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Jung's Personality Theory

Carl Jung,a psychiatrist who developed a theory based around eight personality types, was highly influenced by the findings and work of Sigmund Freud. The two met in 1907 in Vienna and formed a relationship tight enough for Freud to invite Jung to the Clark Conference in 1909. The two men studied each other and compared their data. Soon, both of them began to differ in their analysis process and began to go separate ways. Freud had a major impact on Jung's thoughts and led to his theory of personality.

Jung began his explanation of personality by stating four functions first. When mixed with one of two attitudes, these functions formed eight personality types. The four functions included feeling, thinking, sensation, and intuition. Feeling is the persons ability to understand objects. Thinking allows a human to understand objects. Sensation is when a human knows something exists. Intuition is knowing something exists

Jungs eight personality types include: Extroverted Humans are able to see the world through complex and solid ideas but Thinking these complex ones often handed down or moved on by others. These people often work in math and science fields. Introverted Humans see how the world works in a subjective and creative way. This Thinking analysis is based off of internal knowledge. These people often work in science field as well. Extroverted Humans base their judgements on factual, known information. They form Feeling their assessments on social values and beliefs. These people often work in business fields and politics. Introverted Humans base their feelings on emotional feelings and beliefs. These Feeling people often work in the art field. Extroverted Humans looks at the world and interpret reality. They see what is going Sensing and go with it. They are not infulenced by other opinions. These people often work as taste testers or proof readers. Introverted Humans look for a hidden message or meaning to something. They do not Sensing just look at something and see it being there without a reason. These meanings are based on internal reflection. These people often work in the art field as well. Extroverted Humans base their meanings of things on facts rather than feelings. They Intuitive avoid their senses. These type of people are usually inventors.

That was one of the major flaws. These people usually work as artists or religious figures. . he noticed everyone has a psychological type but it was not easy to find or understand. His theory pushed people to find their true inner selves but many were not able to understand or follow him in his complex research. 2013 updated on January 31. 2012 "Healthy children will not fear life if their elders have integrity enough not to fear death. His classic work "Childhood and Society" set forth his theory of the life cycle. 1902 in Karlsruhe Germany. After close examination."Erikson INTRODUCTION  Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst who developed the theory of psychosocial development.   He was born on June 15. Individualism was the upmost important aspect of life according to Jung. Erikson September 9. Carl Jung stated that people did not just experience one of these traits. Jung describes these four personality types as a compass. There are four points that a person uses guide themselves. Usually a person chooses two be the inferior. His goal was for one to truly define themselves and reach what they were meant to do. Through Jung's work. They find warmness through subjective ideas. every human on the planet exhibits four of these characteristics. It is shown through a ranking order with top one being the one the person shows the most and the bottom one being the one the person shows the least. Some believed his theories went to deep. Instead. Here is a chart to further help explain Jung's personality theory: Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik H. Only a person that has reached self realization has completely developed all four traits. Introverted Intuitive Humans are usually based on their inner desires. Jung created this theory seeking to find ones real being.but not knowing where they learned that.

Psychosocial Age Stage birth–18 Hope months Virtue Related Psychopathology            Trust vs.  Erikson views psychosocial growth occurs in phases. cognitive. instinctual. Identity: Youth and Crisis.  He believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later stages. EIGHT STAGES OF THE LIFE CYCLE  Erikson explains 8 developmental stages in which physical. and Gandhi's Truth are his other influencial works. shame and doubt ~18 Will months– Initiative vs. and sexual changes combine to trigger an internal crisis whose resolution results in either psychosocial regression or growth and the development of specific virtues. guilt ~3 years– Purpose . Young Man Luther.  Erikson's conceptualization of psychosocial development based its model the epigenetic principle of organismic growth in utero. mistrust Psychosis Addictions Depression Paranoia Obsessions Compulsions Impulsivity Conversion disorder Phobia Psychosomatic disorder Inhibition Autonomy vs.  Erikson defined virtue as "inherent strength". whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones.

despair ~60s– Trust Versus Mistrust (Birth to About 18 Months)  The infant is taking the world in through the mouth. isolation Generativity vs. as a result of severe disturbances in the earliest dyadic relationships. Newton PM. ears. inferiority Competence     Creative inhibition Inertia Delinquent behavior Gender-related identity disorders Borderline psychotic episodes Schizoid personality disorder Distantiation Midlife crisis Premature invalidism Extreme alienation Identity vs. 1998).  A baby whose mother is able to anticipate and respond to its needs in a consistent and timely manner despite its oral aggression will learn to tolerate the inevitable moments of frustration and deprivation  A person who. role confusion ~13 years– Fidelity   Intimacy vs. and sense of touch. fails to develop a basic sense of trust or the virtue of hope may be predisposed as an adult to the profound withdrawal and regression characteristic of schizophrenia (Newton DS. eyes.Industry vs. Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (About 18 Months to About 3 Years) .stagnation ~20s– Love     ~40s– Care Wisdom Integrity vs.

the child will develop an appropriate sense of autonomy. Initiative Versus Guilt (About 3 Years to About 5 Years)  Here. therefore. marked by the potential development of basic trust aiming toward the achievement of a sense of hope.  An individual who becomes fixated at the transition between the development of hope and autonomous will. between cooperation and willfulness. 1998). the child’s task is to develop a sense of initiative as opposed to further shame or guilt. "This stage. may develop paranoic fears of persecution (Newton DS. and between self-expression and compulsive selfrestraint or meek compliance. so called stage of latency.   The lasting achievement of this stage is a sense of purpose.  Here. inflexibility. otherwise doubt and shame will undermine free will. stinginess and ruminative and ritualistic behavior of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.Erikson  This oral-sensory stage of infancy. The child's increasing mastery of locomotor and language skills expands its participation in the outside world and stimulates omnipotent fantasies of wider exploration and conquest Industry Versus Inferiority (About 5 Years to About 13 Years)  Here the child is in school-age . becomes decisive for the ratio between loving good will and hateful self-insistence. . Newton PM." . with its residue of mistrust and doubt.  Other disturbances of improper transition of this stage results in perfectionism.

Intimacy Versus Isolation (About 21 Years to About 40 Years)  Young adulthood."-Erikson   Care is the virtue that curresponding to this stage. such as alcohol and drug abuse. masked by a variety of escapisms. and sexual and other infidelities. Integrity Versus Despair (About 60 Years to Death)  "The acceptance of one's one and only life cycle and of the people .”  The lasting outcome of this stage can be a capacity for fidelity. is marked by the crisis of intimacy versus isolation. the fifth stage. Generativity Versus Stagnation (About 40 Y ears to About 60 Years)  "Generativity is primarily the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation. This failure of generativity can lead to profound personal stagnation. at the stage of genitality or sixth stage. the task of adolescence is to navigate ther “identity crisis” as each individual struggles with a degree of “identity confusion.Mid-life crisis may occur. out of which may come the achievement of a capacity forlove. Identity Versus Role Confusion (About 13 Years to About 21 Years)  At puberty. He tries to master the crisis of industry versus inferiority aiming toward the development of a sense of competence.

permitted of no substitutions. Norton. with an increase of good judgment. Erikson E: The dream specimen of psychoanalysis." (Erikson in Identity: Youth and Crisis) ERIKSON'S WORKS   Erikson E: Childhood and Society. by necessity. the individual may become deeply disgusted with the external world.  When the attempt to attain integrity has failed.who have become significant to it as something that had to be and that. and an increase in the capacity `to do well' according to his own standards and to the standards of those who are significant to him. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2:5. Newton PM. they have the opportunity to rework early development through the relationship with the therapist. 1956. and contemptuous of persons as well as institutions. Erikson E: Freud's "The Origins of Psychoanalysis." Int J . (Newton DS. NURSING IMPLICATIONS  Application of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development helps in analysing patient's symptomatic behavior in the context of truamatic past experineces and struggles with current developmental tasks. 1954. 1998). 1950. New York. Yale Rev 46:40.  "The object of psychotherapy is not to head off future conflict but to assist the patient in emerging from each crisis "with an increased sense of inner unity.  When patients' resolutions of previous psychosocial stages have been so faulty as to seriously compromise their adult development."  The individual in possession of the virtue of wisdom and a sense of integrity has room to tolerate the proximity of death and to achieve.   Erikson E: The first psychoanalyst.

J Psychol 7:101. 1939. New York.     Erikson E: Identity and the Life Cycle. Norton. Erikson E: The problem of ego identity. Norton. Erikson E: Young Man Luther. 1969. New York. 1964. 1998. Erikson had eight stages of development through the lifetime which span from birth until death.Psychoanal 36:1. New York. New York. Erikson believed that the world became larger as people grow older. New York. Erikson believed that bad experiences in childhood would lead to inability to cope with problems as an adult. 1942. Erikson E: Insight and Responsibility. Hong Kong. Norton. 3. a child only has the worldview of . 1986.9th edn. Erikson E. New York. Psychol Issues 1:379. Kivnick H: Vital Involvement in Old Age.     Erikson E: Observations on Sioux education. Erikson E: Identity: Youth and Crisis. Norton. Norton. Norton. 1975. New York. New York. 1968. Erikson E: Hitler's imagery and German youth. 1955. REFERENCES 1. body. For example.   Erikson E: Gandhi's Truth. and mind. Norton. Erikson J.William and Wilkinsons publications. 1964. Psychiatry 5:475. 1980. Newton PM in Kaplan HI & Sadok BJ's Synopsis of psychiatry-behavioural science or clinical psychiatry. Erikson E: Life History and the Historical Moment. 1962. Newton DS. New York. Eric Erikson's Developmental Theory states that people develop based on the interactions of their culture. Norton. Erikson E: Identity: Youth and Crisis. 1968. Erikson E: Insight and Responsibility. 1959. 2. Norton.

a child is supposed to learn to feed. 2009). Mistrust. 2009). During this period. In the Identity vs. A child is able to develop a high self-esteem during this phase by gaining confidence in developing new skills. Trust vs. Shame which is early childhood 18 months-3 years. Inferiority which is ages 6-12. such as toilet training. In this phase. school age children are able to perform many tasks which leads to a feeling of industry. ages 12-18 years. In this phase. Children during this phase experience guilt. then shame may occur which leads to a lower self esteem (Harder. that the world consists of more than just him or herself (Harder. according to Erikson. In this phase. then feelings of inferiority may result (Harder. teenagers try to discover their role in this world and try to decide about many different . The next phase of Erikson's developmental theory is Industry vs. In this phase. The next phase of Erikson's development is Initiative vs. toilet. children imitate the adults around them.him or herself while the adult is able to see.. If children are unable to perform tasks and have unresolved issues from earlier stages. 2009). Children take initiative with games by creating stories about themselves. 2009). if children have a hard time learning skills. because we become frustrated over goals and desires that are not met (Harder. The second phase of Erikson's development is Autonomy vs. and talk by him or herself. 2009). The first phase of Erikson's development is infancy which is 0-18 months. the infant learns to either trust that the world is all right by a mother's or father's kind treatment. A baby can develop mistrust if a mother or father is not there to meet his or her needs Harder. hopefully. Role Confusion phase. Guilt which is ages 3-5.

Despair which is ages 65 until death. then a sense of integrity fosters. adults often are in charge of work and their own lives. The final phase of Erikson's developmental theory is Integrity vs. then they become increasingly self absorbed or stagnant in their development (Harder. 2009). During this phase. References Harder.moral 2009). In this phase. then role confusion results (Harder. Often families are started during this phase of life. If they are unable to complete these tasks. If these goals are not accomplished. If young adults are unable to develop positive relationships. Intimacy vs. Retrieved from http://www. The developmental stages of erik erikson. Self Absorption or Stagnation which is ages 35-65.htm StagesConflict to Be Resolved:Examples: . teenagers must learn to view themselves separately from their parents. They strive to pass along their legacy to their children or people around them which is generatively. If an older adult feels that they have made no positive contributions to the world around him or her. 2009). then feelings of despair result (Harder. 2009). The next phase of Erikson's developmental theory is Generatively vs. (2009). In this phase. Isolation occurs ages 18-35. In this phase.learningplaceonline. an older adult reviews his or her life and determines if any positive contributions have been made. Solidarity vs. A. the young adults try to develop relationships with others and marriage. If the older adult feels that positive differences have been made because of something he or she has done. then solidarity or isolation may result (Harder.

Latency (6 -11 Years) Industry vs Inferiority Children busily learn to be competent and productive <OR> feel inferior and unable to do anything well. cleanliness.Oral-Sensory (Birth to 1 Year) Trust vs Mistrust Babies learn to trust <OR> to mistrust that others will care for their basic needs. sometimes overstepping the limits set by parents--causing guilt. Locomotor-Genital (3-5 Years) Initiative vs Guilt Children want to undertake many adultlike activities. and talking <OR> to doubt their own abilities. feeding. walking. sucking. warmth. and physical contact. including nourishment. including toileting. Musculo-Anal (1-3 Years) Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt Children learn to either be self-sufficient in many activities. Adolescence (12-18 Years) Identity vs Role Confusion .

nutrition. Erikson's Developmental Stages Infancy: First year of life Erikson: Trust vs Mistrust Rapid. either seeing life as a meaningful whole <OR> despairing at goals never reached and questions never answered. performing meaningful work. and raising a family <OR> become stagnant and inactive. Maturity (50+ Years) Integrity vs Despair Older adults try to make sense out of their lives. Young Adulthood (19-35 Years) Intimacy vs Isolation Young adults seek companionship and love with another person. ethnic. head circumference.Adolescents try to figure out "Who am I?" They establish sexual. reflexive to purposeful behavior Caregiver-child bonding based on personal interactions Environment provides sensory stimulation for learning Toddler: 1-3 years . steady physical growth: length. weight. and career identiies <OR> are confused about what future roles to play. Adulthood (19-35 Years) Generativity vs Stagnation Middle aged adults are productive. <OR>become isolated from others.

no right/wrong Wants independence but fears separation Health Concerns: Accidents (ingestion of poison. eating disorders Young Adult: Late teens . pregnancy. substance abuse.21 years Erikson: Identity vs Role Confusion Sexual maturation: Primary and secondary sex characteristics Logical decision-making Internalized moral code Need close peer relationships Health Concerns : Accidents.Erikson: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt Psychomotor skills: Gross to fine Egocentric. learning disabilities. drowning). speech disorders School-age: 6-11 years Erikson: Industry vs Inferiority Fine tuning of body systems Intense cognitive development Moving toward abstract thinking Developing problem solving: "What if?" Independence: same sex peers Developing moral code: Right/Wrong Health Concerns: Accidents. STDs. cancer Adolescence: 13 . infectious disease.mid 30s . ear and upper respiratory infections Preschooler: 3-6 years Erikson: Initiative vs Guilt lower physical growth with increased muscle coordination Concrete thinking: Ask "why?" Fear bodily harm Pretend play: Parallel to cooperative Health Concerns: Accidents.

TSE Middle Adult: 35 . PSA). sensory stimulation Health Concerns: Chronic illness. adult relationship with family Health Concerns: Accidents. adjustment to life transitions Older Adult: 65 and older "Old-old" and "Frail-old": 75 and older "Elite-old": 85 and older Erikson: Ego integrity vs Despair Ageism: a concern for nurses Aging is a normal. social and intimate relationships. self-concept.Erikson: Intimacy vs Isolation Physical growth completed Focus on personal & social tasks: career choice. unhealthy lifestyle practices (ETOH. healthy lifestyle strategies. job & family stress. stress reduction. STDs. transitions. andropause Focus on family. Need to learn & practice SBE. Strategies: Reminiscence/life review (Storytelling) Exercise. elder abuse . violence. aging parents (Sandwich Generation) Health Concerns: Health screening (mammograms. and loss. nutrition. medications.65 years Erikson: Generativity vs Stagnation Changes in physical state: Menopause. depression. healthy process that begins at birth System-wide physical changes Cognitive changes due to illness not aging Numerous lifestyle changes Goals: Remain independent. smoking). accept aging. ETOH abuse. work.