An Indexed Gazetteer as one of the key in “One Map” solution for Disaster Risk Management

A.P. Perdana*, R. Mayasari Center for Topographic Mapping and Toponym, BADAN INFORMASI GEOSPASIAL Jalan Raya Jakarta Bogor KM46, Cibinong 16911 ajiputrap@gmail.com, aji.putra@big.go.id, ratna.mayasari@big.go.id

Abstract Gazetteers arelists of geographical names and an important reference for information about place and place names (toponym). Toponym is one of basic geospatial information as mentioned in Indonesian Geospatial Information Law Number 4.Toponym is the key and bridge for one to other information, especially between spatial and non-spatial information. In disaster event, the first question comes up is “where” and the power of “where” can be answered by “gazetteer”. An indexed gazetteer is urgently needed in order to develop “One Map” as a solution for Disaster Risk Management (DMR). DMR is closely related to investment to protect human lives and livelihoods and safeguard growth in key socioeconomic sectors. In this case, too many maps with different or not standardize place names in maps make disambiguate or confusing the map user and it‟s not good because disaster need “one map” information. On the other hand, digital information such as social media has new roles in quick information related disaster events and it can be used as rapid assessment geotagging. Based on spatial comparison analysis, it can be seen that the use of “one reference toponym” urgently needed even though disaster maps produced by official agencies in disaster already using toponym based on Indonesian Topographical Maps, but they also use another sources. The official gazetteers also need to be used toanalyze place and disaster events based on social media information. This paper described the urgency in building an indexed national gazetteer for supporting Disaster Risk Management in Indonesia by means of “One Map” policy. Key words: Gazetteer, Toponym, Maps, Disaster Risk Management

* Corresponding author.

Introduction Gazetteers are lists of geographical names and an important reference for information about place and place names (toponym).Gazetteers have been created for thousands of years, with the earliest dating back to the Ancient Greek period.At the first time, gazetteers provided spellings of geographical names organized with descriptive information. Geographic features have names and coordinates; they have to be managed by naming authorityand follow the standardization of gazetteer information developed by UNGEGN (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographic Names). Gazetteers became important for preserving local languages, understanding geographical phenomena‟s, managing toponym for accurate use of geospatial information for planning and development. Gazetteers provides all the names of natural and cultural phenomena, such as the names of mountains, hills, islands, bays, straits, village, sub district, district, provincial, buildings, roads, etc. (Santoso, et.al., 2011). In Indonesia, BAKOSURTANAL which has been transform into BADAN INFORMASI GEOSPASIAL (BIG) produced topographical basemap called PetaRupabumi Indonesia. Since 2004, BIG have compiled toponym on existing topographical maps (scale 1:50,000 and 1:25,000) compiled into gazetteers informationin a database, the Spatial Database of Geographical Names. Geographical names from this database have been used by National Team for Standardization of Topographical Names (Mayasari, et.al., 2011, Perdana, et.al., 2011). Geographical names which sometimes are called Place Names or Topographical Names, in Indonesia used “Topographical Names” or toponym.Toponym is one of basic geospatial information as mentioned in Indonesian Geospatial Information Law Number 4. Toponym is the key and bridge for one to other information, especially between spatial and non-spatial information.Statistical data and geospatial information are two important dataset to be used in spatial planning and management.In Indonesia, disaster management, regional management and spatial planning are connecting each other as mentioned in Act Number 26 Year 2007 “Spatial Planning”, Act Number 27 Year 2007 “Management of Coastal Area and Small Islands”, and also Act Number 24 Year 2007 about “Disaster Management”. Regional management should consider disaster (Act Num.26 Year 2007, article 6) and implementation of disaster management in situation where there is no disaster should continue to implement and enforce zoning (Act Num.24 Year 2007, article 35). In disaster event, the first question comes up is “where” and the power of “where” can be answered by “gazetteer”. Tsunami in Aceh and Nias 2004 was the greatest event of tsunami that hundreds thousands of people died and also cause environmental damage. Earthquake disaster in Yogyakarta and Central Java

2006 caused many people died. Eruption of Merapi Volcano happened in 2008, earthquake in West Sumatra Province year 2009. Then in the year of 2010, flash floods occurred in Wasior, earthquake and tsunami in Mentawai also the eruption of Merapi Volcano in Central Java and Yogyakarta (BNPB, 2009; Kardonodkk, 2009; Anonim, 2011). Disasters make us realized on the important of geospatial information; consistence and accurate data and geospatial information is needed, especially one of the important things is geographical names as part of basic geospatial information (Perdana et.al, 2011a; Perdana et.al, 2011b). An indexed gazetteer is urgently needed in order to develop “One Map” as a solution for Disaster Risk Management (DMR). DMR is closely related to investment to protect human lives and livelihoods and safeguard growth in key socio-economic sectors. In this case, too many maps with different or not standardize place names in maps make disambiguate or confusing the map user and it‟s not good because disaster need “one map” information (Perdana, et.al., 2012).On the other hand, digital information such as social media has new roles in quick information related disaster events and it can be used as rapid assessment geotagging.This paper described the urgency in building an indexed national gazetteer for supporting Disaster Risk Management in Indonesia by means of “One Map” policy. Methods The methodology in this research consists of literature study (previous study, government laws),discussion with expert, data collection (toponym data and maps), and spatial analysis by comparing from existing toponym dataset from BIG with other sources (such as Geonames, NGA Gazetteer, UN Gazetteer), the use and source of toponym on disaster maps published by BIG,

BadanNasionalPenanggulanganBencana (BNPB), BadanMeterorologi, Klimatologi, danGeofisika (BMKG), etc. Results and Discussion BIG Gazetteers, Verified Names by National Team for Standardization of Topographical Names, Crowdsourced Data In the process of topographical mapping activities, building gazetteer is part of the tasks conducted by Center for Topographic Mapping and Toponym-BIG. Then gazetteer compiled into seamless toponym dataset which called the Spatial Database of Geographical Names or BIG Gazetteers (Figure 1). Toponym in this dataset has been used in disaster maps, especially names of natural features. Names of administrative areas and the names of cities sometimes used another sources such as BPS dataset, UN dataset, etc. On the other hand, in national naming activities used BIG toponym data as the main source of

names to be verified by the national naming authority.Areas which not covered by names in medium scale, using geographical names from small topographical map scale (1:250,000).

Figure 1.The status and database of BIG Gazetteers Verification and standardization of geographical names have been done for island names and names of administrative areas. The naming and standardizing on the islands became national priorities because Indonesia is archipelagic states. According to the Indonesian country report to UNGEGN in 2012, this stage have been conducted, such as surveyed (2005-2007), verified and standardized (2007-2008), as much as 13,466 islands, and adopted to be listed in the National Gazetteer.The names of prefectures (administrative areas) has been verified at the end of the year 2011 all over 33 provinces had been finished, that include over 399 kabupaten/regencies, 98 kota/municipalities, and 6693 kecamatan/districts. It will be continuously verified after the development of several areas, such as the number of provinces becomes 34.For the standardization of natural geographical names feature will be implemented starting from 2012 – 2014. The implementation of this programme will be guided by the guidelines for collecting all natural geographical names have just completed. If the names of island and prefectures have standardized and published, they should be used as single reference for thematic information, such as disaster maps. Why standardization of geographical names is important for disaster management? An example: Names of mountains, such as GunungSemeru (written by two separate words, as "gunung" is a generic element of the form of topographical and "Semeru" the name itself, or specific elements). In other side, there is city use word „gunung; in its name and wrote it in

Indonesian language correctly, namely Gunungsitoli City (written as one word”Gunungsitoli” because of its generic element is not the mountain but the "City"). We might use another data source if there is no official toponym data because the area not yet mapped in medium scale. Crowd-sources data can be considered as complement data, but if it will be used for maps then it should be verified first. Crowd-sources data extracted from contribution or participation many users or online community. Wikimapia, Bing Maps, Google Maps are examples of web contains toponym information. Geonames is one of the best available geographical names that can be easily extracted. Based on data source information, NGA gazetteers is one of the data source used by Geonames. After comparison analysis, it can be seen that for the names of settlement areas (names of kampong, villages) are the same names and position with BIG toponym dataset.For other features should be compared and check with spatial data or satellite images before it can be used.This research analyze the existing available toponym dataset which covered Indonesia; BIG Gazetteers, Geonames Dataset and NGA Geonames. Spatial comparison was conducted by comparing on feature types and toponym also its location. Attribute or database table was also compared as can be seen in table 1 below. Table 1. The Result of Comparison Gazetteers Database Table
GeonamesID Names Location-Latitude Location-Longitude UTM Zone Map Sheet Map Scale Feature Types Feature Codes Generic Names Alternates Names Names on Map Names on Gazetteer Elevation Administrative Areas Population Time Zone Note Modification Source: Data Analysis, 2013

BIG Gazetteers
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ -

Geonames Dataset
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

NGA Geonames
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

BIG Gazetteers
Number of records: 437,753 records (to be updated after mapping process), with double names for rivers because to locate headwaters and estuary. Feature types consist of names of administrative areas, hydrological features, settlement areas/populated places, topographical features, island names, manmade features. Several areas not yet covered, because the mapping process at medium scale still on going.

Geonames Dataset
Number of records: 362,647 records (still updated), but some features are not placed in Indonesia. Feature types consist of Administrative areas, Hydrological features, Topographical features, island names, populated places, and man-made features. Already covered all regions in Indonesia. Alternate names and modification are important additional information in this database. The feature classification of Geonames is the same with NGA Geonames.

NGA Geonames
Number of records: 439,500 records (still updated). Feature types consist of Administrative areas, Hydrological features, Topographical features, island names, populated places, and man-made features. Already covered all regions in Indonesia. Generic term, map names, and modification date are important additional information in this database.

Figure 2. BIG Gazetteers, Geonames, and NGA Geonames covered Indonesia. The mapping condition of all gazetteers help us to build an indexed gazetteer and classified toponym intoverified, official, unofficial, not yet gazette, or to be verified. Metadata of each feature is important when gazetteers information will be used as spatial identifier in Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Put the names as single spatial reference system is the key to communicate geospatial data and information from many agencies. If the names have been verified and followed International rules on standardization of geographical names, then it will be useful to create an indexed national gazetteer and published it.

Indexed Gazetteer for Disaster Management According to Presidential Regulation Number 112 Year 2006about National Team for Geographical Names Standardizationmentioned that accurate information and data about thegeographical names should be achieved and realizing thenational gazetteer so there is a similarity of topographicalnames in Indonesia (Perdana, et.al., 2012) .This regulation in line with Geospatial Information Act Number 4/2011 mentioned the importance of the use accurate, standardized and single basic geospatial information for thematic geospatial information. Dissemination and utilization of geospatial information become easy and everybody can create maps, but standardized basic geospatial information still needed. The lack of standardized data can cause problem of delays in providing assistance to remote villages.The present of many crowd-sources data and social media can be useful, but also can give misinterpretation of geographic phenomena. Toponym in social media (such as twitter, Facebook, blogger, etc.) with related to other information such as disaster event can be used as indicator. To process text from social media into encoded spatial toponym data by geoparsing in two steps: entity extraction and disambiguation, also known as geotagging, natural language processing to extract from text into geospatial information. For example, negative or positive response on twitter can be mapped based on user location or geotagging location or place names on their twit. To get accurate and consistence location or place names, verified gazetteers is needed. Indonesian geoportal(figure 3) or known as GeospasialUntukNegeri launched by BIG is the portal where people can access geospatial information from many other institutions from one gate and create map with basemap from BIG.In the next development of this geoportal, geonames should be geographical names provided by National Team for Standardization of Topographical Names in order to maintain the accuracy and consistency in geonames as spatial identifer.

Figure 3.GeospasialUntukNegeri (http://tanahair.indonesia.go.id/home/webmap/viewer.html?useExisting=1)

BNPB also has geospatialwebsite which provide maps and Web GIS, but all of thosewebsite do not yet properly use gazetteer as part of theirwebsite for search or query based on name of place. Figure 4 below is one of the maps produced by BNPB and it can be seen that this map already refers to BIG topographic map.BNPB also used statistical data and visualized it into maps; toponym is always being important part of their maps to show location and place names, linked their statistical data with spatial information. In the figure 4 below can be seen incorrect writing of administrative areas for example Nusa Tenggara should be written as Nusatenggara because tenggara is not refers to orientation.

Figure 4.A Map produced by BNPB, incorrect writing of administrative areas based on toponym standardization Nusa Tenggara should be written as Nusatenggara Other institution related disaster event is BMKG. BMKG has twitter account and always updated information related earthquake and weather situation. In their twit always displayed point location, place names on twit and map with background Indonesian DEM (Digital Elevation Model) can be seen in Figure 5.In the example, we can see Cianjur as place names and the coordinate source of the earthquake event, but we cannot define which cianjur as Kabupaten or Kecamatan or villages.Based on, gazetteer we can get the information Cianjur is referes to more than one name for populated placed in Jawa Barat.

Figure 5.BMKG twitter account and their twit which shown map and location (place names) Analyzing from the use of toponym on disaster maps and social media published by government institutions need to standardized. Based on spatial comparison analysis, it can be seen that the use of “one reference toponym” urgently needed even though disaster maps produced by official agencies in disaster already using toponym based on Indonesian Topographical Maps, but they also use another sources. The official gazetteers also need to be used to analyze place and disaster events based on social media information.An authoritative toponym and linked data mechanism should be built in order to help the communication between geospatial information and non-spatial information. The current progress of building gazetteers dataset as spatial identifier can be seen in Figure 6 where toponym is the key to access or linked with others data or information related toponym. This figure is an example on how indexed gazetteer will be developed.

Figure 6.Toponym as Spatial Identifier, Linked Data and Visualization

Conclusion An indexed gazetteer needs authoritative toponym verified by national naming authority and this is a long process. Classification of toponym dataset to categorize between official or verified toponym and not yet verified toponym can help the publication of existing and the best available gazetteers information and the use of crowd-sources data such as Geonames or NGA Geonames. While, the building of toponym as spatial identifierstill in process, the standardization of toponym still running, the use of topographic map as base map for thematic information especially disaster maps should be increased and reduced the use of an authoritative basic geospatial information. References ------------, [Undang-undangNomor 4 Tahun 2011 tentangInformasiGeospasia], Jakarta, Indonesia (2011). ------------, [PeraturanPresidenNomor 112 Tahun 2006 tentang Tim NasionalPembakuanNamaRupabumi], Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia (2006). ------------, [PeraturanMenteriDalamNegeriNomor 39 Tahun 2008

tentangPedomanUmumPembakuanNamaRupabumi], Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia (2008). ------------, “LaporanUtama: Lima BencanaTerbesarTahun 2010,” Gema BNPB Maret 2011 Volume 2 No.1, 4-6 (2011). ------------, “LaporanUtama: Dari Wasior, MentawaihinggaMerapi,” Gema BNPB Maret 2011 Volume 2 No.1, 7-16 (2011). BNPB, “Profil BNPB: BadanNasionalPenanggulanganBencana,” Film Dokumenter, BNPB (2009). Kardono, P., Hermana, Neulis, Z., Lestari, L., Sulistyowati, Maulidhini, N., danPinuji, S.E., [Data Bencana Indonesia Tahun 2009], BadanNasionalPenanggulanganBencana, Jakarta, Indonesia (2009). Mayasari, R., Perdana, A.P., and Firdaus, W., “The Use of Topographic Map Scale 1:25.000 in Geographical Names Validation in West Java, Indonesia,” 10th Annual Asian Conference & Exhibition on Geospatial Information Technology & Applications, ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM –„Geospatial Convergence-Paradigm for Future‟, 17-19 Oktober 2011, Hotel MuliaSenayan, Jakarta, Indonesia (2011). Perdana, A.P., Santoso, W.E., and Martha, S., “Pentingnya Toponimi dalamPengelolaan Wilayah danManajemenBencana di Indonesia,” The 2nd National Symposium on Geoinformation Science– „MembangunInformasiGeospasialuntukPengelolaandanPengembangan Wilayah‟,

27-28 Oktober 2011 GedungPascaSarjana, GadjahMada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (2011).

Perdana, A.P. ,Hendrayana, E., and Santoso. W.E. , "The Important of Toponym in The Middle Of Maps And Imagery For Disaster Management, in session ICA and TC IV/8 Maps, Imagery and Crowd Sourcing for Disaster Management - ISPRS 2012, Melbourne, Australia (2012). Santoso, W.E., Martha, S., and Perdana, A. P., “Geographical Names Database for Disaster Management of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia,”The Intercarto-Intergis 17 Interdiciplinary Conference on Sustainable Development of Territories: GIS Theory and Practice. ICA, AsosiasiKartografi Indonesia and BAKOSURTANAL.December 18, 2011, Bali, Indonesia (2011). Wibowo, A., "Geospatial Information System in Indonesian Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB)", Regional Workshop on Geo-referenced Disaster Risk Management Information System for South-East and East Asia, and the Pacific, 20-22 February 2013, UN ESCAP, Bangkok, Thailand(2012).

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