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PRELIMINARY PHYSICS

Brian Shadwick

Science Press 2007


First published 2007
Reprinted 2007, 2008, 2011
Science Press
Private Bag 7023 Marrickville NSW 1475 Australia
Tel: (02) 9516 1122 Fax: (02) 9550 1915
sales@sciencepress.com.au
www.sciencepress.com.au

All rights reserved. No part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Science Press. ABN 98 000 073 861

Contents
Introduction

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Points
Moving About

vii

The World Communicates

ix

Electrical Energy in the Home

xi

The Cosmic Engine

xiii

Questions
Moving About

The World Communicates

45

Electrical Energy in the Home

77

The Cosmic Engine

113

Answers
Moving About

147

The World Communicates

157

Electrical Energy in the Home

167

The Cosmic Engine

179

Appendix
Data Sheet

187

Formula Sheet

188

Periodic Table

189

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

iii

Contents

Notes
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Science Press

Contents

iv

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Introduction
What the book includes
,QWKLVERRN\RXZLOOQGW\SLFDOH[DPLQDWLRQTXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVIRUHDFKGRWSRLQWLQWKH%RDUGRI6WXGLHV
syllabus for each topic in the Year 11 Physics course:


0RYLQJ$ERXW

(OHFWULFLW\LQWKH+RPH

7KH:RUOG&RPPXQLFDWHV

7KH&RVPLF(QJLQH

Also included are typical experimental results for students to analyse if the third column of the syllabus indicates
WKDWVWXGHQWVVKRXOGFDUU\RXWUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQV

Format of the book


The book has been formatted in the following way:
1. Main topic statement (column 1 of syllabus)
1.1etc Syllabus requirement from columns 2 and 3.
1RWHWKDWWKHQXPEHULQJRIWKHVHUHTXLUHPHQWVLVWKHDXWKRUVFKRLFHDQGKDVEHHQXVHGWRPDNHUHIHUHQFLQJ
TXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVFOHDUHU7KHLQGLYLGXDOUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHQRWQXPEHUHGLQWKHV\OODEXVWKH\DUHVLPSO\
EXOOHWHGKHQFHRXUXVHRIGRWSRLQWVZKHQZHUHIHUWRWKHP
1.1.1 )LUVWW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQW
1.1.2 6HFRQGW\SLFDOTXHVWLRQZKLFKFRXOGEHDVNHGLQDQH[DPLQDWLRQIRUWKLVV\OODEXV

UHTXLUHPHQWHWF
7KHQXPEHURIOLQHVSURYLGHGIRUHDFKDQVZHUJLYHVDQLQGLFDWLRQRIKRZPDQ\PDUNVWKHTXHVWLRQPLJKWEH
worth in an examination. As a rough rule, every two lines of answer might be worth one mark. Note that in any
DQVZHUVWKUHHOLQHVKDYHEHHQSURYLGHGDVWKHDPRXQWRIZULWLQJUHTXLUHGH[FHHGVWZROLQHVEXWWKHSK\VLFV
involved is worth only one mark.
How to use the book
&RPSOHWLQJDOOTXHVWLRQVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDVXPPDU\RIDOOWKHZRUN\RXQHHGWRNQRZIURPWKHV\OODEXV
You may have done work in addition to this with your teacher as extension work. Obviously this is not covered,
but you may need to know this additional work for your school exams.
:KHQZRUNLQJWKURXJKWKHTXHVWLRQVZULWHWKHDQVZHUV\RXKDYHWRORRNXSLQDGLIIHUHQWFRORXUWRWKRVH\RX
NQRZZLWKRXWKDYLQJWRUHVHDUFKWKHZRUN7KLVZLOOSURYLGH\RXZLWKDTXLFNUHIHUHQFHWRZRUN\RXVKRXOG
spend more time revising later, and allow you to spend your study time more productively.

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Introduction

Verbs to Watch
account/account for
State reasons for, report on, give an account of,
narrate a series of events or transactions.

distinguish
Recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or
different from, note difference between things.

analyse
Identify components and the relationships among
them, draw out and relate implications.

evaluate
Make a judgement based on criteria.
examine
,QTXLUHLQWR

apply
Use, utilise, employ in a particular situation.

explain
Relate cause and effect, make the relationship
between things evident, provide why and/or how.

appreciate
Make a judgement about the value of something.

extract
Choose relevant and/or appropriate details.

assess
0DNHDMXGJHPHQWRIYDOXHTXDOLW\RXWFRPHV
results or size.

extrapolate
Infer from what is known.

calculate
'HWHUPLQHIURPJLYHQIDFWVJXUHVRULQIRUPDWLRQ

identify
Recognise and name.

clarify
Make clear or plain.

interpret
Draw meaning from.

classify
Arrange into classes, groups or categories.

investigate
3ODQLQTXLUHLQWRDQGGUDZFRQFOXVLRQVDERXW

compare
Show how things are similar and different.

justify
Support an argument or conclusion.

construct
Make, build, put together items or arguments.

outline
Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features.

contrast
Show how things are different or opposite.

predict
Suggest what may happen based on available data.

critically (analyse/evaluate)
Add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge
DQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJORJLFTXHVWLRQLQJUHHFWLRQDQG
TXDOLW\WRDQDQDO\VLVRUHYDOXDWLRQ

propose
Put forward (a point of view, idea, argument,
suggestion etc) for consideration or action.

deduce
Draw conclusions.

recall
Present remembered ideas, facts or experiences.

GHQH
6WDWHWKHPHDQLQJRIDQGLGHQWLI\HVVHQWLDOTXDOLWLHV

recommend
Provide reasons in favour.

demonstrate
Show by example.

recount
Retell a series of events.

describe
Provide characteristics and features.

summarise
Express concisely the relevant details.

discuss
Identify issues and provide points for and against.

synthesise
Put together various elements to make a whole.
Science Press

Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About
Dot Point

Page

1.

Speed changes

1.1

Identify that a typical journey


involves speed changes.

Distinguish between average and


instantaneous speed.

1.2
1.3


Distinguish between scalar and


YHFWRUTXDQWLWLHV



'HQHDYHUDJHYHORFLW\DV
vav rt
Compare instantaneous and
average speed and velocity.

1.5
1.6

'HQHWKHWHUPVPDVVDQGZHLJKW
with reference to effects of gravity.

16

18

2.12 Solve problems and analyse



LQIRUPDWLRQXVLQJF = ma

19

2.13 Identify the net force in a wide


variety of transport situations and

H[SODLQLWVFRQVHTXHQFHVLQWHUPVRI

1HZWRQV6HFRQGODZ



2.14 Solve problems and analyse


information involving: F = mv2/r
for vehicles travelling around curves.

24

 3HUIRUPUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQVWR
show the relationship between force,
mass and acceleration.

26

2.16 Solve problems using vector



GLDJUDPVWRQGUHVXOWDQWYHORFLW\
acceleration and force.

28

 3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQ
to demonstrate vector addition and
subtraction.

29

3.

Motion and energy changes

30

3.1

Identify that a moving object has


kinetic energy and that work done
on it can increase that energy.

30

Solve problems involving the kinetic


energy of vehicles and the work
done using: Ek = mv2 and W = Fs

30

Describe the energy transformations


that occur in collisions.

31

1.10 Present graphically velocity vs. time


data for objects with uniform linear
velocity.

11

1.11 Present graphically velocity vs. time



GDWDIRUREMHFWVZLWKQRQXQLIRUP
linear velocity.

12

2.

Forces, acceleration and deceleration

13

2.1

Describe the motion of one body


relative to another.

13

Identify the usefulness of using


vector diagrams.

13

Explain the need for a net external


force to act to change velocity.

14

Describe the actions that must be


taken for a vehicle to change
direction, speed up and slow down.

14

2.6

16

Graph displacement vs. time data


IRUREMHFWVZLWKQRQXQLIRUPYHORFLW\

2.5

Gather information about different


situations where acceleration is
positive and negative.

 ,QWHUSUHW1HZWRQV6HFRQG/DZRI

0RWLRQDQGUHODWHLWWRF = ma

2.4

15

17

Graph displacement vs. time data


for objects with uniform linear velocity.

2.3

'HQHDYHUDJHDFFHOHUDWLRQDV
aav vt = (v u)/t

2.2

Page

2.10 Outline forces involved in causing


a change in the velocity of a vehicle.

3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
measure average speed of an object.

1.9


2.8



1.8



Solve problems and analyse


information using:
vav rt



Dot Point

Describe effects of external forces


on bodies including friction and
air resistance.

15

Analyse the effects of external


forces on vehicles.

15

3.2

3.3

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

vii

Moving About

Dot Point
3.4

Page

Analyse information to trace the energy


transfers and transformations in collisions
leading to irreversible distortions.

32



'HQHWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\



4.

Momentum

33



'HQHPRPHQWXPDVp = mv

33



'HQHLPSXOVHDVI = Ft

33

4.3


Explain conservation of momentum


LQWHUPVRI1HZWRQV7KLUG/DZ



4.4

Solve problems and analyse data


using: p = mv and I = Ft

33

Perform investigations to analyse


data for the change in momentum
in collisions.

36

Solve problems to apply the law of


conservation of momentum to
describe the collision between a
moving and a stationary vehicle.

37

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

Solve problems to apply the law of


conservation of momentum to
describe the collision of a moving
vehicle with an immovable object.
Solve problems to apply the law of
conservation of momentum to the
collision between objects moving
in opposite directions.

Dot Point
4.9

Solve problems to apply the law of


conservation of momentum to the
collision between objects moving
in the same direction.

38

5.

Safety devices

40



'HQHWKHLQHUWLDRIDYHKLFOHDVLWV
tendency to remain in uniform
motion or at rest.

40

$QDO\VHUVWRUVHFRQGKDQGGDWD
about the potential danger presented
by loose objects in a vehicle.

40

'LVFXVVUHDVRQVZK\1HZWRQV
)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQLVQRWDSSDUHQW
in many real world situations.

41

Assess reasons for low speed zones


LQEXLOWXSDUHDVDQGWKHDGGLWLRQRI
airbags and crumple zones to vehicles
with respect to impulse and momentum.

41

Evaluate the effectiveness of some


safety features of motor vehicles.

42

$VVHVVEHQHWVRIWHFKQRORJLHVIRU
avoiding or reducing the effect of a
collision.

43





5.4


5.5


37

Page

Answers to Moving About

147

38

Science Press

Moving About

viii

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

The World Communicates


Dot Point
1.
1.1

1.2
1.3




1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

The wave model and information


transfer
Describe the energy transformations
in one of: mobile telephone, fax or
modem, radio, TV (see 3.9).

Page
46

Identify that mechanical waves need


a medium while electromagnetic
ZDYHVGRQW



Describe the relationship between


particle motion and direction of
energy transfer in waves.
Draw diagrams for transverse and
longitudinal waves, directions of
particle movement and propagation.
Quantify the relationship between
YHORFLW\IUHTXHQF\DQGZDYHOHQJWK
Y I
Perform an experiment to gather
LQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWKHIUHTXHQF\
and amplitude of waves.
Solve problems and analyse data
by applying: Y I to a range of
situations.

1.10 Present and analyse information



IURPGLVSODFHPHQWWLPHJUDSKVIRU
transverse wave motion.
1.11 Perform an experiment to identify
the relationship between the

IUHTXHQF\DQGZDYHOHQJWKRID
sound wave at constant velocity.
1.12 Perform an experiment to observe
the transfer of waves in slinky springs,
water and ropes.

Sound waves

54

2.1

Identify that sound waves are


vibrations of particles in a medium.

54

Relate compressions and rarefactions


of sound waves to crests and troughs
of transverse waves.

54

([SODLQTXDOLWDWLYHO\WKDWSLWFKLV
UHODWHGWRIUHTXHQF\DQGYROXPHWR
amplitude of sound waves.

54

([SODLQDQHFKRDVDUHHFWLRQRID
sound wave.

54

Describe the principle of superposition


and compare the resulting waves to the
original waves in sound.

55

Present graphs, solve problems and


analyse data for superposition of waves.

55

3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
observe the superposition of two waves
using a CRO or computer.

56

3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
analyse sound waves.

57

3.

Using the electromagnetic spectrum

58

3.1

Describe emr in terms of their speed


in space and their lack of need of a
medium for propagation.

58

3.2



Identify electromagnetic wavebands


OWHUHGRXWE\WKHDWPRVSKHUH
HVSHFLDOO\89;UD\VDQGUD\V



3.3

Identify methods for the detection


of various wave bands in the em
spectrum.

59

Explain the relationship between the


intensity of emr and the distance
from a source as an example of the
LQYHUVHVTXDUHODZ






3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
PRGHOWKHLQYHUVHVTXDUHODZ





2XWOLQHKRZDPSOLWXGHRUIUHTXHQF\
modulation of visible light, microwaves
and/or radio waves is used to transmit
information.

61

2.2

46




2.5

2.6

47


48

48

49

50

50
3.4
51

53

53

Page

2.

46

Describe waves as a transfer of energy


that may occur in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions.

'HQHDQGDSSO\WKHWHUPVPHGLXP
displacement, amplitude, period,
compression, rarefaction, crest,
trough, transverse, longitudinal,
ZDYHVIUHTXHQF\ZDYHOHQJWKDQG
velocity to the wave model.

Dot Point

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

ix

The World Communicates

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point
'HQHUHIUDFWLYHLQGH[LQWHUPVRI
the changes in velocity of a wave in
passing from one medium to another.

68



'HQH6QHOOV/DZ



62

4.9


Solve problems and analyse


LQIRUPDWLRQXVLQJ6QHOOV/DZ



Describe the energy transformations


UHTXLUHGLQRQHRIPRELOHWHOHSKRQH
fax or modem, radio, TV.

62

Analyse data to identify the waves


involved in the transfer of energy in
one of: mobile telephones, TV or radar.

4.10 Perform an investigation to graph


the angle of incidence and refraction
for light encountering a medium
change showing the relationship
between these angles.

71

63

5HHFWLRQDQGUHIUDFWLRQRI
electromagnetic waves

64

 3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
calculate the refractive index of glass
or perspex.

72

4.1



Describe and apply the law of


UHHFWLRQDQGH[SODLQWKHHIIHFWRI
UHHFWLRQIURPDSODQHVXUIDFHRQZDYHV 

4.12 Identify the conditions necessary for



WRWDOLQWHUQDOUHHFWLRQZLWKUHIHUHQFH
to the critical angle.

73

4.2

Perform an experiment to observe


the path of light rays and draw
diagrams to show direction of travel
of light rays and wavefronts.

 2XWOLQHKRZWRWDOLQWHUQDOUHHFWLRQ

LVXVHGLQRSWLFDOEUHV



5.

Technology and electromagnetic waves

75

64

5.1

Present information using ray


diagrams to show the path of waves
UHHFWHGIURPYDULRXVVXUIDFHV



Identify types of communication data


that are stored or transmitted in
digital form.

75

'HVFULEHRQHDSSOLFDWLRQRIUHHFWLRQ
for various surfaces.

66

Describe ways in which applications


of light, radio and microwaves have
helped information transfer.

Discuss some of the physical


principles used in one application of
physics related to waves in one of the
following: GPS, CD technology, DVD
technology, the Internet.

76

67

Explain that refraction is related to


the velocity of a wave in different
media and outline how this may
result in the bending of a wavefront.

67

3.7

3.8

1.1

3.9

4.

4.3


4.5

4.6

Analyse data to identify the em


spectrum range used in modern
communications.
Discuss problems produced by the
limited range of the em spectrum
available for communications.



Page

61

5.2

Answers to The World Communicates

157

Science Press

The World Communicates

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Electrical Energy in the Home


Dot Point

Page

1.

History of electricity

1.1

Discuss how the main sources of domestic


energy have changed over time.

1.2

1.3

1.4
1.5

Assess some of the impacts of changes


in, and increased access to, sources
of energy.
Discuss some of the ways on which
electricity can be provided in remote
locations.
Analyse differing views of Volta and
Galvani on animal and chemical electricity.

Dot Point

78
78

78

79
79

Page

2.11 Discuss how potential difference


changes at points around a circuit.

88

2.12 Perform an experiment to show how


potential difference varies between
points in a circuit (also 3.3).

89

2.13 Perform an experiment to show the


relationship between voltage across,
and current in, a circuit (also 3.3).

90

2.14 Solve problems and analyse


information using: R = V/I

91

2.15 Identify differences between conductors


and insulators.

92

 'HQHUHVLVWDQFHDVWKHUDWLRRIYROWDJH
to current for a particular conductor.

92

92

Discuss whether their (Volta and


Galvani) different views contributed
to increased understanding of electricity.

81

2.

Electricity and electric circuits

82

2.1

Describe the behaviour of electrostatic


charges.

82

 'HVFULEHTXDOLWDWLYHO\KRZYDULRXV
factors affect the movement of
electricity through a conductor.



2.18 Identify materials used as conductors


to provide household electricity.

93

3.

Series and parallel circuits

95

3.1

Identify differences between series


and parallel circuits.

95

Compare parallel and series circuits


in terms of voltage across components
and current through them.

96

Perform experiments to compare


current and voltage in series circuits
(see 2.12 and 2.13).

97

3HUIRUPUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQVWR
compare measurements of current
and voltage in parallel circuits.

97

3.5

Identify uses of ammeters and voltmeters.

98

3.6

Explain why ammeters and voltmeters


are connected differently in a circuit.

98

Explain why there are different circuits


for lighting, heating and other
appliances in a house.

99

Construct a model to show household


circuits.

100

2.2


Describe the behaviour of


HOHFWURVWDWLFHOGV

2.3


Present diagrams to describe electric


HOGVWUHQJWKDQGGLUHFWLRQEHWZHHQ
parallel plates.

2.4





2.7

83

Present diagrams to describe electric


HOGVWUHQJWKDQGGLUHFWLRQDERXWDQG
between positive and negative point
charges.

84

'HQHWKHXQLWRIHOHFWULFFKDUJHDV
the coulomb.

84

3.2

'HQHHOHFWULFHOGDVDHOGRIIRUFH
ZLWKVWUHQJWKHTXDOWRWKHIRUFHSHU
unit charge at that point, i.e. E = F/Q

85

Solve problems and analyse information


using: E = F/Q

85







'HQHHOHFWULFFXUUHQWDVWKHUDWHDW
ZKLFKFKDUJHRZVXQGHUWKHLQXHQFH
RIDQHOHFWULFHOG



2.9

Identify that current can be either


direct or alternating.

87

2.10 Describe electric potential difference


(voltage) between points as the change
in potential energy per unit charge
moving from one point to the other.

3.3

3.7

3.8

87

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

xi

Electrical Energy in the Home

Dot Point

Page

4.

Electrical power

4.1

Explain that power is the rate at which


energy is transformed from one form
to another.

101

Identify the relationship between


power, potential difference and current.

101

4.2


4.4

4.5

4.6

3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
demonstrate the relationship between
current, voltage and power.
Explain why the kWh is used to
measure electrical energy consumption
rather than the joule.
Identify that the total amount of energy
used depends on the length of time
FXUUHQWLVRZLQJDQGFDQEH
calculated using: Energy = VIt

Dot Point


101

'HVFULEHWKHPDJQHWLFHOGDURXQG
pairs of magnetic poles.

106

Describe the production of a magnetic


HOGE\DQHOHFWULFFXUUHQWFDUU\LQJ
conductor and how the right hand
JULSUXOHFDQQGWKHGLUHFWLRQRI
FXUUHQWDQGHOGOLQHV



3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
build an electromagnet.

107

Compare the nature and generation


RIPDJQHWLFHOGVE\VROHQRLGVDQG
a bar magnet.

108

Perform an experiment to observe


PDJQHWLFHOGVDURXQGEDUPDJQHWV
straight conductors and solenoids.

108

5.9


Explain one application of magnetic


HOGVLQKRXVHKROGV


110

5.5





101
5.7

103
5.8

104

Page

Solve problems using:


P = VI and Energy = VIt

104

6.

Safety devices

5.

0DJQHWLFHOGV

106

6.1

5.1

Describe the behaviour of the magnetic


poles of bar magnets when they are
brought close together.

106

Discuss the dangers of electric shock


from both 240 volt AC mains supply
and various DC voltages, from appliances,
on the muscles of the human body.
110

6.2

Describe the functions of circuit breakers,


fuses, earthing, double insulation and
other safety devices in the home.




5.3


'HQHWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKHPDJQHWLF
HOGDWDSRLQWDVWKHGLUHFWLRQRI
force on a small north magnetic pole
when placed at that point.

106

and to show the direction


Use
of current and and to show the
GLUHFWLRQRIDPDJQHWLFHOG



Answers to Electrical Energy in the Home

110
167

Science Press

Electrical Energy in the Home

xii

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

The Cosmic Engine


Dot Point

Page

1.

Models of the Universe

114

1.1

Outline historical models of the


Universe from the time of Aristotle
to that of Newton.

114

1.2

115

2.

Origins of the Universe

118

2.1

Describe probable origins of the


Universe.

118

122

Describe the transformation of


radiation into matter following the
Big Bang.

123

2.4


Identify that Einstein described the


HTXLYDOHQFHRIPDVVDQGHQHUJ\



2.5

Outline how the accretion of galaxies


and stars occurred through expansion
and cooling of the Universe,
VXEVHTXHQWORVVRISDUWLFOHNLQHWLF
energy, gravitational attraction of
particles, and lumpiness of gas clouds
that allows gravitational collapse.

124

3.

Stars and their life cycles

127



'HQHWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKH
temperature of a body and the
dominant wavelength of the radiation
emitted from that body.

3.2
3.3
3.4


8VHWKH+HUW]VSUXQJ5XVVHOOGLDJUDP
to examine the variety of star groups
LQFOXGLQJ0DLQ6HTXHQFHUHGJLDQWV
and white dwarfs.

134

Identify energy sources characteristic


of each star group including Main
6HTXHQFHUHGJLDQWVDQGZKLWHGZDUIV



4.

The Sun

138

4.1

Identify that energy may be released


from the nuclei of atoms.

138

Describe the nature of emissions


from the nuclei of atoms as radiation
of alpha and beta particles and gamma
rays in terms of ionising power,
penetrating power, effect of magnetic
HOGHIIHFWRIHOHFWULFHOG



3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWR
compare the penetrating power of
alpha, beta and gamma radiation.

139

Identify the nature of emissions


reaching Earth from the Sun.

140

Describe the particulate nature of the


solar winds.

141

Outline the cyclic nature of sunspot


activity and its impact on Earth
through solar winds.

141

Describe sunspots as representing


regions of strong magnetic activity
and lower temperature.

142

Assess the effect of sunspot activity


RQ(DUWKVSRZHUJULGDQGVDWHOOLWH
communications.

143

3.7

4.2




4.5
4.6

4.7
127
127

Relate the brightness of an object to


its luminosity and distance.

128

Solve problems to apply the inverse


VTXDUHODZRILQWHQVLW\RIOLJKWWRUHODWH
the brightness of a star to its luminosity
and distance from the observer.

133

4.4

Identify that the surface temperature


of a star is related to its colour.

Page

'HVFULEHD+HUW]VSUXQJ5XVVHOO
GLDJUDPDVWKHJUDSKRIDVWDUV
luminosity against its colour or
surface temperature.

Outline the discovery of the expansion


of the Universe by Hubble, following
its earlier prediction by Friedmann.

2.3






Assess one model of the Universe


developed from the time of Aristotle
to the time of Newton to identify
limitations placed on the development
of each by available technology.

2.2

Dot Point

4.8


Answers to The Cosmic Engine

179

131

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

xiii

The Cosmic Engine

Notes
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Science Press

The Cosmic Engine

xiv

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

DOT POINT
Moving About

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About

1. Vehicles do not typically travel at a constant speed.


1.1

Identify that a typical journey involves speed changes.


1.1.1

Describe two speed changes which occur during typical journeys in a car and state one reason
for each change.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.2

Distinguish between the average and instantaneous speed of vehicles and other bodies.
1.2.1

Compare average and instantaneous speed.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.3

Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities in equations.


1.3.1

&RPSDUHVFDODUDQGYHFWRUTXDQWLWLHV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.3.2

&RPSOHWHWKHWDEOHE\LGHQWLI\LQJYHH[DPSOHVHDFKRIVFDODUDQGYHFWRUTXDQWLWLHV
Scalar quantities

1.3.3

Vector quantities

Compare the distance travelled by an object with its displacement.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Science Press

Moving About

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

1.3.4

Three objects travel from X to Y by three different roads as shown in the diagram. Y is due
east of X.
Road 1 = 75 km

Road 2 = 50 km

Road 3 = 150 km

Use the information to complete the table.


Object travelling by

Distance travelled (km)

Displacement (km)

Road 1
Road 2
Road 3

1.3.5

Clarify the idea of expressing direction of travel as a bearing.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.3.6

The diagram shows the paths taken by four wombats as they came out of their burrow to
search for food. The diagram is drawn to scale where 1 cm = 10 m.
N 

Wombat 1

Wombat 2

Wombat 3
Wombat 4

Use the information to complete the table.


Wombat

Displacement (m) (directions


as compass readings)

Distance travelled (m)

Displacement (m)
(directions as bearing)

1
2
3
4

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About



'HQHDYHUDJHYHORFLW\DV
1.4.1

av

,GHQWLI\WKHTXDQWLW\UHSUHVHQWHGE\rLQWKHDERYHHTXDWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.4.2

'HQHWKLVTXDQWLW\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.5

Compare instantaneous and average speed with instantaneous and average velocity.
1.5.1

:ULWHDQHTXDWLRQ\RXFRXOGXVHWRQGWKHDYHUDJHVSHHGRIDQREMHFW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.5.2

([SODLQKRZWKLVHTXDWLRQGLIIHUVIURPWKHRQHJLYHQLQDERYH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.5.3

Identify the essential difference between instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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1.5.4

Identify the essential difference between average speed and average velocity.

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1.5.5

A car takes 2.5 hours to travel along the 150 km road from X and Y as shown in the diagram
at a constant speed of 60 kph. X and Y are 120 km apart.
Y

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Moving About

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

D 

&RPSDUHWKHFDUVLQVWDQWDQHRXVVSHHGDWSRLQWV3DQG4

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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E 

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F 

&DOFXODWHWKHFDUVDYHUDJHVSHHGIRUWKHMRXUQH\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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G 

&DOFXODWHWKHFDUVDYHUDJHYHORFLW\IRUWKHMRXUQH\

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6ROYHSUREOHPVDQGDQDO\VHLQIRUPDWLRQXVLQJ

av

1.6.1

A swimmer dives from the blocks into the pool and races 50 m to the other end of the pool.
This takes her 32.6 s.

(a)

Calculate her average speed.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate her average velocity.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.6.2

/DWHULQWKHPHHWWKHVDPHVZLPPHUVZLPVLQWKHPHYHQW7KLVWDNHVKHUV

(a)

Calculate her average speed.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate her average velocity.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About

1.6.3

Consider three cars travelling from X to Y along three roads shown. Y is due east of X.
Road 1 = 120 km

Road 2 = 90 km

Road 3 = 200 km

Use this information to complete the table.


Car
travelling
by



Distance
travelled (km)

Displacement
(km)

Time taken (hr)

Road 1

3.0

Road 2

2.0

Road 3

5.0

Average speed
of cars (kph)

Average velocity
of cars (kph)

3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRPHDVXUHWKHDYHUDJHVSHHGRIDQREMHFW
1.7.1

In an experiment, a ball was rolled down a ramp from rest, from various starting positions as
shown in the diagram. The results of the experiment are shown in the table.
T
S
R
Q
P

Starting
position

Distance up
the slope
(m)

1.0

0.64

0.65

0.63

1.5

0.76

0.79

0.79

2.0

0.92

0.91

0.87

2.5

1.03

0.99

1.01

3.0

1.14

1.09

1.10

Time to roll down slope (s)

Average time
to roll down
slope (s)

Average
speed down
slope (m s1)

Average
speed
squared
(m2 s2)

(a)

Complete the table by calculating values for the missing data (to 2 decimal places).

(b)

If you were to draw a graph to show the relationship between the distance the object started
up the slope and its average speed as it rolled down the slope, identify the:
independent variable ..............................................................................................................................................................
dependent variable

..................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Moving About

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

(c)

Draw this graph.

(d)

What conclusion can be made from this graph?

............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
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............................................................................................................................

(e)

Explain your answer.

............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................

(f)

Calculate appropriate values and write them in


the last column of the results table and then use
these to draw another graph which will enable
you to make a conclusion for the experiment.

(g)

Write your conclusion for the experiment based


on this second graph.

..............................................................................................................................
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(h)

Use your graph to predict the average speed of the ball if it was rolled down the slope from a
1.25 m starting position.

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Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About

Present information graphically of displacement vs. time for objects with uniform linear
velocity.
1.8.1

Consider the following graph


representing the motion of a car.

(a)

How far did the car travel in the


UVWV"

.......................................................................................................

(b)

Displacement (m north)

1.8

20
15
10
5
0
0

Determine its change in displacement.

10

15

20

Time (s)
.......................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 8 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Predict the velocity of the car at time 30 s.

1.8.2
(a)

Consider the following graph


representing the motion of a car.
How far did the car travel in the
UVWV"

......................................................................................................

(b)

Determine its change in displacement.

......................................................................................................

(c)

Displacement (m north)

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20

Time (s)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 8 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Describe the journey of the car.

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Science Press

Moving About

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

D 

Consider the following graph


representing the motion of a car.

20
Displacement (m north)

1.8.3

+RZIDUGLGWKHFDUWUDYHOLQWKHUVW
10 s?

..................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the average speed of the


car.

10
0
5

10

15

20

-10
-20
Time (s)

..................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Determine its displacement after 16 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 8 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

 UHVHQWLQIRUPDWLRQJUDSKLFDOO\RIGLVSODFHPHQWYVWLPHIRUREMHFWVZLWKQRQXQLIRUPOLQHDU
3
velocity.
1.9.1
D 

Consider the following graph


representing the motion of a car.
+RZIDUGLGLWWUDYHOLQWKHUVWV"

..................................................................................................

(b)

Determine its total displacement.

Displacement (m north)



60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

..................................................................................................

(c)

10

15

20

Time (s)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 12.5 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Describe the journey of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

Moving About

D 

Consider the following graph


representing the motion of a car.

40

+RZIDUGLGWKHFDUWUDYHOLQWKHUVWV"

..................................................................................................

(b)

Determine its total displacement.

Displacement (m north)

1.9.2

20
10
0
-10

10

15

20

-20
-30
-40

..................................................................................................

(c)

30

Time (s)

Calculate the average speed of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 3 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.9.3

Consider the following graph representing the motion of a car.

D 

 RZIDUGLGWKHFDUWUDYHOLQWKHUVW
+
12 s?

(b)

Determine its total displacement.

..................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the average speed of the


car.

Displacement (m north)

..................................................................................................

80
60
40
20
0
-20

10

15

20

-40
-60
Time (s)

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Determine the velocity of the car at time 15 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Science Press

Moving About

10

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

1.10 Present information graphically of velocity vs. time for objects with uniform linear velocity.
1.10.1 Consider the following graph
representing the motion of a car.
Velocity (m/s east)

(a)

18

How far did the car travel in 20 s?

........................................................................................

(b)

Find its displacement after 10 s.

12
6
0
5

-6

10

15

20

-12
-18

........................................................................................

Time (s)

(c)

Calculate the average velocity


of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the acceleration of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.10.2 Consider the following graphs representing the motion of four cars.
20

Velocity (m/s north)

15

10

B
C

5
0
5

10

-5

15

20
D

-10
-15
-20
Time (s)

Use this information to complete the table.


Car

Average speed
(m s1)

Average velocity
(m s1)

Acceleration
(m s2)

Displacement after
10 s

A
B
C
D

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

11

Moving About

 3UHVHQWLQIRUPDWLRQJUDSKLFDOO\RIYHORFLW\YVWLPHIRUREMHFWVZLWKQRQXQLIRUPOLQHDUYHORFLW\
1.11.1 Consider the following graph representing the motion of a car.
(a)

How far did the car travel in 20 s?

.....................................................................................................

Calculate the average velocity of the


car.

.....................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the acceleration of the car


at time 12 s.

Velocity (m/s north)

(b)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

.....................................................................................................

10

15

20

Time (s)

.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the average acceleration of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.11.2 Consider the following graph representing the motion of a car.


(a)

How far did the car travel in 20 s?


15

(b)

Calculate its displacement at time 20 s.

......................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the average speed of the car.

......................................................................................................
......................................................................................................

Velocity (m/s south)

......................................................................................................

10
5
0
-5

10

15

20

-10

......................................................................................................

(d)

Time (s)

Calculate the average velocity of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Determine the acceleration of the car at times 3, 7 and 16 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Moving About

12

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

2. An analysis of the external forces on vehicles helps us understand the effects of


acceleration and deceleration.
2.1

Describe the motion of one body relative to another.


2.1.1 Object X is moving east at 30 m s1. Object Y is moving west at 25 m s1. Object Z is
moving east at 15 m s1. Calculate the velocity of:
(a)

X relative to Y

...........................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

X relative to Z

...........................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Y relative to X

...........................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Y relative to Z ............................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Z relative to X

(f)

Z relative to Y ............................................................................................................................................................................

2.1.2

From your answers above, identify the relationship between the velocity of object A relative
to object B and the velocity of object B relative to object A.

...........................................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.1.3

A person can row a boat at 1.75 m s1LQVWLOOZDWHU+HURZVRQDULYHUZKLFKRZVDW


0.45 m s1. Calculate the velocity of the person relative to the banks of the river if he rows:

D 

ZLWKWKHRZ...............................................................................................................................................................................

E 

DJDLQVWWKHRZ .........................................................................................................................................................................

Calculate the velocity of the boat relative to the water if he rows:

2.2

F 

ZLWKWKHRZ...............................................................................................................................................................................

G 

DJDLQVWWKHRZ .........................................................................................................................................................................

Identify the usefulness of using vector diagrams to assist in solving problems.


2.2.1

Object X is moving east at 24 m s1. Object Y is moving north at 18 m s1. With the aid of an
appropriate vector diagram, calculate the velocity of:

(a)

X relative to Y

........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

13

Moving About

(b)

Y relative to X
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................

2.3

Explain the need for a net external force to act in order to change the velocity of an object.
2.3.1

5HFDOO1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.3.2

*LYHDQH[DPSOHRI1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.3.3

Describe a situation where an object is travelling with constant speed and yet its velocity is
constantly changing.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.3.4

Describe the force acting on the object in 2.3.3 above.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.4

Describe the actions that must be taken for a vehicle to change direction, speed up and slow
down.
2.4.1

Identify what is needed to change the direction or speed of an object.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.4.2

What is an object doing if its speed is changing?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Moving About

14

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

2.4.3

&ODULI\WKHWHUPVSRVLWLYHDQGQHJDWLYHIRUFHDVWKH\DUHXVHGLQ3K\VLFV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.5

Describe the typical effects


of external forces on bodies
including friction and air
resistance.
2.5.1

A car travels along a


straight road at constant
speed. Draw a diagram
to show all the forces
acting on it.

2.5.2

Describe what each of these forces does to the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.5.3

What is the net force on the car? Explain how you determine this.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.6

Analyse the effects of external forces operating on a vehicle.


2.6.1

Identify three changes a force acting on a vehicle can cause to its motion.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



'HQHDYHUDJHDFFHOHUDWLRQDV
2.7.1

aav = v/t = (v u)/t

'HQHDFFHOHUDWLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.7.2

A force acts on a car for 4.0 s to increase its velocity from 5 m s1 to 25 m s1. Calculate the
acceleration of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

15

Moving About

2.7.3

A car accelerates at 4.0 m s2IRUV&DOFXODWHLWVQDOYHORFLW\

(a)

if its initial velocity was 2.0 m s1 in the same direction as the force

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

if its initial velocity was 3.5 m s1 in the opposite direction to the force

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



*DWKHUUVWKDQGLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWGLIIHUHQWVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHDFFHOHUDWLRQLVSRVLWLYHDQG
negative.
2.8.1

&ODULI\WKHFRQFHSWVRISRVLWLYHDQGQHJDWLYHDFFHOHUDWLRQV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.8.2

Identify three different situations where the acceleration of a car would be considered to be
positive.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.8.3

Identify three different situations where the acceleration of a car would be considered to be
negative.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



'HQHWKHWHUPVPDVVDQGZHLJKWZLWKUHIHUHQFHWRWKHHIIHFWVRIJUDYLW\
2.9.1

'HQHPDVV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.9.2

'HQHZHLJKW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

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16

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

2.9.3

Complete the table by comparing various properties of mass and weight.


Mass

Weight

 2XWOLQHWKHIRUFHVLQYROYHGLQFDXVLQJDFKDQJHLQWKHYHORFLW\RIDYHKLFOHZKHQ
2.10.1 It is coasting on a horizontal surface with no pressure on the accelerator.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.10.2 The car is moving on a horizontal surface with the driver pressing on the accelerator.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.10.3 The car is moving on a horizontal surface with the driver pressing on the brakes.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.10.4 The vehicle is passing over an icy patch on a horizontal road.


...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.10.5 The vehicle is climbing a hill.


...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.10.6 The vehicle is descending a hill.


...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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17

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2.10.7 The vehicle is following a curve on a horizontal road.


...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

 ,QWHUSUHW1HZWRQV6HFRQG/DZRI0RWLRQDQGUHODWHLWWR

F = ma

2.11.1 5HFDOO1HZWRQV6HFRQG/DZRI0RWLRQ
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.11.2 A car is accelerating uniformly along a road. Sketch graphs on the axes below to show the
relationships indicated.
F

2.11.3 Forces act on several cars of different masses to produce identical accelerations. Sketch
graphs on the axes below to show the relationships indicated.
v

2.11.4 Forces act on several cars of different masses to produce identical velocity changes. Sketch
graphs on the axes below to show the relationships indicated.
F

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Dot Point Preliminary Physics

 6ROYHSUREOHPVDQGDQDO\VHLQIRUPDWLRQXVLQJ

F = ma

2.12.1 Calculate the force acting on a 5.0 kg mass which accelerates for 3.0 s. During this time its
velocity changes from 2.5 m s1 east to 17.5 m s1 west.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.12.2 A 12 N force acts on a body and accelerates it from rest to 4.5 m s1 south. This takes 15 s.
Calculate the mass of the body.
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.12.3 An 80 g object is initially at rest. A 0.16 N force to the north acts on it for 5 s. Calculate:
(a)

the acceleration produced by the force

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

WKHQDOYHORFLW\RIWKHREMHFW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

its displacement after 5 s

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13 Identify the net force in a wide variety of situations involving modes of transport and explain
the consequences of that net force in terms of Newtons Second law of Motion.
Note that the syllabus says a wide variety of situations. If you have not studied the examples given
here in class, then you dont have to do them.
2.13.1 Consider the two blocks shown in the diagram. They are resting on a surface which provides
a frictional force of 0.25 N kg1.
Y
X
18 N

2.5 kg

5.5 kg

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(a)

Calculate the acceleration of the system.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the net force on each block.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the force block X puts on block Y.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the force block Y puts on block X.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13.2 Consider the two blocks shown in the diagram. They are resting on a smooth surface.
Y
X
36 N

(a)

3.0 kg

string

6.0 kg

Calculate the acceleration of the system.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the net force on each block.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the force tension in the string.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13.3 Consider the object shown in the diagram.


Several forces act on this object which is at rest
on a smooth, horizontal surface.

15 N

6N

26 N
4 kg

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Dot Point Preliminary Physics

(a)

Calculate the net force on the object.


.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................
.........................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the acceleration of the object.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate its velocity after 5.0 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate its displacement after 5 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13.4 Consider the two blocks shown in the diagram. They are connected by a light string over a
frictionless pulley.
D 

/DEHODOOWKHIRUFHVDFWLQJLQWKLVSXOOH\V\VWHP

(b)

Calculate the acceleration of the system.

....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................

X
....................................................................................................................................................................

2 kg

....................................................................................................................................................................

4 kg

(c)

Calculate the net force on each block.

....................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the tension in the string connecting the blocks.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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21

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2.13.5 Consider the two blocks


shown in the diagram. They
are connected by a light
string over a frictionless
pulley. Block X is resting
on a smooth surface.

2 kg
X

D 

 DEHODOOWKHIRUFHVDFWLQJLQ
/
this pulley system.

(b)

Calculate the acceleration of the system.

5 kg

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the net force on each block.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the tension in the string connecting the blocks.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13.6 A 3 kg mass is resting on a Newton balance in an elevator. Complete the table to show the
reading on the balance in each of the following situations.
Movement of elevator

Reading on Newton balance

(a) Stationary
(b) Moving up at 2.0 m s1
(c) Moving down at 2.0 m s1
(d) Moving up at 2.0 m s2
(e) Moving down at 2.0 m s2

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2.13.7

Two masses are connected by a string and are hanging from


the ceiling of an elevator as shown. Complete the table to
show the tensions in each string in the following situations.

Movement of elevator

Tension in
String 1 (N)

Tension in
String 2 (N)

String 1

4 kg

(a) Stationary
String 2

(b) Moving up at 3.0 m s1


(c) Moving down at 3.0 m s1
(d) Moving up at 3.0 m s2

6 kg

(e) Moving down at 3.0 m s2

2.13.8 A ball is hanging by a string from the ceiling of a bus.


Describe the motion of the bus when the string is:
(a)

hanging straight down

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

hanging down towards the rear of the bus

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

hanging down towards the front of the bus

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.13.9 A 3.0 kg ball is hanging by a string from the ceiling of a bus as


shown in the diagram.
D 

/DEHOWKHIRUFHVDFWLQJRQWKHEDOO

(b)

Using an appropriate vector diagram, calculate the tension in the


string when the ball is in the position shown.

.....................................................................................................................................................................

10

.....................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................

3 kg ball
.....................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the acceleration of the bus.

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

See over page.

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23

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(d) At what angle would the ball and string hang if the bus was
braking at 2.5 m s2?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
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.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................

 6
 ROYHSUREOHPVDQGDQDO\VHLQIRUPDWLRQLQYROYLQJ
around curves.

F = mv2/r

for vehicles travelling

2.14.1 Two 60 kg boys on 20 kg bikes are riding at 15 m s1 directly towards a wall which is 30 m
from them. X continues towards the wall, but slams on his brakes applying a 400 N force.
Y does not put on his brakes, but turns his bike with the same force in a circular path in the
hope of not hitting the wall.
Analyse this information to determine whether or not the boys hit the wall.
For X

For Y

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

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.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

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..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

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..........................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................

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2.14.2 A toy racing car of mass 150 g is racing around a circular track of diameter 80 cm. It takes
8.4 s to do one lap of the track. Calculate:
(a)

the speed of the car

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(a)

the acceleration of the car

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

the centripetal force acting on the car

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.14.3 A 1500 kg racing car goes around a circular track of radius 200 m at a constant speed of 270 kph.
(a)

Calculate the speed of the car in m s1.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the acceleration of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

What force holds the car to the road as it speeds around this corner.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the value of this force.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

State the direction this force acts.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(f)

Predict the value of this force if the speed of the car was to halve.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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 3HUIRUPUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQVWRVKRZWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQIRUFHPDVVDQGDFFHOHUDWLRQ
2.15.1 Experiment 1

Trolley

In this experiment, a trolley of


mass 1.5 kg was placed on the
bench accelerated by a force
attached to it by a string, which
passed over a pulley. The mass
of the trolley was kept constant
and different forces used to
accelerate it from rest across the
bench top. The time it took the
trolley to travel 1.0 m across the
benchtop was measured. The
results are shown in the table.
Run

Accelerating
Force (N)

Time to travel
1.0 m (s)

1F

0.89

2F

0.63

3F

0.52

4F

0.45

5F

0.40

Pulley

Mass

Initial speed of
trolley (m s1)

Average speed
of trolley
(m s1)

Final speed of
trolley (m s1)

Acceleration
of trolley
(m s2)

(a)

Complete the table by calculating values for all missing data.

(b)

Draw a graph to show the relationship between the force and acceleration produced. (Place
force on the yD[LV

(c)

Use your graph to write a conclusion for the experiment.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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26

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

2.15.2 Experiment 2
The students did another experiment using the same apparatus. This time they kept the
accelerating force constant, and changed the mass of the trolley. They measured how long it
took the trolley to move 1.0 m across the benchtop.

Run

Trolley
mass (kg)

Time to
travel
1.0 m (s)

1.0

1.83

2.0

2.58

3.0

3.16

4.0

3.65

5.0

4.08

Average
speed of
trolley
(m s1)

Initial speed
of trolley
(m s1)

(a)

Complete the table of results by


calculating values for all missing
TXDQWLWLHV

(b)

Graph mass vs. (acceleration)1.

(c)

Use your graph to write a conclusion for


the experiment.

Final speed
of trolley
(m s1)

Acceleration
of trolley
(m s2)

(Acceleration)1

...........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Combining your conclusions for Experiments 1 and 2


G 

8VHWKHFRQFOXVLRQV\RXKDYHZULWWHQWRZULWHDPDWKHPDWLFDOHTXDWLRQZKLFKVKRZVWKH
relationship between the mass of an object, the force acting on it, and the acceleration the
force produces.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

H 

8VHWKHUHVXOWVRIWKHH[SHULPHQWVWRQGWKHYDOXHRIWKHDFFHOHUDWLQJIRUFHVLQWKHWZR
experiments above.

Experiment 1
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Experiment 2
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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2.16 Solve problems using vector diagrams to determine resultant velocity, acceleration and force.
2.16.1 A 2.5 kg object moving at 5.0 m s1 east is acted upon by a force which changes its velocity to
12 m s1 south over a period of 4 s. By drawing an appropriate vector diagram, calculate:
(a)

the change in velocity of the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(b)

the acceleration of the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(c)

the force that acted on the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

2.16.2 The velocity of an object changes from 6.0 m s1 west to 8.0 m s1 north when a force of 12 N
acts on it for 1.25 s. By drawing an appropriate vector diagram, calculate:
(a)

the change in velocity of the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(b)

the acceleration of the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(c)

the direction of the force that acted on the object

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(d)

the mass of the object

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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 3HUIRUPDUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQWRGHPRQVWUDWHYHFWRUDGGLWLRQDQGVXEWUDFWLRQ
2.17.1 A group of students set up the following apparatus to investigate the addition of vectors. They
hung masses on mass carriers to produce forces F1 and F2 on the ends of a long string, then
placed a third mass carrier and masses, F3 on the string between the pulleys. They adjusted
WKHPDVVHVRQHDFKFDUULHUXQWLOWKHV\VWHPZDVLQHTXLOLEULXPWKHQPHDVXUHGDQJOH. Their
results for three sets of forces are shown in the table.

F1

F1

F2

F3

60 g

90 g

132 g

59

40 g

70 g

95 g

68

45 g

55 g

70 g

93

F2
F3

By drawing appropriate vector diagrams, show that these results are consistent with F3 being the
resultant of F1 and F2.

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3. Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations are an important aspect
in understanding motion.
3.1

Identify that a moving object possesses kinetic energy and that work done on that object can
increase that energy.
3.1.1

Explain, in terms of the law of conservation of energy, the relationship between the work
done on a falling object and its kinetic energy.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.2

Solve problems and analyse information to determine the kinetic energy of vehicles and the
ZRUNGRQHXVLQJ
Ek = mv2

and

W = Fs

3.2.1

A 12 kg car, at rest, is acted upon by a force acting towards the north, for 5 s. This changes its
kinetic energy by 2400 J.

(a)

Calculate the work done on the object by the force.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

&DOFXODWHWKHQDOYHORFLW\RIWKHREMHFW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate how far the object moves while the force is acting on it.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

Calculate the acceleration of the object.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(e)

Calculate the magnitude of the force acting on the object.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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30

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

3.2.2

If the car in Question 3.2.1 had been moving at 10 m s1 south initially, and the same force
acted on it for the same time, calculate:

(a)

the initial kinetic energy of the car

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

E 

WKHQDOYHORFLW\RIWKHFDU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

F 

WKHQDONLQHWLFHQHUJ\RIWKHFDU

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

the displacement of the car during the 5 seconds

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

H 

 LYHQWKDWWKHZRUNGRQHLVHTXDOWRWKHFKDQJHLQHQHUJ\RIWKHFDUFDOFXODWHWKHZRUNGRQH
*
on the car by the force.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(f)

Account for your answer to (e).

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.3

Describe the energy transformations that occur in collisions.


3.3.1

A car of mass 1000 kg is moving at 15 m s1 when the driver loses control and it runs off the
road, slamming into a tree and stopping.

(a)

Calculate the initial kinetic energy of the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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31

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(b)

Calculate the kinetic energy of the car after it has hit the tree.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Account for the difference.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.4

Analyse information to trace the energy transfers and transformations in collisions leading to
irreversible distortions.
3.4.1

Explain the role of each of the following forms of energy in collisions between moving
objects.

(a)

Potential energy of deformation

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Sound energy

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Thermal energy

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



'HQHWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\
3.5.1

Recall the law of conservation of energy.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3.5.2

A car has kinetic energy before collision and this is changed to the energy forms above during
collision. Identify where all this energy ends up.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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32

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

4. Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or the driver.



'HQHPRPHQWXPDV
4.1.1

p = mv

'HQHPRPHQWXP

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



'HQHLPSXOVHDV
4.2.1

I = Ft

'HQHLPSXOVH

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.2.2

Clarify the relationship between impulse and momentum change.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.3

Explain conservation of momentum in terms of Newtons Third Law.


4.3.1

 VLQJDSSURSULDWHHTXDWLRQVVKRZKRZ1HZWRQV7KLUG/DZFDQEHXVHGWRH[SODLQWKH
8
conservation of momentum during a collision.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................



6ROYHSUREOHPVDQGDQDO\VHGDWDXVLQJ

p = mv

and

I = Ft

4.4.1

A model of a 60.0 kg man and one of a 25 kg child were placed in an 1000 kg car and secured
with seatbelts. The car was moving at 70.0 kph as it crashed into a brick wall.

(a)

Predict what would happen to the models during the collision.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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33

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(b)

Identify the law of Physics you are using in your answer to (a).

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Explain how and why the effect on the models would differ if the front section of the car was
specially designed to concertina on impact.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(d)

If the collision took 0.2 s, calculate the average force exerted on each model by its seatbelt.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

H 

&DOFXODWHWKHVSHHGDWZKLFKHDFKPRGHOZRXOGEHWKURZQIRUZDUGV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I 

7KHXVHRIWKHSKUDVHWKURZQIRUZDUGVLQ H LVLQFRUUHFW([SODLQZK\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

J 

5HZULWHTXHVWLRQ H PRUHFRUUHFWO\DVIDUDVWKHSK\VLFVLVFRQFHUQHG

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(h)

By making appropriate calculations, assess if it would be possible for a mother to nurse a


child and protect it from a collision like this.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Science Press

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34

Dot Point Preliminary Physics

(a)

The graph shows how the


force acting on a 0.6 kg object
changes with time.

10
Force (N east)

4.4.2

Calculate the acceleration of


the object at t = 5 s.

.......................................................................................

8
6
4
2
0

.......................................................................................

Time (s)

(b)

Calculate the impulse applied


to the object during the 5 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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F 

&DOFXODWHWKHREMHFWVFKDQJHLQVSHHGGXULQJWKHV

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(d)

If its initial velocity was 22 m s1ZHVWFDOFXODWHLWVQDOYHORFLW\

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4.3

A 150 g toy car collides with a padded lounge chair at 0.20 m s1. The collision takes 0.3 s.
The toy car stops after the collision.

(a)

Calculate the impulse the car applies to the lounge.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the impulse the lounge applies to the car.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

Calculate the average force the car applies to the lounge.

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(d)

Calculate the average force the lounge applies to the car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(e)

What law are you using to answer Questions (b) and (d)?

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4.4

$NJSDVVHQJHULQDFDULVKHOGUPO\E\KHUVHDWEHOWGXULQJDFROOLVLRQ7KHVHDWEHOWLQ
stopping her, puts an average force of 12 000 N on her for 1.0 x 102 s. Calculate:

(a)

the impulse of the force

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

the impulse of the force if the collision time was 0.1 s.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(c)

the initial speed of the car

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3HUIRUPUVWKDQGLQYHVWLJDWLRQVWRDQDO\VHGDWDIRUWKHFKDQJHLQPRPHQWXPGXULQJFROOLVLRQV
4.5.1

The diagrams show the results of a experiment where trolley X, mass 200 g, collided with
trolley Y, 300 g. The results were produced using 10 Hz stroboscopic photography. Analyse
the results to determine if momentum was conserved.
Before collision
X

After collision
X

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4.6

Solve problems that apply the principle of conservation of momentum to qualitatively and
quantitatively describe the collision of a moving vehicle with a stationary vehicle.
4.6.1

A 3.0 kg block, at rest, is hit by a 4.0 kg block moving at 1.5 m s1. After collision, the 4 kg
block stops. Calculate the velocity of the 3 kg block after the collision.

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4.6.2

A 6.0 103 kg train engine, moving at 2.5 m s1 collides, and couples with a stationary
carriage. They move at 1.2 m s1&DOFXODWHWKHFDUULDJHVPDVV

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4.6.3

A 1200 kg car moving at 60 kph collides with an 800 kg parked car. As a result of this collision,
the parked car is pushed forwards at 40 kph. Determine what happens to the other car.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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4.7

Solve problems that apply the principle of conservation of momentum to qualitatively and
quantitatively describe the collision of a moving vehicle with an immovable object.
4.7.1

A two tonne truck moving at 15.0 m s1 collides with a concrete retaining wall. The wall does not
EUHDN$WUVWDSSHDUDQFHVWKLVZRXOGVHHPWRFRQWUDYHQHWKHODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIPRPHQWXP

(a)

Recall the law of conservation of momentum.

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(b)

Explain how this collision does not contravene the law of conservation of momentum.

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4.7.2

A 12 kg ball moving at 2.5 m s1 collides with a brick wall and rebounds at 1.75 m s1.

(a)

Calculate the change in momentum of the ball.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Calculate the impulse the ball applies to the wall.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c)

If the collision lasts 0.15 s, calculate the force the wall places on the ball.

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.8

Solve problems that apply the principle of conservation of momentum to describe the collision
of a moving vehicle with another vehicle moving in the opposite direction.
4.8.1

A 900 kg car, moving at 6.0 m s1 east collides with a 150 kg motorbike moving west at
8.0 m s1. The car slows to 4.0 m s1. Calculate what happens to the motorbike.

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4.8.2

 NJJRFDUWFUDVKHVLQWRDNJJRFDUWPRYLQJLQWKHRSSRVLWHGLUHFWLRQDWPV1.
$
The 30 kg cart rebounds at 4.0 m s1 while the 45 kg cart rebounds at 2.0 m s1. Calculate the
LQLWLDOVSHHGRIWKHNJJRFDUW

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.9

Solve problems that apply the principle of conservation of momentum to describe the collision
of a moving vehicle with another vehicle moving in the same direction.
4.9.1

A 350 g toy train engine is moving at 12 cm s1 when it collides, and couples with a 200 g
carriage moving at 5 cm s1 in the same direction. Calculate their combined speed.

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4.9.2

A 400 g toy engine pulls four 150 g carriages. They move at 0.3 m s1 when they run into, and
couple with, two identical carriages moving at 0.15 m s1 in the same direction. Calculate the
speed of the combination.

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5. Safety devices are utilised to reduce the effects of changing momentum.




'HQHWKHLQHUWLDRIDYHKLFOHDVLWVWHQGHQF\WRUHPDLQLQXQLIRUPPRWLRQRUDWUHVW
5.1.1

5HFDOO1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQ

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5.1.2

([SODLQWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQDQGWKHFRQFHSWRILQHUWLD

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 QDO\VHUVWRUVHFRQGKDQGGDWDDERXWWKHSRWHQWLDOGDQJHUSUHVHQWHGE\ORRVHREMHFWVLQD
$
vehicle.
5.2.1

Explain, in terms of the principles of Physics involved, why it is potentially dangerous to


leave loose objects on the back shelf of a car.

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5.2.2

Explain, in terms of the principles of Physics involved why it is dangerous to drive a car
without wearing a seatbelt.

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5.3

Discuss reasons why Newtons First law of Motion is not apparent in many real world
situations.
5.3.1

, GHQWLI\WZRUHDOOLIHVLWXDWLRQVZKHUH1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQLVDSSDUHQWDQGH[SODLQ
how this affects the person involved.

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5.3.2

, GHQWLI\WZRUHDOOLIHVLWXDWLRQVZKHUH1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRI0RWLRQLVQRWDSSDUHQWDQG
explain why it is not apparent.

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 VVHVVWKHUHDVRQVIRUWKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIORZVSHHG]RQHVLQEXLOWXSDUHDVDQGWKHDGGLWLRQRI
$
airbags and crumple zones to vehicles with respect to the concepts of impulse and momentum.
5.4.1

With reference to the concepts of impulse and momentum, assess the reasons for the
introduction of:

D 

ORZVSHHG]RQHVLQEXLOWXSDUHDV

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(b)

the use of airbags in collisions

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...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(c)

the inclusion of crumple zones in vehicles

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5.5

Evaluate the effectiveness of some safety features of motor vehicles.


5.5.1

Evaluate the relative safety of the seatbelt harness worn by racing car drivers and the lap/sash
EHOWZRUQE\GULYHUVLQQRUPDOFDUV

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5.5.2

 DQXIDFWXUHUVRIDLUEDJVLQGLFDWHWKDW\RXQJFKLOGUHQVKRXOGQRWVLWLQWKHIURQWSDVVHQJHUVVHDW
0
LIDLUEDJVDUHWWHG3UHGLFWZK\WKLVFRXOGEHXQVDIHIRUVPDOOFKLOGUHQEXWVDIHIRUDGXOWV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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5.3.3

A passenger in a car that has a synthetic plastic bumper bar will usually sustain less injury than
a passenger in a car with a solid, chromed metal bumper bar. Explain how this is possible.

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 VHDYDLODEOHHYLGHQFHWRDVVHVVEHQHWVRIWHFKQRORJLHVIRUDYRLGLQJRUUHGXFLQJWKHHIIHFWRID
8
collision.
5.6.1

5HFDOOYHWHFKQRORJLHVXVHGWRUHGXFHWKHHIIHFWVRIDFROOLVLRQ

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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5.6.2

$VVHVVWKHEHQHWVRIWKHVHWHFKQRORJLHV

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Notes
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DOT POINT
Answers

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145

Answers

Notes
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Moving About
General comment: Given that we measure things slightly differently from each other and that our measuring instruments might not be
totally accurate, consider all numerical answers derived through measurement as correct if they lie within +1 or 1 of the given answers.
For example, if the given answer is 58, then accept 57, 58 and 59 as correct.
1.1.1

Car may slow down (reaches a corner, up a hill, speed bump, pedestrian crossing etc) or speed up (down hill, moving away
from stop lights, as it starts etc). In each case the change is caused by the force on the car changing due to some factor like
increased friction during braking, gravitational force etc.

1.2.1

$YHUDJHVSHHGLVDFDOFXODWHGYDOXHHTXDOWRWKHWRWDOGLVWDQFHWUDYHOOHGGLYLGHGE\WKHWRWDOWLPHWDNHQZKLOHLQVWDQWDQHRXV
speed is the actual speed of a vehicle at a particular instant of time.

1.3.1

Scalars have magnitude only while vectors have both magnitude and direction. Vectors can be represented by scale diagrams.
Scalars are not represented in this way.

1.3.2

Examples include:
Scalar quantities

1.3.3

Vector quantities

Mass

Displacement

Time

Velocity

Speed

Acceleration

Distance

Force

Length

Momentum

Distance travelled is a measure of the total length of the path an object has travelled. Displacement indicates how far, in a
VWUDLJKWOLQHDQREMHFWLVIURPLWVVWDUWLQJSRLQWDQGWKHGLUHFWLRQRILWVQLVKSRVLWLRQIURPLWVVWDUWLQJSRVLWLRQ

1.3.4

1.3.5

Object travelling by

Distance travelled (km)

Displacement (km)

Road 1

75

50 east

Road 2

50

50 east

Road 3

150

50 east

$
 EHDULQJVSHFLHVWKHGLUHFWLRQDQREMHFWLVWUDYHOOLQJ RUKDVWUDYHOOHG DVDQDQJOHPHDVXUHGFORFNZLVHIURPQRUWK

1.3.6
Wombat

Distance travelled (m)

Displacement (m)
(directions as compass readings)

Displacement (m)
(directions as bearing)

58

58 N 62 W

55 b298

63

63 N 65 E

58 b065

32

32 S 46 E

30 b134

33

33 S 22 W

32 b202

1.4.1

r = change in displacement of the object.

1.4.2

Displacement indicates how far, in a straight line, an object is from its starting point, and we must also state the direction it
ZRXOGKDYHWUDYHOOHGLILWKDGPRYHGGLUHFWO\ VWUDLJKWOLQH IURPLWVVWDUWLQJSRLQWWRLWVQLVKLQJSRLQW

1.5.1

Average speed = total distance covered total time taken.

1.5.2

Difference is in the use of distance travelled and displacement, hence average speed instead of average velocity.

1.5.3

Instantaneous speed measures the speed of on object at a particular instant of time while instantaneous velocity measures the
YHORFLW\DWWKDWLQVWDQWDQGWKHUHIRUHUHTXLUHVWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWUDYHODWWKDWLQVWDQWWREHVWDWHGDOVR

1.5.4

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object while average speed uses total distance travelled.

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1.5.5

1.6.1

1.6.2

(a)

They will be the same, 60 kph.

(b)

At P instantaneous velocity is 60 kph b160 while at Q it is 60 kph b055.

(c)

72 kph

(d)

48 kph b083

(a)

1.53 m s1

(b)

1.53 m s1 towards the end of the pool

(a)

1.47 m s1

(b)

zero (she ends up at her starting position)

1.6.3

1.7.1

Car travelling by

Distance travelled
(km)

Displacement (km)

Time taken (hr)

Average speed of
cars (kph)

Average velocity of
cars (kph)

Road 1

120

90 east

3.0

40

30 east

Road 2

90

90 east

2.0

45

45 east

Road 3

200

90 east

5.0

40

18 east

(a)

(b)

Starting
position

Distance up the
slope (m)

Time to roll down slope (s)

Average time
to roll down
slope (s)

Average speed
down slope
(m s1)

Average speed
squared
(m2 s2)

1.0

0.64

0.65

0.63

0.64

1.56

2.43

1.5

0.76

0.79

0.79

0.78

1.92

3.69

2.0

0.92

0.91

0.87

0.90

2.22

4.93

2.5

1.03

0.99

1.01

1.01

2.48

6.15

3.0

1.14

1.09

1.10

1.11

2.70

7.29

Independent variable: distance up the slope.


Dependent variable: average speed.

(c)
Average speed (m/s)

(d)
H 

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

0.5

1
1.5
2
Distance up slope (m)

2.5

Average speed down slope increases as distance up slope increases but at a progressively slower rate.
/LQHLVFXUYHGVRUHODWLRQVKLSFDQQRWEHVWDWHGPRUHSUHFLVHO\WKDQLQFUHDVHV,IWKHJUDSKLVDVWUDLJKWOLQHWKHQZH
can conclude that the plotted variables are directly proportional to each other.

Average speed (m/s)

(f)

J 
(h)

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0.5

1
1.5
2
Distance up slope (m)

2.5

$YHUDJHVSHHGGRZQVORSHVTXDUHGLVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHGLVWDQFHXSWKHVORSH
2.6 m s1
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1.8.1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

8m
15 m north
0.75 m s1 north
0.75 m s1 north
0.75 m s1 north

1.8.2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

7m
20 m south
1.0 m s1 south
1.33 m s1 south
Car is stationary at displacement 20 m north for 5 seconds then moves at 1.33 m s1 south for 15 s at which time it is
at displacement zero.

1.8.3

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

15 m
1.5 m s1
1.5 m s1 south
9 m south
1.5 m s1 south

1.9.1



D 
E 
F 
(d)
(e)

DERXWP
DERXWPQRUWK
DERXWPV1 north
about 3.5 m s1 north
Car starts at displacement zero and travels for 20 s with increasing velocity (accelerating) until it reaches displacement
56 m north.

1.9.2

D 
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

P
70 m south
3.5 m s1
3.5 m s1 south
about 2.2 m s1 south

1.9.3


D 
E 
(c)
(d)
H 

DERXWP
DERXWPQRUWK
5.5 m s1
5.5 m s1 north
DERXWPV1 north

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

150 m
75 m west
0
1.5 m s2 east


1.10.1

1.10.2
Average speed
(m s1)

Car

Average velocity
(m s1)

Acceleration (m s2)

Displacement after 10 s

12

12 north

120 m north

about 5.1

1.25 north

1.0 north

38 m south

about 7.5

about 0.1 north

0.5 north

about 70 m south

5 south

0.5 south

25 m south

1.11.1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

about 390 m
about 19.5 m s1 north
about 3.3 m s2 north
2.75 m s2 north

1.11.2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

about 152 m
about 60 m
about 70.8 m s1
about 2.0 m s1 south
at time 3, a = 0
at time 7, a = 4 m s2 north
at time 16, a = 2.5 m s2 south

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55 m s1 east
15 m s1 east
55 m s1 west
40 m s1 west
15 m s1 west
40 m s1 east

2.1.1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

2.1.2

Velocity of A relative to B = velocity of B relative to A (i.e. opposite direction).

2.1.3

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

2.2 m s1 downstream
1.3 m s1 upstream
1.75 m s1 downstream
1.75 m s1 upstream

2.2.1

(a)
(b)

30 m s1 E 37 S (or b127)
30 m s1 W 37 N (or b307)

2.3.1

An object at rest or moving with constant velocity will remain ar rest or moving with constant velocity while no net
(unbalanced) force acts on it.

2.3.2

A car on an icy road will continue with the same speed in the same direction until the wheels stop sliding allowing the road to
exert a frictional force on the car through the tyres.

2.3.3

Any object moving with constant speed and turning a corner, for example a geostationary satellite in orbit above Earth.

2.3.4

Force acts towards the centre of curvature of the corner. It is also called a centripetal force.

2.4.1

An unbalanced force from outside the system.

2.4.2

Accelerating.

2.4.3

This idea depends on the convention we choose to make for each situation we deal with. One viewpoint of this is that a
positive force acts in the direction of motion of an object causing it to go faster while a negative force acts against the
direction of the motion of the object causing it to go more slowly. A positive force could also be considered to be an attractive
force (between oppositely charged objects) and a negative force a repulsive force between like charges.

2.5.1

Your diagram should show air resistance acting against the motion, and friction between the tyres and the road acting forwards
in the direction of the motion, gravity vertically down and reaction force to gravity perpendicularly up from surface. (Note
WKDWIULFWLRQEHWZHHQPRYLQJSDUWVLQWKHHQJLQHGRHVQRWDIIHFWWKHPRWLRQRIWKHFDUSHUVH7KLVIULFWLRQUHGXFHVWKHWRUTXH
WKHHQJLQHGHOLYHUVWRWKHZKHHOVDQGWKHUHIRUHUHGXFHVWKHUDWHDWZKLFKWKH\URWDWHDQGVRUHGXFHVWKHHIFLHQF\RIWKH
HQJLQHEXWWKLVLVQRWDQH[WHUQDOIRUFHDFWLQJWRUHGXFHWKHVSHHGRIWKHFDUDVUHTXLUHGE\1HZWRQVVHFRQGODZ 

2.5.2

Air resistance and friction act against the driving force to reduce its effect. The driving force causes the forward movement.
*UDYLW\JLYHVWKHFDULWVZHLJKWDQGWKHUHDFWLRQIRUFHVWRSVWKHFDUVLQNLQJLQWRWKHHDUWK

2.5.3

Zero car is moving with constant speed i.e. no acceleration therefore no net force.

2.6.1

Speed it up, slow it down or change its direction of travel.

2.7.1

 FFHOHUDWLRQLVDPHDVXUHRIWKHUDWHDWZKLFKWKHYHORFLW\RIDQREMHFWFKDQJHV$FFHOHUDWLRQLVDYHFWRUTXDQWLW\DQG
$
WKHUHIRUHUHTXLUHVGLUHFWLRQDVZHOODVXQLWV 1RWHWKDWLIQRGLUHFWLRQLVVSHFLHGWKHQJLYHLWDVLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKH
IRUFH 

2.7.2

5.0 m s2 in the direction of the applied force.

2.7.3

(a)
(b)

2.8.1

A positive acceleration is in the direction of motion of an object causing it to go faster while a negative acceleration is
opposite the direction of the motion of the object causing it to go more slowly.

2.8.2

Accelerating from rest, accelerating away from a corner, coasting downhill.

2.8.3

Braking as it approaches a corner or stop sign, coasting uphill (i.e. foot not on accelerator).

2.9.1

0DVVLVWKHDPRXQWRIPDWWHULQDQREMHFW,WLVDVFDODUTXDQWLW\PHDVXUHGLQNJ

2.9.2

Weight is a measure of the gravitational force acting on an object. Weight is given by W = mg, is measured in newtons and is
DYHFWRUTXDQWLW\DFWLQJYHUWLFDOO\GRZQZDUGV

12.0 m s1 in the direction of the original motion.


6.5 m s1 in the direction the force acts.

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2.9.3
Mass

Weight

Measured in kg

Measure in newtons

Cannot be zero

Can be zero (if no gravitational eld)

Does not change with position

Changes according to position of object

Measure of amount of matter in an object

Measure of force of gravity on an object

Is a scalar quantity

Is a vector quantity

2.10.1

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance

2.10.2

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance

2.10.3

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance, friction between brake pads and wheel drums

2.10.4

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance

2.10.5

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance, component of gravity down the slope

2.10.6

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road, component of gravity down the slope
Retarding forces = air resistance

2.10.7

Forward force = friction between the tyres and the road


Retarding forces = air resistance
Turning force = component of the frictional force between the tyres and the road perpendicular to the direction of travel
produced as the wheels change direction.

2.11.1

The acceleration caused by a net force acting on an object is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the
PDVVRIWKHREMHFW25ZLWKLQDSDUWLFXODUIUDPHRIUHIHUHQFHWKHUDWHRIFKDQJHLQWKHPRPHQWXPRIDERG\LVHTXDOWRWKHQHW
force acting on it (see Year 12 work).

2.11.2

2.11.3

2.11.4

2.12.1

About 33.3 N against the motion.

2.12.2

40 kg

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2.12.3

(a)
(b)
(c)

2 m s2 north
10 m s1 north
25 m north

2.13.1

(a)
(b)

2 m s2 right
Force on X = 5 N right
Force on Y = 11 N right
11 N right
11 N left

(c)
(d)

(c)

4 m s2 left
Force on X = 12 N left
Force on Y = 24 N left
24 N both directions

2.13.3

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

6.25 m s2 b307
6.25 m s2 b307
About 31 m s1 b307
About 78 m b307

2.13.4

(a)
(b)
(c)

Show gravity down on each mass, and tension in each side of the string acting both ways.
3.27 m s2 Y moving down
Force on X = about 6.5 N up
Force on Y = about 13 N down
About 26.1 N acting both ways in string

2.13.2

(a)
(b)

(d)
2.13.5

(a)

(d)

Show gravity down on each mass, reaction force up on mass X and tension in both bits of the string acting in both
directions.
7 m s2 Y moving down
Force on X = 14 N right
Force on Y = 35 N down
14 N acting in both directions

2.13.6

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

29.4 N
29.4 N
29.4 N
35.4 N
23.4 N

2.13.7

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

98 N, 58.8 N
98 N, 58.8 N
98 N, 58.8 N
127.4 N, 88.2 N
68.6 N, 29.4 N

2.13.8

(a)
(b)
(c)

Stopped or moving with constant velocity.


Accelerating forwards.
Accelerating backwards or braking.

2.13.9

(a)

Weight force vertically down, tension in string (acting both ways) and a third force (= ma) horizontally to the left
(pulling the ball aside).
29.85 N
1.73 m s2
14.3 towards the front of the bus

(b)
(c)

(b)
(c)
(d)
2.14.1

X stops in 22.5 m so does not hit the wall.


Y turns a curve with a radius of 45 m, so Y hits the wall.

2.14.2

(a)
(b)
(c)

0.3 m s1
0.225 m s2
0.034 N towards centre of curve

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2.14.3

75 m s1
28.125 m s2
Friction between the tyres and the road the inertia of the car tries to keep it going straight and the friction opposes
this, pulling the car around in the curve.
4.21 104 N
Towards the centre of the curve.
Will be four times smaller = 1.05 104 N.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

2.15.1

(a)
Accelerating force
(N)

Time to travel
1.0 m (s)

Initial speed of
trolley (m s1)

Average speed of
trolley (m s1)

Final speed of
trolley (m s1)

Acceleration of
trolley
(m s2)

0.89

1.12

2.25

2.53

2F

0.63

1.59

3.17

5.03

3F

0.52

1.92

3.85

7.40

4F

0.45

2.22

4.44

9.87

5F

0.40

2.50

5.00

12.5

Run

(b)
6
Force (F units)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

(c)
2.15.2

5
10
Acceleration (m s2)

15

The acceleration produced by forces applied to a constant mass is directly proportional to the force applied.

(a)
Run

Trolley mass
(kg)

Time to
travel
1.0 m (s)

Initial speed
of trolley
(m s1)

Average
speed of
trolley
(m s1)

Final speed
of trolley
(m s1)

Acceleration of
trolley
(m s2)

(Acceleration)1

1.0

1.83

0.55

1.09

0.60

1.67

2.0

2.58

0.39

0.78

0.30

3.33

3.0

3.16

0.32

0.63

0.20

5.00

4.0

3.65

0.27

0.55

0.15

6.67

5.0

4.08

0.25

0.49

0.12

8.33

(b)

Mass (kg)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

4
6
1/Acceleration (s2 m1)

10

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(c)
(d)
(e)

The acceleration produced by a constant force acting on various masses is indirectly proportional to the mass.
F = ma
Experiment 1, force = 3.75 N (use gradient of graph).
Experiment 2, force = 0.6 N.

2.16.1

(a)
(b)
(c)

13 m s1 b203
3.25 m s2 b203
8.125 N b203

2.16.2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

10 m s1 b037
8 m s1 b037
b037
1.5 kg

2.17.1

You need to draw vectors to add F1 and F2DQGVKRZWKDWWKHWKLUGYHFWRULVHTXDOWR)3. If all angles are drawn correctly, F3
will be vertical. If you get lost, ask your teacher for help.

3.1.1

 KHZRUNGRQHE\JUDYLWDWLRQDOIRUFHZLOOHTXDOWKHNLQHWLFHQHUJ\WKHIDOOLQJREMHFWJDLQV DQGDOVRHTXDOVWKHJUDYLWDWLRQDO
7
potential energy the objects loses).

3.2.1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

2400 J
20 m s1 north
50 m
4 m s2
48 N

3.2.2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

600 J
10 m s1
600 J
0
0

I 

 QHUJ\LVQRWDYHFWRUTXDQWLW\VRRQSXUHGHQLWLRQVKE initial = KEQDOVRQRZRUNLVGRQH+RZHYHULIZH


(
DQDO\VHWKHMRXUQH\RIWKHFDULQWZRVHFWLRQVWKHQZHZRXOGQGWKDW-RIZRUNLVGRQHWRVWRSLWWKHQDQRWKHU
600 J done to accelerate it in the opposite direction.

3.3.1

(a)
(b)
(c)

1.125 105 J
0
Kinetic energy has been changed into other forms sound during the collision, deformation of the car, heat involved
LQWKDWGHIRUPDWLRQEUHDNLQJERQGVEHWZHHQPROHFXOHVPDNLQJXSVXEVWDQFHVDQGQDOO\GLVVLSDWHGDVNLQHWLFHQHUJ\
of air particles.

3.4.1

(a)

The bending of car panels and other metal parts, the breaking of glass and plastic absorbs most of the kinetic energy
of the car.
The sound associated with collisions as parts break and bend and move into and across each other absorbs some of the
FDUVRULJLQDOKE.
)ULFWLRQDVVRFLDWHGZLWKGHIRUPLQJSDUWVEHQGLQJDQGPRYLQJLQWRDQGDFURVVHDFKDEVRUEVVRPHRIWKHFDUVRULJLQDO
KE.

(b)


F 

3.5.1

In the absence of any external forces, the total energy of a system remains constant.

3.5.2

The energy eventually dissipates as molecular motion of the molecules in the air.

4.1.1

0RPHQWXPLVWKHSURGXFWRIDQREMHFWVPDVVDQGYHORFLW\

4.2.1

7KHLPSXOVHRIDIRUFHLVHTXDOWRWKHFKDQJHLQPRPHQWXPLWFDXVHV

4.2.2

,PSXOVHLVHTXDOWRWKHFKDQJHLQPRPHQWXPRIDQREMHFWFDXVHGE\DQHWIRUFHDFWLQJRQLW

4.3.1

 URP1HZWRQV7KLUG/DZGXULQJDFROOLVLRQWKHIRUFHRQREMHFW$LVHTXDODQGRSSRVLWHWRWKHIRUFHRQREMHFW%
)
i.e. FA = FB

 HFDXVHWKHWLPHLQYROYHGLVWKHVDPHIRUHDFKREMHFWWKLVPHDQVWKDWWKHLPSXOVHRQREMHFW$LVHTXDODQGRSSRVLWHWRWKH
%
impulse on object B, i.e. (Ft)A = (FT)B or IA = IB

 LQFHLPSXOVHDSSOLHGLVHTXDOWRWKHFKDQJHLQPRPHQWXPRI$LVHTXDODQGRSSRVLWHWKHFKDQJHLQPRPHQWXPRI%
6
LHSA SB.

7KLVODWWHUHTXDWLRQLVDQH[SUHVVLRQZKLFKUHSUHVHQWVWKH/DZRI&RQVHUYDWLRQRI0RPHQWXP
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4.4.1

(a)

E 
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

They would continue to move forwards at 70 kph because of their inertia until the force of their seatbelts stopped
them.
1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZ
Crumple sections increase the time of the collision and therefore reduce the forces involved in the collision (I = FT),
so, while the models would still continue to move forwards until their seatbelts stopped them, the decelerating force
of the belts would be less (acting over a longer time) so any detrimental effect on the models would be reduced.
Man = 5833.3 N opposing the motion.
Child = 2430.6 N opposing the motion.
19.44 m s1 (70 kph)
There is no forward force acting on them, they simply continue forwards because they are moving forwards until a
backward force stops them.
&DOFXODWHWKHVSHHGDWZKLFKWKHPRGHOVPRYHIRUZDUGVGXHWRWKHLULQHUWLDZKHQWKHFROOLVLRQRFFXUV
7KHIRUFHRQWKHFKLOGLV1 DQVZHU G ,PDJLQHPXPDWWHPSWLQJWROLIWWKLVPDVVRQDZHLJKWOLIWHUVEDU
1 GLYLGHE\ LVHTXLYDOHQWWRPXPOLIWLQJMXVWRYHUNJ&DQPXPGRWKLVSHUKDSVEXWQRWWRRPDQ\
would be strong enough, so for most mums impossible to hold the child.




J 
K 

4.4.2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

16.6 m s2 east
25 Ns east
41.67 m s1 east
19.67 m s1 east

4.4.3

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
H 

0.03 Ns onto the lounge


0.03 Ns onto the car
0.1 N onto the lounge
0.1 N onto the car
/DZRI&RQVHUYDWLRQRI0RPHQWXP

4.4.4

(a)
(b)
(c)

1.2 Ns backwards
12 Ns backwards
2.4 m s1

4.5.1

Momentum is conserved. If you have problems with this analysis, see your teacher for assistance.

4.6.1

2.0 m s1 north

4.6.2

6500 kg

4.6.3

The car continues forwards at 33.3 kph.

4.7.1

(a)
(b)

In the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a system remains the same.
When the truck hits the wall it puts an impulse on the wall. This, while not collapsing the wall, will cause it to move
(vibrate, shake) a little. Hence the momentum of the truck transfers to the wall and then into molecular motion of air
SDUWLFOHVLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKHZDOO7KHZDOOSXWVDQHTXDOEXWRSSRVLWHLPSXOVHRQWKHWUXFN7KLVVWRSVWKHWUXFN

4.7.2

(a)
(b)
(c)

51 kg m s1 away from the wall


51 kg m s1 onto the wall
340 N away from the wall

4.8.1

The bike rebounds at 4.0 m s1

4.8.2

2.67 m s1

4.9.1

9.45 cm s1

4.9.2

0.26 m s1

5.1.1

An object will stay at rest or moving with constant velocity until an unbalanced force acts on it.

5.1.2

, QHUWLDLVGHQHGDVWKHWHQGHQF\RIDQREMHFWWRUHVLVWDQ\DWWHPSWVWRFKDQJHLWVVWDWHRIUHVWRUXQLIRUPPRWLRQWKLVLVDQ
DOWHUQDWHVWDWHPHQWRI1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZZLWKWKHH[FHSWLRQRIUHIHUHQFHWRDQHWIRUFH

5.2.1

, IWKHFDUEUDNHVVXGGHQO\WKHLQHUWLDRIWKHREMHFWFDQFDXVHLWWRFRQWLQXHWRPRYH 1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZRIPRWLRQ ,WZLOO


WKHUHIRUH\WRWKHIURQWRIWKHFDUDQGFDQLQMXUHDQ\RQHLWKLWVRQWKHZD\

5.2.2

, QWKHHYHQWRIDVXGGHQVWRSWKHLQHUWLDRIWKHSHUVRQZLOOFDXVHKLPKHUWRFRQWLQXHIRUZDUGV 1HZWRQV)LUVW/DZ XQWLOWKH\


hit (the net force) the windscreen and go through it, or hit the steering wheel and dash and receive injuries.

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5.3.1

When you walk along and then step off a moving walkway at normal walking speed, the inertia you have due to the motion of
WKHZDONZD\WKURZV\RXIRUZDUGVZLWKPRUHVSHHGWKDQ\RXVRPHWLPHVH[SHFW

:KHQDQHOHYDWRUPRYHVXSIURPUHVW\RXUNQHHVEXFNOHDVWKHLQHUWLDRI\RXUERG\WULHVWRNHHSLWZKHUHLWZDV

5.3.2

 KHQ\RXDUHLQDFDUWXUQLQJDFRUQHU\RXIHHOD FWLWLRXV IRUFHZKLFKDSSDUHQWO\WULHVWRSXVK\RXWRWKHVLGH7KLVLV


:
actually your forward inertia trying to keep you moving straight ahead.
If you are sitting in a car moving with constant velocity in a straight line, your inertia is not apparent. It only becomes
noticeable when the car brakes.

5.4.1

(a)

(b)

(c)

If you are travelling more slowly, then your momentum is less, so in the event of a collision, the impulse on you due
to the collision will be less, both because you do not have as much momentum to lose and also because the time of the
collision will probably be shorter.
During a collision, as your inertia causes you to continue to move forwards, the airbag ensures that you lose
your momentum slowly, by making the time of collision with the bag much longer than it would be if you hit the
windscreen. Therefore, while the impulse will be the same, the force involved will be less.
Crumple zones in vehicles are designed to increase the time of the collision and so while the momentum lost (the
impulse imparted to the car and you) is the same, the forces involved will be smaller.

5.5.1

 KHUDFLQJKDUQHVVVWRSVWKHGULYHUVERG\EHLQJWKURZQVLGHZD\VGXULQJDFROOLVLRQHVSHFLDOO\LIWKHFDUUROOV$ODSVDVK
7
EHOWLVQRWDVJRRGEHFDXVHWKHGULYHUFRXOGEHWKURZQRXWRIWKHEHOWLQDYLROHQWVLGHZD\VFROOLVLRQ

5.5.2

One reason is that the impulse of the airbag on the child, whose bones are softer can cause more injury than a similar impulse
on an adult.

5.5.3

The plastic bumper bar crumples more easily than a steel bar and so momentum of the collision is absorbed in the crumpling,
LQFUHDVLQJWKHWLPHRIWKHFROOLVLRQDQGVRUHGXFLQJWKHIRUFHRQWKHFDUDQGLWVRFFXSDQWV/HVVLQMXU\ZLOOWKHUHIRUHEHD
possibility.

5.6.1

Crumple bars, airbags, plastic components instead of all steel, seatbelts, engines that move downwards under the driver
instead of straight back into the driver.

5.6.2

7KHVHDUHDOOEHQHFLDODVWKH\DUHDOOGHVLJQHGWRUHGXFHWKHIRUFHVLPSDFWLQJRQSDVVHQJHUVLQYHKLFOHVHLWKHUE\H[WHQGLQJ
the time of the collision or, in the case of the engine movement, totally avoiding an impact.

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