol

1
Re

^^fl
^y

16

17

?TP=F^rTyT77^^^:;^ il
Ti 18 Sol 19

i W^^^
Do

^iJ-j^^lf
Re

J^il

20

Ti 21

i ^^:
Sol

*-"-^

E^

^^^g^
f-pf
^

i P^
22
"^

"F^^^

t^

j"-i-"-

i
E^

Do

^*^

i^^^^^
^

-z:!

^ i=d=f=

?c=-"^=

"

ft

23

"Ei SeS
" "

I
25

Re

24

^^
Ti

=5^

:t?2i

"
D^

EAk

TRAINING,

29
27

'26

hff
Sol

JU

.r:^ij:a^^^rf"Ff^^^^ B
Mi

28

29

^-^

Fa

"

Do

'

30

31

i
32

?c=3=^
Sol

r*-=Si
Do

33

^i=^ i WFa

i^e
Do

T^-W-

^-T^rr^^F^^rT-^^^aE^P^^B
34
35

i
36

^
Fa

^^E^ ^^ifi
Do

fTi^f'~7=^

5^

i
Re

^=::S=p?fE

^E=1?J^*^^5. Ij ^EES'"
" "

37

^
Fa 38

iE
39

^=g^^f^t=f^"=g
Do

^1
40

a
Re

!5i:

:p=":
Fa

ao

EAR

TRAINING.

^^ g-^^i-ffpif^a^Tb^i^"gaii
Ti 43
Mi

42

44

f^f rirJ ju^f^f^^ ri^^^^^M li


Ti Mi

45
L. ?cfe=5c?"zfi

46

bffl

I t'pg

5g=H-|^-^=W

9=^r-^^
^--p"g-

Mi

5=f^

i t^^^
^ j^i-L
49

11

47

?'=5i
Sol

J in

48

f^Y^ fltJt7^^^^n^^^lf^ Q^
Mi
Re

50

51

i
'-'Re Re
52 Sol

12^
Re
*^

^
54

iF
I

"

S 1" bsl
"

53

-"

"

(="

eI
I

Re

Ti

55

i ^^?^
Re

^:
itr?:

"

S^
57

g)-r

56

l!p= i i^^ "^^=f4Fflf-^i?,.^y-u+H ^ ffi=f=^=ftn


Ti
Re

32 74

EAR

TRAINING.

i
Do

^3^^
-"

^^^

d^

75

76

i WSol

^=p=

fp
Mi

g^^s^^^fa
78

*^'=g=

77

Fa

Do

79

80

f^^]"^TtgH3^^^ggg^aa f?
Sol
Re

81

82

*^

Ti

"

Sol

83

i
Re

:p=:"

""

i=t:

fc=^^kU^iJ=j
85

84

i
Ti

Ml'

1 wKJ-

J I ! Hd=l^"
*\ei
.

"-U-f

H-" Sol

^^i

86

87

Fa

88

iEEE^

-""

P-

EAU

TRAINING.

33

89

90

;gs=
"^

Fa 91

^rT

'"*"

"*-hb

92

i 5^E
Sol 93
Mi

2F==^

?^

U=^
94

1
Re

:12P=

"

I'rTf^

i^^"^^
95 96

"

z^

i ist
Re

i2ti?^

"J-^bsi-

^^^mm
Fa

97

98

i
Do

Re

Point out the by-tones ;

i
3

-Ti

iS
^
iEaEf!

W=f=f=i

-i^"

""

I^

^m
4

t^^=t^=t^

"s^-

i=?^^=5^

^gj^a

i
5

^^m
-et-T-

1^
W-p p-4 4
"

v"

"

34
6

EAR

TRAINING.

Armand

^. i F4=3==^
"=?= i is

"1/
"

"

-"

?==*

-i^" *

-sH-jS-

"=bi!:

Nageli.

;64 i f^^

-"

"

*-

^^^S
*-

t Bte
8

-d

i
Gluck.

^^
70.

f=

"

^-^^?"

ss $

#-| r?

"-|-H-p-"t=F=ftrp=^a_,-etc,

t4:

iW

Keeping

in mind

the principle of

let the pupil progression,

cises, supply the notes that are needed to complete the followingexerThink and feel from, in each. the fourth employing Fa accent to accent, using the tones having the least resistance to the from one rhythmic point to another. progress
" "

i i^Et
"^

N^
"3*-

1 1 i

fl^g^ i
w
4=t

i-r-p-

te^

l=#F zsm

-"

"

"-

EAR

7RAINING.

35

71.
hears

If the pupil is
exercise

beginner
he

with
not

the

piano, ask

what

he

in every

that

plays ;

every tone, but

always
places

something.
for

For

instance,in
whether
a

Gurlitt,Op.
cadence
on

187, first find the


small

punctuation;
former

comma,

or interrogation point, period,

usingthe
for
a

for the weak


"

of

group,

the latter
"

perfect cadence
If at the much

Do the
one

the cadence
can

accented ends the

places,
with several
a

and

an

interrogation point
tone.
same

when time

progression
tones

hear

of the

melody, so
the
I

the better ; if not, In this

play it again and perhaps hear


Gurlitt.

3 and

only.

Op. 187

i m
IE
note
same

=t

=(=

i
first four
measures,

the in
so

first tone the


answer

in each
"

of the four

then

the

the
can

measures

following. Knowing
occurred between them.

those

well, perhaps you


In the next
one,

tell what

72.

^-

IY-.

It

ES
^

i W
we comma

:t

*
hear the familiar

135,

and
measure

follow
; the

the Mi

key-track to
to

the

point in
group.

the second

seems

prevailin

the next

73,

In the next

exercise.
"

i i

=p=?c

-"

I F

"-

It

_(Si;_

-n I

"

1*-

36

BAR

TRAINING.

the

first group

contains
on

the

simple tones,
Mi

12321,
next

Do

on

the

first accent, Re
voice the
next
use

the

second, and
Do

the

strong accent, the

returning immediatelyto

for the

next, which
than

completes begin
the

phrase. Leaping
phrase with
the term Fa

one

degree higher
end it with

Mi,

we

and

Sol, a rising cadence.

We

74.

because Sol,the final cadence tone, is a pro"rising," gression the effect of an point. interrogation tone, giving In this next hear i 2 3 2 i again,but differently one we It is
to
a

arranged.
so as

three-pulse measure, proceeds in


the

and

the first tone


on

is

ened lengthplace..

bring the highest

tone, 3,
same

the

accented

The back

second

group

way

up three

degrees and

again,but beginningon Re, and the third,is the same with Mi. We might designate these as the Do, Re,

ning beginand Mi

phrases.

i W75.
first a Mi This
next
one can
a

^
be group, then Fa

I
analyzed in the same with a Sol, finishing
way, the two

hearing'
tones

and

that progress

downward.

^
76.
These

3E

give to
Besides

have been given, not for the teacher to suggestions but what the teacher should expect from the pupil. the pupil, him to listen, it is invaluable in developing centration concompelling and

retentiveness.
upon

Instead

of

asking
to

what

he

hears,,
the

insist frequently

his

telling you just how


dictation
same,

remember

study.
The and the

teacher

should

play the
as

exercises

in various

pupil write
note

them

in the he hears

sometimes

keys followingthe
after the

teacher entire

by

note

them, and

sometimes

exercise has

been played.

EAR

TRAINING.

37

In

addition

to

the

selections should following,


as

be

made

from

the

precedingexercises

before.

^^^r^-aV^^r^s^^^
iTa J
J If J

ia5fe^=F-^f.^-^^=B=
Schumann.

ft^^^^^EJgEgir r

r r

ir-rrr

^^^^rtr-^^l^^=f=Nf^^
Mozart.

i|"H

gjl^-Tfr rir?rf
^^SE^^

"

feES ^

I
Haydn.

s i P

"

iig
.^

L^
6

r Ir

"ir

* 9v4r

rii f iEiSE

^^^e^

38

EAR

TRAINING.

i w
8

4-^

*\

a
.

L jL

"ei

"

M~-"

i teE^
9

*-s
^"* ^

^^^1
Beethoven.

g^
-^

^^

im
^

^^

-!*-

j=j^'

'^

^*"=-

10

Brahms.

^^ fc^ ^
Bach.

#.^^^^

-^

12

Mozart.

^4
g

4"

[g=^
^

-^

CHAPTER La
Introduced Intervals sixth of the La

V. D-ictation Exercises.
that does The
not

"

from

"

77. progress
of least

La,

the

scale, is the

only
Do

tone
or

directly to
resistance
and

either is to

of the repose tones,


and then
to

Mi.

line
more

Sol than

Do. the

The

quality is
blue

serious

reverential

other

tones,

color, dark

; the

hand-sign, palm drooping


78.

downward. exercises and

Sing

the

following

you

will

readilysee
it to
make

the
a

necessity of combining
cadence. satisfactory

another

progression

tone

with

better

not

good.

better.

Iq^
79.
the down
to

r-ii
La
can

i=3C

Rj^jjiiJjjn
same we

be

sung

with with

the

harmony
have
a

as

Fa, and
that

ing combin-

two

(Fa and
Do
or

La),

Do,

chord

progresses

the Has

repose chord.

80.
to

the

pupil

noticed and

that make
a

the chord

three that
to

tones

progressing
up
to

Do Do

could chord

be
.'

combined
Heretofore for the

progresses chords
was a

the has from

the

reference
case

the

by

name

been this the

intended time
names

teacher, in
should know

the

pupil

beginner

the
"

pupil
Do,

and
or

play them,

callingthem
Tonic, Sub-

by

root

Fa, and

Sol,

by

the

names

dominant,
81.

and

Dominant. these with

Sing

the

chord

accompaniment

i
I IV

i#
IV
V 40

1
IV

f=-#-

EAR

TRAINING.

41
6

^^AMM'i
I

gz^^s^t^i^
gi
Ig

fFr^^Ei
10

IV

IV

^
11
12

m
13

^fe^brrTW^SaVf^yrfl
14 15 16

i ^E
17

^^^^^^^^
18

f
^ #

"

Jr

rUff^sj^MfftJajitt^fi
20

19

lt-|-|-|L-,.

ezTttb
22

?^i

21

24 23

ItfW irl^
25

^^^^H
""s"-^

f^

26

i?^ i^

3=3=

i^

42

EAR

TRAINING.

Point out
27

the

in by-tones

these

Armand.

at*

t^

"s ^=^=i

^
a

28

Armand.

-ei"\~"si

,/"

"

IJ

S
^

-z^-

:"zit

2^"

29

Armand.

^ i i"

""^. I

j==^y

'-=f=^

i
30

tz*i

1"^^ ^t=iL

t=j=te==.

=i=pE:

Rheinberger.

s^^^^ i ^^^E^i|^Ei^^EE^E^"EE3

T~r"^

SE

^^=^ i^"

ff^^S^^
82. of La

-f

i"

^
the distance interval

Sing
the

these

without

the of the

accompaniment key,
What
-

; note

from

other tones exercise. above D


-

and

sing the
of
a

before Sing

beginningthe
How

far is La sixth. Think

Do
B
as

1 Do

kind

sixth .?

major

La, and

sing :

*"-*

:}N

-"

"

ai-

=#i

"""

^3E

EAR
as

TRAINING.

43

Sol

-Mi,

^iSlS^B^^
as

=*K

=#t

Re-Ti,

i
as

^E^
Fa

"'

"

^is

?s

-Re,

^^i^gE^a:fJ#M^:t^^^
421

83.
third.

What Think A

kind
-

of

third Do

is Do

to

La

below

Sing a

minor

Fjf as

-La, and

sing :

i^^^^^^^^E^i^
as

Sol

Mi,

i p^^
5
as

i=33

-^

^
^d^EJ =IK:

"^^ti:

Re-Ti,

:#t
as

Fa -Re,

^^j^^u^ppB^jjie^^^^
Follow could
1
~P' ^^
M

this

scheme

through

all of the

intervals

in which

La

occur.

I jg"

^
Sol

44

EAR

TRAINING.

EAR

TRAINING.

45

15

Folksong.

^
^

mk

It

Mi

i
16
*^

f^

"^
F==F===W

I
gg^^

Mi

'

17

i F
18

F-

l^g^
Ti

S^

=gi^^=g
19
Schubert.

^
Fa

EE

P=Q

i
20

-""

F-W-"

=^
Folksong.

I
-^w

i^
Mi

ip=

^"

"

F=f=

=^r=p

^e

21

La

22

Re

46
23

EAJi

TRAINING.

Ti

24

^
Do

ig

-LM^j Cj-.il_Ll^
29
""

i"tt|t

I a

26

m
Sol 27

*:::''-^
-fi^-

1??:i=z*=t:
Meyerbeer.
3
,

1
Mi

28

"i5:=t
La

29

'-^Ti 30

:t

^
ScpUBERT.

^^
Mi

3ES
La

^3t?Bt

^^^
=1
^"4-i^
"

f^iEE^::^
Schumann.

I^

31

lE
Sol Do

=p=?=
=^=t

#-

=p=t

fc^^eE^?=g

i::5=^=i=t^
ti:

48

EAR

TRAimNG.

43

J lttJ=d=:J^^ J. ^
Re

:t::t

="*
44

^^^i^i^^^
^^i^i^^i^i^^i
45

i
Fa

=*K=s=fft

\'fz

p^^^=3f^^pyi^:

;b

46

Mi

47

P^
^
Sol 48

:^
49

=^==

^-^

Re

Fa

""

t ji^^EE^
50

Dtti

"W^
^
^i
S^

La

51

bV

Do

EAR

TRAINING.

49
52

"

Fa

53

f^^^^^^jgg^g^^
-m

i !l"
54

-^ it^'

*S
T^:
"-

Se^

Re

55

i p
56

*
Ti

i"==s

-Ti-

SgJ
p-

i
15^
57

=P=^lv-

^=s=
Mi

^f^
H-^

"

""

"

;bEE

^^

-^^-

^^-^F

"

""

^"

i
"

T~-l*-^"

11

i^i^
Do

i*"T^-

t^

:#-^
59

"*^t-* ^f*--

3Ej^

siP
ithal:

58

'^

Fa

La

60

61

Ep
Re

Sol

60
62

EAR

TRAINING.

IE
Ti

84.
and

In

the

dictation scheme.

exercises
Note

that

follow,hear
section
name

the

rhythmic
to

harmonic
to

first whether
; then

responds
the

section,line
felt in each repose.
1

line, or
or

two

lines to two
that

harmony

section

measure,

is, whether

progression or

Schumann.

i B3

T-^"

Pe
-F
"

i=?=?c:

^
"-

"

^
i

*
-

uu\

i^^^^
i
iE
e

E^ :i; 5i=F=
P=?c:

f-F!^

Schumann.

*:

^"
"

p-

t=x

?^
F
"

f i=

"

^"=F!"-

F=f"

""

^-ff-"

"

F=rTr

=e

^^

EAR

TRAINING.

51
Schumann.

m i ^^^="

%i

IS
^^^S

g^^

l=r^?=^
t=^

Mozart.

Si

^^^^^

isz-

f-F-^

^^

i
i ^e: k^
6

^=j" #-f#-^-^^-^
-""-=" -4
"

?=^^=^

I
Reinecke.

-""-i

"

"-

-n

B5

^
Schumann.

fe^--^-l4-iV:^H^-'-fd-1^^:^i^^ ^^^^p^
=^ ^*=ti
I

1^

^
-"=3i

B"S

-A

"

1-!

^Tf?r^^

52

"AIl

TRAINIl^ii.

^S^

-f^

f
Gluck.

i^^^^^P
"""

s
p-

p^^^^
d-

m^

4-U^^

i
From Chopin.

*^^^

*":?^E

?^M3

9=fTf^i^

E^

i"S^^^^S:^^^
10

^^=r=r
^
'

I
Mendelssohn.

-""

^-

*5S

a m^
w

rii^

-""d"*-!
"

^ H-*-

at="

;^

J^7lJ

J.J'N-Jj

CHAPTER Passing
and

VI. The
"

Auxiliary
"

Tones

"

Appoggiatura Writing.

"

pensions Sus-

Syncopations
be in well this

Melody if the A

85.
some

It would
tasks

at

point

pupil would
little

undertake
invention

larger
the

original writing.
faculties with the

melody
other
a

develops

creative of trains

receptive, and
that
no

gives

an

understanding
affords. It
a

melodic one's

construction
ear

experience important good


or

to

hear that

not

only
to

few

points, but
music. For of

myriad

of little

things

help

make

bad

convenience

of

expression,

we

will

specializein
one

the for

matter

by-tones, having
tones.

used, here-to-fore, the

term

all

non-

chordal 86.

Simple
as

passing
A and C

by-tones
in the

are

those

occurring
and B

between

two

harmonics,

first measure,

and

of

the

second, in the

example

below.

^^
I V

4^

P=^

I
first,as
in

87.
should
return

When

second
same

passing

note

follows
to

the

(3),it
not

proceed
to

in the

direction

another

harmonic,

and

the

first,as

in

(c).
(^)

(6)

88. note,
and

passing

tone

may
of
a

be

taken
to

by step
another

from

one

harmony
note.

proceed by leap

third

harmony

^^
53

54

EAR

TRAINING.

89.

When

the voice

moves

one an

harmonic, the by-toneis

called

degree and returns auxiliarytone.

to the same

* "E^^^.
I
*

I
V I
*

IV

instead If,
third and
tones

of

returningto

to another returns

then
are

then

it leaps a immediately, side of the harmonic, auxiliarynote on the opposite harmonic between the two, the auxiliary to the called,"changing tones." They change from an the
to
one

harmonic

tone auxiliary

above,

below,

or

vice

versa.

iiss^HiEE
tone, and instead of returnr auxiliary aboVe, and ing immediatelyto C, the voice leaps to D, the auxiliary then returns D and B are to C, so they are changing tones." In this

example, B

is the

"

the

same

in the next Point


'

group,

with

the order

reversed. in the following

90.
:
"

out

the

passing and

tones auxiliary

^^^^^^^1 ps
3 Bach.

"^2-

Bach,

E^5BE
SE

izat

'^m

-IS

"

etc.

56

EAK

TSAI.VING.

93.
to

Restatingthe
accented If the voice

matter

the

note, the

direction.
should

one if the voice moves briefly, degree be will in the note same first cha^nging leaps to a third, the first changing note

be in the If
we

direction. opposite
wish of
a a

94.
harmonic
at
a

the

fourth

note

of the

group may
note

to

be

another

instead of

of repetition

the

one first,

be

employed
to
a

distance

third,the

second

changing

leaping
will enable

degree beyond
95. A

the desired

harmonic, then

returningto it.
the
dents, mor-

of thorough understanding

this work in

pupil to

solve

many

that he meets difificulties be


a

trills, turns,
some

etc., and

it would

good plan to embellish

simple

figuresas suggested below.

i i w
m

ISFfH^^^S
m

i i

"j^-*

g^sEEj

i^

^
I
r

p^^^^^^^^^
jgz^Mj-J-^ff^^g^g
IE
"

etc.

^^

g^

EAR

TRAINING.

57

96.

is by-tone by leap, approached


' "

called

an

Appoggiatura.
Nocturne.

"_

Chopin.

^ m: i ^^
97. accented The
tone

=P=i;

^
the by-toneanticipating is called
an

tt^

m
following
Bach.

harmonic

of the

anticipation tone.

EE

:U;^

3:

ife x^^3es
98.
the accent When It is the

^^^
binding
the is of
two

^
similar notes
upon
a
so

I
that first. the

Syncopation is the
note

belonging to naturally
carried
over

second, falls

it by-tone, of
one

is called

suspension

delayed resolution,the Suspensions


tone
as can

reverse

anticipation.
voice
;

99.

be

felt in

by thinkingthe

cented ac-

by-tone.

For

example

gIE
one

i
feels
a

i
harmony
that and
tone
on

change

of

the into
a

first beat

of the the

second
same

measure,

which

converts

by-tone,and

thing occurs

in the fourth

sixth

measures.

In this case.

i
the
same

i
continues quality and
we

i
measure

i
in which
meter
a

through the
a

the note
or

is carried over,

have it is
a

disturbance

of the
not

balance
F excepting

only, so

and syncopation,

rhythmic suspension,

in the sixth

measure.

58

EAR

TRAINING.

100.
at
a

To

the teachers who


seem

are

accustomed
of

to treat

this

subject
more we are

later stage, it may wise

out

place here,
it before

but

in the author's grows

opinion,it seems
and complicated,

to

introduce

the work

experience has

proven need

that, prepared as
three
or

by

the

preceding lessons,we
it.
Point
out

do not

four voices to

demonstrate 101.

the

and syncopations

suspensions

in

the

: following

Beethoven.

^M ^
-Bt
"

m
a*

tr

eEt

^^
^

.L=i:
it?
! H

^^.

^^-r"r"r^r-^

"!^"

P=t=:a:

fe^4=r.
^J^l
J^

'i"-fJ--"-t,"-:

^
etc.

i"

j^^n^3=^

8^

=gi^

EAR

TRAINING.

69

] WiDOR.
"

^^^^fT^^^^^^
etc.

"*C-J!:i-_"

"^ly# PE
3

JH: =F=i=

Lar

f
Beethoven.

i^

^E^

^4

?^rc^
J^ i
=ft3 u_^

^?^ ^^
are
"

^pa
"-J-

i^^^

il

I
few

1 02.

It is often

said that melodies


us

but God-given," hear.

will help suggestions The melodic

both

to

write

and

to

all-important thing is the


and

principle of progression, both

rhythmic,and
the
to

the relation of the two. of


a

103.
it is better

Excepting
make

tone first

melody
tone

when

it is unaccented,

Xhs

followingaccented
one.

in quality different first exercise

from

the

preceding weak

For

instance, the

might

be written.

g
but the

"
better, because
there

following is
each

much

is

change of

on quality

accented

beat.

I
Tones consecutive of
a

similar character
when
a

measures

in two occur frequently or more rapidtempo is desired; for example

60

EAR

TRAINING.

Invitation

to tlie Dance

Weber,

r4"fr~i~i^
-*-

.fJ-^t-^-^(L-ff^^
H?-

g^^

Ii
?

i
^
*
"J N*

It

^^^
i^

^^
f=

Ctrt

s^

t^^
fdegrees
are

Consecutive
and Note
it is not

always good, but for commanding, vigorous more powerful effects, leaps are employed. this in particular. After two or more consecutive degrees,
good
For
to

leap in the
an

same
or

direction in the

to

an

accented

tone. to
an

Make

the

leap to

unaccented,
:

direction opposite

accented.
bad.

example

good.

bad.

i ^
tone

good*

3E

i^gamtmn
This

f-f .\T f

"-

etc.

104.
as

leap may

occur

when

the voice progresses

to

by-

in this from

: Tchaikovsky

^^g^^^^
105.
tone

If

voice leaps
not

more

than

third,it should
For

proceed to
instance
:

within,

and

beyond

the interval taken.

i w-

J r r IH=f=^ II

EAR

TRAINING.

61

This
the

to suggestion applies

tones

within find

to phrase,not necessarily

largerrhythms.
do not
so

One

may

many

instances the

where follows the

the the

voices chord

progress,

when especially

melody

but the intervals,

exceptions are

few, compared
be

to

ber num-

of times

the rule is observed.

106.
in
a

leap largerthan
contrary
to the

sixth should

approached and example


:

left

direction

leap itself.

For

i
107.
the Classify

i
tones

"^-^

of
; the
own

key

into two

planes ;
Ti
a

the Do.

upper A
one

including Fa, Mi, Re,


voice resolves naturally the

Do

lower, Sol, La,

and

in its

plane,and

after
return

leap from
or move

plane to
direction

other, the tendency is always to

in the

of the It may

planejust quitted.
be
an

108.
of

assistance

to

see

some

of the

work faulty

and pupils,

the

corrections.

{a)

i W
The and

a^^iHFQt^
Bl? in the second
measure

of

{a)is

the fourth

of the scale.Fa,

to A, the third of the key. progressed to F, at the close is not In (b)the progression good after of closingwith If desirous leap of a fifth from D to G.

should have

the that

in (c) would as tone, to have moved particular 109. Paragraph 105 explains the error

have

been this

better.
one.

in
on

The of

example

at

suggests (t:)
in
a

the

entire

phrase
Which

the is

line

least

resistance, and
(a)

different

rhythm.
better.

? preferable

"b)

62 110.
from (and E
to

EAR

TRAINING.

In the F
on

example below,
measure

the voice
; Ti

should

have

progressed
to

in the first the

naturally progresses
to

Do,

it is

line of

least resistance

the

next

accented

tone, G.
better.

"

V-

^
If
we

"

^
a

at {a) with begin the one cadence is very unsatisfactory. To begin on bring the seventh into prominence by two points; if we think it in a two pulsemeasure,

111.

strong beat, the


weak
we pulse,

the

successive the lowest for such

accented

point is
a

also

Ti, and
We

the

tone

has

too

much

prominence
a

short

melody.
and

corrected second

it by

omitting the

E,

as

changing it to at (b).

three

pulsemeasure,

W112. because
three This the
one

F^fe^H^-^feM^
is not
the
one as

bad

as

it

might be, but


at

(b)is better
{a)the
last

of quality
are

measures

while alternate, Tonic.

measures

of

the quality,

(a)

(")

IS
113.
are pulses

^
This is not

IS
in this

good
that

all of the repose


the bar
as so

rhythm because the strong and the weak pulses progresquality, sion.
one

Place

of the

accented
a

notes

will be

tone, progression little melody.


{a)

at

and (U),

you

have

smooth, satisfactory

m
"

-*"

#-

^i

64

EAR

TJiAIN/NG.

118.
this and

Before

it is time may

to

see

and he

the results appreciate is

of all

work, the student


not

think

getting too

much have
to
a

theory
proven certain

enough ear-training. Many and varied tests that this is the,best kind of ear-training, because, extent, it is self-training.
As
once

before stated,the average


; and

teacher

has very
correct

little time sions progresis


an

for this work from


to

by writing and
stated
tones

for listening

certain music

and

the student intervals, the

obliged

think for

with The

discrimination, and
teacher
at

writing is
at

lent equivafor
are

naming.
four
more

should

test

him
sure

each

lesson

three
not

or

minutes,
than has

least, justto make


ears.

that the eyes

doing
The there
a

the

author

included
be
a

many

ways number

of

doing
of need

the

same

thing
drill,
others

that

might
to

sufficient Some

exercises

and

without

loss of interest. be decided

pupilsmay

and all,

not,

matter
a

by

the teacher.

without variation is fact,that repetition psychological and the teacher of children knows to the memory, wealcening only is proportionate Attention too well that it is fatal to interest. to to attention. and retention is proportionate interest, 119. For further in singing the large intervals and practice both the feeling for correct and melodic progression, cultivating rhythmic,begin with each tone of the scale and leap to a third, and octave, both above and below, adding three fourth, fifth, sixth, For example : tones to complete the group. or more

It is

then

third

below

;
s

gy

tf m
ff

t t*=^=i.
-^2

M 'm-

md

-0-1-4"

e^^
"ji
zzt

EAR

TRAINING.

65

adding enough
you below

to

make

the

cadence,
the

or

several
1-4

measures,

just as
above and

prefer.
:

Next

begin

phrase with

both

rffef^=#^aai^5^isa
othen the
an

interval which Now

of five

degrees,and

so

on

to

the

octave,

omitting
Mi, the

seventh 120.

is seldom the

desirable.
same :

follow For

scheme

beginning with

third of the scale.

example

^2
3

1=
5

i
3
I

"^jt

ife
365
and then exercises

^t
Sol, Re, Fa, La, and
indicate.

^^^^=MdJ
the following Ti, successively, as

tf m
I

^
3

M^
I

"
6

HEfE
I

I i

i r.^^
%
I

.5

m
s

fet
I

tf
s
s 9
I

fet H
I

ftl
S

*
I

M S
I

I
8

,11

12

^
3

-|t|J" ^
5
3
I

tf g^sg
3 6

66

EAJi

TRAINING.

M"
3 7

14

15

|S

tf
3 7

^
17

U
3 6
etc.

!i
.18

"S
5
7

J J p-ti
S
3

lA ii'ti
5

19

20

21

"
S
2

ffp f;
5 23
2

" ^
5 24
I

i
etc.

22

^
2

^
4
2

25

26

27

a ^E
2

^m
6
2

i
s
etc.

rhythmicalquotationthat interests character of the melody that the key and best you, selecting the sentiment. Plan the lengthand think the rhythmic expresses end abruptly, otherwise the melody may and if we first, groups without words, it might flow on in an aimless way, without are writing proportion. In this little rhyme
to

121.

Set

music

any

"

"Cuckoo, cuckoo, in the tree; Cuckoo, cuckoo, sing to me."


the two three

pulse measure
Under
Out

is

unmistakable, while

the

following is

pulse.
a

toad-stool
to

crept
shelter

wee

elf.
,

of the rain

himself.

Placing the

bar

to

locate

the accented

and giving the syllables


;
"

corresponding time values,it would

be like this

EAR

TRAINING.

67

Un-der Out

I toad

I crept stool,
to

wee

I elf, I self.

of the

I rain

I shel

ter

him-

"Politeness The
"

is to do

and
in

say.

kindest

thing

the kindest under


a

way."

fair little girlsat


as

tree.
could see.''

Sewing
"

long

as

her

eyes

soft and Fall, fall, Little

light. snow-flakes, dainty white."

122.
necessary
1-

To
to

those

here the

given, supply the corresponding groups


sentence.

complete

i^^
P

fe^EJ^^Uk^

^ l"^^
a

W
=P=F* =F^

-s)-

Er"^=m^

P3S

^^^^^^m
M
6

p=t

g^^^
i^^

ii

'

^-

68

EAS

TRAINING.

H""

"-!*-

^itz--^t=tF=?=bt="rj

F=P=P= i=t

i
8

^^^^BgiSfep
9

tt
10

ffl^iE
^=^=FF

^=Fl=

^^

i""

"-

:p=F"=l=P=F"'=t=t:

i
11

i^
12

r=a
fc:i=

:;"=5=":

^"

jt-

^=

-^"=i:

SeS

I*
13

%-^~

gEEgEJ^ijg^gEg^^^
T^
O^

EAR

TRAINING.

69

14

i
ps

#=
M=:
"

i^MC
r

si^^^^^

tSt:

i!

15

i
P

lib

?^^^^^

-^
"

"-

:*=3t

=t=F

fe^= 13

16

i i^^

^^^^^Ifc

1^

CHAPTER Hearing
AND

VII. Various
Melodies

Three Their

Tones
Inversions

Simultaneously
"

"

Triads
"

Harmonizing Exercises. hear three


tones to
name

Dictation

123. learn
know
to

We
use

will them

now

try
we

to
are

simultaneously,
them,
for words
not

and
to

while
and how

learning
them

the

chords
to
can

to

use

is like

knowing

out with-

being able
1 24.
to
we

form

sentences.

One

always
For
;

make

chord

by adding
G
we

the

third B
we

or

fifth

any have

given
a

tone.

instance, if with
D
we we

combine

and
a

D,
D

chord
tone

if with

combine calculate chord

Fjfand
or

A,

have
we

chord

; the

from

which
from

upon its

which
name.

build the

is called three

the

root, and

it the

takes

Write

positions
125.

of every

chord.

Pupils frequently make


lowest
occur

the
not

mistake

of

naming

chord
the

from latter

the

voice in any

which voice.

is

necessarily the
instance
:

root, since

may

For

i"
u

Being
C
and under

composed
but

of

C
root

and
occurs

G,

all in We

three the

of

these voice

chords of
one as

must

be

chords,
in the and

the

upper

of the

them,
over,

middle central In
our

of the

other.

will
to

speak
the

of them

positions,according
first

location sound

of the of

root.

126.
minor

lessons

we

learned In the the

the staff

major

and the

thirds
is the

and
same

perfect
to

fifths.

representation,
it is the

major
number
to

the The

eye

as

minor,
may be

because very
as

same

of young

degrees.

difference the

aptly

illustrated
sized the

the

pupil by representing
one

thirds of

two

different
mode of

blocks

(the smaller

for

the

minor,
7o

course),

the

72

EAR

TRAINING.

128.

Change

the

to following

diminished

chords.

129.
and

An

augmented chord is

one

semi-tone

larger than

major,
"

the triad is formed

by making

both

intervals

major thirds,as

Major. Major.

Change

the

to augmented following

chords

130.

Has

the

pupil noticed
the for altered

that in

changing
or

the mode

of the

chords, the third determines


fifth chords
are

major
the

minor, and
and

the first and

the

tones

augmented
to
an

diminished

131.
to
a

Change
:

an an same

F A

major chord
minor
to
an

augmented
:

: a

major
to
a

diminished
:

to

an

augmented
: an

an

Eb major
to
a

diminished
a

the
to
an

augmented
a

At? major
to
a

minor
a

DI? major
to
a

augmented:

major

diminished:

Dt"

major : a Dt? minor to a diminished. this work 132. the tones Pupils can simplify by classifying those of the diatonic scale, of into three relationships, tones calling that resolve into them, tones th" firstrelationship ; the chromatics and the chromatics which resolve into of the second relationship, of the third relationship. those of the second, the tones resolves into G and is a tone For instance, in the key of C, Fj{ resolves into G^ of the of the second a tone : Fjlfft relationship the F|}J| is a tone of the third relationship. second relationship : so
minor
"

133.
into tones

Intervals

that may

of the first

resolve augmented or diminished and such changes so altered, relationship when


tones

be

do not

change the key, but necessarily


when the modulation

of the third

ship relation-

do ; and

has been

effected

they become

EAR

TRAINING.

73

tones

of the second

should of the

Tke third and seventh of a key relationship. not be augmented because they would not resolve into a tone certain tones cannot firstrelationship. For the same reason, Find

be flatted.

them.
of

Many
not

students
to

composition do
a

not

understand flat for


a

why they are


third.
chromatics

allowed

employ
tone

double

sharp or

diminished

Following
progress and
to

this
a

both Principle of Progression, letting of the first Note

the question is easily relationship, the

settled. satisfactorily

examples below.
ibsi

*
Maj.

fa-jzit'zr-^^

=tf

3SI

I
you
can,

Min.

Dim.

134.
a

Now

write

as

many

different chords the

as

ing containthat

given
include

tone.

For

example, see

number

of chords

may

E.

Do
to

this with
a

every

letter within

the

octave, for it is

one

thing:
themi times

find

few

chords

in the

in all of the

keys ; and the desired one. before finding Listening for combinations
are

key of C, and quiteanother to find several doing it quicklywithout trying


you will note that the and thirds

and

sixths sound

much

more

harmonious

than

the fourths

whrchi fifths,

empty.
Name whether these, stating

135.
or

major, minor, diminished,

augmented.
-p"

i?p"^'.

-^ -^T

-^i

3*5

-3^3

J^-Jf

"

-^^

"

9
S^rj?d2g

What

has

been

added

to these

thirds .'

fe ^

tes
a ej p
"

"

-g-

74

EAR

TRAINING.

Although Harmony,
familiar the
to

this is not is
a

intended

as

an

exhaustive

text

book

of

there

considerable

work

required of
means

the of

cause bepupil,

in the

author's

with the

it experience chords. Nothing For

is the best clears up

becoming doing
care

one's

ideas like do not

thing one's

self.

the convenience

of those who

study
are

the

preceding chapters,some
for those resolution
same

explanationsare
who have. upon The the chord
or

included

which

quite unnecessary
The
as

136.
of the

of the chords in

is based

Principle
built
"Do" of its
a on

the Progression, first note is

singlevoice.
Roman

of the

scale,Do, is called the


the

"Tonic"

chord, and

designated by
The
no

numeral

I, because

place in key.
137.
"

distinguishingquality is its absolute


other

repose,

quality possessed by
The chord that the

chord. for the Tonic


"

that

has the strongest demand

the strongest tendency for progressionto it is,

is based
or

on

fifth of
The
ear

the

scale

and

is called the

"

Dominant" demand

"Sol"

chord. the
two

recognizes it by the immediate

for the

Tonic,

chords

together making
cadence. three the

the

most

cadence, satisfactory
and

termed 138. each

the authentic Find

positionsof
the

the Tonic
as
"

Dominant

in

key,always closingwith
"
IS.
" "

Tonic,

"_^^

^:

^"

^aJk/s"O"
gj a"

etc.

"""

"-S'-"-"-r-^-^'-"r(tg-"r n 25TI25"

zsr-

139.

To

simply string chords


without reference
to

together according
either

to

some

figured bass

melody

or

rhythm

is both
mine deter-

meaningless and Harmony,


necessitates rules

useless.
not
an

Melody and Rhythm

generate and

"bass unmelodious, un-rhythmical

which

making
the
are

the

law of

the student what he cannot do, and galoretelling work Guided purelymechanical. by the melody and progression both rhythmic and melodic, but few rules

necessary. 140.

Harmonizing this

little figure.

EAR

TRAINING.

'75

wnote

the first,
of
a

tones

of

progressionand
Of
course

repose,
we

and

chords

similar
not

quality.
a

will

place them place C in a


the

in

chord, but

in

chord. does
not

Why
make

.'
a

Because

chord We

progressing to
have of the both does chord scale

the

Tonic that the in

good
as

cadence.

just learned
occurs

Dominant

does, and
we

Re, the second


it and
meet
a

that

chord,

will

employ
In other

the
not

melodic

and

rhythmic demands.
own

words,

tone

necessarily generate its

harmony,

but is

placed

in

that will progress

(on the

line of least

to resistance)
"

the next

accented

chord, which, in this instance,is the Tonic

the magnet

of the entire

key

group.

i
141. In
we

i
we

paragraph
find that the
to

13,

learned of which

that

Sol

progressed
voice

up

to

Do, and
but

chord the

Sol is the root, does in the upper


we

also ;
are

in this case, let the


or

keep
the

melody
at

obligedto
to

voices that demand

move

all, progress
downward

downward

; and

establish

feel

for

the

we progression,

employ F,
leader.

the seventh

of the chordy which, being a minor,


minor seventh
added
to a chord

is

down
or

stated, a Briefly
the

creates

strengthens
know voices

downward when
up
to to

progression of the
use

voices.

Now

you the
ployed. em-

why

and

it.
so

In

the

followingexercise
should
not

progress
.

the

Tonic,

the seventh

be

With

each

new

chord

one

should

learn how
the

and

when

to

use

it.

By

so

doing
other

he will grow

familiar with

sound

of it in its relation
to know

to

the only way chords, and that is really has neither character
nor

them,

since

chord

meaning
its

without

key

tionship, rela-

the (excepting

littlethat is felt from

mode).

76

EAR

TRAINING.

142. chords
we

Harmonize
have

these littleexercises, employingonly the two


"

had,
on

Tonic which

and

Dominant chord

"

and

write

dicatin them, inRoman

the numerals.

degree Keep
the

the

is built

by

the

that will necessitate


1

melody in the upper voice of changes of position. many


2

the chords

and

1=

I
TT
-w
I V

1
6

I i i I

i i
10

rsi

1
8

1
11
-t-g^
'

*= i liE3E
tr
'

1
B

;t
the Tonic called is that built
on

143.
the fourth

Another

chord of the

that

demands

degree

scale, Fa, and


a

the Sub-dominant. does and


not

Unlike
immediate than

the

Dominant,
resolution.
and
to

it is

down-leader, and
is serious If the

demand

Its character

sombre, rather
demands is It
a ployed, emwas

bold

aggressive like
the

the Sol.

melody

down-leader

final cadence
tone

chord, the Sub-dominant


occurs

providing the melody


not
not

in that the

chord.

used
occur

in the in
a

example

at

140, because

melody
and

tone, Re, does

Sub-dominant
three chords

chord.
"

1 44.
"

These

Tonic, Dominant
in

Sub-dominant
are

include

all of the tones

of the

major scale,and they


a

the

only
It

major chords, that, without


would be well for the each F student with positions the practicing
as

occur alteration,

major key.
in the

to

play these
studies.

chords
For

three is

scale

that

he

instance,if he
as

the F arpeggio and scale,practice

many

chords

he

knows

in the

key

of F,

aiso.

EAR

TRAINING.

11

Let the teacher


to positions
see

play I-V-I,
pupil can
the

and

I-IV-I,

in different

keys and
three

if the

recognizethem.
voice,and transpose them

145.

Harmonize

followingexercises, employing the

chords, keeping the melody in the upper


into three flat and

three sharp

keys.
3
-ap-

.12

g IE

e"
IV
I IV V

IV

i
IV V

IV

i
IV V

1
9

S
V

II
11

10

1
12 13

I t^
^rp=r=it s"^
I IV V
:

i W
Write them with

-^-

the

root

tones

in the bass, like this

i
tr
"

i
""-

:g

S-251-

I i

i
146.
chords
make

We

found the
demand

that

both

the
now

Dominant
we

and
reverse

Sub-dominant the order and

demanded
the Tonic

Tonic, and
them demand

will

by employing
the

other

than

the

root

in

the bass ; the fifth to


the
"

Dominant

and of

the seventh the Tonic

mand to de-

Sub-dominant. in the bass


"

The

first inversion
a

chord

the the

third

also makes

very

smooth

progression
say. As
a

to

Sub-dominant

chord, almost

demands

it, one

might

78

EAR

TRAINING.

major
same

third

should

not

be

doubled,
chord

that

is,occur

in

two

voices

at

the
as :

time, it is omitted

in the

when

employed

in the

bass,

9t

i
in may
a

i
should be in the
a

It

may
root

be and

doubled fifth

minor,
doubled

and

diminished.
root

The

be

excepting

in

the

diminished 147.

chord.

Working
bass
to
as

on

different
current

principle, we
methods. It
note

have is when and

no

use

for
to

the the

figured
student of the

taught
the
or

in

confusing
it is the

writ^

figure

over

bass

third
more

chord,
With

to

play

it from there

that

figure,
no reason

I is still

puzzling.
should and with If the
we

this

system
to

is

why
tone

the in the Tonic

figures
chord,
chord
i, etc.
6

not

correspond

the

location
means,

of

that

will

employ
in the finds and d.
some

that bass it

simple

indicating
the fifth in the

the

the

third

by

i,
3

with

the

bass

by

student
a

easier, he

can

indicate

inversions

by

the

letters
148. will

Using
to
use

of hear of
more

the the

patterns
chords
in

of with

the the

preceding lesson,
different
variation

we

learn

and third
or

inversions. when
the

Employ
chord
the
occurs

the
two

the

chord
in

the

bass

for
as

times

succession,

at

(")
at

below the

; where

change
or

of line
as

harmony
where
at
a

is temporary Tonic chord

only,

as

at

(b) ;
and
a

end

of

phrase

is necessary

perfect cadence

undesirable,

(c).

80

EAR

TRAINING.

151
.

It is sometimes the have V


"

for the difficult Tonic fifth and


root

ear

to

between distinguish
"

the I and
6

the

the

Dominant both

because
demand
a

they both
cadence. Note

the Dominant

in the

bass, and
V

this

I
6

always demands

two

chords, the

and
I

I, while usually
one.

the V
occurs

demands
on a

only.

more

important
the

fact is that
never on a

stronger beat
:

than

V, and

weaker

See examples

t i \i ^r\^\ i i LsD
e
152.

-"-

i
I to
6

Wagner frequently employed


modulations, and
that
one

the

establish the
does

key

for his sudden

chord

estabhsti the
a

key, for with it we anticipatethe V and I which will always fix key. Note the use of it in the extract from Lohengrin :

^^^^^^fapjfe^
D I
6

gagej^gs^^^

feg
"

"-

jS^^^f^^^
Ai?ii
3

"s

EAR

TRAINING.

81

153.
with the

The

exception to
lower

the

rule

for the resolution of the


as

chord is

fifth in the
case

voice, is, when


same

minor

seventh

present ; in that
were

it has the See

resolution

though

the root

in the bass.

example :

Beethoven.

^Mm^h^^^
etc.

^=fJ

*
154. A

I
as

-=1--

chord
once

may

be

identified "demand" how

by
the

what is used

it demands;
to

mentioned
effect

before,the word
and
on

express

the

of tonal Of
course

magnetism, showing

chords

solve. naturallyrelution reso-

they may
we

do resolve the

otherwise, but the

of which

speak

is

line of least
in

resistance," always
both
to

correct, and
and
to
use.

very

important
we

feature

helping
I. IV

recognize
a

Summarizing degree.
I is not V

this law,
occur

have IV

to

to

I in

lesser V and

may
S

between I to IV.
7b
3

and IV
5

I, but IV
I. IV
8

between
to

good.
Let

I to V. the

to

I.
S

155
name, not

teacher

and

the student the

for the student to play the following to familiarize himself should also play them the characters that

only with
The
to

chords, but with


the Roman

represent
of
i

them.

figureabove
be

numeral

indicates the Be

the tone

the chord

employed

in the upper

voice,and
beat.

long
sure

dash
to

continuation them
7

of the chord

through another
I-IV-V-I.

play

I-V-I. rhythmically.
8 7 8 5 7

!-IV-V-I. I-I-IVI-V,-I-IV-IS 8

V-I.

I-V-I.
3

I_.V-I-V-I.
7 S

I^V-I-IV-I-V-I.
8 6

82

EAR

TRAINING.

v-i.

i-v-i-iv-i-v-i.
SS 6

i-v-i-iv-i-v-i;
7,
3 6

i-iv-i-i-iv-v-i.
58

I_V-I-IV-I-V-I.
5S

I_V,-I-IV-V_-I.
63

I-I_IV-V-I.
b7
3

We

must

emphasize

the of

importance of writing and

playingin
in the

every
of C

key. The number only,are legion.

peoplewho

can

playchords
:

key

166.

Complete the followingexercises

te
4z*zr5:
""i" #-

ifeis

I i sa a
S=
6

M
p5g 4="=i

i
i

i ^3eie?
ga:^

li^
ra

^ i I
g_

b4

! J-

m
^E

m-n-s^ =1^

=ftBf
T
^

EAR

TRAINING.

83

ii
^^S %

P"^-f
=?cr=i:

i I
many littlesongs
and that

\U1
chords

There

are

requirebut
be both this work them

these

three

in the

accompaniment,
make
a

it would

and profitable

to pleasurable

of practical application and

by making
at

one's

own

accompaniment. Sing
the

harmonize
at
as

sight,
and

making
158.
on

simplest harmonic
of
"

outline

first,if necessary,
desired. chords

of the chords later,change the positions In the song beats and V-I
7

the Jack-in-the-Pulpit,"
measures

employed
3

the accented I-I-IV"


3

of the first two in the fifth and


8

may
measures.

be I-I-IV-I,

or

sixth
to

Follow from line

the
to

progressionfrom

measure

measure,

or, better

yet,
be the

line, changing the


may
not
occur

iass
between the

on

the accented the accented


as

beats,allowing

any

by-tonesthat
as

points to
tones

treated

such,

changing

harmony
measure

the

of

melody change.
For

instance, the

Y%

in the

second

is
occur

foreignto
as a

the

Sub-dominant
and do
not
one.

harmony
change
the

then

presiding ;

let it
next

by-tone
is an

harmony

until the

beat, which

accented

^
-

Jack

in

the

pul

pit Preach

as

to

day,

^ iE

:^

^^
Un
-

3E
der the green

trees,

Just

ver

the

way

1^
Green
is

^=

E^=
his
sur
-

^
are

Green plice,

his

bands,

In

his

84

EAR

TRAINING.

$
the The in
two

h^=fi I
queer

m
lit
tie

E^
-

i
stands.

pul

pit,

The

lit

tie

priest
the

159.

In

the

second

measure

of

"Baby Land,"
not
or

change

of

harmony

is not
so

permanent,
one

that

is,it does
"

continue
I
3
"

through
be best.

measure,
next

of the inversions

IV
6

would

line of the song


to

beginning

at the

third measure, for

would
the be

be

contrast pleasant tones.

the

first line of the and

by employingI
3

first
sung
must

The Dominant the

last three

measure as

will of

course

with
occur

the
on

harmony,
should Tonic
not

the G

change

of
a

accented

beat, the
be

becomes

harmony by-tone.
"

The

Dominant
"

harmony
but
a

repeated in
be

the next

the fourth

employed, for the harmony beat should not be anticipated the preon occuring on an accented ceding The would make the weak beat. root position wrong for an but I would be sentence, interrogative qualityof cadence
measure,
s

should

very taken

What satisfactory.
to create

of position for I ?
a

the

Dominant the

chord

should

be

the from

demand the

Marking
would

harmony
S

of each

accented

beat

it beginning,

be

I-I-IV-I, I-V-I,
3 7 3

V-V-I-I,

I-V-I.
6

p=4J=^4=J^Jj^iPE"^^
How
ma-

ny

miles

to

Ba

by Land?Say,

can

an

one

tell?

one

flight to
have
care

the

to ring rightjPlease

the bell.

The

pupils who
lessons with and the
correct

studied will have

the
no

one-voice

work

of the

ceding pre-

groups

harmonic

in feeling the larger difficulty progressions.

EAJi

TRAINING.

85

160.

WHERE

THEY

GROW.

J. H. Fillmore.

i P^^^^
Down

^;
the val

ley,
i

deep,

deep,

deep.

i lYz

Un

der

the

grass

es

hid

ing

low,

i wThere's
*

-:^
where the dear

^
lit tie

'"^sm
lets grow.
Reinecke.

Used

by permission.

* i ii=a; ^
Up
-^
"

m^
-

S=i
A

on

the
?.
"

blooming meadow,
"

flow

'ret may

be

seen.

Its

F^
"
"

s-

*-

?-E"
asHeav-en,
Its leaves
are

i:

^=
Its

eyes

are

blue

fresh

and green;

^"
eyes
are

^^^
blue
as

^
Its

-^-

Heav-en,
The

leaves

are

fresh

and

green.

Exercises the teacher


1

for dictation.

pupilsshould

name

the chords

as

playsthem.
2
3

t?=d=4=

i
:gg1-gO-

fc
-ar-

i
-Sa
"

=5=

^m ^ffl-tg
^

86

EAR

TRAINING.

i i5i

E^
=S^ :^
5-ta: 1^

i V-

-J=
-iS-

-"!-

m
"

eS
-s-

gsi^

"

jfi

fct

^a.

i
=f=

i
gizfc

:ii;=2?ei

1
li^S
10

=p

II
:i

fi^^^^^^g
Wj
11
-SI,
"

-g|

-gj

-gi
"

i
s
a"-

-"5^iV

i i

-IS'-

-"=-

s=^
12 13

-jsf-

i^^ i a=S=g=EB:rfcEi=IE=g=Sii
s!-

J-JzzcJ

'^^^
(2

gi-fc e"

"

s"

i^i

^^- isl"

"="=t

fg

W.

14

15

i^=:fe^^ii|Ei^=^^^^i
5" "^
-(2

FS=?=
""-

iS

CHAPTER The

VIII.
Mediant
and

SuPERTONic,
162.
"

Submediant,

Subtonic

Chords.

Each the

major
chord of

chord the

has
minor
are so

what third often demands. will be

Curwen below. used in

terms, The the


term

"a

stitute,'' subis
tainly cer-

appropriate, since major


chord
Our of the the which the

they

place

of the

progression
chord the

163.

first

minor

that
or
"'

built
Re"

on

the

second

degree
to

scale, called

Supertonic
as a

chord, progressing
for the
to
a

Dominant. should The


be

It is used

substitute
when

SubdomiDominant it

nant,
cadence.

and

in the

major

mode
are

leading
in size

Roman

letters

smaller

when

is

minor

chord.

n^a
I IV

V7

II
3

164.
tonic be IV
must

Harmonize
each.

the

following exercises, employing


we

the V

Super
may
the II

in

Heretofore

have
tone

placed
is

Re

in
or

; V ; but

preceded
may be be

by

IV

if the

melody
II

Fa, La
is Fa

Do
or

substituted
if Re
are

by
occurs

if the in the

melody melody
lead

La, and
two

employed

where
to
a

qualities
Some

of of

progression
the The exercises
ear

chords

required,
II and the

and IV.

cadence.

require

both

distinguishes by
V

mode,

11

being
V
or

minor I.

chord

demanding
It the is

only,

and

IV

major demanding
to

sometimes of

difficult
the

distinguish
3

the

Subdominant
the

from

first inversion

Supertonic, II, because


when Fa
occurs

minor

quahty

of the

latter

is not

so

marked

in the

bass.

88

EAU

TRAINING.

89

to:^33infe
II 3

-Sh-

-g

"

2g-

"s I
3 II 3

(s

\"-

Vt

III

i iI:L^

^-H^II
3
"

-o

I CJ

is
I
a
3

^E^-^f\yr[x^wm3=mit^^^m
m
h.
I
3

fe
V
S

^="

"-

i
-.s"

I
3

10

11

""

"

(2-

.(Z-

I I
I
""z
"

"^

Vt
13

5^F=F

ffi

IS
15

IS

(2-

:^HE

14

#
16

ii

^i^
-gi
'g-

"si-

17

-gj-eif"

^^m="
-f=
"

i2^

E^

s"~

Eg

90
20

EAR

TRAINING.

^1^^^
1. 2.

-^lit
-

^tie bios
snow
-

Dear Lit

soms

down
I

un

der
you

the
a

snow,

tie white

-drops,

pray

rise,

i w
i

rYou
must

EifeE
be
-

wea cro
-

ry cus,

of
come

win
o

ter

I your

know;
eyes;

Bright

yel

low

pen

rHark ! While I

^^
sing
Daf
you
a mes
-

=t:
sage

of you

cheer,
hear?

Daf

fo

dils!

fo

dils !

Say,

do

i
Sum
mer com
-

Ei^
mg

::t
here.

Spring-time

is

21

* I paSEESf
22

=i=F'f

Eg;
5=?i=

-gj-

-ti:
n
3

I
^:
-")

g iOES^EE^EE;
a
23

W=T^
Vy

i="^

5=t

lt-\-6t-

I7B

E^ifc
-""

-"=i-

I-

^
"

t=1""|" g^-S'-r-

IV
9

V
5

II7
7

24

Schubert.

migl^pg^^pigg^gggg^
a=
A

streamlet

clear and

sun

ny. With N

rip-piesall

bout,

Was

m
once

ifc=t
the bath

^^^
for bon
-

"

rg3S
gen
-

ny.

For

tie

lit

tie trout.

On

EAR

THAINING.

91

^^E^^^=^=|^^eSee^
shore
I N

stood
N

ob

serv

ing With

exquis

ite

de

light

The

i SSEiE
hap
-

-N

"
py

-"i

"

-ji=^was a

I
-

lit- tie

crea

ture,

It

prat

ty

sight;

The

m.
25

S^t^EgEEtE
hap
-

Z3Li.-=*"-J
-

iii^EiiE^
a

py

lit

tie

crea

ture,

It

was

pret

ty

sight.

Schubert. i\""
-I

f^^^mm :8: ;siS


Be

nfe

F !"
"

""'

W^
the brook
grow

^
drops
of

side

flow-'retsblue Which

peep

thro'

tt
ip=ii

=rpf

s=t:=s:-tt^spark -ling
dew: The
mil

^E^".^^
-

:?"="=

t=^:
this stream doth And prize.

ler

much

fefe

s^^fs
light
blue shine

-^

:t*
my

eseeeS
eyes. So

fair

one's

mine

^^^1
call these flow
-

"

"?=^3=E
ers,

P"

r-^-M

7"-i

"

W"^
r-

^i=^="^-

So

mine

call these flow-ers. Reinecke.

26

Ml ^E^a=tjE
I'm
a

-fc" 5

^
thing,

5*"

^-

-fc-ii ing
with the

pret-ty

lit

tie

Al- ways

com

^M
-V
"

3!
KV

:^=":t
I'm

S-

^^
-t^
"

="=S:
a-bove the

-V

H-

"

s--

spring;

In

the mea-dows

green

found,Peeping just

-5"

?!-?"
"

""

^ii33
stalk is covered

-"

""

^^^^.
flat With
a

SE!F
and

ground;And

my

white

yellow hat.

92 27

EAR

TRAINING.

Schumann.

^^i
Come,
la
-

=^^- "=^tz^'-zt. i dy bird,and


seat

Wt=-^^^^^^your

-self

up

on

my

hand,

up

g^^jq^^^gl^^
on

m
harm you, No!
I'll not

my

hand,Be

sure

will

not

4-=^ ^=s= i p
harm
you, I

^^^^^^^
will not harm

you,pret-ty dear,Show

your

tiny wings

and

^^^
nev
-

-5.

""-

-"

"

"" I ^B"S
gay

^-

er

fear,

Ti

ny

wings

so

and

pret

ty.

28

Schumann.

"
Hark!from

"

"

"

i^

=^
-est

f^^^
-

^
he's

thefor

calls

the

cuc-koo,Light ly

swinging,

^^^^^^^^m
Gai
-

ly

he's

sing- ing, Gai-lyhe's swingingand

sing

ing.

^
Spring-time,
165. that
1
a

PJ^^^^^^
Wel-come
to

welcome you,Spring-time,

to

you.

Dictation may be

chord

including the Supertonic chord. by what it demands. identified


' .

Remember,

Reinecke.

p^^^^^^^m
l^E^
itrt

EAU

TRAINING.

93
Schumann.

^a^iiia^^^^i
w-r
=i=p=

-3T
^^^

i
etc.

9^

m-(3-

|=E^

E
T^F
Reinecke.

^^^^#^^^"^111
tr^^r-

f^r=r=^
-^
-^
-^i

-fi

_^

"5:g^

-""

i= F=Fi:t=t=r=:t 1"

t=|:

:U:=:tt

I
Haydn.

^
"5^

^=F^

:J=bJ.-j-Hr^J=j: E^S
fJ

j-

=^E

"S'-^

iE

i
fJ

-i

a*

iN^E^

i
Mendelssohn.

94
6

EAR

TRAINING. Schumann.

tt

-^^^^m.
^

\-i

3^^
itrii
Handel.

1 i
s

tt 3^

"#=

:J=5

^i^tEaiS^
QT-^^v
j:i.-f-_j

tEQ

^ip^l^ii^^^i^

^g^^
v

eS

s
_,_L^.

r^-^
-" "
"

1^
ife

"s"-^

J=t=^t=r=fc3
-^
I

P=

8-

:b
"O"fV

r'
rir=je

r'
"

a^-^f^
166.
the Next
comes

S
chord, built
on

the

Submediant

or

"La"
well to

sixth of the scale ; it progresses and

equally

both

the

Sub-

dominant is most The

Supertonic, and being the substitute


to

for the

Tonic, it

frequentlyemployed
Submediant
and

delay the

cadence.

Supertonicare both minor chords, but for progresby the different demands they may be distinguished sion, well as chord is much as quality. The Submediant more and does lead not to a stable than the Supertonic, cadence, bui

96

EAR

TRAINING.

t
^
g

4
VI

:rrTl-^#-^^NJg ^
I
8

.]U r

rr^=^iibJteQJ^^^a
-gi
"

iE
10

s^

"gi
"

|-ig

aJ

"

r-ig-

^z^pj^^^i
11

(2

jS).

B^H

fe^
12

?=F.5=FF

-"

!"-

iti*:

^^iS^^^^^^^B
13

^ i S!^^E ffiEEEEEEf
14

-!=""'" (S2" (Z-

"sJ" ig-

:B

;t?=6: ^E i^ [g"jg^ ^
i-]j?"
VI II
3

-si"
VI

"-

^=

"

s-

t="t=f
IV

15

^ i P

:i2
"

si"

gl

"6

"

(ff-

""=i-

"

"3" "=

zj"

zJ-

"f2"

"-

:t=iF
the including

1 69.

Dictation

exercises

Submediant

chord.

JSAH

TRAINING. Dykes.

97

pl
g"Tri=f=f

Efe^

^
i
"0
"
"

^Sl

rr^^

t^=^

I
i

iJrz-ttli

?^E^E
Arr. from Handel

eS

i*
*i-^

:pr

'

:tri:

5(

Hr-^

a"

,"""-*-'-,"'
"

i^^; ^:
ff#'

^^^^^^m
la ! i iE

^
=Ef =i^

i.jif.

s^

Irsls

i^pa
*-r
r --r

iS

:^ ^ rir r

'P '^-^
i^

i^
German Choral.

"^r
feiit

Hfe^^

Wf

=^=

98

EAX

TRAINING.

Make but
a

selections from
book

hymn
based the chord

good Hymnal ; not containing arrangements of


a

the

Gospel Hymns,
from the

classical music.

170. chord
but
a

In its natural
on

mode, there is

no

strong demand

the

third

degree

of the of the

scale,called the Mediant,


it into third,converting it demands is to effect the
a

with

chromatic
as

alteration

major

it is most

used, frequently
altered Note

Sublation moduof

ofificewhen mediant, and its principal


to the

key

of the

relative minor. in both


cases

these

examples

its

use

as

substitute

following the

Supertonic

which

demands

the Dominant.
Mozart.

p^^
fe 7^ itf

5-M tj:

=F=J=^-^

Bach.

EiS
E^^
-J-t

i
etc.

^^
171.

^m
I-III-117-11-I-V-I.
3 as

Play I-III-vi-IV-ii-V-I.
I-IV I-III-l7|,-IV-I-V-I.
S 6

I-III-IV-

ii-V-I.

IV-III
$3

I vi-ii

IV^-| I-I^. I
'

iv-ivI i-v 1 1,
'

i-iii

I ii^-ii Ii-v 1 13 8 5 8-78

1 n,-v

I i-vi I ii^-v 1 1.

These

chord HI the

172.
scale when

alwaysbe transposedinto several keys. is nearly always employed for the seventh of the latter is used consecutively.
groups should

EAR

TRAINING.

y"

Harmonize
1

these,employing the Mediant, major mode, in each.


"

g i^^
"2"
-"

i
IV

3i
III

i
g

4
"

^
VI

F i

f=
"

s"

|g
III
VI

I
e"-

III

II

m
VI

"^=-(Sl

t=t:
II7 III
VI

m
VI

"="
s
"

"ri
"

ztf-

i I

II,

i
9

s
III

"s""\rSt
"

s^

i^

-'g

"

s""s"

zi"^^

"gi" h^-

10
""g"

pSiEE?
'r

5|

jg"

"?=:te

p^^is
I
Bertine

III

11

Lakey.

i4
i W-

a: i

p-

^
song

=P=" that

"-

:t--Fi
know the the blue
-

EEEEE
bird is

sing

ing,

"

"

#-

3=
-

-CI Out
in

the

ap

pie

tree

when

he

is

swing-ing;

m
Brave lit
-

=J:
fel low I The skies be drear

tie

may

y,

I.
3:
"

mB
"
"

^-4 he

"

Noth-ing

cares

while

his

heart

is

so

cheer

y.

100

EAE

TRAINING.

i fe

fe
^^
O
pen

Caroline

Dale

Parke,

the

gates

as

high

as

the

sky,

And

#1=E i P
let

=^

:^^
King George
and his
men

pass

by.

pen

the gates

as

r=E i tf
high
as

"" f

I* If

:p=i:

::"
P=t^
and his
men

i
by.

the

sky,

And

let

King

George

pass

13

Franz

Ries.

gs
The moonbeams

fe^P^fe^i Efcl
through the
win dow
peep.

To

see

if babe's

in

i^
bed
;

:"
-" "

--"^
My

^
to

"

"

j_ -^

"

*-"

precious dar-ling,go

sleep, He'll

watch

keep

o'er

thy

i w173.
1

""-r-

^
-

""=-

:b=te
by, sleep,He
watch o'er thee will

head. Sleep,dar-ling ba

keep.

Dictation

exercises

the including

Mediant
Old

chord.

German

....

Melody.

^^^^^^^^m
f-

"is

^ "=?"-

feE i i aE^^fmff

EAR

TRAINING.

101

^^^^m
^

te

Bach.

tFKfcg^zte

fcga?
err
4 V :^=^:^:
"

=1

feSr^iiEd: g-tt St-'^S^=^^=p=-T^";


(S
"

:i=i:5ef

#"a =**-"Jr -g.


3=-(=-

i^^^^Sif^^^

??~:^

Beethoven.

i"
-^

i-S1

^1

T^^
^-^v-

^^^^^^^^^_^^
y^-N'^
V

9t?te=:ii^

i^-

Alexander

Ewing.

i=t^=i==i=t3=^: 8 i __j__L._^j^_^_5_^g_^
-

^M
"-"

gh -^ -it

9iii^E8^=g=^

m f-

rm

;e*

^^jip
^-^*"j="=

^P"! ^=tS^F^
rt

ii

102

BAR

TRAINING.

S|^Sgi^^ip^@
174.
Subtonic there The
or

chord

on

the

seventh
so

degree

of

the
or

scale, the

""Ti"

chord, has,
use

little character
mode.

is very
we
a

little
as

for

it in its natural from the

individuality, natural By
"

mode,"

mean

it is formed

scale without is felt and chord it in and

alteration.
as

Being

diminished

chord, the
of the the

Subtonic

heard is

the

third,fifth and
classified.
resolves Like into

seventh

Dominant
of which

usuallyso
a

Dominant,
It

reallyis
the
root

part, it

the the

Tonic.

is not

good

position,
seventh loses of its

neither with
the

fifth in the into

bass, for that, being the


the

Dominant

chord the

which

Subtonic
of

almost the

makes identity, The See


1

effect disagreeable in the bass is the

doubling

seventh.

third of the chord

position. only satisfactory

examples below

Bach.
.

i rf
He
2

^
J

i
^:

i
i

^^
Teshner.
'

-"

"

"g

."J

"

' es

"

Cie" n

-A

-fa-

CHAPTER Chromatics
Raised
"

IX.
Fourth Chord Lowered.
to
"

"

Altered Augmented
THE

Chords Sixth

"

of

the

Scale
of

Seventh

Scale
return
a

176.

We

will

now

single

voice

work of

and

include It will

chromatics, which
furnish for upon
a

will be of the of

finer

comparison
of the

sounds.

good
the

test

thoroughness
the

preceding lessons,
the

certainty

diatonics, depends

certainty

of

singing
177.
or as

and

recognizing
altered
to

the

chromatics.
may the
occur as

The

tones

embellishing by-tones,
of the be chord
:

harmonics,
case,

change
of

character
must

in

the

latter

the

Principle
the
can

Progression
so

ered, carefully considits

because character and

chord be

is sometimes

altered what
a

it loses

original

identified should

only by
move

it demands. of the be
not

178.
If
as

Altered student would


not

chords does
not

to

principal chord

thekey.
chords
an

the

easilyrecognize them, playing


without the the

they

have

been
sure,

alterations
composers

will have

aid,
been

although

always
their for

because
;

particular
for and 2I?, the

with

notation is
a

sometimes
error.

writing i^
All

for

6
,

\%

4I
of both
a

very

common

things
and

ered, considfactory satis-

Principle
for

Progression

is the
and

most

reliable

basis 179.
the be Dominant
a

employment
chord has

identification.
the

When
or

seventh diminished

neither

characteristics
out

of

chord, nine
because
the

times

of

ten

it will much all

supertonic
than the

seventh,
other

latter

is The

used

that

oftener

secondary
is toward the the

sevenths.

tendency for of
the

of

the

altered
Most

chords

major
old and

chords methods

key.
consider
most

180.
chromatic the charm

analysts
as

follow

and

the
of
a

alterations of the

modulations,

by

so

doing, lose
chords

harmonic

setting.
104

Altered

suggest

EAR

TRAINING.

105

rich

coloring that is lost with the constant because in establishing a new key, the II-V-I be employed, and consequentlythere is much
As the chromatics
use are

shiftingof keys,
or

IV-V-I

must

less

variety.
most

introduced, examples of the


of
course a more

quent fre-

will be many

but given,
cases.

it would

be

impossible to

mention

rare

For

extended

study

of this
a

the subject,

student

would

find both

and pleasure in profit

work

entitled,
the of

"

Harmonic
Ditson Co.

Analysis," by Benjamin Cutter, published by


When
one

Oliver
ear

realizes that

music

is

matter dents stu-

it is 2ind feeling,

astonishing that really expend


feature of mind
so

teachers

and

give so
energy
on

little attention and

little of their time and

this most

important
more

of music and

education.

The

needs in particular, pianist, of

less of

muscle, more Me, (pronounced


to

feeling and
181. We

less of will

finger.
with the lowered
two

begin
is of
i one
a

3d
it with

called

may), which
the minor
a

of the

tones

employed
other
i

lish estabof.
2: 3!?

mode

key, sing
I. I

3I?i.
4

key. Combining i 3b 3b 2 2 i.
I

tones

i.

3I? 5

3b

3b 2
I3
2 2

3^

I.

3b 2

I.

I 3 3^^ I2
I

5 S
2

I I.
3b
I.
I

I 3 3b'
7
2

I2
I

I I. 3b
I 2

S 4

3!^ I 2-4 I 3b-2 I I.

r.

7
2

3b
7

I.

3b
I.

I.

3b
I 2

3b

3b 4

3b

I.

3b

31^ 7

I.

ih.

wDo

tf
etc.

3Et
sol
me

P=:p=^"

J-S

^BE^d^^^^aL^J,J3^3^^
33t

^gE^gE^^ggSgg^l

106

EAR

TRAINING.

^s^^^^^^^^^m

*A

^
6

i!!L=|*=iat

1
=pa"r^

?Et:"
-j^=X

r=a=pc^j: i ^53t:

^E^^E

=t=^^tf

f^i^SSB
Grieg.

i ^: ElE:^;
Me

I *-=L-t-.r:=^E-:=z=tJK=-'-3E^z=E
;^=
do

feSaEEii

-1"

182.
of the each
tones

The

other

flat

employed
makes

to

fix the
one

minor of

key

is that
in

sixth, called Le, which

change

intervals

scale-half ; the mode


is

of any
For

chord

either containing
occurs

of these in the Sub-

changed. necessarily
and Mediant and

instance,the third
the

Tonic, Submediant
dominant,
183.

chords, and

sixth in the

Submediant

Supertonic.
i

Sing
I

5 6b

5.
2

gb 5.

3
4

6^ 5.

6|7 5.
5

6b 5.
5
I

7 6b 5.

6b s

3b
I.

I.

3b 6b 5
I.

3b

I.

6b s 3b 2

I.

3b 6b
6b 7

5 4
I. I

3b 2

6b 6 7
5
I.

3b

F 7 6b 5 4

3b

I.

3b

3b 6b

4.2

P^^f^'
Sol le

3=g^Bfc^g
m
^
-al-g*" ^^-

f=M="^-=Mi

--w=^.

=^3^^J^E
5t

3E? 3E5

EAR

TRAINING.

107

i ^
D

^=F6"=1=;:

li^^^i^B
Schumann.
-^ P-sH

minor.
^-f=-^
"-

"

=t=E

I
Schumann.

fefefE^:^
i4:
E

SHI
J2^

SI
f=^

F*
^y-

I a

minor.

iI^=iS5

^=^

:?s=^"i2i

3^

fzt"it

tut

i==ii="^
IE

ip=
"25l-

3f

S^^^E^EE^

^i

^^i^^g^^isi^^
9
Wagner.

i%
10

^=i^ i^jt

i
Reinecke.

srt

etc.

Pi^lg
^aEB3
ipaw

3=1=

itd"*

108

EAR

TRAINING.

1 84.
1

Sing these

in both

modes

fe=Ffr-=^^i^^fF^%=^fe:fe
3

"h

ftid^t i=j=m^=gg=^^^^ #

i fe
^' i r^^^E
6

=^
"w=t~
itz:i
-^"
^*

i
i

"^'A-

-P=:S:

1-. i^^^^

:i=p=
*"
"
"ig

"-

rf-"^^^^^^^^
fe^^^^
185.
1

^;
"i^-#-

""^-*-

fg

"

(g"

-#

i
Schumann.

Write

these

as

the teacher

plays them

la
A

^^
minor. w
'

_'W

-ft I
-I"

t-

r-y

^^^^^
Bach.

minor,

EAR

TRAINING.

109

H7-r" '^' i ss

;E^

tl?^

:t=t
?Ci=*-

ffl
"-j-

-*-V

i^l \
"

ztf-

Beethoven.

^=^5^"^^ jJElJetc ^ if?i^'^^"i|*J=^t=^t'ti:i|^=J


186.
1

Harmonize

these
2

C mi. I 4

C mi.

mi.

i
Ami.

-"=

"

""

g^
A

-(="

ra-

5t

I
a

Vs
5

mi. Vt
5

I
8

German

Choral.

li^i^.
G

*==t

:#t=3^

-"

"

1"-

f"

mi.

Ea^

(""

S^^^HfSFfSEf 5^ i w
7

"=^

ii^i^g
Schumann.

i
E

s=e3E
mi.

-"-T

^_^=M-^"
lt="t

^=

Tt""

pjggg^^^gaig^^^ipa
4"

Nearly all of the exercises in paragraphs 14s, 145, and

164

can

be

harmonized

in the minor

mode.

110

EAR

TRAINING.

187.

Finish these with

suitable cadences

I_ii
3

i_ii
.

I_I
.

1-1
.

__.

I_II

i_iio_i_v
3
'

"

i-iii
.

"

i-iii
.

"

i-iir.

._.

I_IV-s

I_iv I_vii"
8

i_iv

I-vi
.

I-VI
.

I-vi
.

i-VI
.

I-VI I
.

n"-I
.

"

-.

ii-II

ii"-II-.

ii_III

ii_iv
.

ii"-iv
.

ii-iv
.

II-VI-.

II-vi II- VII


III-IV

II-VI-.
.

n"-VI

ii-vii"
.

II.

VII-

iii-I
.

iii-i
3

iii-ii
.

iii-IV
.

"

III-V
.

iii-V
.

III-vi
.

III-VI"
.

iii-vii
3 3

iii-VII
.

III-VI
.

vi-I
.

VI-1I--

vi_II

VI-II
.

."

VI-ii
3

VI-III
.

VI-III-.

VI-III

vi-V
.

vi-vii"
.

VI-vii"
.

VI-

VII3

vii"-I
VII-III
3

vii"-ii
.

VII-II-.
.

"

VII-II,
vii"-vi"
.

vii"-III"
.

vii"-IV
.

vii"-V
.

vir-vi-3

vii"-vi
S

vii"-VI
.

vii"-VI
.

I-ii
3 3

188.

Dictation

in minor

keys.
Schumann.

fe^

:??=

"""

,^

^ i^

i
-4"(Setc

ii^Em^^i^i^^ m ft-^-f"
D

I
V

^-*Tr-*#

minor.

IV

112

EAR

TRAINING

Schubert.

iE

^m
*-T

"

I"

g=gEfeEgE^^g
r
=p

"

-iA^Ll:d=i
'rr

r
n-

$
^^

:^^^^l^^
-iS-^
""

^^ft^ r

|j-:i^" -^"j^-l^" ^^ l^-jj"


f=r
f-

r^j-^1
Handel.

to' aS^ i P=^

^^ "T
m

i^

4a" i ^ pa*^=pj5fsf3f
I"
""

-I,

^3.

etc.

Pf^s:

*:"

*E

I
raised

189.

the Sing these, calling

4th
S 4

"

Fi."

15

44

3-

4K

5 3-

3-

1524543. 1742542
i.

36

4#5i.

i|74|6|5i4|3-2|i.

EAR

TRAINING.

iia

16425123-21. I 4_^2 4^5 6_4 I 5 4


I. I

4
2

S.

I2 4
3b 4
6t" s 7

I5

I4#
3

7 6 s

I 5I.

I I.

5.
I.

J2 I 3
6b 4

I 2-

3b 4jfs

5 6b s 7 .1,

I.

^E #
"

-\i

""
"

^3 ^g^3^
Fi

HB

gt#j^^fe^l^E^E|^E^E^EaE
Wagner.
:ffl
"

i ^^Si

(^

cpgygzcg.

"

"-

^i
^
"

^^^sii

:^=f=5i

^=tf^=E^^
r-+-ii

'g-

feE^^^j^gg=Cfj=C=fr=^|J^^
Schubert.

^^^^^^^^s^^^
190.
in the

Harmonize

these and you


"

will note

that

Fi

usually
of the

occurs

Supertonicchord,

the

substitutional

harmony

tone

altered.

S
I

E^ S^^Pi
III IV
I II V I

l"
IV

aa^s
II

114
3

EAR

TRAINING.

VI

II

VI

II

II

i^

-gi-

s
V
s

F=5
117
s

"/=-

^=^
V
7

i
Reinecke.

feE
Wea-ri
-

:f^
3(zt

1=dE

S
re
-

?=^
pose;

ly

at

seek cIose,Lit-tle day-light's eyelids

Lord.as

i
here in bed I

^
lie,Watch
me

s^
with
a

i
Abt.

Fa

ther's eye.

^
Calm

-t

*=dz:i="!^
night had
stol
-

-m

"

*"

"""

"-

"=t The world


to
rest

en

on,

had

gone,

The

i IE
birds had ceased their

=P
glad songs,The bees
to

^
hum their sad

songsjThe

i^
moon

^
in

i^
sailed the skies
a

^1
lone. Reinecke.

splen-dor shone.

And

5^ i 11-=^^
The

-P=E
P-t^ blue-bell ringsado
wn

3^
vale

=t
A mer-ry

2E
*=5=
chime,
so

the

fine and

fesii^^^e %w
Come clear;

^
-^

join

the dance, Let

no

one

Ye fail,

lit-tle dar

lingflow-ers

EAR

TRAINING.

115

B3:
fair!

Ss i^
The

f=i":^w" r-h"=^5Eg
and blue.Coiiie

mbrightar-

white flow'rets,yel-low,

peeping

out

in

ih
ray,

^
Employing

=F=F^^

p^?^
A

m
-

For-get--me-not and speedwell too.

host

of flow

ersgay.

191.

Fi in the
and
one

minor

key,

we

have
:

triad

consisting

of

one

diminished

third

major third

i
In the first

inversion,

iE^it
for the be.
to
a

becomes

an

augmented

sixth.

very troublesome
no reason

chord

pupils of

the old it

school, although
as an

there is
or

why
case

it should

Regard
V,
or

altered

ii

IV, for in either


same

it progresses with Le in

I-V.

The

effect is

the

where

combined

major key.
Reinecke.

A
tc,

"

rrr

v-^e3^.
t ?E

-(=

"

cg,.

i
etc.

V-

-1^

fe
"b:i-

i-^
VI

E
Franck.

^
z"

m
r
"
"

^
"

-w

I
etc.

f
=#F

iSteii

=^

116

EAR

TRAINING.

Beethoven.

ffl
^
a^ "^

^^^
|^i^g=i=t^==J=t3=H^":^
" " "

"zsj

to,

g^

IB I

-"-

P-""-

"Jte$E5E
192. Fi is

_^__^

g
r^

JT

frequently combined

with
or

Me

in

diminished

into the Dominant seventh chord, resolving

Tonic

: fifth

Schumann.

i fc^
Z2

n
ifiE"
Lfe

etc.

i
Beethoven.

feg^: s m S
is^

^^"i"~"
"""
"

"=x=:* :33

""

"

"F

aa

'

"

"-

r
etc

193.
what

We

will

now

lower ?

the

it seventh, calling

"

Te."

Into

does

it resolve

Sing
421. 4

I 7 7i?I6 7b 6 et' 5
2

II
2

I I.
s

6 7!?
4

61? s 7
5 s 4

i.

6 7!? 4 3
2

5
I.

I.

7b

6 3.

3-2-1.
I

7b 6 3b
I.

7b 6

I.

7b 6 eb
I

s 4 7

7b 6b
I

I.

3b

7b 6b

5 4

3b 2

I.

4#

7b 6

I.

4# 7b 6-7

EAR
: Sing by syllable

TFtAINlNiO,

117

m w^=^
tt

-tH"

^
"

\p. ^-

ais^a^^g^^^^^^^^E^
% g lsM=M^
3

EEEE

-!"""-

gl^^^^i
^-EEE
itj-^

^^^^-gfe^^^g^

P
Melodic
4

-^

"

"=^
"""I
"

i^
minor scale

F-=

"

"

s"

i W

r^
Do
te

le

194.
in the

Harmonize Tonic

these, and you


9

will notice

that Te

usually

curs oc-

chord, demanding

IV.

3-1" g w
"

m^"-

qcziz
1=
"

"-Ff2^

i 4zM

P=""-

?=5i

gpB
n

:P="i=

M=

M
195
of IV.
Te in
a

Szta

;^=i^ ^ti5i
It
""-=-

I demands

IV.
S

Te

in I demands
1$

II, the

substitute

118

EAR

TRAINING. "Mozart.

^^^^^^^^^m
etc

ilzfc*

^^E^^M
Mendelssohn.

i^ii^i^fe^l^ ^
-0 *"
-d-

1:
3t:t

J-^f

I
:^

fe^^.^"^^S
Te

S-S-

fejj*^

I
so

is seldom it creates

used

in

the

Dominant

chord, but
V
to,

where
or

employed

the unusual

progressionof

IV

to

ii.

Wagner.

i EE
f-

"A-=l
*=-jtzM.

is^
Wagner

-"SL -"2
S'-

IF^^=FFF^
Te
to
:

-f=" fe

frequently employed
effect
a

change the

mode

of the

Subtonic chord, and

modulation

Wagner.

i^^fe^^^
l-Xh

'"P^^^^
etc,

mm^^^^^^^msm^^

120

EAR

TRAINING.

Schumann.

tf i P^ ^
"
f-

itdi
O beau ti

^
ful

"-

x:

i?=it
-

star,

So

ra

diant

far, How

=j|^
dear
-

^
-v V-

^
you

1
are.

ly
3 3.

love

though dis

tant

you

198.
21.

Sing

2J} 3
7

I.

S
I.

2Jf 3.
4 3. 2}(

5
4

2Jt3. 2t
3
2

6
I.

2J(3

6
I.

2Jf 4 2#
li
32

2}( 3

7 f il3
4

7
I

2# 4| 4tt
3

3 3.

I.

4 2Jf3.
4

5 5

4| 2t

3 3.

21.

2#
3.

41

5 4

2 ijf 2# 3

6 s|}

5 4

eb 2ft 3

^
i

^^
I

t=t
-^
"

-^

"

^
Ri

=iH=

^=^

I
"=^

^
^

::J=
^
*

^=t
*H-^-

dW

'"^'
"

I
I

^z^it^i^i*!^
4

SSg

^t

-ri-^*

i i(p
"

-"-i"

^
i
^
used
"

ife
199.

*3
Ri
a

\d

-"s^

is

commonly

with
same

Fi
as

as
a

anijin such

case

is treated

the

embellishingchord, tone. singleembellishing


an

"A/!

TRAINING.

121
Liszt.

^m

i=iEEi:

m^^

^.

I
i

) i^^^3
Ri
"j

Ji^^TiTl: z^^rTil
employed in
the

^
III

also

firstinversion of the Supertonic chord,


resolves into

an augmented sixth,which creating for V).

tute (thesubsti-

izTh^fe^i w=^
9fc

-4-

j^i^

"zjis-

"

^
Schumann

^^ip^^^ps^gli
:"*

^1^^
The the mode
most

:1

y-___l

fc
it is

gia
employed
to

use delightful

for Ri chord.

is when

alter

of the

Subtonic

Wagner.

iaw
"^-lS
200.
3
2

^j.i
i

i'^j^^^^g
J^
^-

ii^i
s
i.

--^Sing 5 S# 6 5
4
4
2 2 I. i

6 sj{

4 6

S# 6
3

7
2

i.

5# I 7
6 _5#

I 1-7

I I.
6

5}f65
I.

7
2

I.

s#
5. 5

7 6
3
I

5 4

I.

5.

sj7
I

5 4
6. 3

s#

7 6
2

S# 4l st 6 i# 5# 6
5.

54321.

5#

4I s# 6

s 3 4

I.

122

EAR

TRAINING.

^qFf="p=|Mr=H^Tfr'h'=^l^

f^H=JEfe^J^E^Ea^E"^jiE^
^pspp^i
201
What What What What kind kind kind kind of of of
a

IV

itt|

gi^[f^^af^

^^^^^^^^^^si
.

of

fifth is is
2

i-

-5# ?
i

i#--S# ? 5|?
? 5 jf

fourth

5| ?
? s|{

a
a

third is 3 sixth is 7

7
3
"

5|?

5#?

202.
1

Dictation.
Chopin.

^^ i SEE P

B^ 3^?^

dZii

g:^^T^^=g^
^
'

d2c

V^

*ti^
*-

Jij nit^tf^CTf^-y-^^rg ^ji^a


3 Beethoven.

"

taE
ri"

^"^teH
Schumann.

rp^i

"

F^

"^E^E^i^

EAR

TRAINING.

123

15=^

:M=9

=E

EJES3

^^gi
Reinhold.

ri=iS s^^
f=^

^^

=SF=^^t^^==t

tit

^'g^^^^^^^^EE^g^^B203.
Si is most

frequently found
It also the
occurs

in the Mediant

chord, altering
chord, and
See

it to

the

major
cases

mode. demands

in the Dominant chord.

in both
both.

Submediant

example
Folksong.

of

^
ii^3
204.
2

fca
-^
-^

H^
t=p:

"""

"

"

"

"

yi
,1^-gik::

^
6#
7
I. i

!i"i -^-g-

i
s

Sing
I.

6 7
I

I 7 6# | 7
I

| i.
I.

6#
6

5 7

r.

6#

6#
I.

I.

6#
2

7 3

I.

#7
5

5^ s#
I.

6#
17

i-

6i 7

2# 3
3

i#
2b
I.

2#

4#

S# 6 6# 7

7^.6

fit' 5

S'' 4

3^^ 2

205.
1

Dictation.

i^^^^^
5=r=^ i W

-"

"

: \'^

*-

^.

eE

^r=^

fezET^^^^i^^J-g^^g^^
v
"

"

^^

124

EAR

TRAINING.

^^8^^^_EEpE^tfEEFtr^n3^;"^
Schumann.

is

-!!2-=" ^
*
"

*"

EE^a^^j^-zt^
^

"E
r

i i^^^
206.
1

:#*

^^
an

etc.

Li is coipbined with

Di

in
2

embellishing chord.
Haydn.

Hi^

^
^

etr

5Se^
207.
5
I'

^i^=Fp:

za:z"-^

^agJSJ^^
I I.

5^=^S

Sing
7
I.

2^
I

I.

2I? 3b 21? I.
I.

I I

3b
I

2b 2I7 2b 7
I.
I

I. I.

2|?

4
I.

2b
I

4
I

ib
7

3
I

2b

I. I

3b 5 2b 7
2b
1
I

3b 6b 2b

I.

6b

3b 2b

6"

I-

"*^

tt:S=:^
Ra

^^^^SiE

-^"

g*-

^ig^s

ti=5i

^i-b*-4i:

S^^B

EAR

TRAINING.

125

BE*

s:

3;
:t:tW

^^=E|
^
Song of the White-Throated Sparrow.

NovembeT

1^ VF^F^208.
what
1

^^^^^^I^^^^^B
In the first inversion of the

Supertonic chord

Ra

creates

is

commonly

known

as

the

Neapolitan Sixth.
Cramer.

it

--^minor.

3e^ w*

3^^

W^F^
A

i
R

^S

f
etc.

i?*
Cramer.

(i
C

sti
^g
minor.

)"^4

^ii^^^i
r
:g=
"^

I i^
5
I

Efct

209.

Sing
3
2 I. I.

5
I

sb

3. 4 3

s'' 4

3I.

3b 5b 3b

I.

5b 4
2b
1

6b s 5b

2b 2 3I7

sb

s i

I.

5b 2b

=5i=
Se

il =^

E^r

ia
^
ni-V*-

=^

"yTTp"

:"^trtr?EESES

126

EAR

TRAINING.

t tifff=

d*

^fe^^il

pjEaEa^E^j^^pfegEg^^g^g
210.
Di Ri in in
we Summarizing the alterations, may expect to hear I demanding ii. a VI or the first inversion of II demanding III, or with Fi : bellishing em-

I. Ra Me in the first inversion in the minor


a

of of
a

ii

forming

the

Neapolitan Sixth.

mode

key.
VI.
a

Fi in

II

Si in III
Le in the

demanding V. and V demanding


minor mode of

key

and

with

Fi

forming the

mented aug-

sixth. Li with Te in
a

Di I

in

an

embellishingchord.
IV and in the

demanding
note

descending melodic
fourth first,
a

minor

scale.
It is the scale
to interesting
"

that

when

the of

and

fifth of
one

the root
tones

of the thus

major

chords
occur

key

"

are

raised

semitone, the
of each. 211. Name it.

altered

in the substitutional chord

or

write

the

Roman

numeral

for

each

chord

as

you

hear

128

EAR

TRAINING.

^E^E^^m^M^-^.^^=^^^
*-

-(=2-

^^

tMi^M
%
F"
Bach.

AkMM ^m
*

feM^#t?*^
"' '

Isu^rf^^^^tjrtr
*:

-^

fe^^^^^WJ#^ i 3?
ji

i p^
JTl

t="

S=#

s
Jjj-1^
"

W^ J. #=

-^

B^^lp^f^

i(

^^N^
T
"

3t=t

f^"

*-^^*^

^^^^^fe^ta f="?^rp=f=
Bach.

Crrj-^^

"^"r^ fT

i^E^ s

EAR

TRAINING.

129

l-d^-

;!=*

d^S=

^i

E^ s^^
^H-=l|
1

^-

"=^Etl-"p
:t=1=

i^^

S
vV
,

sE
^i|.^
it

J^ J.
r

b="
^
"

f~y*'

mm^i

"=P=

^^
i^z

|t-^"-a-^

^S"
Bach.

igts^
r

-fe-

hd

"

EiE^^

fejgE^=^:
"

^r
"

"

pift
4:"

H^!-

"S^Efc?;

-=t

130

EAR

TRAINING.

"i|g--^^"j=e
6
'

p^^
GUILMANT.

EPife

sJ

^Ma
r

r
etc.

-"i=-

gf^e EQ^

"

r^=F^=;^a

i i
S

Brahms.

-i.
^^

^S
^^
f:

4-hg" ^

^ 9iifca ^
8

^^^
^
J

Mendelssohn.

W:^E"

UJ=a

iiSeE^

-,-^

F^^^P^^^F^P

EAR

TRAINING.

131
Bach.

^B^-i^^f^
Pi? P
r
r

^^Pl
1F=S

=g=

H-

-4r-

"P- V.

i=^

M Pee

^
i

^^
itit
p
"

g-

1^=^=^

9#
#

-i^^E^lt-

I^
-J^
?c=^

t-f
fr

|=t

-"

"

^-

E?=l

N^f^
i
f-

^s=^eE"

f-

1 9#

^^4-

t=t

SE^

^EE^^^PJ^^ ElElEEElE^^
#-"-^-=-gi-m-

rf
^ -^.

?^=i=

I i
T

^.

-J-J

^-

g""
10

=t=^

i \=^
Arr. from

Bach.

^-^;
15,
"

(2-

-ei

"

igi-

^-

^E^E^ii
s-"g-

3"

s^

:^5,"2--g- "J: ^fg-

w^

-g-g."5"

.g_lZg_

fg-

feg: =^=

132

EAR

TRAIN^ING.

"27"

PTpfe^^idi^

JH JM
Wagner.

Jl

ii^i^^^^^
iT""

^
r

^
r

p-

^
El^^^

?^Ht:F"

^J-j^J^-^J-J-l^'J
ij-j. 1^^
"

^^
rt

1
f
f

i
^^212.
not

P
j^:

:9 ^=^=l=g^T^-J=3^
-^-'-^

cifff-

1
have

r
Just
a

rf
Reduction is based
to
on

few

words

about

to

those scale

who
or

alreadypracticedit.
sooner

All music

the

chords,
or

and the

the

student

learns

hear

this framework

har-

EAR

TRAINING.

133

background,the quicker he reads, memorizes, and acquires the necessary velocity and Form with the florid passages. ease the habit of doing these things early, and it will requireno special mental effort to analyzethe difficultthings as they are encountered in the course of study. As suggested once before,do not burden
monic the
we

memory
sometimes

with
term

every
our

but hear detail,


"

the
"
"

generaloutline
upon and which the

"

what minor

memory

pegs

details
a

hang.

When

one

has the harmonic

rhythmic

outline of

composition, then, and


'

Followingare

some

ready to practiceit. what be done can examples suggesting


he

only then, is

in

this line.

Heller.

la

Reduction

of

i.

f
iizptt-==:

%
Heller.

g^
i*

^^^^^^

^i

m
Reduction
of
z.

2a

^
9^
^
d._

-s"-

134

"AJi

TRAINING. Steibelt.

^
i^

If^

=^f^=^

I #

!"gi

Sst

i iE
"^
3a

f^^E.

t
,"F

^^^g^^j
=^

Reduction

of 3.

pfc

^^

[H^^

P*
Heller.

136

EAX

TRAINING.

5a

Reduction

of

5.

1: i m^:

iSL
-^

j.

j-^-r

J-

J.

J=^n

It

ji-fEk^

^i:=J

^^
ft

The
think.

parting
Of
a

word

to

both

the who

teacher

and
musical the

pupil

is, think,

think,
there

thousand thinks Hear

people
or

play
than

instruments,

is

but

one

who Listen.

feels

more

technique
way, is but related be with

of

position. com-

not

in

general

nation. discrimi-

Observe else.

cause

and

effect

everything
Success
can

to

something only by

Classify

your

knowledge.
work.

achieved

honest,

conscientious