By: Baher EL Shaikh Mechanical Engineer EMetahnex

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Shell and tube heat exchangers are one of the most common equipment found in all plants  How it works?

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Classification according to service .

Heat Exchanger
Both sides single phase and process stream One stream process fluid and the other cooling water or air

Cooler

One stream process fluid and heating utility as steam

Heater

One stream condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air

Condenser Reboiler

One stream bottom stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility or process stream
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Is recommended method of doing something

Code

ASME BPV – TEMA

Standard

is the degree of excellence required
API 660-ASME B16.5–ASME B36.10M–ASME B36.19-ASME B16.9–ASME B16.11

Specifications
Contractor or Owner specifications

Is a detailed description of construction, materials,… etc

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1- Channel Cover 2- Channel 3- Channel Flange 4- Pass Partition 5- Stationary Tubesheet 6- Shell Flange 7- Tube

8- Shell 9- Baffles 10- Floating Head backing Device 11- Floating Tubesheet 12- Floating Head 13- Floating Head Flange 14 –Shell Cover
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 Front

Head Type

A - Type

B - Type

C - Type

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Shell Type

E - Type

F - Type

J - Type

K - Type
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Rear End Head Types

M - Type
Fixed Tubesheet

S - Type
Floating Head

T - Type
Pull-Through Floating Head

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 U-Tube  Fixed

Heat Exchanger

Tubesheet Heat Exchanger Tubesheet Heat exchanger

 Floating

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AES
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AKT
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      

Terminology Design data Material selection Codes overview Sample calculations Hydrostatic test Sample drawing

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ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers  TEMA : Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association  API : American Petroleum Institute  MAWP : Maximum Allowable Working Pressure  MDMT : Minimum Design Metal Temperature  PWHT : Post Weld Heat Treatment  NPS – DN – NB – NPT  Sch - BWG

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      

Heat Exchanger Data Sheet :
TEMA type Design pressure Design temperature Dimensions / passes Tubes ( dimensions, pattern) Nozzles & Connections Baffles (No. & Type)

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16

B

A – Yield Strength
B – Tensile Strength

A

C

C – Rupture point

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Creep Strength a slow plastic strain increased by time and temperature (time and temperature dependant) for stressed materials Fatigue Strength The term “fatigue” refers to the situation where a specimen breaks under a load that it has previously withstood for a length of time Toughness The materials capacity to absorb energy, which, is dependant upon strength as well as ductility

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ASME code Overview
Sec.I Power Boilers Sec.II Materials Sec.III Nuclear Fuel Containers Sec.IV Heating Boilers

ASME BPV code

Sec. V Non Destructive Examination Sec. VI Operation of heating boilers Sec. VII Operation of power boilers Sec. VIII Pressure vessels Sec. IX Welding and Brazing Sec. X Fiber-Reinforced plastic PV Sec. XI Inspection of nuclear power plant Sec. XII Transport tanks
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ASME code overview

Sec. II: Materials
 
 

Part A : Ferrous material specifications Part B : Non-Ferrous material specifications
Part C : Specifications of welding rods, electrodes and filler metals Part D : Properties

Sec. VIII: Rules of construction of pressure vessels
  

Division 1 :

3 Subsections + mandatory Annex + non mandatory Annex

Division 2: Alternative rules Division 3 : Alternative rules of high pressure

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ASME code overview

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TEMA code overview

TEMA classes:

Class R: Generally severe requirements for petroleum and related processing applications Class C: Generally moderate requirements of commercial general processing applications and Class B: Chemical Process service

TEMA subsections

10 subsection

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Sample Calculations

Shell thickness calculations under Internal Pressure:

PR t= . P + CA + UT SE – 0.6
      

t : Min. Required Shell Thickness P : Design Pressure of Shell Side S: Max. Allowable Stress of Shell Material R: Shell Inside Radius (corroded conditions) E : Joint Efficiency CA: Corrosion Allowance UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable)

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Sample Calculations

Channel thickness calculations under Internal Pressure:

PR t= . P + CA + UT SE – 0.6
      

t : Min. Required Channel Thickness P : Design Pressure of Tube Side S: Max. Allowable Stress of Channel Material R: Channel Inside Radius (corroded conditions) E : Joint Efficiency CA: Corrosion Allowance UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable)

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Sample Calculations

Body Flanges:

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Sample Calculations

Body Flanges:

Trial and error calculations
 

Gasket seating conditions Operating conditions

   

No. of bolts and size Bolt circle diameter Inside and outside diameters Check min. and max. bolt spacing Detailed analysis of the flange
  

Forces calculations Moment calculations Stresses calculations

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Sample Calculations

Precautions in body flanges design and installations:

      

Pairs of flanges Bolt holes shall straddle center line Corrosion Allowance Cladding Bolts shall be multiple of 4 Bolting shall be allowed to be removed from either side Calculated thickness not include the RF

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Sample Calculations
 Nozzles and standard flanges:

Flange Rating (ASME B16.5) Area replacement calculations

Nozzle neck thickness calculations Impingement protection

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Sample Calculations
 Tubesheet:
• Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell side and tube side
• Made from around flat piece of metal with holes drilled for the tubes

• Tubes shall be uniformly distributed • Tubesheet thickness shall be designed for both sides • Tubesheet shall be designed for bending stresses and shear stresses • Corrosion allowance

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Sample Calculations
 Tubesheet:
• Tubesheet thickness for bending

T: Effective tubesheet thickness S: Allowable stress P: Design pressure corrected for vacuum if applicable at the other side η: Ligament efficiency G: Gasket effective diameter F: Factor For Square pattern For Triangular pattern

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Sample Calculations
 Tubesheet:
• Tubesheet thickness for Shear:

T: Effective tubesheet thickness DL: Effective diameter of the tube center parameter C: Perimeter of the tube layout A: Total area enclosed by the Perimeter C P: Design pressure S: Allowable stress do: Outside tube diameter DL=4A/C

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Tube-to-Tubesheet joint
 Expanded  Strength welded  Seal welded

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Hydrostatic Test
 Test pressure : 1.3 X MAWP  Test Procedure  Gasket change

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Sample drawing
 Construction drawing is the design output

Sample drawing 1

Sample drawing 2

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Baher EL Shaikh
baherfm@yahoo.com

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