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Session 12 Telecommunication Switching Principles Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
contents
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Types of switching system Grade of Service Congestion Availability Erlang's B Formula
Aim To discuss types of switching systems from traffic engineering view point, to introduce the concepts of "Grade of service " and "Availability", and to "identify the distinction between offered traffic, carried traffic and lost traffic and further calculation involving telephone traffic. Objectives At the end of this Session, you will be able to: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Describe briefly a loss system and a waiting system as two distinct types of switching systems. Describe what is meant by "Grade of Service", offered traffic, carried traffic and lost traffic. Perform simple calculations involving grade of service, offered traffic, carried traffic and lost traffic. Describe what is meant by "Availability" and to identify the distinction between full availability and limited availability groups of circuits, or outlets of a switching system. State Erlang's B formula and perform simple calculations using the formula for full availability groups.
(v)
3.1
Types of switching systems
There is a large variety of s switching systems (exchanges) in service today using different technologies, different design philosophies and methods of control. From
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
the traffic engineering viewpoint they can all be classified into two basic types namely loss systems and delay systems. In a loss system, busy tone is connected to the calling subscribers line if all the circuits in the wanted route are occupied. Such a call cannot progress any further even if circuits in the wanted route become available later and the subscriber must call again in order to establish the connection. Such abandoned calls are treated as lost calls. This mode of operation of the switching system is also referred to as "busysignal" mode or a busy signal system. When the switching system functions as a delay system, or as a waiting system, calls arriving when all the circuits in a wanted group are occupied, are allowed to wait for a predetermined duration. Within this duration, if a circuit in the wanted group becomes idle, one of the waiting calls is connected to the free circuit. Waiting calls are served (connected to circuits that become free) in the order of their arrival, in random order or in any other predetermined sequence. Question In a switching system, are these both modes of operation used at the same time? Yes. Access to expensive control devices kept in a common pool is normally allowed on a delay basis, while the less expensive circuits are operated on a loss basis.
3.2
Grade of Service
An ideal automatic telephone exchange would have sufficient plant to enable any caller to make a successful call at any time. This would mean that equipment must be provided not only to allow this during the busiest period of the day, but also during the busiest peak of the busiest period. In such an exchange, plant capacity is not efficiently used most of the time and hence it is very uneconomical. Thus in order to provide service at a reasonable cost, a proportion of the traffic in the busy hour is allowed to be lost. This recognised standard of service is known as the "grade of service" and is expressed as:
Grade of service =
Traffic lost traffic offered
Where: "Traffic offered" is the aggregate of the telephone calls arriving at a given point in the network whether successful or not. This could also be expressed as the" mean number of simultaneous occupations offered to the system, whether accepted or not". Thus certain proportion of the offered traffic may be lost due to insufficient exchange equipment and the balance is carried by the exchange. The portion of traffic, carried by the system is called the "traffic carried."
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
Therefore: Traffic Lost = Traffic Offered

Traffic carried
SAQ A total of 800 calls is offered to a switching system during the busyhour. If 8 calls are lost due to insufficient equipment, what is the grade of service? If the average holding time of a successful call is 3 minutes, how much traffic is carried?
Grade of service
Successful calls Traffic carried
calls lost calls offered 8 = 800 = 0.01 = calls offered  calls lost = 800  8 = 792 = accepted number of calls × average holding time in hours 792 × 3 = 60 = 39.6 Erlangs =
S.A.Q. In the previous question, what is the probability of losing a call during the busy hour? As you have already studied the elements of the theory of probability, you would have got the answer "0.01" which is;
no of calls lost total no of calls
8 = 0.01 800 = Grade of service =
This shows that the "grade of service" is the probability of a call being lost during the busy hour. For this reason it is also called the “Loss Probability".
3.3
Congestion
When a group of devices or circuits in an exchange is fully occupied and any further calls offered to this group cannot be accepted due to nonavailability of free devices or circuits, the group is said to be "congested" or blocked. 3
ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
The proportion of time during which congestion exists is termed the "Time congestion" or probability of blocking.
Total time during which all devices/circuits were ∴ Time congestion = busy during a time interval (e.g. an hour) Time interval considered
Example:
During the busy hour, if all circuits in a group were simultaneously engaged for a total period of 6 seconds,
Then, the Time Congestion
= =
6 seconds 3600 seconds 0.01
On the other hand, the probability that a call will encounter or meet congestion is called the "call congestion" or call blocking. Usually, the "call congestion" is numerically equal to the "Time congestion", and from its definition, is equal to the Grade of service, or the probability of loss.
S.A.Q During the busy hour, a group of circuits is offered 100 calls having an average duration of 3 minutes, and one call fails to find a free circuit. Calculate the traffic offered to the group, traffic carried by the group, traffic lost and the call congestion.
Traffic offered
=
Total of calls offered × Average duration of a call(in Hours) 100 × 3 60 5.0 Erlangs No. of successful calls × Average duration of a call (in Hours)
= =
Traffic carried
=
= =
(100  1) ×
3 60 4.95 Erlangs
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
Traffic lost
= = = = = =
Traffic offered  Traffic carried 5.00 4.95 0.05 Erlangs No of lost calls × Average duration of a call in Hours 1× 3 20 0.05 Erlangs = 1 100 0.01 Probability that call will encounter busy condition = Grade of service
Call congestion = =
3.4
Availability
In a telephone switching system, subscriber lines are terminated on the inlets of the system, while circuits carrying calls to other exchanges (out going circuits), circuits carrying calls from other exchanges (incoming circuits) or circuits connecting calls within the same exchange (intra office circuits) are terminated on the outlets of the system. The inlets are connected to the outlets through the switching network. The Figure 3.1 shows a very simplified switching network with only one switching stage, with 5 inlets and 4 outlets.
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
OUT GOING CALL (TO OTHER EXCHANGES) INCOMING CALL (FROM OTHER EXCHANGES) OUT GOING CIRCUIT
INCOMING CIRCUIT INTRA OFFICE CIRCUIT 3 4
OUTLETS 1 2
1 2
INLETS
3 4 5
Figure 3.1
CROSS FONTS (SET OF CONTACTS)
In figure 3.1, inlet 2 is connected to the outlet 1 through the cross point x. In this switching stage, every inlet has access to every outlet, or every outlet is available to be connected to any inlet. In such cases, the outlets are said to form a 'full availability" group. There could be instances where only a limited number of outlets are available, to be connected to inlets. In such cases, the outlets are said to be in a "limited availability" group. Figure 3.2 shows a switching stage with 4 inlets and 5 outlets. If "x" denotes a cross point with set of contacts, to connect an inlet, to an outlet; in this arrangement has every inlet access to every outlet? Do the outlets form a fullavailability group?
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
1 2 3 4
1 2
OUTLETS
3
4
5
Figure 3.2 In the above switching stage, certain inlets cannot be connected to certain outlets. As an example, inlet 1 does not have access to outlets 3 and 5. As each inlet has access to fewer than the total number of outlets available, the outlets are not in a full availability group. In this case, there exists only limited availability.
3.5
Erlang's B Formula
This formula applies to a full availability group in a loss system, under the following assumptions. 1. 2. The traffic is pure change ie. calls originate individually and collectively at random and if all circuits are busy then they are rejected and do not return. There are infinite number of inlets (sources) and a finite number of outlets (servers)
Then, the probability that r outlets are simultaneously held is;
Ar r! P(r ) = 2 A A A3 AN 1+ + + + ..... + 1! 2! 3! N!
Where: A N r = Average offered traffic = No of outlets (circuits)
=
Ar r! X =N AX ∑0 X ! X=
= No of simultaneously occupied outlets or circuits
And, for a full availability group of outlets (or circuits) where the above assumptions are valid; The probability of loss (i.e. proportion of lost calls or grade of service or the probability of blocking is;
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
AN N! P( N , A) = B = 2 A A A3 AN 1+ + + + ..... + 1! 2! 3! N!
=
AN N! X =N AX ∑ X =0 X !
This is called the Erlang's B formula, and gives the time congestion of a system.
S.A.Q. A full availability group of 5 circuits are offered an average traffic of 0.9 Erlangs during the busy hour. Determine the grade of service and the average time during which all the circuits are occupied. Grade of service (or loss probability) is given by;
AN N! B= 2 A A A3 AN 1+ + + + ..... + 1! 2! 3! N!
In this case, A = 0,9 Erlangs and N = 5
B
=
=
0.9 5 5! 0.9 (0.9) 2 (0.9) 3 (0.9) 4 (0.9) 5 1+ + + + + 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 0.02
In this Session, you have already studied that; Grade of service usually, call congestion Where; = = call congestion and Time congestion
Total time during which all circuits (or outlets) were busy Time congestion =
∴ In this case:
within a time interval Time interval considered
0.02 =
Time during which all circuits are occupied 3600 seconds
= 0.002 × 3600 = 7.2 seconds
∴ Time during which all circuits are occupied
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
In the Erlang's B formula, When the number of outlets (or the no of devices / circuits in the full availability group) are very large; ie, when N is very large;
1+
A A 2 A3 AN + + + ..... + → eA 1! 2! 3! N!
B≈
Therefore:
A N N! eA
For easy reference, value of B are calculated for different values of A and N, are arranged in the form of tables. These are called "Erlang loss formula tables " or simply traffic tables.
S.A.Q Determine the probability of exactly 2 or 3 circuits being engaged when 1 erlang of traffic is offered to a full availability group of 3 circuits. Probability that r outlets (devices or circuits) are simultaneously engaged is;
Ar r! P(r ) = A1 A 2 AN 1+ + + ..... 1! 2! N!
Therefore,
P ( 2)
12 2! = 1 12 13 1+ + + 1! 2! 3! 13 3! = 1 12 13 1+ + + 1! 2! 3!
And
P(3)
The probability of 2 or 3 circuits being engaged = P(2) + P(3)
12 13 2! 3! = + 2 3 1 1 1 1 12 13 1+ + + 1+ + + 1! 2! 3! 1! 2! 3!
= 0.25.
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
3.5
Use of Traffic Tables
In the previous section you studied how to use the Erlang’s B formula to find the congestion that can be expected in a system when the offered traffic (A) and the number of trunks are given. Did you notice what difficulties you will encounter when you use this formula in finding solutions for the following situations? 1. If the given values of A and N are large and B to be calculated. 2. If B is given and A is given and N to be calculated. 3. If B is given and N is given and A to be calculated.
In the first case you will see the calculation become very cumbersome. In the second and third cases you will understand how tedious to obtain the required solutions. Hence in brief we can say that the Erlang’s B formula is suitable for solving problems of the type: given A and N, find B , only for small values of A and N. So how can we obtain solutions for the other situations? The solution is Erlang loss formula tables or simply traffic tables. These traffic tables have been developed by calculating values of B for a wide range of values of A and N. Using these charts we can get the required values for B, A or N provided that the two of the values being given. An example is given in the table 12.1.
S.A.Q (i) (ii) Find the required number of trunks for a system with a G.O.S. of 0.01, if the offered traffic is (a) 10E and (b) 50E. Find the value of offered traffic for a system with a G.O.S. of 0.001 which has 100 trunk lines.
Solution (i) To use the table, you need to select the specified value of B and look down the column to find the first value of A exceeding the specified traffic load. a. You will see the first value of A that exceeding 10E in the column B=0.01 is 10.4. Now select the corresponding value of N as 18. b. Similarly for A=50E, N = 64 (ii) Select the column of B=0.001 and go down until N=100. Get the value of A as 75.3E.
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ECX4233  Session 12  Telecommunication Switching Principles  Introduction to Telephone Traffic  II
Table 12.1 : Erlang loss formula table
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