by Roberto Aguilera, Member SPE-AIME, SOQUIP

?Copyright 1978. American Instdute of Mining. Metallurgical and Petroleum Engmeara. Inc This paper was presented at the 53rd Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Soc!elyol PeIroleum Engineers of Al ME. held m Houston. Texas. Ocl 1.3,1978 The material IS subjecIto correction by the aulhor Permission to COPYia restricted to an abstracl of not more than 300 words WrNe 6200 N Central EXPY. Oallas. Texas 7S206

INTRODWJ?I~ Blackandbrownshales arewidely distributed all overthewxld (Rmth and SouthAmerica, Africaand and Europe) . Mxt of themfozmpartof latedevonian earlyMississipisn ages. In Quebec, blackskies are found nnstlyin theexternal zoneof the Sainthwrence Lowlands forming * of theUticaGroup(0n30vicianage). In normal. stratigraphic sections, * Utie blackcalcareous shalehasan average thickness of 1000feet. similar opp2site manner. The log-log cross-plot of sonic res~nse versus resistivity pmnittedreasonable estimates of watersaturation witlmut previous kncwledgeof thewaterresistivity, R , and thesystm as pxosity expment,m. Thiswas v&y significant the valueof tiehxizon of interest was mx known. The c ?% ss-plot revealed tit m had a relatively low valueof 1.54. Objective 2 was accomplished withthe indicates useof sonicand neubzm logs. qriace that,h general, thiscombination is rut veryuseful Whenthisstudy. was initiated, a literature sur- fersble volum analysis kecause bothlogsare affecvey indicated thatverylittle had bem published on ted in a similar fashion by shales.Fbr theQuekec the subject of evaluating gas-king frac122re shales consolidated gas-bearing fracture shales f hxevert fromlogs Therefore, an effort wasmadeto finda thiscanbination proved to ke vezyvaluab’.e. C#2jecneansof evaluating Cguali-tively and quantititi.vely tive3 was acccnplished withtheuseof sibilation, the fractured shales of CL&SC. Theobjective? of t=peratwe and dipnster logs. Quantitative estimates this@IAIUStiCXl progxam fzmmlegswereas follrJWS: of fractures pxosity (Cbjective 4) wre obM.nedas a function of @tal porosi~,the systen porosity ex1. Mterndnation of watersaturati~n ponemt discussed previously, and theporosity expxmnt 2. EWaluition of pxosityand shalemlof themtrix. Cksjective 5 was acccq+is~ by assu3. Identification of fractured zones mingthatthe fractures couldbe represented by a bun4. Qusntititive estimates of fracture pmxity dleof tukes. Objective 6 was achieved withtheuse of sonicand resistivity logswhichgavean indica5. Wsntitative estimates of watersaturation i.n eachmatrix and fractures. tionof over-pressured zones. Rx the fractured sha6. Differentiation betmen zones whichweregas lesof QU&ec, it was foundthatalmorml. subsurface bearing, buthadarounts of gasWch -e ialrepressures were indicative of smll non—ccmmerc ML. comwcial or non—comerc Servoizs.Objective 7 was accunplished withthe use 7. Estimates of fozmstion strength parameters of legs,pressure surveys, and datafromstinuilation forproper design of stimulation jobs. jobs.It was foundthatPoisson’s ratios and fracture gradients wereunusually highas anticipated by tluust It ws obtious thatit was impxsibleto warrant tec~..ics of thearea. exactitude whentrying to calculate theprevious wrameters.Hcma?ver, it was foundthatthere+ts lb datethreewellshavekeendrilled and 150 correlated verywellwithlakorabxy c%*, pressure sqosre mileshavebeenmapped frcxn seismic.The findsurveys, andactualstimulation and production infor- ingspresmtedin th~spaperhaveId to a cautious mation. optimism withregard ti thega. Wtentialof the frac-e shales of Quebec. Objective 1 wasaccomplished withtheCxmbimaticm sonic-resistivity, whichpmvd b k thexmsteffi= PFKHIR- FOR ?W4LWJXNGGAS BEARING ~ cientfordirect calculation of watersaturaticm due ~i7uES-smmoFTHEARr b the factthatshales affected kothlogsin a Ck31y a few*lmiques hwe * published on the subject of evaluating fra~ed slmles frcmlogs. P.mbsblythe safest way m determine gas entrance intemals in low deliverability wellsis @ run _ References and illustrations at erdof paper.

15-1114. Metamxphism canoccurin sedimentary rocksor As different Kexogen values may ke obtained from rinks. In somecasesthrows of up to 3000are known.to obtain Kezu. 2 The idesbehind this yocedureJs b account forthevolume of Kemg@I presentin.The rog~s”i analysis. Scm typical -en ~Ysis =e pre=ked in TableL . and resistivity as follows: Production Index. 5. Figuxe6 slmwsa generalized stratigraphic sectionof thearea. Figure 1 show a plotof pmiuctionindexfora @st Virginia fr@CtUr@3 well. In this zone .a teapexature logWEE &msity decreases.. mic success. presented in track3. It ks an approximate kqth of 200miles (321. Thewellwas perforated at depthsindicated n’e anomliesoccurin gamnay-ray.external zone. i. 1 It haskeenfoundthatusually in fractured zones. The logging program leading tok~~ analysis is rather ~ive and consists >f:2 1.internal zoneand rappezone. AS an -let =1= of 20 S1-m md 200 API unitshavekeen usedin SXXEcasesfordevonian shales.inchdingtheOrdoviciancarbonates and Cambrian sands.by thearrows in track3. vhere G ~. The blackshales considered in thisp@er are located in thiszone (Figure 9). Volumes of Kerogen an? de~ined fran these cros:carbon tential in theblackshales of theexternal zone.laterather wellwithgas zonesindicated by theKeled :factures and/orbreezed kercge~ cmntent. (1038. plots by dividing thedis-ce be= thedatapint (x)and the silt-clay 1* by thetitaldistance from ~RPHISM me Kerogen pointto the siltclayline. matrix characteristics of kero. 3 Ebr evaluation. Villeroy 2 and Ste-Fran~ise Rx@ne. All fourtectonic regions havesanehydroThis~~ dealsonlywithgas popatemtial.000 square miles(2590 000ha) . k@k density. ionlogs. Figures 7 arxl 8 slxw the tedmnic zones of the Precambrian shield. GannaRay FEC density CNL (onSNP)Neutron BHc sonic Duallaterolcg on Dual-Inducticm laterolog by inbricatioris The mppe zoneis characterized Of CS&OIISteS and Si3t’idS. Noticethattheresults correThe increase h resistivity is attributed to gas-fil.matureto gas.G + R 1’ B rature ard sibilation lcgslin _ lmle.ti caneoutwith~lgr ~t ~rereallstic ~nslties.This shaletis a thidmessof up to 1200ft (365. ILXM?ICN AND GECLOGY The Sedimentary kasinof the lowlands of Quebec is lcwatad between htmtr~ andQuebec city (Figure 5). platQuelXwlowlands. The internal zoneis characterized by thrusting in all the se&hnsntary seqwmce.partsof the litblogical oclunm hve not * disturbed. ‘he results are tawity is attributed to zunesrichin organic matter. 2.~ ~ Figure4 shcws an axa@e of an Ohio*11 ccunpleted basedon information provided by Kemgen anaExperience is devonian shales indicates thatso. 4. The external zoneis characterized ky thrusting in tk UtiCdandhXIXulE GrOUPS . 35 m) whichsbws a highproduction in*. The increa=h thegamma-ray in. API unitsfromcram-raylog average API unitsof shale R = Resistivi ty frani. M&nxphism is theresult xoss-plots similar to theonespre~ltedin Figures 2 othermstemxphic of highlevels of hsatandpressure.e.76 m) and it is charact~izsd for itsodorof @roleum when freshly broken.run b determine zones of gas entry. *91 Prop* a equation tit dined the ~tion. 3. it is reccmmnded to select the lcxerof the on the SaintLawrence I owlands o f @ebec haveirdicam Kerogen values.Z@ havebeenreached in *1s Villeroy 1.duea upkaval andcanpression of theplaffozm associated sulxluction zone.silt. The 10. Theaverage resistivity andAPI unitsof shale met be established basedon 1conditions. and imluct. was proved to ke highly fracturefi by otherrneaIE. the %rmation.rduction log average resxstivity of shale f’~ = Bulk dmsity frana density leg. Thispa= willcmcmtrate on evaluation of theUticaGroup(Ortivician) whichis charac~ized litblogically by blackshales.of this!&Cony southeast overthepreviously descrilerate various cross-plots as shcwnin Figures 2 and 3. 1 Kercqen analysis is anotkc rethd proposed for waluation of devonian slxales.Thiswellrepresented a technical sucdecrease in bilkdami~ is attributed to an increase cessfxm thepaintof viewof loganalysis.lysis. Interval 3406-3656 ft.Various studies md 3.45 km) and an areaof akout10. although in porosity due b thepres~e of fractures and/or thegasrates~e~lowti makethewllanecOmb 1density of keroga.3 Ian)j an a~roximate widthof 50 miles (80. gravity sliding and thrusting at thebeginning orogeny kwe carried deepbasinal sediWiththevalues of Table1. Theplatform is characterized by norml faulting. mentsfrcin4the bed zones . it is pssible b ge.tlx? form. The areaof theextarnd zoneis abut 900square miles (233100lxa) . theganm-rayand resistivity increase while Followhga fracturing job.andclaymustbe knownor assmed basedon values usedin ~ience in thearea. p-frse datathatcan be themsnalyzed ky Ccalnsrcially Figure 10 shx%s plotsof crystallinity of the nmilable computer programs. -sity. Thedata@nt can * he shifted ted thattheblackshales of the external nne are m the silt-clay linealongthe lineconnecthqthe Woc&n ~fit and the silt-c&yline.en.

sonic. resultin a straight linewith v=sus ( At . * ‘l/n.. The tuolres&msesare rmt knownwitha degree of resulting values of tow S forperforated interval xmfidmce. In fact. Rnpirically it ks hen fouxdthatthereare no possibilities of hydroFigure12 shows a log-log cross-plot of RLL8 carbons presence whenthe* is in theanchizoneo VS (At-B). 35%.dinates forvarious ~forated &Y’non-p3zforated zo8 Lated fruntherelationship. ~ -l/n (5) ~ IwrAL WATERSATURM’ICN vill~y.but curves as slxwnin Figure 13. -at~e.of Villeroy 2. sw . withtheuseof theaqua=t skies of theSaintIawrence Iowlands are lccated tion: in a zonemsture to gas.5.mm . lb insert a valueof JJ in theprevius equation is ated various 3 having previous knowledge of rather difficult forVilleroy.At-B (3) ce indicates that. * sfiilation logsfortheUticaGroup seesonlyntrix porosity and @psses vuggyand frac. *fluid andmtrix transit times.logplotof R ~sus ( At . and theconstants of thepxusity uatersaturations in bothmtrix and fractures. Thevalueof B forequation 4 ws found Figure 10 showsthatthecrystallinity of Illite in to k 52 on a tiialand errorbasis. JJ in cartesian -P thetotilJJ of a double-poro ity system can be calcu.-—.Thesewaretot . neutron ccmtxhation provided a valuable formation evaluation toolforestimating porosity and shale voInserting equation 3 in 1 results in: hlnes. straight linesthatrepres >:Ati a sl &-m for -es of ~nstant and constant watersaturations Wexegenerated as slmw 1.Figure 14 tureForosities.B) ~s~&d ces&w Groupin a zonepotentially matureto gas. was probably 2 or higher.~~ daa of a ~?forated interval and t& cak~ted @zmsitiesand shalevoluEquation 4 indicates t hata log-log plotof Rt . The slopeof the 100% thisgroupin a zonemture ti gas.mature tc gas 1. sincethe fornwcion is in Figure12.-2T- . tedgas-bearing fractured shales of Quebec.DR IAAK .. ufmu. 6230-6300 ft (1898.wever. and co logsin laminated systems. is assured b be equalto the porosity expmsnt. thiscombination is not for shale voltanalysis kecause both whereA andAB-~ long= correspxxl to thewallknown veryuseful in a similar fashion by shies. the sonicmatesof to~l fl in *uble-pxmsitysystems. Thevalues of R are the resisequation to yield: 6 tivities of eachzone in thecmss-p~ot.wrn afmn. IogRt = -m log ( At .in general.m..35-3%. Thiglow value of m indicated the presence of fracturesin The various mtamrphism studies in the Saint theUticaformation.. Theprevious equation was usedto evaluate W Utica shaleof bell The @ues of R $re the re$istivities readall the straigh? linethatrepresents the 100% Archie’s equations can h ccmtinad intoa single throughout mx-kearing trend.-. sincetheporosi~ ~nmt of Lawrence Icwlancls comelatewithvarious studies in thematrixalone.1920~2 m) are presented in Ta7 indicited in theiroriginal study ble 2.B)+m log (A-B)*log (4) (aRJ+l~I Table2 skinsA t . n.B. .(for Usinga Studies of reflec-q -x of bitumen ard/ Bwdifferent fzcm52 did not ga=ate a straight or vitrinite. me-rphia studies indicate ty andwaterresistivity. ttigmethodis thatthewatersaturation can ke calCulatd without having previous knowledge of porosiXn conchsicm. —- 3 illite and reflectmmtry of bim Villeroy #L vs depthforwell !Lk crystallinity of the illite reflects the level of mtemrphism of a rock.1-0. [1 .B) should a S1OW of -m for zones withconstant A. indicate the following maturity levels line. Thewatersa log Rt = -mlog Jl *log (aRJ+ Iogx (1)turation expanent. The akoveequation indicates thata log-log plotof R versus p nustresult in a straight line Easedon equation 5. tit the sonic bg tich fitstheequation PORXITYAND SHAIXVOLUME (2) ~. ex@rienceindicates that slxwsa cross-plot of A t vs.54. of logspresented in Figure11 has of timl Wsaturaestimates Lionin tkeblackfractured shales of @ebec.a loge theUticaGxoup&s rmt reachthe anchizone. -=:Pvalueof s .Figure 10 ‘l&IL-$was selected forresistivity because shcwsthatthaUticaGroupfallsin a reflec~try it has a ketter vertical definition thandeepinducnsequently places tion ~betW@@n SbOUtl Snd2.9 . mkaring trendms foundto be 1. ‘Jh’=l*%p:s~=~yywy.i~ values thatincluded the a fractured shale.without porosity. but are values witlmut logsare affected Figure 15 slmwsclearly thatfor theconsolidanuchphysical maning~ whichti~er -fit ~ esti.‘1. ~.mture to oil 0. .-. Ehstexn US (Appalachian) whichindicate an increase in me@mphism t~ = eastin the&eetion of mre One of theiwinadvantages of thiscross-plot9 intense Ctiastmphism.Atm Figure 11 sinwsganma-ray? r@SiStiVity.At. In addition. Figure 15 simwsestinmted pmsity and shalevolumesbasedon thedata~ints of Figure 14.Ah AQ . 5%. a CNLws run. Wyllie et al. However. _ien~.! nes. and pla.aR and 1. I%e suite used to obtain as For thisevaluation thiswas veryinportant th=e -e no esthtes of RwfortheUticaGroup.U .. ms. forhydmcarhon presence: Immature 0.

.7and 4. ThisintsXllwas indicated m be gaa-kearing by the sibilation survey.ndnly in fracture 0.withan averageof about 1.— 7445 . indicating thusa verysmall ~ FIKWl m<C@ER2. v= XtiO*g coefficient. 2 7/8” R13SEIW0ZRS (7. The interval was acidized Thevalues of v and Sti camputed fmn theab68 m3) of 15%Ha. lmever. 64 m3) of 28%HCLmixedwith presauxes mrained at 5.54. In addition. and sonic-resistivity provided lwanstoewr trtie~nent.1 .2 m) is reFicjure 16 showssibilation and dip-inter logs presmtedbyzones 50t074 in Table2. UIGANALYSIS OF GAS-BEARING FRW3URE ~INTHII sAINTIAWRmCEICwfAm6m C41mEC — _——.saturation.B ) vs.Injection psi (37921.Thisresult wee verydifficultto explain at firstglance. as due tocapill.luate XX Thecalcula. 95 In3@in). The intend W acidized goodas shownin Table2. @ XUTable2 fora perfora.8 -2100. % (m) for htervals Thewat= saturation in thematrix(Sti) can 6230-67-’0 ft (1898.leaving thecoarse rmt takeany acidat surface pressures as highas pmsity (fractures) to hydrocarbons. it was givem~ the ~ture ard sibilation lcqs.watertmds to occu~ the finerspaces(inter. It canbe is ~ellat noticed thatthevalues of tital~msities are ketforthe UticaGroup.6 m) slrmed distinctive Wttems ft (2045. thecanlma a function of m = 1. is focused 5 and 9%.2 m). Tk combination m) and 6800b 6890ft (2087.2 . —— ~~ —.acid-frac tk titerval failed.tingintervaL ce betm titi andmtiix p3rosities..9 m).a $” choke. as 90%of thetreating attenpt to locate gas =Wy intothewsN. 16 KPa)whileinjecting acidat an average rat=of 6 bbl~ (O.7 -2194. rity.IAL GAS DISTINGUISHING reservoti.‘I% t~ature logd-id Production of gas franthe fracture systsm of not giveany idicationof gas. as indicated thepresemce of gas fran6700b 6800ft Sonic-resistivi@ shownin Figure11.fora zem initial tio’1.000 gallons(94.500 IDENTIFICATION OF FRACXWEDZCN_@ 50%nk?thaml.sibiIn conclusion. ve equations are slmwnin cedat an average rated476 ESCTD(13480 m3/d).v) resistivity in theorderof 1450 -m.meter? gaselmtswsrereported tile drilling with* the tqature and caliper logs-e run pastthe slidUwrainsardl UticaGroups. Prested interval.1 m).sityad vie. ~ significant 6302ft (1920. The correlation . Continwusfl.2m) and 6710-6800 be estimtedfranthe~tion: 1° .sinceno waterprciluction was c~zed from ~TfMATESOF MATRIx AND FNCCURE FCR3SIlTEs thisinterval. Fxm wereflowed backb surface and a steady prothe logsof Figure 11.9 .-v=. Thisinterval was &erforated on February 1.1914.1m) uatersaturation in tie ‘Wf = fractures. 5000psi (34473. TheccnbinatiOn sOVilleroy # 2 has * waterclean. Thisildicated thatresistitity couldbe usedas a ~t-off critericn where for selecting potential gas-bearing intervals.These indications of gas entrance wre con.2 -2072.a.6 ti tie an ordec+f -magnittie quantitati2100.9 (2042.1.fluids duction of 30014SCFD (8500 m3/dJwasobtained through rature lcwgavea kicktiward lower values of tmperature at 6270-80 ft (1911. it can be seenthatthetenpe.3 cm) tubing andpacker we set in * 51” (13” 97 cm)casing of thewallat 6651ft (2027. our interest indicating thatthedip-reter 1~ is an additional ~ porosities. whichrangeheti valuable toolforindicating potential fractured zu.9 -1926. ted in~ 6230~ 6300ft (1898. an attenpt m nearly zero. Matrix pxositieswerefoundfranfigure 17 as “ tion~ture . as the formtiondid granular pxosity)of the reck.logsallow2d ve evaluation of S as sti in ‘hble2.A wellVillmy # 2 ms drilled withair fran eliding sleeve(open) was placed in thetubing at 3900to 7200ft (1188. 79 KPa). Thisis resonable. .Agreemntwas withone slmtper foot.2072. suresurveys. *.- Ilkerval 5230. ‘lb cordmrate thisfinding.2m) Another setof porosity values was calculated frcm the snniclogalonewiththe useof ~tion 3 and Thisinterval was perforated on February I. and tlemawhichwas assured to be ‘d= lation.2%. with25.6300ft (1898.titalporosities.pb) ~xl 6840-6890 ft (2084.separated by a cut*ff ‘Wb = (1.2072. The sibi. a 109-109 crossplotof ( At .2 Sw -v Sti (6) foreachintenwal (figure 18).6m).bore..9 -1920. lation survey alsodetected gas in thiszone frun * A qualitative irdicettin of thepresence of gas 6220b I 6320ft (1895. TheWforasidered asindicative of possible fractured intervals. saturation withinthe fractured system is ***ted at 100%. 1976 gas prcducESTIMATES OF WATERsAmTra IN &IATlux AND FR4CIURES with1 stitper fcot. showed thatthe intsmalwas understrong depletion. Gas nes.1920.with1.1 m).500gallons(5. Next. ‘rhis interval was ~forated on January 10.6ml latedti Table2. tedvdlues of matrix and fracture prositiesaxe takuInterval 6710-6800 ft (2045.4%. 9.1976 with2 shts per foot.~~ P (1.3m). kwwer.indicating that nic-reaistivity indicated attractive values of porothewatersaturation within the fracture system is Hcmaver. fora zoneperforated in tk Utica Group. qualitatively * quantitatively thisgas-beaFracture porosities weretakenas thedifferen.Thishighvolume aTa@rature and sibilation logs-e run in an cid treatnrmt =s successful. 1976 thebasicperamet=$ A = 189and B = 52.9 -1920.

39 KPafi). A pxosity .5 m). intawal . Thisrenge lus * proved to veryrealistic in theGulfCoast.38mm3 OF GAS-IW-PLACE therthatit was nearthewellkore as suggested by sonic-resisthe.67 A 0.and reservoirs areassociated withakmormal pressures i‘ the temperature logdid not showany kicktxxerd lothe fractured shales of Quebec.it probably The equation relating stresses ail EW.6890ft (2084. spciallyif the ti pressure zonebelow6570ft (2002.192Q. The temperature logalsoverified thisfinding by thecooling effect abve the sliding sleeve(figure 19).ing sleeve. Solution of theprevious equationindicates thatfornormalfaulting thevalue of M should be Mmeen 0.8 -2100.2 m) has * estimatdat 5. . wervalues of ~ture. sincebasedon thisanalysis.“ 11 Hubkert and Willis further indicated thatin regions of thrust faulting. BHP = 3000” psi. SCF legs.as sibi~cial tervals seas to indicate thatsmall non lation logdid not giveany indication of gas. FmMATIm SmENTGH PARAmrmS If thisadditional ptcmtialWY proves to be gas~uld increase t o as much bearing.9 .7B8CF (0. and on thekottxxn ZOne409 psi (2819.13 x 10$n3) per section frm the interval tested.75forregions wherethrust faulting occurs. and a ~ssible recovery of 21.4% ~f = fracture cleartrend of incr-singresistivity is skwn frcm watersaturation in the fractures = O% the tipof theUticaformtiondownb abut 6530ft. and the trix@rosity end mstrix gas saturation. ‘_l’his reare 245 ft (74.oBSCF turation varying between 37 and 68%. Several weeksbefore. andY axes.85) Intend 6840. Fractured pfromthe relationship: (0. H~ver. ‘Wf = tiarea drastic reduction of resistivity occursin. it has beenpssible @ carryout stimulations withpressure gradients of abut 1 psi/f t (2.Thecombination Gss-in-place forUticainterval 6230-6300 ft tivlty indicated attractive values of tital watersa. uhere ‘II-E problem herewas b try b detme frcmW& GIPf= gas in the fractursd system.75 x 10~ ) per section. prokbly@nservativeforthe trmd is alsodelineated in thisregion. Thisindicated thatthe gas fromthe tip zonewas “charging up” the bottomzone. Se@Itl to holdin ~ ~ MS ~ti-1 findings ofSaintLawrence Lowland of (2uekec.96 KPa). fsx=u Y l~v CTz (7) Awl) R2CNCMIcs ESTIIWIE OF mXoVDW3LE RESERVES Recoverable reserves havekm estimated by assumingan abandonment pressure of 100psi P 1000ft of depthor 625psi (4309. 26 KPa/m) [nothercasesit has beenim@ssibleto stinnilate =n zones withpressure gradiatsgreater thsn1.4(0. leaststress skmild be horizontal ranging btwm one thisgas is not considered in theestinate of gas-in halfandone third of theoverburden. the leaststress shwld be ~ertical and eqml to thenetoverburden pressure.and Z = 0.and thegas saturation within the fractured system was estimated GIPf= 43560xAxhxj3fx(l-Sti) at 100%.5 ~i/ft (3. IL-8resistivity is larger thanthecut-off value 145$-&m. thegas-in-place Hubkert andWillisLL haveindicated &t in reas 26. sibilation survey. dicating * topof a pro%bleover-pressureil zone.8and 2. tio forrecksin compression can be writba as: . 1.sent.(1898.25and 0. thegreater stiess should be approximately vertical and qual m Thereis alsogas in themtrix.:5BE@ (0.17 x 109 m~) ~ section rosities varied ketwaen 0. theby the soniclog frcmthe topof the Jticadownto m) of m’cential additional PSY 6530 fwhere a drastic incr~seof At occurs.68 abve the tipof theabnormal pressure zonethats&n< alsotendstm corroborate thepresence of en abnorgocdchance of bsinggas-bearing. thewellheadpressure was 500psi (3447.38 RPa). In scmeinstances.A linear whole Uti= Group. It was foundthatsmall = 640acres reservoirs areassociated withabnormal pressures in formation Wy = 70 ft h= the Uticaformsticn of theVill=oy area.00461 CF/SCF(atBHT = 575°R.!3ai 7 0. Thiswas veryvaluable kecause it indicated thatgasWS mt entering the lmleas suggested by the tawperature log. A plotof P/Zvs. Corprison of performance of theprforatedinand it mat be consid~d onlyas ~ssible. tiena certain zonewoulddeplete rapidly due b reservoir areatakenas one section A= smallsizeof thereservoir. cumulative gas productionblicatesa recovery af akout4. couldbe approximately between 0. placeas it is verylikelytit evenif thegas is prf is not prcilucible due b lackof f2ra.sincethere was no waterproduction fmm the Bgi . Figure 20 showsresistivity and soniclogsof Villezoy # 2.61 x 10h3) additional wtmtial intezvals not w whereo‘Sare stresses alongthe X.The anmnt of flowfnxnthe ~p m thebottixn zoneas indicated by the flw meterwas 398kSCFD (11270 m3) or 29800CT (844 m3) at dcwnble conditions.Thismximunl ptemtielhasnot * pmvei.andM is Poisson’s ratio. Solution of equation 7 indicates that Ebisson’s ratio.sson’ permeability in the shale(matrix) s ystem. themllhead pressure was 1145psi (7894. p. as thereis a mathe effective pressure of theoverburden.1m) ialls Thisestimate iL. Thisinterval was indicated to be gas-bearing ky the sibilation survey(figure 11)although the temperature logdid not slmwany gas.3 SCPa). tile thegreatest stress should be horizontal and ~pproximately between tvmand threetimesto overburdenpressure.6%. gionswherethereis normalfaulting.22 KPa).and at the tim of loggtig.tit ra.The lmtti kle pressuxe on the top zone has 3JOOpsi (20684.5 KPa). characterized by thrusting tectinics in the UticaGroup.33.

6 = -SSS sHuESm OF @S-BEAltCNG FRM2TURE THEsAml! uwmtw231.and Graves E. the 90 initial “dwelopnmt”wellsare ex8.thisty@ of analysis mightfindstrong applicationin theAppalachian basin. Jon. C. Gregory.. Due to lowproductivity characteristics of fracturedshales. a 90 wll project would follw whichis -ted to recover 225BSCF (6. D. andWillis.: “Water Cut Determination frumWellIogsin Fractured and VuggyFormations. willhaveprobably accumulated 2.: “Pattern Remgnition as a Means 6. of Fbrmstion EValua Lion.Mrio Sanchez.67 0. W./MAN30F QuEE@2 SPE 7445 forated as yet proveto be gas-bearing.. it is okwicus thatit is inpxAble ti warrant exactitide ‘k.14 85 ~ 2.~glti Cliffs. ” Proceeding chianPetrolewn ~logy Symposiun heldat Mxgantown. S. K. 11. R.0. — 4. Beiers. M terpretation Principles. W.82 0.: Petrolew-logy JohnWiley 5.I. The averCt3e Villeroy wellis epected ti G. and Sons. R. Landes. J. trying m evaluamgas-bearing fracturedshales frcmlogs.: Wll Desi gn: Drilling and Production. * of Naturally Frac9C 2&@lera.and &rdner.New York. ” First~stern&s SkiLes S~siu4n. Production and ~tionsManager of *i6t6 Qw5kcoised‘ Initiatives P6txoli~es(~~). 12. 1 USED 3N I@ROGEN ?UWUiYSIS2 Sxlic(pSec/ft) Density(gr/cc) SNP (Ire) CNL (m) 55. ce in a 20 yesrperird. Prentice Haii Inc.D. J. 1976)764-772. ‘1’ ABLE TYPIGL MATRIX ~’iWS I thankMr.10 0.153-166. M.1976). B. 1. forpmnissionm @lish thispaper. ” pawr Presentiat After20 yesrsof production theaverae wellis exthe14thAnnual Iagging Syi&sitiof SPWIA(Nay mted to produce at 296MSCFD(8382 m1/d)and it 6-9. A. ” jectare soundas shwn in Figure 21. 5’? of theoriginal gas-in-plachap~r 7 (1972) 39. A.41..: “Vast Sedhentiry Easinof @s& -lands MajorIn*est to Socjuip. MmganEnergy wsearchCenter. ” Trans. If thisis confirmed. theassumption of lowdeliverabilities -s rode.W. J. W. K.5 2. Holden. Pet.315 174 1.H-.5BSCF (70079 x 109 m3). J.1973) . 10.37 x 109m3) of gas in 20 years. D. 2. =vec. J&ung. Hilchie..threewellshavebem drilled and 150 square miles (38850ha) of @ential gas-bearing for shales tivebeenmapgedfromseismic.67 . Fbr~ pie. M. : “Elastic WaveVelocities h Heterogeneous Gas-in-place forthe 150sections ms~ so far Porous U.1) SpEpaper2925Pres-tadat Me 45thAnnual FallMeeting of SPEof AIME (Wt. ” The Oil and (3ss J.andSchmidt.8eo& EditiOn(1959).& Dallas. 3. 17-19. Texas (1961) . 7. pec~ to recover 25. Hilton.Inc. ” Trans. is estinated at 885~ (25. J..27 0.” &physics (Jan..: “* Analysis in ~ormations withCcx@ex IA~I~~s . The procedures discussed in thispaperaregeneralh nature and consequently may provevaluable in otherfractured shales of theworld. Nsw Jersey(1962) 485. (January 26. AI~ (1957) 210. (Oct.. Pcm&on. Pickett.. 1. J.68 . produce initially a!..:“Wireline Evaluation of thek vonian Shale: A Progress Report. R.02 0. Hoyle.1977). about500NECETl (14158 m3/d).Va (Nhrch 1-4. Schhkerger. : “Fracture Investigation of theDewmian ShaleUsingGeophysical wellLogging of theSemth Ap@aTeclmiques.R.It&rto: “Analysis mmmics of thispartial “developwmt” protuxedResenmtisfrunOxwsntional wellIsqs. G. R.: “l@c&nics of Hydraulic Fracturing.‘kch.. !B3 date.1976)..Prmjects the nearfuture callforthedrilling of + wellsto quanticorroborate presence of gas in commercial ties. and Ptison. 1970) . A. W.06 x 109m3). W. K. S&WI. 1956)~.(July.Consewtly. R.Craft.. Wyllie. experience to date indicates thatlogsare valuable evaluation @ls in Quebec as proved by actual production findings.

22 .. (AFTER MYUNG1). 1 .43 .058 .068 .073 .43 .f. .22 .67 .53 .:: .o*e” i? - .24 ..57 .1 15 37 34 37 36 ?3 38 37 37 . TABLE 2 2WF=VAL 6230’ ~B (4 v* (%) -6300’ !J~ ~ Of v .52 7:2 .22 .3 6. eat.49 .4 6!4 5.24 .055 ..073 .42 8.22 .5 .20 .8 4 7 4.055 .3 4..5 64 60 59 59 mm. 202 -S2S KN?lm — (ft) OF PEW0AW51 s“ %s ( 11-nl) &/ft) i) gl: 8* 6232-38 6238-40 6240-41 624142 6242-44 6244-46 6248-50 6250-54 6254-56 6256-60 6263-64 :: 6264-66 61 63A 6266-68 6268-71 62 63 64 65 66 67 60 69 70 71 230 72 73 74 6298-6300 %: 50 51 52 5: 54 55 56 57 58 62 61 62 61 62 59.051 .5 59.044 .080 .56 .073 . !8 : ~ ... 3.MIcIOS@c/11 NEUTRON-DEN81TY FIG.4 - 18 .18 .15 ..0 L Re.5 21 1: 10 12 8 10.066 .108 .016 .042 .48 .49 . 80NJC-DEN81TY SHALE.58 .s.068 .A TYPICAL IN ! HILTON ).lz .5 73 54 63 62 64 :: 61 62.066 .. hens 5 .55 .40 ..062 m: .5 11 7 1: u 9. 4 10 1: 1: 7. 28 0 23 22 31 18 14 22 24 20 12 22 21 18 9 1:. FIG..22 6.67 .40 10.57 .$.75 .82 .18 .(77: . 2.5 63 59 59 62 63 61.009 ..088 .18 .47 8.00’ W.5 7.59 6:5 .009 8“.58 6:4 w“.21 .24 .077 .4 87 7.75 . ..50 .0 1?:: 8 8 9 10 : 8.24 .71 .33 .. m t!. .080 ..47 .60 .015 .23 ..\ .066 .. I-1-#m7 od ..5 32 8 7 7 .051 .23 .A TYPICAL ! ).23 .49 .058 .21 .49 .62 . &o $c:[LII ~ 30 90 AI . .64 .5 7:5 . CROSSPLOT (AFTER IN EROGEN-BEAR I NG SHALE* CROSSPLOT (AFTER EROGEN-BEARING HILTON .0 9..00.64 .45 .r..23 .< I FIG.61 .37 .0 10.66 7 .045 .--- .069 .81 .24 .23 .073 .0 22 - < 24 - 2s - ? 80 .8 6. 6.018 .24 .047 . WE8T VIRGINIA LOG IN A FRACTURED .052 .7 .69 .18 .61 .8 .047 .20 .51 .088 .49 6.56 .052 .060 .057 . ..23 .EXAMPLE OF PRODUCTION INPEX WELL.44 8 .64 .042 .066 .71 .4 .

-. .a..-.. .8......:--:../ /’.. SLa ye.!..mo. r..( . MuIS 0-” MAP. !..-7 LiGENDE +y: 2LNNXKSS ~. -+ ...lt’.[. LAWERENCE LowLANDs ..c.~ FIG..... Ft 5.. SAINT OF QUEBEC. y. +“+ -..Im.. r. . --.0...!!... CO. 7- TECTONIC ZONES. .GEOLOGIC *1 ---- . .ma. SAINT LAWERENCE LOWLANDS OF QUEBEC./ .. .-_ -.. i! 1U...”. !—2? ‘“ / “l:&T”.i....!. t“-” — . 1 “.”2.. / . . [ m“... .t.... -.. . $ ‘“-’”’-”b I .— T T . I *.&\ --‘1 “7 SW80Lt S GiOL0080UtS . ‘ . ..a.— .%. ------- ‘.U. — I I 4 - I Id>l I .’ .. -.1 [.6[. M . ----- ‘ +.. <.1. ..-.. ...... G.0...imcrwt .“– [ .- -- rER HILTONL). I \] d COMPUTED LOG SHOWING uSE OF KEROGEN ANALYSIS IN GUIDING COMPLETION..s! j:: ..”.


50( 6.100 7.—— —— . Fig.—— iOO ——————- SON I C TEMPERATURE SIBILATION 6.20( 6.—-P z I 3? II e 1 [ ------<----’E’’”+%’”+% .30( 6.—— 60 90 1 RESIST IVITY 10 -.000’1 ?.30’ 7.*OO’ 1 ——— .40< 6. * / .700 6800 2-I 4 68001 6 c e Qoc 69.000 7.GAMMA 10 . 11Logs of Villeroy #2.60( 8.


. VI LLEROY No.. 00 0s - so - Q 45 ...*mO m...* . CROSSPLOT PERM17s Estimating POROSITY AND SHALE VOLUME IN CONSOLIDATED GAS- . * G G e 3? G G G 4: CNL (Llmostone Poroslly) FIG...I [110 a..W..2 UTiC& QROUP -----------A ml $.?.0. G .2 UTICA GROUP I I.. / / > / .. ezw.. VI LLEROY #2.14 - SONIC-NEUTRON CROSS PLOT.. [sm.. @mt*..... G.. G G G G G 9   G G o G G ** G * G G...VI LLEROY No.15BEARING SONIC-NEUTRON FORMATIONS.n UU*W...! *#aO. 2 . 6 !0 !5 Pomwty) 20 CNL (Limeslorm FIG. . n. ewo [G...

. . -..1 2.6800 (03.6300 4.SON IC-RESI ST IVITY CROSSPLOT FOR ~RY AND GAS-BEARING INTERVALS... \ . . 16..1 V.0 19 !.4 13 1.8 0 1 El 1.. LOGS 0 3 10 15 20 25 D SHOW GAS-BEARING FRACTURED Metrtx Porosity (%1 Ob (AFTER IkuJl LERA9) I FIG .s s 6830. 17 - CHART USED TO EVALUATE DOUBLE-POROSITY SYSTEMS. . ‘\ ‘? \ “ !00 I 1000 R.? UTICA GRf3uP .. ) VI LLEROY NO. ‘\...2 / 2. .. 18.0.? 11 FIG.. (L18) FIG.7 E 16 VI LLE~LIY lb 2 —G E?J El 1.SIBILATION 9. (0. r \ \\ \ .. . “\. .I / 2.” :\\....0 AND DIP-METER ZONES . —-1 G A .. ‘ 1... ..

VILLEROY I I CALlPER . 19 . i I 6 Fig. I . .+ I I 1 FLOWMETER I I I 1 I SPINNER I I 10 SPEED IN RPS 2. I II I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 \ \ . ~ LOGGEO .5” TEMPERATURE INCREASE — No. I RUN I I . / /’ .+ I up I /4 I I I I \ I \ I I I I I I I f I II II II — l= \ I I \ \ -. LOG N02 20 1 I I i I I \ \ I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I INTERVAL I I . RUN NO LOG I + I+TEMP.2 — RUNS TEMP.Temperature and flowmeter surveys. I / I I 11 /’ LOGGED 1+ DOWN 1.

RESIST IVI’i Y TOP UTICA ~ioo: SONIC 90 ~ 6.400’ 6. 20below 6550 ft.600’ 6. and sonic logs indicate the presence of over-pressed zones .700’ 6.800’ 6.200’ 6.900’ 7.500’ F.000’ TOPTRCNTON Resistivity Fig.300’ 6.

+100 o 25 % SUCC5EJS 8 ?5 100 / _ 25 /0’ / / / / / .000.? s / 20 . 21 . 60 WELLS .0’ / 4‘ / / / o / BREAK-EVEN OCCUR 44 WITH WOULD 5 SUCCESSFUL WELLS -60 INVESTMENT S9>.3 0 15 . 80 1 90 F~g.000 -60 - - loo~ * 0 NUMBER 20 OF I 40 SUCCESSFUL .Economics ff drilling 90 “Development” wells. .