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The Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

in Zsoil v2011

Rafal OBRZUD
GeoMod Ing. SA, Lausanne

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Framework of the Hardening Soil model Hardening Soil SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard

Model parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Why do we need advanced constitutive models? Approximation of soil behaviour for reliable simulations of practical cases
450 400

Triaxial drained compression test

Deviatoric stress [kPa] q= 1-3

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0,00%

Plasticity (yielding) before reaching the ultimate state


Experiment: Texas sand Simulation: Hardening Soil Simulation: Mohr-Coulomb
2,00% 4,00% 6,00% 8,00% 10,00% 12,00% 14,00%

Axial Strain 1
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Why do we need advanced constitutive models? ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS


LIMIT STATE ANALYSIS DEFORMATION ANALYSIS

Bearing capacity Slope stability

Pile, retaining wall deflection Supported deep excavations Tunnel excavations Consolidation problems

Basic models e.g. Mohr-Coulomb


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Advanced soil models

Basic differences between implemented soil models Mohr-Coulomb q


yield surface

K0-line
Linear elastic domain

p q

K0 unloading

p
E Eur E = Eur

1
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications of the Hardening Soil model

Tunneling

Standard Mohr-Coulomb
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening-Soil

Basic differences between implemented soil models Mohr-Coulomb q


yield surface

Volumetric cap models q


K0-line
isotropic hardening mechanism

Linear elastic domain

Linear elastic domain

constant

p q q
Stiffness degradation

p p

Eur E=Eur

E E < Eur

Eur

1
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications of the Hardening Soil model

Berlin sand excavation

Standard Mohr-Coulomb

Hardening-Soil

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Basic differences between implemented soil models Mohr-Coulomb q


yield surface

Volumetric cap models q


K0-line
isotropic hardening mechanism

Hardening Soil models q


+ shear hardening mechanism

Linear elastic domain

Linear elastic domain

p q q
Stiffness degradation

NON-LINEAR elastic domain

q
Eur E<Eur

Stiffness degradation

Eur E=Eur Eur

Eur

E0

E0

1
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Small strain stiffness in geotechnical practice

e.g. Atkinson, Jardine and many others The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stiffness in different models


160

Deviatoric Stress q [kPa]

140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Normalized soil stiffness G/G0 [-]

1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 Linear elasticity at very small strains 1E-05 0,0001 0,001 0,01 0,1 Non-linear elasticity at very small strains

Mohr-Coulomb Modified Cam Clay Cap model

Linear elasticity at small strains

A
0,05 0,1

HS-Standard HS-Small

0 -3,61E-16

0,15

0,2

0 1E-06

Axial Strain 1 [-]

Axial Strain 1 [-]

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Perceived application of ZSoil models

ULS - Ulitmate Limit State analysis SLS - Serviceability Limit State analysis

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Introduction Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil model framework Hardening Soil SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard

Model parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model to describe macroscopic phenomena exhibited by soils HS-Standard


Densification (decrease of voids volume in soil due to plastic deformations) Soil stress history (accounting for preconsolidation effects) Plastic yielding (irreversible strains with reaching a yield criterion)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model to describe macroscopic phenomena exhibited by soils HS-Standard


Densification (decrease of voids volume in soil due to plastic deformations) Soil stress history (accounting for preconsolidation effects) Plastic yielding (irreversible strains with reaching a yield criterion) Stress dependent stiffness (increasing stiffness moduli with increasing
1200

depth or stress level)

Triaxial drained compression test - Texas sand


SIG3 = 34.5kPa E(3) SIG3 = 138kPa SIG3 = 345kPa

Deviatoric stress [kPa] q= 1-3

1000

800

600

E(2)
400

200

E(1)

0 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00%

Axial Strain 1

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model to describe macroscopic phenomena exhibited by soils HS-Standard


Densification (decrease of voids volume in soil due to plastic deformations) Soil stress history (accounting for preconsolidation effects) Plastic yielding (irreversible strains with reaching a yield criterion) Stress dependent stiffness (increasing stiffness moduli with increasing Dilatation (occurrence of negative volumetric strains during shearing)

depth or stress level)

+ HS-SmallStrain for handling stiffness in a small strain range


Stiffness variation (degradation of G0 modulus with increasing shear strain

amplitudes between 0.0001 0.1%)

Hysteretic, non-linear stress-strain relationship applicable in the range of small strains *


* HS-SmallStrain can be used to some extent to model hysteretic behavior under cycling loadings with the exception of gradual softening for increasing number of cycles. The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model in ZSoil

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model framework

Activation of G0 degradation in the small strain range

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model framework


Triaxial test simulation

Secant stiffness in small strains

zoom

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model framework


Triaxial test simulation with the unloading/reloading cycle
1000 900 800 Deviatoric stress q [kPa] Deviatoric stress q [kPa] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 Axial strain 1 [-] HS-SmallStrain HS-Standard 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0,019 HS-SmallStrain HS-Standard

E0

Eur

Eur zoom

0,02

0,021

0,022

0,023

0,024

Axial strain 1 [-]

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Main mechanical features of HS model HS-Standard


Smooth hyperbolic approximation of the stress-strain curve of soil (Duncan-Chang concept) Two plastic mechanisms:
normally-consolidated soils)

isotropic (to handle important plastic volumetric strains observed in

deviatoric (to handle domination of plastic shear strains which are


observed in coarse materials and heavily consolidated cohesive soils)

Ultimate state described by Mohr-Coulomb criterion Rowes dilatancy

+ HS-SmallStrain
Nonlinear elasticity which includes hysteretic effects (Hardin-Drnevich concept)
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Framework of HS model Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil model framework Hardening Soil SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard

Model parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Non-linear elasticity for very small strains


Hyperbolic Hardin-Drnevich relation to describe S-shaped stiffness

a = 0.385
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS SmallStrain Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil model framework Hardening Soil SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard

Model parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hyperbolic approximation of the stress-strain curve


E0 tangent initial stiffness modulus E50 secant stiffness modulus corresponding to 50% of the ultimate deviatoric stress qf described by Mohr-Coulomb criterion Eur unloading/reloading modulus (parameter corresponding to in Modified Cam Clay)

For most soils Rf falls between 0.75 and 1

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hyperbolic approximation of the stress-strain curve

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stress stiffness dependency Triaxial drained compression test - Texas sand


SIG3 = 34.5kPa E(3) SIG3 = 138kPa SIG3 = 345kPa

1200

Deviatoric stress [kPa] q= 1-3

1000

800

600

E(2)

400

200

E(1)

0 0,00%

5,00%

10,00%

15,00%

Axial Strain 1

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stress stiffness dependency


E0ref , E50ref, , Eurref correspond to reference minor stress ref

where i.e. stiffness degrades with decreasing 3 up to the limit minor stress L which can be assumed by default L =10kPa

In natural soils: m = 0.3 - 1.0

e.g. Norwegian Sands and silts 0.5 (Janbu, 1963) Soft clays m=0.38 - 0.84 (Kempfert, 2006)
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stiffness stress dependency parameter m

1. 2.

Find three values of E50(i) corresponding 3(i) to respectively Find a trend line y = ax + b by assigning variables y= x=

3.

Then the determined slope of the trendline a is the parameter m

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stress stiffness dependency at initial state

E [kPa]
0 0,0 2,0 4,0 6,0 m = 0.4 m = 0.6 m = 0.8 50000 100000 150000 200000 0,0 2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 0 50000

E [kPa]
100000 150000 200000 0,0 phi = 20 phi = 30 phi = 40 2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 0 50000

E [kPa]
100000 150000 c= 0 c = 15 c = 30 200000

z [m]

z [m]

10,0 12,0 14,0 16,0 18,0 20,0

Level of reference stress

10,0 12,0 14,0 16,0 18,0 20,0

z [m]

8,0

10,0 12,0 14,0 16,0 18,0 20,0

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stiffness exponent

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Unloading/reloading Poissons ratio ur


Experimental measurements from local strain gauges show that the initial values of Poissons ratio in terms of small mobilized stress levels q/qmax varies between 0.1 and 0.2 for clays, sands.
Typically elastic domain

0,5 Poisson's ratio [-] 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1


after Mayne et al. (2009)

0,0 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 Mobilized stress level q / qmax Toyoura Sand (Dr=56%) Ticino Sand (Dr=77%) Pisa Clay (Drained Triaxial) Sagamihara soft rock

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Unloading/reloading Poissons ratio ur


Therefore, the characteristic value for the elastic unloading/reloading Poissons ratio of ur = 0.2 can be adopted for most soils.

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

160,0

Failure ratio Rf

Asymptote qa=1/b E50 = 2a 1

140,0 120,0

q = 1 - 3

100,0 80,0 60,0 40,0 20,0 0,0 0 0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

1,8E-03 1,6E-03 1,4E-03 1,2E-03

Identification of Rf Rf = qf / qa = bq f

1/q

1,0E-03 8,0E-04 6,0E-04 4,0E-04 2,0E-04

b=1/qa 1

0,0E+00 0

a =1/2E50
0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

1 [-]

Double hardening model

r() follows van Ekelens formula in order to assure a smooth and convex yield surface (cf. Modified Cam clay model)
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Double hardening model 1 p 2 cap yield surfaces described with van Ekelens formula Mohr-Coulomb failure surface 3 p-q section through shear and cap yield surfaces
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Dilatancy

0,5 0,4 0,3

Rowe's dilatancy for m cs Contractancy cut-off for m < cs

sinm [-]

0,2 0,1 0,0 -0,1 -0,2 -0,3 -0,4 0

Rowe's dilatancy

Contractancy domain
10 20

Dilatancy domain
30 40

m [deg]

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Dilatancy

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Dilatancy in HS-SmallStrain

Contractancy domain

Dilatancy domain

Since the cut-off for the contractancy domain could yield too small volumetric strain, the scaling parameter D is introduced.

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameters M and H
Evolution of the hardening parameter pc :

plastic strains

H controls the rate of volumetric

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameters M and H
M and H must fulfil two conditions: 1. K0NC produced by the model in oedometric conditions is the same as K0NC specified by the user 2. Eoed generated by the model is the same Eoed ref specified by the user
Typical stress path in the oedometric test

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameters M and H

ASSUMPTIONS:

1. At given oedref which is located at post-yield plastic curve, both shear an volumetric mechanism are active 2. Initial stress point 3. A strain driven oedometer test is run with vertical strain amplitude =10-5 and the tangent oedometric modulus is computed as Eoed = / / 4. Optimisation of M and H must fulfil two conditions:
K0NC produced by the model in oedometric conditions = K0NC specified by the user Eoed generated by the model = Eoed ref specified by the user
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables - OCR


Notion of overconsolidation ratio: OCR = vc v0 Typical oedometer test
0

Vertical preconsolidation pressure vc

v0 current in situ stress vc past vertical preconsolidation pressure


NB. In natural soils, overconsolidation may stem from mechanical unloading such as erosion, excavation, changes in ground water level, or due to other phenomena such as desiccation, melting of ice cover, compression and cementation.

0,02

Volumetric strain v [-]

0,04

0,06

0,08

0,1

Simulation Experiment

0,12 1 10 100 1000

Vertical stress v' [ kPa]


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables OCR and K0


Normally-conslidated soil (OCR=1) Overconslidated soil (OCR>1)

Why does it appear and what should be inserted?


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables K0 and K0NC A


v h h

Excavation v

Vertical effective stress

A B B Horizontal effective stress p

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables K0 and K0NC

SR 0

Preconsolidation stress configuration corresponding to K0NC Current in situ stress configuration corresponding to K0 (at the beginning of numerical simulation)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables K0 vs. OCR Estimation of earth pressure at rest


Normally-consolidated soils
0,9 0,8 0,7 1-sin(phi') Brooker&Ireland(1965) Simpson(1992)

Overconsolidated soils
2,5 2,0 1,5

K0NC

0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0 20 ' [deg] 40 60

K0
1,0 0,5 0,0 0 5

0,6

phi=20deg phi=30deg phi=40deg

OCR [-]

10

15

20

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables K0 and K0NC


For most cases when soil was subject to natural consolidation before unloading

K0NC

K0

K0SR = K0NC

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables K0 and K0NC


In the case of simulating the triaxial compression test after isotropic loading/unloading: K0SR K0NC but

K0SR =1

B
isotropic loading/unloading

A p

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables

1. User specifies initial stress conditions 0 2. Zsoil at the beginning of a FE analysis calculates SR with and the horizontal stress components

3. Then the hardening parameter pc0 is computed


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Setting initial state variables 1. Through K0 y = depth x = xK0(x)

2. Through Initial Stress

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Setting initial state variables If the model does not converge at Initial State for the specified K0

1.

try to start Initial State analysis from a small Initial loading Fact. and Increment

2.

otherwise, define initial conditions through Initial Stress

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initial state variables - preconsolidation 1. through OCR


(gives constant OCR profile)

At the beginning of FE analysis, Zsoil sets the stress reversal point (SR) with:

2. through qPOP (gives variable OCR profile)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stress history through OCR Deposits with constant OCR over the depth (typically deeply bedded soil layers)
OCR [-] 7 9 Effective stress [kPa] 500 1000 Ko [-] 1500 0 2 4 6 Depth [m] 8 10 12 14 16 18 SigEff vertical SigEff preconsolidation 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50

1 0 2 4 6 Depth [m] 8 10 12 14 16 18

11

13 0 2 4 6 Depth [m] 8 10 12 14 16 18

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Deposits with varying OCR over the depth (typically superficial soil layers)

Profiles for Bothkennar clay


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Stress history through qPOP Deposits with varying OCR over the depth (typically superficial soil layers)

0 0 2 4 6 Depth [m] 8 10 12 14 16 18

Effective stress [kPa] 200 400

600 0 2 4

OCR [-] 7 9

Ko [-] 11 13 0 2 4 6 Depth [m] 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0,5 1 1,5

qPOP
Depth [m]

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

SigEff vertical SigEff preconsolidation

Variable K0 can be introduced merely through Initial Stress option

K0OC = K0NC OCR K0OC = K0NC OCRsin()


The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - HS Standard Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

(Mayne&Kulhawy 1982)

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil - SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard Model Parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model List of parameters to be provided by the user (page 1) Small stiffness (HS-SmallStrain only) 1. 2. E0ref 0.7 kPa SCPT, SDMT, geophysical methods Triaxial test with local gauges, geotechnical evidence Elastic constants 3. E50ref kPa Triaxial test 4. Eurref 5. ur 6. m kPa Triaxial test Triaxial test Triaxial test Auxiliary variable 7. 3ref kPa Triaxial test

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Model parameters Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model List of parameters to be provided by the user (page 2) Shear mechanism
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. c (Rf) emax kPa Triaxial test, in situ test Triaxial test, in situ test Triaxial test or the default value 0.9 Triaxial test Triaxial test on dense granular or overconsildated cohesive soil

Volumetric (cap) mechanism


13. 14. Eoedref oedref kPa kPa Oedometric test Oedometric test

Initial state variable


15. 16. 17. OCR / qPOP K0SR 0 -/ kPa kPa Oedometric test or in situ tests K0SR = 1-sin (or Ko-consolidation triaxial test) Init. stress conditions accounting for K0 = K0SR (for normallyconsolidated soil), K0 = K0OC (for overconsolidated soil)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Model parameters Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Hardening Soil model


Comparison of corresponding soil parameters for selected ZSoil models

Corresponding soil parameters Small strain stiffness Elastic constants Failure criterion Dilatancy Cap surface parameters

Hardening-Soil E0 and 0.7

Cap none E and and c OCR , K0

Mohr-Coulomb none E and and c and emax None K0

Eur and ur E50 and m and c


and emax Eoed(can be determined from ) OCR , K0 and K0SR

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Model parameters Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil - SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard Model Parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Report

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

The HS model a practical guidebook

Contents: Theory Parameter identification Parameter estimation

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters Determination of G0 from geophysical tests SCPT, SDMT and others

with denoting density of sol and Vs shear wave velocity. (=0.15..0.25 for small strains)

In situ tests with seismic sensors: seismic piezocone testing (SCPTU)


(Campanella et al. 1986)

seismic flat dilatometer test (SDMT)


(Mlynarek et al. 2006, Marchetti et al. 2008)

Geophysical tests: (see review by Long 2008) continuous surface waves (CSW) spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) multi channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) frequency wave number (f-k) spectrum method
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters Determination of G0 for sands from CPT

after Robertson and Campanella (1983)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters

Estimation of E0 from E50

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters

Estimation of E0 from E50

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters

Estimation of E0 from Eur

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

HS-SmallStrain Non-linear elasticity for small strains Cohesionless soils


Influence of voids ratio Influence of confining stress p
after Wichtmann & Triantafyllidis

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

HS-SmallStrain Non-linear elasticity for small strains Cohesive soils


Influence of soil plasticity

after Vucetic and Dobry (from Benz, 2007)

approximation proposed by Stokoe et al.

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Stiffness parameters Determination of E50 for sands from CPT

after Robertson and Campanella (1983) The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection Stiffness parameters


Undrained vs drained moduli theoretical relationship
Since the shear modulus is not affected by the drainage conditions

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Oedometric modulus Eoed

where

Cc is the compression index

Since we look for tangent Eoed, 0, and *=2.303oedref

If

is known

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection - oedometric modulus Eoed Eoedref

E50ref
E50ref

but Eoedref

oedref = ref / K0NC

ref

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Preconsolidation pressure and OCR

Laboratory: - Oedometer test (Casagrandes method, Pacheco Silva method (1970)) Field tests: - Static piezocone penetration (CPTU) (see reports by Mayne) - Marchetti flat dilatometer (DMT) (correlations by Marchetti (1980), Lacasse and Lunne, 1988) )

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Preconsolidation pressure and OCR

(from Lunne et al. 1997) The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Preconsolidation pressure and OCR

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Other information from DMT

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Strength parameters

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter identification Strength parameters Friction angle for granular soils from in situ tests SPT

CPTU
(Robertson & Campanella, 1983)

DMT
Upper bound Lower bound (Totani et al., 1999)

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Parameter identification Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil - SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard Model Parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initialization menu

Empty field reserved for numeric data (basic soil properties, specific soil properties, in situ test data) in Zsoil v2012
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initialization menu Non-cohesive soil setup

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initialization menu Cohesive soil setup

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Initialization menu

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

HS Menu

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Scroll

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection secant modulus Eur Typical values of the stiffness modulus which are provided in most textbooks are referred to as the "static" stiffness modulus Es

It can be assumed that they represent the values of the unloading/reloading modulus Eur In the basic parameter selection, typical Eur is taken as Es and the reference pressure is assumed ref=100kPa
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection secant modulus E50 In most practical cases:

In toolbox - ranges:

= 2 to 4

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection - oedometric modulus Eoed Eoedref

E50ref
E50ref

but Eoedref

oedref = ref / K0NC

ref

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Parameter selection friction angle Multi-criterion selection depending on quantity of provided input data (soil keywords) Keyword: Density

Keyword: Soil type, Density, Gradation

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Assistance in parameter selection Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Content
Introduction Hardening Soil - SmallStrain Hardening Soil Standard Model Parameters Parameter Identification Assistance in Parameter Selection Practical applications

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Excavation in Berlin sand Engineering draft and the sequence of excavation

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Excavation in Berlin sand

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Excavation in Berlin sand

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Excavation in Berlin sand

Berlin sand excavation

Standard Mohr-Coulomb

Hardening-Soil

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Excavation in Berlin sand

Berlin sand excavation

-5

-10

Distance from surface Y [m]

-15

-20

-25

HS-small HS-Std MC Measurements

-30

-35 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 Horizontal displacement Ux [m]

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Shallow footing Texas sand benchmark

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Shallow footing 1. DMT data


KD [-]
0 0 DMT-1 DMT-2 1 5 10 15 20

Texas sand benchmark


OCR [-]

2. OCR interpreted form DMT data


0 0 10 20 30 40 50

DMT-1 DMT-2

Depth [m]

Depth [m]

Variable profile

10

10

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Shallow footing 3. Selecting qPOP


Vertical stress[kPa]
0 0 200 400 600 800

Texas sand benchmark


OCR [-]

4. OCR based on qPOP


0 0 10 20 30 40 50

qPOP

DMT-1 DMT-2 FE Model

Depth [m]

Depth [m]

Variable profile

vertical effectivve stress preconsolidation pressure

10

10

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Shallow footing 5. Interpreting and Setting K0


K0 [-]
0 0 DMT-1 DMT-2 1 FE Model 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Texas sand benchmark

Depth [m]

Variable K0 can be introduced merely through Initial Stress option

10

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Practical applications Shallow footing Texas sand benchmark


Load [kN]
0 0 -0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.04 -0.05 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Experiement Hardening Soil SmallStrain Standard Mohr-Coulomb

Settlement [m]

-0.06 -0.07 -0.08 -0.09 -0.1 -0.11 -0.12 -0.13 -0.14

The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne

Summary
Hardening Soil-SmallStrain model: correctly reproduces a strong reduction of soil stiffness with increasing shear strain amplitudes is recommended for Serviceability Limit State analyses as it generally predicts soil behavior and field measurements more precisely than basic linear-elasticity models is essential for the engineering problems with unloading/reloading modes such as excavations, tunneling accounts for stress stress history which is crucial for problems such as footing, consolidation, water fluctuation is applicable to most soils as it accounts for pre-failure nonlinearities for both sand and clay type materials regardless of the overconsolidation state

The Hardening Soil model is not as difficult in practical use as you may think. When you run a simulation with the M-C model, as an exercise, try to run the Hardening Soil model as well.
The Hardening Soil model with small strian stiffness - Practical applications Rafal Obrzud, GeoMod SA 30.08.2011, Lausanne