(A selection of energy efficient house designs)
The National Energy Conservation Centre
ENERCON, The National Energy Conservation Centre, Ministry of Water & Power, Government of Pakistan is mandated to promote the efficient and rational use of energy in Pakistan. ENERCON has conducted a number of energy surveys, studies and demonstration projects which have highlighted a very large energy saving potential in all sectors of our economy, including the buildings sector. It is estimated that approximately 35 % of total national consumption of electricity is accounted for by the buildings sector. Domestic buildings and houses account for about 85 % of this consumption. It is a matter of common experience that a large majority of new houses being constructed in Pakistan are not being designed in accordance with our climate. This means that house owners and occupants consume extra energy to make them comfortable for living. ENERCON estimates that improved building design can reduce house energy bills by 20% and this figure can be raised to 50 % by the use of efficient appliances. To date ENERCON has initiated a number of activities to improve energy efficiency in the buildings sector. A Building Energy Code and Compliance Handbook have been prepared. Similarly, design guides have been prepared for health and education buildings. This booklet is a continuation of ENERCON’s commitment to further the cause of energy conservation in Pakistan. During 1993-94 ENERCON organised a 4 week training course entitled “Pakistan Solar Architecture”. I am pleased to note that a number of young architects participated in this programme and produced designs of energy efficient houses for various climatic zones of Pakistan. A selection of these designs is given in this booklet. ENERCON has produced complete sets of working drawings and documents for each of these designs and these are available to interested persons. In the end, I wish to thank the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS) for funding this project. I also wish to put on record the untiring efforts of Professor John A. Ballinger from the University of New South Wales, Australia who conducted the training course. It is hoped that this effort will stimulate building professionals to design and construct houses which are climate-conscious and thus energy efficient.
Arif Alauddin Managing Director ENERCON
Islamabad November 1994
Preface Introduction Energy Efficient House # 1 Energy Efficient House # 2 Energy Efficient House # 3 Energy Efficient House # 4 Energy Efficient House #5 Energy Efficient House #6 Order Form 1 3
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A UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) funded project entitled “Energy Conservation in the Public Sector” was initiated by ENERCON in June 1992. The project consisted of a number of diverse activities; however, in view of the growing proportion of energy usage in the domestic sector, one component of the project focused on energy efficient design of houses. The Energy Efficient House Design Project comprised the following: . . . . Preparation of a training guide. Conduct of a 4 week training course entitled “Pakistan Solar Architecture” for young Pakistani architects. Development of prototype designs of energy efficient houses by participants of the above course. Large-scale dissemination of the final designs to promote the idea of energy efficiency in the housing sector.
During 1993-94, two 2-week training modules were held in Karachi and Lahore. The course which included theoretical and practical work was successfully compIeted by seven architects. The end product of the project was seven designs of energy efficient residential buildings for specific climatic regions within Pakistan. Before finalization, the draft designs were circulated for comments to PCATP, IAP, NESPAK, PAK PWD, National Construction Ltd. and the Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, PAK Army. This booklet contains plans and elevations of six of the final designs. Comnlete prepa&d working drawings and documents for the designs have also been prepared for building professionals and the general public. An order form has been provided at the end of the booklet for anyone interested in purchasing the working drawings of these energy efficient house designs and other related publications of ENERCON.
ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #I.
ARCHITECT: RIAZ AHMAD
The main distinguishing feature of this house design is the extensive covered and screen verandahs that shield all the living and sleeping areas of the house on the eastern exposed sides and the roof. The windows to the south are shaded by generous overhangs. At roof level there is a roofed and screened family play area that provides excellent shading to the enclosed spaces below. Water is used as both a visual feature and a cooling technique at the front of the house.
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ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #2.
ARCHITECT: ARIF QAYYUM BUTT
This single storey design is intended to take advantage of a site where regulations permit the building against one boundary. The house plan is designed to give excellent internal privacy and separation of different family functions. Because the building is single storey, the roof design can be designed with different levels giving added interest to the visual aspects of the house and enabling excellent opportunities for cross ventilation of rooms through high level vents over the lower roofed areas, such as bath rooms etc. Each room can have cross ventilation without having to leave internal doors open, thus giving added privacy. The roof is well insulated for rejection of the hot summer sun and the windows have carefully designed shading. A skylight in the Living Room will enhance the use of daylight in an otherwise well sheltered room. The servant’s room located over the front porch provides added height to the building for improved visual effect as well as improving security.
ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #3.
ARCHITEC: MOHAMMAD ARSHAD
This design makes use of a shared boundary, thus opening up the site for improved access to outdoor living and features an interesting geometric form for added visual appeal. The two storey planning provides excellent separation of family functions and secluded out door play areas at roof level using covered terraces. All rooms have north/south orientation to facilitate good sun control. The two storey form of the house assists with thorough ventilation by chimney effect using the stair case. The Patio/Light well between the kitchen and dining areas provides an interesting focus as well as allowing daylight to penetrate to the centre of the house. Roofs and exposed walls are well insulated for summer protection.
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ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #4.
ARCHITECT: MOEENA TARANNUM
This design for Karachi takes advantage of natural cross ventilation available at the site. It is a single storey design to allow for future expansion to an upper level. The planning provides for good separation of the different family functions with the more public Drawing Room near the entrance. Outdoor areas for family privacy are well located and screened from external view. Although the walls do not require insulation in climates such as that of Karachi, the internal comfort levels will benefit from good roof insulation. Window orientation has been optimised to provide shading from undesirable solar radiation.
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EAST SIDE ELEVATION
SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION
ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #5.
ARCHITECT: NAEEM AHMED CHAUDHRY
The central feature of this design is the sheltered planting areas and designed ventilation shafts for cool night air or ventilation with desert coolers at roof level. The overall planning is intended to enhance the “wind catcher” effect of the building, with openings facing the prevailing night breezes. The windows to the south are shaded and screened with planting to increase the possibility of evaporative cooling of the hot outside air. On the south side there is a pond with a fountain to add to the evaporative cooling in a controlled manner. The central stair case provides a visual feature to the interior as well as acting as a useful ventilation chimney. The roofs and exposed walls are insulated to exclude unwanted solar heat.
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ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSE #6.
ARCHITECT: SAMIA IMRAN
This design is the result of careful analysis of the site conditions and attention to sun movement. Key living and sleeping areas are located on the northern side where they are likely to be cooler in summer. The main focus of this design is the induction of cooling air flow through the use of chimneys and the careful attention to the design of shading for windows. The design incorporates hot air extraction for when nights are cooler and a Desert Cooler for the hot dry weather using common chimney shafts designed into the core of the house. The central stair well also contributes to excellent air flow. The house plan has been designed to provide privacy from within as well as access to out door living areas associated with particular rooms. Less critical rooms such as bathrooms and stores are located to shelter important spaces such as Living areas and Bedrooms from the hot western sun. Shading to windows is provided with perforated screens and generous overhangs. The building form and site arrangements encourage natural ventilation. The roof is well insulated with polystyrene board to minimise the effects of summer sun.
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ORDER FORM ENERCON has prepared complete working drawings and documents for each of the six designs presented in this booklet. Besides these, some more publications on related topics are also available for the benefit of architects, engineers, building professionals and house owners. To order these simply tick the desired titles and mail this form to ENERCON with your payment: No. 1. Pakistan Solar Architecture (Set of 6 energy efficient house designs) Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy EfIicient House # 1 Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy Efficient House # 2 Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy Efficient House # 3 Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy Efficient House # 4 Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy Efficient House # 5 Complete Working Drawings/Documents for Energy Efficient House # 6 Building Energy Code of Pakistan Code Compliance Handbook Energy Efficient Building Design Manual. Grand Total Unit Price with Courier Charges Rs. 80 Ouantity Total
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Rs. 75 Rs. 95 Rs. 130
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FAX: (Make all cheques/drafts in favour of “Er\TERCON”)
Mail to: Building Energy Conservation Programme ENERCON ENERCON, Building, G-5/2, Islamabad
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National Energy Conservation Centre.
Ministry of Water & Power Government’of Pakistan
ENERCON BUILDING, G-5/2, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN.