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This Thesis is presented in part fulfilment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Salford.

Department of Applied University of Salford Lancashire. Salford, 30 September, 1981.








The Violin.

page 1 1 2 5 11

Introduction A Brief History of the Violin Building the Violin The Best Violins and What Makes Them Different



Experimental the

and Theoretical Response


16 16



The Green's References Chapter, 3: Function Technique

34 40 41 41 53




Bowed String.

The Bowed String The Wolf- Note

Chapter 4: An Overview of Violin Design.

59 59 69 73 76 79 84 85 85 93 99

The Violin's. Design The Bridge as a Transmission Element The Function of the Soundpost and Bassbar Modelling the Helmholtz and Front Plate Modes Other Air Modes in, the Violin Cavity References Chapter 5: Modelling the Response of the Violin.

The Model Evaluating Investigating


Model Violin





Production Techniques


107 107 116

Manufacturing References

Y., a




Ina playedla directiöiis left role no out in means of"a ii

work., such part thät in söme,

as its





icult' Ideas

to and

thank help have the


those so

who many been

evolution. whos'e aid

came from no most the this augmented doubt

was"appreciated, Those who played listed made

myätküowledgements writing of The thesis _this University and this

cdnspicuous list work by is by by the the of R. time Ford times violins and have the been


are itself

below pdssible help


complete. research of-Applied receiver to



financial Mr. D. for the


Department örk'; he and they has "shodld

Acoustics. special and also 'to Amy for thanks his

O'Connor, considerable suggestions. thanked ideas. for The Prof. with Jackson

who'supervised amount Dr. the subject Lord, three in

wasl'willing Dr. have 'D


valuable to be and

°'Saunders lis'tened' been

deserve questions to ' and D.

many of


of-interest 'Vernon,


violin-maker; fruitfüil ways and And P.

" D.

discussions A.

these helped any

interesting. Yeoman 'always

Finally, advised

uncounted concerning





To these thanks*
To those away place, from the

'and the

many others

who helped

me in



I give


who helped United is

me in

a more



during and



States, for

who made England me to repay your

a friendly kindness.



no way




The, violin, without. the_



highly science,

complex evolved from

vibrating to a high one sample into the

system, level to plates of


quite -

aid. of

sophistication. requires

Wood, -which-varies individual-attention It-is very not_, therefore, poor quality. of

considerably to

another, of

be fashioned that

a good violin. are which of is

surprising It this is, the thesis. those

mass-produced of these

instruments instruments


the. objective After violin's several include structural support the

identifying quality most, about



the is





depend violin in the

a model design. model it


and used to answer difficult an additionalis used back affect to is the to

questions the

As it"is is the

extremely that

sound post element, post.. small _ it is

suggested back's radiation does not

designed The amount so that

to match of. acoustic this

impedance, from greatly the

shown tobe output level. Finally frequency description plates are


shown that, of the violin




construction, before in which, controlled

the assembly... the

low A.


may be predicted process

of an automated cut the and tested

production by











Scientific uncommon today. been looked details climbing inevitably In this of at, its a

investigations It seems that every which of



violin every

family aspect it

are of this is


no subject

means has

nearly advance

and yet action series

shows that mark of the


subtlest Thus, like



a good violin. solution one. details elucidated, of one





to view it

another, is not

more distant the smallest are the

thesis Some which



investigated. principles highly the the

interesting the violin's process, but

problems design, and the such

such as the of the

govern bowing

consequences which

non-linear origin purpose the in of the of vast

parameters are only

determine to to for

wolf-note, this work. of

problems goal is

incidental a way in which

The real new

to find those

improve students,


violins, add to

mass-produced price.
characteristics in the

a way which
step are

does not



As a first of good violins curves the of a based to is still this

towards studied. by the

the are other a part the

These many violin, over of

evident researchers. method of for the

frequency after the range This is

response modelling response developed, is possible it

measured action complete on adjust easy the of

Then, predicting frequency parts. before the

violin properties the to violin's alter



frequency the plates. in

response Finally,

assembly, possibility

while of




a mass-poduction





F this perhaps is approach stressed also very the too importance much. No yet of the steady-state the'transient of most

In adopting vibrations response is

doubt the

of a violin







mass-produced proportion Perhaps transients questions of some will

instruments the day overall a more



low the

that, situation





problems, detailed out, but

can only of the only

be improved. importance of

analysis at this

be carried be addressed.



most general


A' Brief





The origins among scholars. rebec, violins of string While rarely seen lute, viol,

of It









debate from the and

has been variously or crewth, but it

assumed to have evolved seems most likely from these that earlier



as two distinct [1,2]. is had slightly



instruments nearly today.

everyone It

familiar a flat

with back,

the five, of

violin, six, very but thin




occasionally wood, violins to the in

more strings, other enjoyed complete in respects over

and a very resembling the viols



a violin. to

The advantages enough viol until

which-the to lead

proved of all

be significant the bass

disappearance and renaisance (this


a recent



music. term was formerly to credit
Bavarian as the by

Many luthiers now is more

applied the for


lute of

makers any the


universally have been given

applied the
a named


stringed violin.

Duiffopruggar Frenchman, is probably to

became of the a

(1514-1570), has often to of been the

nationalized violin. This thought in by fact

originator Vuillaume




which They

were were


be copies


by Duiffopruggar.




viols, Acnati

some of' which (c1535-c1611),



[2]. of

Gaspar Brescia

da Salo have



and Maggini

these Ey d . violin and evolved Stradiverius. § ý..4 were were discarded. ' making. musicianship their made violins in their equaled fur us dominance uutortuiiate today. began great aud lutIhicrs +gl.1: Modern (right) copies and of violins (left). of attributed decide is that to the first two named this once the question created Guarnaeris. which developed u>ývýý ". differently shaped . valued and Perhaps or to many copy ý conclusively. 4ýr. Stainer produced exceptional led by Jacob (1621-1683). violins and r {. above luth. _ 'h'71 master originality s ?b . tonethe of in but old were 1 L'} Y both these form Figure 1. the names school the of Amatis. i. in both Cremona.v 9" 1 IpS.. of the of There course Merman violin exceptionsC(ýk f: ze School r. it cau but is be with with while impossible said.. the the violins to however. along all iers. instruments beauty and and violins universally for man y years.Ch AFTER 1 THE V1ULIN MAGI: 3 all been still hivewi exist. by Italian alnust copied Stradavarius Note the Stainer t-holes. credit. t. their which field is Aesthetics ujnduubted are seldom who with craftsmanship today. . *_ý Kh J"' ýyjz experimentation. had so the quickly violin. What rapidly. of the their and genius followers tone in were standing by these others.

41. . That reason sonic and the for and collectors. workmanship.- impossible appreciate of the t_Iie varnish. fascinated sets excel the iii the of is acoustic old properties. which a few to moments apprec in Late ly the made beauty violin. lightness depth the careful or the and which a good a the graceful Figure (left) 1. `"t "ý't 1ý VL ý" ýýe"h.ý ýýf <t5"ýi. of It a we li is to .2: is The much arching more of the than Stainer that of copy the responsiveness characterize violin. ý. ý . a violin. arching liow This.ý' ' 1 violins in f] Gures which 1. ifs = t3 rte. not its the beautifully who cannot marked even play wood are often appreciate violin.1 appear and 1.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 4 Before investigation begining of of one the the the should ` '`r J sGw acoustics violin Alý to spire look a few at moments t 114" two r :+14 ! `. Cremonese genuine their violins demand.2. the real. photograph make it easy by price both in but to abrupt Stradavarius copy (right).

the which blocks.3 Most illustrates of the to the internal give many pieces pieces.. BACK PLATE FIGURE 1.3b. BRIDGE d BASS-BAR SOUND-POST FIGURE 1. rTf. the violin present structural strength FRONT PLATE F-HOLEý%ý BASS-BAR F-HOLE . fl... liners. Cross sectional view of a violin.3a" Exploded view of a violin. to are used to construct and rib- corners. are 1. n. . Figure a violin.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 5 Building the Violin.

one bouts.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 6 sound-box.4. so of a mould hent. maple. pieces sect tf 4' a rt ribs. The ribs which are I mm. dips in of Starting the the the water strip and bends with { C-shaped lutlifer s of then it wood very Alq"ý over rounded until the snugly Pure are luthier slab. soap. fase 1. may shown shape.lie luthier tiro a maple remaining then way. bending-iron piece against The are same careful fits the while mould. pieces that cut to the glued. the thinned remain firmly glued the removed str1p5 they to ions. not bent Next to rubs blocks. so the that mould the wi th glue will. peices in the coat I. When using of the spruce corners ribs are and when inside blocks form to lightly end they glued blocks are to of and pieces violin the Once and mould. he built thins with and to a stet about aid of ribs frum that to an strips they which of may be al1 mould. not being to very it. stick .nating The sycamore easily of such it the from the as The story luthier or . in be clamped f i-pure These 1. 1. of the have are form known been cut the as into six bouts. method of constrict ion of the box is itself a begins by constructint.4_ held on traces A nearly an their inside complete mould outline onto set of ribs the a Tý "r hot.

giving firmly but organic strength in place. imperceptable ever without great violins perform luthiers. the which plates. in glue to is the used glue to join the bouts together. is copy 7 the is period. at Italian exactly. at ' they present -these taper in mm. of of This are surface may occur constructed of the a much longer that This and however. skill same the the or may If in Much the this depends often in their excecuting so used. used carved the are at Maple arching wood top the differences front. task instruments this After glueing they have are the lining for strips. and the'neck.I CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 7 A hot. 2 mm. thick. and 32 mm. of the is that the back. to to from the the inside a height top. then wedge-shaped glued together. the ribs about the ribs. the lower slope mindful exception. holding the ' with all of has the the blocks pieces joints ten and clamps hours later over so mould. First. when i slabs In this planed appears are way the wood nearly symmetric the . a plate edges adjacent. are have used only been bent This to provide into a wider place. and which for from two and appearance projection f-holes known for as the meets the two small the back of tongue. must be done after'they sectioned the blocks strip of been installed an the Carving to bend a triangular Little ends. block. front. only section. pieces. ' changes The strength ribs the spruce. the a single are their marking used thickest in piece for wood. is the sound The major in the most and plates important beauty are wood is secure impossible linings the of notches in and corners at two step in on the making luthier's with a violin. strip about a'lining glued that 1 above of necessary mm. Some two to its and glue hardened. surface reduced and 'glued to a triangular for trying task! their plates final task. high. latter project so' that mayare cut to the be so 30 mould cm. matchingn Each sycamore the spruce or then plate be made from two pieces are cut.

sink will shallow eventual groove ly be 3 mm. ce. needed YýR here it for single carrying large the the has cut the to the These TI [e been and widest remove edges two wide away F. a narrow stops usually groove any and crack consisting emphasizes wood.P1'Iý: I( I THE VIOLIN PAGE ö plate also is f inislied. More shape. operations groove the allows graceful important luthier aesthetic to tlie" () k use thin a and thick.i . ure luthier 1. cut set. is knife.. by r '^t' I I. and to l i ng upper a arch between After bouts. importantly . and benefits.'i1 l ruilýcI s wi 01 tu the tlhe slab working ing goug. then shaped and scraper.ciLA. of the ensures iY narrowest grain A t the is `.5: to Template8 check the are arching used of the by the splinter work. that dart at tracing Lire This the of center. a the doing small central the plane about and prrrf. keil t skill curved is r. lengthwise cut again portion the in gouge which to match matched of the marks the bring the arching of the three violin's a template. is Y"tsb. t'lil. M °ý4 h 14 ^l 711 dusircd next plate made on outline the slat). is purfling. to lower a the template. practical strong The set into it edge without flawing of strips plate. vfýtr"' +ýý W1 which saw. could Once arch bouts same is used from at is spoil plates.

of the belly After ribs' the The back is purfling for varnish. 2 mm. for fashioning the although his to skill the it provides in carving craftsman the opportunity it is demonstrate no consequence beautiful ' scroll. countless people the varnish used by the Italian masters was not the secret of their . surface of Scrapers the plate. at varies in centre edges. cut the so and its luthier that it bass to must bar cut be Two drill while bent the in holes the order is and a sharp bass-bar to be glued on the it will are knife be place must in slightly done. to must The front fitted. glued this violin is an of the on with the other the is set pegs attached. in place. have thickness. and a couple are as small the drilled through groove the These' and are serve located locating from the where points purfling which into small pegs The ribs removed mould. for the The the belly back plate is about also is next hollowed the its thickness. of the the ribs 'plate.5 from to check the thickness. mm. of in rib place the liners to glued keep the cut. finally the f-holes enable shaped inside edge of blocks.5 mm.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 9 from propogäting from the are plate's used 'edge to complete into the the vibrating region. of violin's acoustics. 4mm. the holes. enhances and colours which because beautiful besides providing of they with Spirit protective varnishes but the are these claims coating also lack of used the centuries with of which the oil may be applied. at about plate the which 3. This belly holes placed unlined into later stuck. be cut. rounded. and glass-paper outside Using out to its and a caliper final 1. Despite qualities varnishes. wood. withstand the ease provides a well the luthier with oil-varnish a another chance to show his the will of for applied it use. and the the neck with body little complete concern to' except here. Varnishing expertise. from edges and then warping.

a pitch give Many of good is luthiers U$ for results the in the adjust back. This use tones perhaps n thud important applied. res they plates U for altered predominant plate. The violin perceptibly mode has seems of to tap to [4]. to help p05 5i1)1e their fl 'rý t making k'. many and as a modes This of by carving U. C 1? \V iP 4/5 plate of the length. r 4 rar . Ir employ obtain sound instruments. a specific [me t. its for although the effects and IM the varnish are of does minor affect importance of the the violin.6.. way along and a rap the it sharply as: I wi th demonstrated knuckle in *. with the damping. most most been their and cases. frequency response the nunna I modes i9l7w.CHAPTER 1 Tlll: VLOLIN PAGE 10 success. -A f the ts of the hold final plate a ail justmeii thickness they loosely ýº O {Late thumb and between about finger. 1 mm. eFigure to 1. tones th& make it I possible of roson- f iglire excites vibration as little from 1. of few Of may until the square the be the front compensate plates to individuality the lowest wooden ance wood cent plate. It aspect is of by no making which scientific has .. when particularly compared [3].6: Tap for by tuning pitch. plates Today makers i4to many violintap-tones the best [ruin When .

. frequency the same attempts bands seven over evaluating been and by fifths. Strads for which we have curves. These the irony of by this a statement. table these in this 1. the esteem frequency of made many He made both. old response five these measurements bands were between of and a violin. " Subsequent Other frequency who used research at have bands. new. bands work selected strength was judged tests. show a weakness in the range 1300 to 1800 or 2000 cps. effect on the reputation of the violins concerned. over arbitrarily the relative to scientifically by F.. among importance" great all -ranges [5]. spectral has revealed the notably [7] "first. small and the shared number Meyer of [6].CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 11 means the utilized this work in only one. Saunders instruments. power. of second. One of the old Italian the first violins attempts was of. Although he`found and in frequency ranges which averaged. response as of was in explain [5]. who listening two qualities assisted by Jascha against from these when even Sascha ones were the of in many modern His were of instruments blind conclusions prime experiments evaluating distribution octave is of being historic that violin: strength special importance .. point which the-lowest he makes of Another interest: "Many violins. of the but important before it is work in this to field build is on to subsequent to improve factors possible it is mass-produced that instruments necessary determine the make some violins universally admired. This to have no important appears. including two three the seven of or _. Meinel violin by Lottermoser who averaged response experiments . The Best Violins and What Makes Them Different. Most chapters. frequency.. -fine the and. a the correlation quality iiiefitz old Italian Saunders Jacobson. to a drop of 4 to amounting 8 dB. made.

used tried use to third to describe [6].9].2. response applied group these a subjective to that related 1. had been for terms. bowed a violin! question early Meinel transient as well low [10]. the there Recent fast. good of the the [8. a band. should articulates decrement correlation have output Saunders violinmüdes this and measurements concluded quality frequency logarithmic is no work general has for various between on the sound of the concentrated importance response. determining researchers postulated is the. as meaningful with twice. were All and were only used octave correlate their In order bands some instruments to to make describe to of record the with these the response of terms many which Yankovskii violins violinists in certain six and subjective the tests average response as nine in a bands judges terms.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 12 disadvantage important explains response as did features Saunders' were lost tests: the bands were information noted in the too in -coarse. order. of transient of and This among other Saunders how the curves work in weakness failed has which to many quality is of violin's violin. highest possible shown the feature of the. of to description the average unanimously the A list entire of compared differences in table The those time and subjective appears Sc most important from conclusions about violin and used frequency Jansson to rate in the response which qualities are "Long of arising averaged a study by Garielsson (LTAS) were spectra" . possible subjective different from to required of the many were the The violins played same instruments which recieved those in subjective of term a violin was then the below every-judge which the experiment. response an the as made but resonances so that of that [5). highest correlate that sound did not that these string with this quality ignore as the More recent importance These response.

. The two but important response to out 2 kHz. appeared response drop in their 1. 194-12K 1809K Spectral 1/3 fifths..3 4kHz. over were averaged a long period By in comparing a LTAS of twenty-two .. to 9.1: 10 17 24 The frequency the quality of Octave <180->IOK bands violins. and the second nasibilant sal formant. frequency researchers scale. good violins they of found these of a bands greatest which had been good rated violin-making between the competition reponse The in seven very and the correlation quality proved greater The were: rising authors men and their a of to the be violin.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 13 Experimenter Saunders Bands 5 Frequency 196- range Arbitrarily Remarks selected. similar and in frequency found bands by their of which Hz. by only tests kHz. that 500 around above quickly point may not then judging violins group was done of have are been a representative great significance. to Meinel 'Yankowskii Jansson Table describe 1. 0. findings still The goals shortly be are now clear that and the the bridge work is may progress. A. a of low rapid the importance but with a to those predecessors.5 The results kHz. 100 Hz. violins. E. It will for demonstrated primarally responsible . accuracy most high a definate characteristics up and the of of to order importance. this violin bands process as from whole loudly about the tone scales were played over three octaves in of as possible. the S. I. The Bark used by early violins In on each twenty-two time. judged [9]. Lottermoser et al 7 Chosen to correspond to vowel formants of U. bands.

Piercing Treble. understanding this dull mystery.5 kHz. violins Bright Noble. Contralto Table physical 1.2 to 2KRz. 500 Hz. frequency response Soprano response The best and 1250 show strong the 1250 Hz. which. this. response uniform when averaged over above 4Ktlz. Body resonance Frequencies ritating tone from 1. with fall in this category.CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 14 Subjective term Characteristic Bands at 250.2: shrill Any'radiation Little radiation may cause below 500 Hz. band strongest. by Yankowskii terms these and the the the production lowest of results. so it is the the frequency As more yield its nor greatest design the about will unique remove some light. between 500 and 1/3 octave bands. thin Relatively 6300 lIz. which envelope amazing man's genius 400 years ago.. high level. The lowest The subjective interpretation of band has a relatively studied terns. will violin the of and awe. * . " soft Nasal High output between in 2500 and 4000 liz. Tight.800. band dominant. come to of sound at frequencies ranges information above about just descrbed the not creation 1. cause this ir- quality.500.

no. the Violin. Instrumentebau. in Soviet "Scientific Physics: principles Acoustics. "Regarding Meinel. H.1183. 185-189. 44. [2] Alberto Bachman. pp. [10] scientific (1957). of stringed 3. and a 817-822. 169. JASA. "The M. of violin construction". vol. action (1946). Sheila Nelson. sound ofI -violins basis for violin JASA. instruments". . tone appraisal of violin (1966). pp. Gabrielsson'%and "Long-time E. qualities of twenty-two violins". Yankovskii. pp. 7. mechanical 17. vol.. acoustics Reviews. rated (1979). musical 2. Ernest Bean Ltd. acoustical JASA. Lottermoser E. Z. A. construction". 29. quality". Interrdisciplinary Science (1978). vol. no. vol. Meyer. Meinel. London. The Violin and Viola. [5] violin "The Saunders.i CHAPTER 1 THE VIOLIN PAGE 15 [1] (1972). Boden". McIntyre and'J. 231-245.1175. 47-55. of instruments of the [6] "Resonanzen W. An Encyclopedia of (1965). 6. pp. Acustica. . [7] reported [8] Soviet [9]. (1968). Physics: Acoustics. reprinted in [3] "The John Schelleng. and von Gergendecker 13. Da Capo Press. und "Objective B. vol. English. family". 11. and average-spectra 42. New York. vol. vol. 149-161. effects of violin varnish". F. (1959). vol. H. quality the. [4] Woodhouse. (1960). pp. Jansson. pp. p.

the nearly` which and its first Raman. Measuring difficult. " may as and bowingwho produced the important string difficult to although on all frequency these to factors. avoids.. have I been Loudness measured violin. only produce the bowed shown that. constant makes position between unpleasant This limit this on the the frequency the response of a violin would is a below. to study which loudness become response. bowed excitation. problems study in of an Ideally the method the and employed violin mounting briefly be quick. a swinging the pendulum either or of a inherently By good behavior force. is difficult. ear' to of as construction requires such a bowing surprisingly string by the C. and is in possible the string a the bowing some form bowing. content the Saunders. of by but hand can be surprisingly reproducable. when This pitch. if consistant and V. against some is made known. form of rather bowed what than the frequency is used response.. to is drive played is the for - excitation hears when essentially one a violin . the violin's' results curves". chamber will be discused have used Mechanical experimenters or wheel. anechoic Most mechanical rotating a device practiced results. be demonstrated [2].CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 16 Measuring the Frequency Response. and reflect excitation. reproducaable contrast. the bow's a regime. violin instrumentation. speed certain [1]. are string He showed held constant. is hand It limit by hand. instinctively exceeding oscillating musician the of force bow and sound is very the most the first is destroys which for. Since remarkable that in time this to such reproduced "equal way have response used in measurements most experiments. amplitude force was is one of the of musician method degree the control. The for way in which held. depend for employ the the this 'A raucous.

it Also. of. The effect. workers to response have 2. a such as discreet is to wide a . each of tone. semitone the provision with tracking the split obtain'a sometimes these frequency in response. to are such measurements of the useful many circumstances.1 curve.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 17 each the pitch loudness. for the an stringstill strings curve. the violin's response.. obscure isolate the While which contributes. beset mounting by on force was applied MM0002. prompted have standardize similar techniques which Figure an effort . of them. ýand frequency problems [3]. a marked been transducer the. affect and the belly. with had a high a very magnetic minor. permeability. mount.3 and gm. effect on the'.. the frequency of information indiviual be This plotted spacing filter making modes. transducer. pure they to nature. the tone details violin probably may significance"in gain valuable of a to insights violin's Mechanical In most cases excitation the in strings this violin been left bridge in avoids place this these when thesis spurious problems. the Helmholtz of help no one real details resonance which Although quality into the occurs are they action.. . the measuring the frequency have which even been occur when response removed when the response for when order body driving throughout This is strings during the driving eliminates that of they a" resonances mode. ? the itself. difficult by its frequency enough true much. to the measure by an electro-magnetic disk the disc B&K type which As its violin's that small only metallic 0. in is a combination rather than of a partials. testing. are damped of frequency assembly a problem In violin drove mass mode of a was presence obscures strings a large and portion bridge. frequency heavily The also but maybe: missed. at resonant loudness frequency curve "equal usually even " must apart. so that. shapes: violin Other resonance had frequencies. intervals. of the have way. making to holograms.

responsible so that for the it is large is discrepencies In form a two of which these response which transducer the to upon to 2. (a) when suspended on threads at the corners. (b)when resting on a foam block. manners: threads resting (c) block. transducer With the -mounting. and (c) when lightly clamped. methods was the transducer to cantilever. mounting the curves one after pressure.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 18 . frequency prevent and 2. doublet. curves is the second by the resonance interaction the other with or humidity.. in this in violin-plate required proved transducer great care As a lengthy the anechoic cantilever test Even chamber with support impossible transducer eliminate framework its . which display. . these 10 dB In obtaining curves the response same violin in three was mounted different tb) . figures demonstrate.2 a appears of to the was it the double and to to be peak the caused mounting. first two The effects of violin mounting on frequency response. no detectable an fixed adjustable The-measurements'-took change only in the either form the of place temperature. clamped also 260 Figure21: the suspended at freely and in a frame the corners.3 influencing violin's response. which the the violin mounted was as needed was clamped. shows the the results degree to which may be (a) affected. on a on foam loosely which the supported 637 600 700 800 900 Frequency in Hz.

unnn.2: The vi H1in for front driving. three corners drastically Light altered clamping shown eliminated The throughout eliminating violin. plate it.3 TIw req un nrar Figure mounted 2.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAI. AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 19 1. I IGURE . o and that a poorly dethe effect mount ran r igrxxd trunsducor have on 'he frequency rcw. fror work interact an and rnounting as it the proved violin to the advantage to and this and be transducer the simplest mounting the entire was method and used of the icon btýtwoen addi easily tiona1 transducer in the that assembly laboratory quickly to this secure transferred violin holography to the both the transducer system anti-vibration its frcciIity. ponso kurve b) 2. the violin in this frame this the It be used in had Clamping body figure which 2. the frunt pinto res. could and table probi. and the transducer The its of as clamping of the violin alL four within corners the framework often its of could also affect response. orn.37 467 497 FREQUENCY in Hz. overall demonstrated . introduced resonance only a distortion frequencies.4.

Either as an A analyzer B&K type re. to acoustic The signal processed either type measuring output. be used was used the whose impedance a white input noise with or this was constant single instrument.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 20 superiority standardized 10 dB. The remainder equipment recording response in figure the curves 2. was in a B&K 2610 V-ý--VV B&K mm0002 Qý^ o00 ß&K Sine 1 Magnetic Transducer. counter.. through noise range floor of was interest Pa. -aregenerator throughout. Microphone. type 4165. was used. Micro phone Frequency Oscilloamplifier.5. -2x10_ sine-random this the range. B&K 2131 Narrow Band Filter. both the Helmholtz frequencies as the violin can increase the plate resonance curve shows. anechoiý shielded situated equipment outside chamber cables 4: Clamping Fi gure . used of the in frequency is shown of the was the and -passed All electronic 260 437 497 Frequency in the and lower 600 Hz. transducer. typically when used-5 measured throughout to drive to -10 on the walls. _A pick single up frequency could frequency- sinusoid high-sensitivity the microphone. ß& Kze. over methods the of testing. . Random Generator. I %Y.5: The equipment used for making lifier or a B&K response measurements. frequency scope. . amp- Figure 2. the The frequency -(dB 1024 dB SPL throughout the Narrow-Band work).

C. was frequency Hz. frequency averaging from and 190 noise. gave was used excellent exclusively. instrument sensitive often frequencies in first. anechoic averaging therefore five used to minimize common.. is noise selected. band-width.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 21 2131 narrow-band A white response displaying to 600 Hz. the virtually down to D. and the the analyzer. response store it in to measure from any the noise memory.. window problems only any such effects.. curves. eliminating had been importance this problem. Linear display On to 5 to appears averaging then those kHz. the sample of small wavelengths that does not change recorded whole Fourier any frequency in window begining component signal can have a the number transform. used. definition. input was generally . the output subsequent meäsürement within machine. the wavelengths A Nanning of the the uses and greatly function a sample a response a weighting ending of Once to thereby curve minimize. although and then it low frequency was possible subtract it . . a. it was recorded possible to output- it to a level recorder or an x-y plotter. was to used -" record for required 1 kHz. the 0 occasions range was when measured.5 mode. of the violin was often measured sources set long of at of less noise doors than could which time over was The acoustic 10 dB noticably led to SPL at affect the certain the frequencies response room and so outside triple A even when the were sealed. a wider As The 400 line with response this only. the narrow-band As the was analyzer response used in signal.. analyzer was usually the 0 to linear a 2. 2048 samples about minutes being The Hanning minimized window number the should of was used associated exclusively with recording in during digital experiments sampling If then (the a as linear it be used when are transients).

of of subjects which occur much debate.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 22 Another to stop after useful feature of of the narrow-band and continue made it analyzer averaging much was its again to ability after perform a number interuption. as-' of violin's 600 Hz.6 room whether sound-power were the be. samples.5 Hz. not frequency meaningful by a violin impossible to obtain 90 co ti c80 J a N ýc 1 1' 100 Figure and 200 300 400 500 600 in 700 Hz. in the it experimental should be work made or a the in method of measuring or the whether and should multitude University these bands an anechoic single of position reverberant frequency Figure 2. noise the University input of Salford's in 113 octave A series directionality Seventeen of sound-power was important positions tests at were were made to see as distance if low they. b: The response of room to a white reveberant 2. bands. in the of resonances Salford's are reverberent Applied Department that covered curves. response shows the at the easier measurements. in the hemisphere into which it would . chamber. This an indefinite sound-power Early response. used. 800 900 Frequency 2. meter frequencies used at.. Acoustics. affect they third make it Although octave resonances in the so narrow range response they do. a microphone one . from the center of the belly.

typically much grtater instruments the . necessary radiator in air to make sound-power whose dimensions affect measurements. at Comparison two curves influences of interest figure shows taken although high directionality in the greatly range readings was not of a frequencies. made it possible in The amplifier to-obtain these had a 22. deemed was are used throughout measurements 40 A It It ý1 30 1 d1 1 1lit 1tq V1! ýt 1 AI a`. Single this thesis. Figure 2.I CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 23 radiate if mounted'in a single of the a baffle. A frequency position. high-pass on the analyzer. of response one meter the curve on the in the it the Was axis then made using to the normal 2. using the the resonant sinusoidal counter.7: Sound.5 a steady than position in Hz. recorded. a quarter pattern.power (--) and ( position a single at response Once a frequency frequencies output of and the response curve had been were frequency ). 0 20 1%V 1 c 10 1230 Frequency in kHz. meter. generator and the measuring frequenc}4 filter and oscilliscope. which Noise was 10 dB half-power points determined amplifier.7 center" that. microphone belly. shape of wavelength but position sound does not-greatly of this experimental frequency confirmation response necessary. are less the than radiation ' Of course.

described controloccured. some the of variations although atmospheric method of. move individual the of laboratory" behavior Holography Holography vibrations was found of has stringed proven to be a useful instruments. but caused as this equipment was only used to measure resonances it no difficulties. Reinicke A similar a valuable detail although vibration deduced made the was holography using the this. to the to within in peak. for dB the while of Measurements about locating It was. of violins technique in modes by Gabrielson for the Jansson [5]. .5 Hz. difficult approaching the Q-factor as much zero much. . occasionally it possible response study the violin the made frequency to to make an accurate and then to of and rapid it to modes measurement holography vibration. a large number produced Results figures obtained Q accurate the to about techniques with no above over The were generally conditions mounting reproducible. as some musical to and know modelling shapes be necessary distribution. 0. of to the accurately as one output trying tests sine-random the varied points. locate Averaging 5%.the the difficulty at the maximum which more.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 24 SPL. established It is this described acoustician below. patterns The and study tool first Cremer it mode could velocity Chladni possible. precisely the tool In the former for investigating the and violin the the it plate from latter by [4]. of that method vibration was investigation who studied and conducted. of the error resonance involved has a slope to obtain generator 3-dB-down for from frequencies mostly were due accurate.

but the most common is the helium-neon wavelength exciting When these with one of of the gas 633 type. in use. however. wavelength atoms of is initially photons Only_ The population are it excited and many photons an is excited necessary released. it the was [6]. below' a the number of photons the in the cannot tube sustain is -certain level process itself of to the 2%. form a standing be of is allowed small and through necessarily wave. . photon the a by electric the their neon discharge atoms level electrons fall electrons the three is in to normal release neon. too the When one releases process of a once these collides small just atom.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 25 Although as 1947. must will in tube. nm. which An of produces a continuous starts to a higher they of beam the energy a Only of with beam level. wavelengths the very visible high with current enough characteristic range. 633 neon nm. fraction emission is hit This of of limits that in the the which photon light tube. breakthrough There frequency beam to be the that are-many made holography types of laser possible. occur that intensity typically when gives 'l an the beam to a small the stimulated electron a photon atom with laser its a high-level nameLight by another by Stimulated Amplification Emission Radiation. in the to maintain a large proportion excited discharge tube so nm. which this light occurs travelling wave. lasing electrons The which are -a sustain has begun. to photon. coherent. uniform to has mirrors along A phase escape at the each axis portion non-diverging a partially with end a of discharge arranged 633 which the that form wavelength'of this to beam. standing silvered allowed mirror. which of a laser proved beam. to decline If. holographic not It process was envisaged employed until by Gabor after the as laser early had a successfully was the been developed single special of properties light. and the laser It is lasing action ceases.

in three dimensions Virtual Image Q'-'. phase r is the position S0(i) surface vector xi + yj and.8: Recording a hologram with a transparent object. one needs and then some form.9: The reconstruction process. the original Reference Beam Prism emulsion behind perspective viewed different Figure 2.lies in the the plane' of the and and where along the and exp[jwt of an + j$(=)J represent thin amplitude infinitesimally emulsion. angles. (?)exp[jwt+ jý(f)) where plate. Hologram I ý. all been it. the plate when recorded object.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 26 A hologram amplitude In ordinary and is a type of photographic of light emulsion from is the in If only to in' which are by the both the phase information the to phase interfere an object lost. but from recorded. a photographs beam fringes of light occur information with a second series of the of light which. figures both of holograms with Figure 2.. Real Image The theory the formation may which describes and ý reconstruction be to simply.1) S(r)= S. The light distribution be referred upon the photographic object emulsion from the as object (this will to as the beam) may be expressed (2. which is. The reference beam. explained 2.8 and reference 2. simply a diverged and collimated . these fringes retain have and fix information about recorded on a photographic Object to develop insert'it beam to It plate so that the once more into reconstruct will and image the appear retains may be from Object Beam -'- the reference object. allowing object.9.

it was density. is directly developed to the film_will intensity and T(i). number gives so the [S(r)+R(r)]' number be integrated approaches periods. irradiates a large this it. (2. reference between contain the holographic beam with into when processed the object plate is reinserted the two beam with the phase removed. I(r) then and therefore with transmit which intensity exposed. exp [ j(211/T)cos by the angle 4)-. properly proportional of the two depend whose upon -Once optical the the'emulsion has been developed transmission.3) I(r) = Sö(r1 + Rö+ RS*(r) +RS(). emulsion and of will respond term As the to the intensity must of periods of light for longer length where ej accounts the . path. produced The photographic which over infinity. . may also be represented in the general form of equation (2. the term.4) T(? )=AR(S. a beam which produced beam. (2. A appear. (I)+ Rö(ý) + RS#(f)+ R*S(F)] A the constant. beam neither Without of would The the interference terms and which no object and reference RS*(i) would be information. This gives .CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 27 laser beam =which retains its coherence. fringes of will light. image nor R*S(r). occur term three-dimensional formed.1). will.2) R(Fr)= Roexpl jwt+ j(21T1%) cos e-1. by the is distribution the transmitted interference beams (2. * denotes where a coinplex conjugate.

a about object sinusoid. two extremities density contain object. this plate. object spends of for a line of amplitude. which and The object light is with and constant that viewed a negative This forms at phase the the the real converging. extreme greater consequently function information but displacement. the eye by phase +c(r). which of are produced onthe platein the are ýve ryclose of If. the infinite part these hologram of cycle the positions of will its moving at the with as the a greater point. at a have point two main upon If Figure t reconstruction. but diverging. series during vibrating a stationary image of of equal at and bright reconstruction. .CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 28 AR'S*("r)m by the indicates may be term ARöSo()exp[J2a-4(r)] factor the by image ARöe'Za is . For images. is but the with original object beam multiplied -$ (r). the (xi reconstructed r + y3 on a planer 2. either of probability will greatest amount as time 2. all spends of figure the The illustrates. the and moment only their will be images object) these interaction considered. indicating produces or. and images positions contrast the . than on two at any other plate. a card again or inserting j[2p. laboratory the of dark may degrade vibrates fringes each the of however. form fringes the predominant YAt -A on reconstruction. image point. the object A its a even a quarter or even sinusoidally appear which is wavelength destroy about over the any component hologram.10. As the together the a a camera. (r)exp this time (r) ] + 4D the original that the beam. it may The virtual looking with fringes movement setup object image which through the be viewed may be focussed photographed. with screen includes focal ARR*S. mean.10: A sinusoid with on amplitude A and its probability density function.

roots of .. between ges will to of on reconwith displacea peak 3X and these be /2cos t or In frin- F 1 I h so-on.1394 3.1402 3. dark band apart.79I5 14. displaceetc.4048 5.1336 3. This case in is exactly the double-exposttre or wave two with displaceimwhich a Figu re the trout holograms. _. ram of are produce . Ä/2cos t ive occur will image.1 378 3. the are 1 2.1153 3.5201 8.CHAPTER 2 EXF'ERLMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 29 different -A and +A displacements n which destrucwi 1 spot. ho Iog.1 I: plate' A s vi hr. bright interferThese t t' f`t fringes with points peak U. square mentages interfere a F ýt F distinct formed to 2. lo (k) k.2116 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. .9309 18.1405 k. it il)n Lowest no(Ie. the a li Ilk Table difference 1: Roots between of J0(k) subsequent and i nterf and appear Similarly. a Fýrence dark on will the image points structed peak ment 5X/2cos$.6537 11. dark areas where constructive ence produce connecting peak ments to of takes place. Fý ýw Xcosm.0711 21.4048 3.





hologram a change
The hologram the

with in

each successive peak displacement
of the



equal .


and representing

X/2cos$ of
series way in not

presence slightly is state

continuous the it in will vibration

images the


the appear,

vibration and Let represent of 2.1. the The as it

alters lengthy, that of

which be


analysis to

included the

herein. fringes roots in table

suffice peak

holography k,, which the

displacements Bessel

k, X/ncosO

, with J0(k),

successive appear



spacing exposure shows. successive limit reduced limit of

between hologram Contrast fringe about beyond

fringes with also

is the



the of

same as first

that as the amplitude

of table


double clearly

exception with



increasing as

and 2.11.

each A is this this

appears fifteen perception,

greyer, fringes are

may be seen in observable it is it before possible was not


contrast to remove in

and although technique,

by employing

a stroboscopic


research. While vibration it is a deterministic of necessary may be any to element isolate vibration in the by the may produce equipment will holograms, degrade it. from which it - a random

Therefore vibrations rests. In this

experimental the surface which was

apparatus upon was to

which setting

transmitted holography first

up the the

laboratory step

used provide

throughout such

research isolation. Four from
kg. three



automobile old snooker

inner table,




and a

slate Its

bed, mass of
improved were

made 25U
when placed




upon these.
was of further kg.,


vibration with

which miss



a combined







a firm





equipment. analyzer

A were

B&K type

8306 accelerometer

and the

2131 narrow






used the'' tion the floor



40 30 Figure 1: The vibration isolation provided by the anti-vibration table in the holography laboratory. ------------------

acceleralevels concrete of the ö and table. ö0
c 0 ö I.n > DC. 10 20 30 40 50

on 20


laboratory, on the

To provide ficient trequency gy in several vibration the

suflow enerfloor,


in Hz.

such as would of, staff which

be caused about

by lorries on piles of

passing carpet

by outside, tiles. The



was measured

appears with



2.12. power of of the

A Scientifica 10 mW. holograms was used. 'z laser The its parts to and a

Cook helium-neon wavelength appear in this of 633 work,

laser, nm.

a continuous

was used initially

to make all a 0.5



mW. model

had a seperate off

power of

supply table.





from using

fan, ' was placed from reduce


A shutter

was constructed this was floor

an oscilloscope vibrations. using mounted beam.


and once again


The beam was'split which moving strengths surface, was it specially across of -should the the the

a variable on a stand made it

density with easy when1: 1 to

silver-backed an adjustment adjust at the the the

mirror screw for


relative hologram's reference


beams of

which, between

measured and the


a ratio

10: 1, 1: 1 ratio

beam being In fact, very low

stronger. emulsion as it

One would does not


to be ideal. to light at needs

as the levels

respond levels,

logarithmically a constant

does at'higher








-present a ratio

to of

prevent about

complete ideal

destructive [7].




4: 1 is

Egure 2.13: The holographic apparatus. Abbreviations: laser M. mirrors (M), beam splitter (B). violin (V), diverging lens(D). holographic plate (H), and shutter (S).

mi r-

rors, (25x

two lenses and IOx

microscope jectives),
simple holder

oband a

completed initial


Power supply

the equipment, which is shown in figure 2.13. both it and spatial a lens noise

A pinhole improved the

and an aparatus quality of-holograms major

to mount

greatly from the a two had a is few made

by eliminating improvement so that [0].

object-beam. light meter into


was made by incorporating the intensities of the meter use. beam, a As it



beams could been used. small degree

easilyAnother of-

be measured seemingly devergence the path

Previously addition

a hand-held was of the great

trivial is

present of loops with
which anechoic With violin down
drive the

in the


important. centimeters it easy
As could bolted it was

to keep of

lengths Small lengths
frame the


beams 'within to each component of thread.
and holography in to the

each other. the path
the from an to it optical allow had
adjusted the-plate.

attached a piece
held room this to and





the to

violin the change

transducer lab and

be -transferred directly necessary Once
had for exposing been


bench. the settled

environment new ambient , r 16 Decade
all was

adjust the

Oscillator ready


Any stray










. Reconstruction by hand in the of object the image beam was with usual the ly clone by holding curtain the obscuring plate the blackout . a good Fixing Kodak r. f ive tu exposure additional improvement around used quality minuti.A(. laser over the Shades light. f. times kath in were using. 14_ The Iß() 1 graph is apparatus. rinse the in water with a When few drops of the to Agfa 0. and and. and were a and placed black-out a curtain on plate both curtain for the A shutter Agfa-Gervaert to U163 to form a canopy apparatus windows. with . laser wetting and agent Kodak At completed 649F plates an the processing. CAL METHODS Y.ah: ith a of five stop-watch series ten to minute Kudrit of fit were trial teen deve iy used to control the with was time ion And In found Kodak final.5 Lon AKepun mW. the (live loped one plates point but was image bleach was urnot icahle. electronic after 10E7'5 image in a plates. "tut a Figure L.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND T11EORKT1. squeeze-bulb opening Scientia exposures seconds loping produce doveloppr. 33 partially the table expose to was lah's shield used it and the degrade from the stray hologram.

from the impulse system may Then.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 34 violin. .6) ' G(w) = F(w)H(w) r where H(w) =g:[h(t)}.This (2. to describe-a' the space the vibrations to a. torvibrating which later technique present systems and used to model the'violin. convolution used. which a may and an SLR camera text. ' is by By possible integration. point a violin. holder be-seen for Photographing the plate this any hologram of to interest produce merely the photos required. it determining to find a the This system's from response input any form=of what and the occurs- continuous when the input simply exactly convolution are used that ''the Fourier in be transform. theorem is in terms be in which of the defines input or find states the and the it the that impulse response. similarly this remarks be applied which'follow. . e measured order'to theorem may be calculated function g(t).5) g(l) f f('C)h(t-T)dT'= -470 output in the time f(t) 9 h(t) . two functions is defined mathematically as The' convolution (2. The Green's series useful linear output is of' in Function Technique. domain The the of a linear filter response impedance. the time impulse there In the will response is system cannot domain. of +oo " . throughout The Green's Fuction Technique. integral. etc. which in which a system is treated is as very a orthogonal dealing with functions the together of make up a basis. treated! but no reason domain possibilies.

t) which the Green's with function the is By substituting obtained. by using the Fourier transform in both . The equation with the of motion functional mg + cg notation response equation integrating let dropped. g(r. is dependence more complex. with the impulse response. The input where "r and frequency the time the t.7) - g(r. the partial it vibrating may be derivatives system it system separable in one into important functions (2. r. .5). and an example lumped is parameters important. of requires a continuous virtually system same steps often of the as before. (2. Multiplying over all by exp(-jwt) t H(w)- 1/(k In + jwc . form The equation of motion (2. point t).7) be fact of become possible already that equation then ordinary differentials. which Green's function. .15. fa 6(t) To find and the gs h(t) impulse from and yields Figure 2]5: A massspring-damped system.wtm). representation terms at of r" system. is problem and input g(r the t). of freedom k tdm ' c f(t) g(t) integral and the is reduced is easily to a product determined take by the for the use of any the transform An output this input degree example which of may be helpful: in figure + kg- single system appears is 2. to. f(ro. t) +A function here ZO- t) t) Bf(ro. f. = f("r0 t). only the time system of both of "r . like this one. system The output response To find the to a point the is input . in general a delta for represented use [9].CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 35 The convolution Fourier function. For a simple would to relate "ro. and t. in the But with will is a continuous now be a function the will vector be in position. with is so by g("ro conforms symbols When working about time g(r0 and t) space a continuous known.

but in course. is for most applications..8) (2.7).7). of the the Next Green's equation the which terms function of g(rt) motion are is. combine (2. response. equation orthogonal to a First (2. a closed it the a simple form solution system. then the be multiplied of orthogonal by Each side and integrated. "however. much more difficult When dealing dependance of they to equation to ignore It this with systems is much easier and only impossible calculate to determine steady-state the transients. (^o) (2. are of instance no concern. namely properties gives dv=0 if This ýE( f yBf ej(r)dr ']aj jw)m+ Aö'. ai $. The violin to complex is find not. The use similar. the is time then. 3 functions. to yield Next let . (2. ("r) be written as with Fourier terms a1 complex.9) DUjw)m A6ni ýi(r) Bf(r) 5(r-r 1 ai = + of this equation making Jýý full should use of iij.10)41(F0) = . which makes it (2.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 36 time and space.7) may then (z. i Multiplying function this by di(r) and rearranging gives once again the Green's . sý (jw)mýaý +A ý(r) terms r" (ý) la 4 a1ö = Bf(r)5(r- o) j and with the time terms dependant in equation eliminated. in the form of of written as expanded a This series is the similar functions series: Equation together g(rt)=exp(jwt) make up a basis.

in as ' In the w-1.16. and redefining a as (2.CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 37 (2.: 1. driven of its f(t) The string by a length. n our the this exp(jkx) becomes and exp(-jkx) A-1a fv $Z(r)dV. Rewriting this using leaves Euler's equation and factoring out the time dependenttterm (2.12) Sf (x.. exp(j$). makes . this string. )- b.11) g(ýo.13) 27 n JWI1 jikx" e) bnej(kx+ehlJ+ejwtfln + ýj(kx+e. $.16: The amplitude of vibration of a stringy driven at L/3 with w. case c The Figure 2.5irc/L the wave velocity may be written equation of motion for a string r. 6j(kx+$^ By factoring ala. t)=Y(acos(wt+kx+4)+bsin(wt+kx + -(WI . .14) Qel(wt"kx) bej(wt"kx) + or acos(wt+kx+4) r with the proper choice in of phase 2. show that into to response system it examples waves with will any a may same spatial amplitude frequency may: be combined At any time t there wave with complex number and phase. in be an infinite" of waves travelling one direction: (2.) ß(F)0( io) [( )Aö A ý1i where It-then determine Before number single of the only remains of are the the cited. to impose to the the be boundary point useful source to conditions atro. aiýiejwl =B f(F.5rrc/l.a is force with good at a figure a point one third frequency example.

CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS PAGE 38 (2. Now a conditions i=0 along or L/2 with setare of functions which this gives which fit the boundary when m. =sin(nix/L). (x).16. with c2=T/ e. would now at as whose amplitudes interesting motion amplitude If from is the TT2T(i2 -2. t)b(x-xo) + t2 at with f unction e the mass per unit length then and T the tension. T -d4(L/2) dx T_ ý(-L/2) =jwO-L/2) jwO(L/2) 2 &ven Now let 4. EC 6A orthogonal for unit force.18a) 1 gcos(-qL/2+h1/2)=LT sin(-qL/2 +ri/2) . functions the boundary center may be written (2.: produces a series This shows to of fixed. conditions by impedances different the string and ZZ. sinusoids the is string no and w0. the values vary series (2. but have the held there the waveform"` x=0 to that L/3.12) as (2. =sin (qx + iir/2).16) g(x. and substitute where this the into in/2 the term allows both and odd symmetry. The Green's from equation equationýof motion-may be written directly (2. then boundary With conditions the origin produced of shape. boundary conditions to give (2. figure 2.25)/L. t)ýý(xl n.17b) -- F(-L/2) Z1 -L/2 _d dxZ.16).15) 6g Tý2= f(x. as of xo öf=(ni/L) into and Ai'L equation of when 00. ofa and that sinusoid-with a wave number had not been ends of Zjý the string the 4.17a) and (2. from " which this point produced that x-L 4L/3. Substituting of.









-Z q cos (qL/2 + TT i/2) =ýT sin(gL/2+lTi /2 ) 2
and rearranged to form

These may be combined


2-] grzi Z, Z2 =- T tan(qL/2+tti/2)
when Z, and Zi »>1 is




rL lW

1 -1T JT

z, +z2) Z1 Z2

1 J

The effect demonstrated. of -jk/w

of ,a compliant A spring-like



the at





termination In as the effect

one end with the in are string's

an impedance resonance (2.16) treated is in

makes are on q.

gs-itr/[L+(T/k)]. all lowered

frequencies dependent this


equation easily

More complicated


manner. The great advantages the of model of
any the for

this of the

type violin is

of in

analysis chapter to 5.

will With the

make driving reaction


possible forces
of is

to that

improve are

a function
system to

= it
form mode use in

periodic of


a continuous impossible to

excitation. an object of

And when they motion. may

it be


shapes the











[1] strings",


"On the Raman, mechanical Bull., Assoc. Cult. Indian Saunders, in the R. study Watson, and violins", of

theory of vibrations of 15, pp. 1- (1918). vol. W. Cunningham, 12, pp. JASA, vol.


[2] F. techniques (1941).
[31 Journal (1972). C. of

"Improved 399- 402,

Hutchins, the

"Instrumentation Audio Engineering

for and methods Society, vol.

violin 21, pp.

testing", 563- 570,

and L. [4] W. Reinicke Cremer, interferometry to the vibrations of JASA, vol. 48, pp. 988- 992, (1970). [5]

"Application bodies of

of string

holographic instruments",

"Resonances E. H. Sundin, Jansson, Malin, N. -E. and of a body studied interferometry by hologram violin and acoustical methods", Physica 243- 256, (1970)., Scripta, 2,. pp. vol. [6] of [7] D. Gabor, "Microscopy the Royal Society, series A. by reconstructed wave-fronts", 197, pp. 454- 487, A, vol. Prodeedings (1949). to 954-

"An Porter S. George, and holography", American Journallof practical 959, (1975).

introduction elementary 43, pp. Physics, vol.

[81 19J. York,


My thanks

to Roger

Darlington Theoretical

who constructed Acoustics,


circuit. Books, New

Morse and Ingard, (1968).









The Bowed String.

Many people little of the interest. plucked

would At

consider. glance the It

the it

motion appears of


the merely

bowed string to be a in

to be of variation elementary the string free if to the the an to is be




problem that

encountered the

differential aside vibrate until until

equations. static it is

would is


bow draws the But,

friction once again is the term


leaving bow.

string what

captured that bow would

by the

bow pressure normal increase overcome dependent truel produce and has One force in

(which acting bowing


players is a the

use to describe increased without

between speed? This ". It

and string) then take that

larger period

deflection of which vibration cannot

friction. on both has


mean and speed, 'cellist a

bow pressure only to is to

a conclusion


as he "leans" a wide range of

on the

bow to

a sforzando the pitch

see that, unaffected.

even over Clearly

bow pressure consideration


some dynamic

been ignored.

Herman Helmholtz He designed on a blackened motion could such rising
to point string as a the

was the



shed light

on this of

problem a white that

[1]. speck the

an optical string

instrument and on the from his

to study

the motion




any point

bowed string wave, The

be represented as that and shown in falling

by a sawtooth figure 3.1. are


the end, string wave by two

t t

distance and the

between string's. If then the the well

observation and is form strto the Figure

length. whole

viewed may be aight



3.1: Helmholtz motion of a bowed striAg, ob served at a point xe. The string flies back during the interval if and is captured by the bow over tc.

limitations slightly. but wave-form cannot It using from bow the then so much depends on subtleties be ignored. change time string model. is the each easy to see how a musician model is in of string can control The amplitude. the bow. the and discontinuity bridge. from and or for from it initiates the nut with nearly sticking. It then termination when then it the acceleration towards the passes along the end the of the by are. the force dynamic at the level bridge in Helmholtz string or mode motion.2). effects course.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. seen 3. PAGE 42 lines which with travels a discontinuity around It the is string this of slope on a parabloic which (figure is envelope. He used Raman began waves to a detailed describe study the string of velocity . the amplitude between are not. the of reflects point. to its proportional position moves in will the of An increase by altering capture however. discontinuity and which When the also string produces acceleration travel is around released from the bow travels phase. speed distance a change the string other using years [2]. easily Some described factors the Helmholtz C. Nearly bowed strings fifty later. in around Second music string. The slope dispictured above continuity describes a parabolic curve as It travels around the bowed string. V. (the string's opposite and as it bowing continues at again reflects fingerboard). The time it release takes initiates capture the by wave to this slipping the to once precisely the order reaches controlled There alter bow is travel model. the string. discontinuities the string. interval motion and so release.2. envelope is bowed when the string The slope velocity Eigute 3.

Eall lineal of the mass.1) so that. He is highly that good states . did model non-zero friction of string his predecessor. string .. spatial contains then derivative all appear of the equation with taken. a than ' model I a sound which has in fact the many . it at is the c. (3. at to violinist more high finger considers frequency board for with in be "richer"._j-T7-e. harmonics that bowing case the amplitudes of forces proportional acting on the experience bridge. and Ttension. components a light the would Clearly of produced something when bowing has failed the stroke. spectrum position. it will be of interest to look at the Fourier Series representation of Helmholtz motion. the force to 1/n. PAGE 43 motion using friction objects moving) and went the td and simple into far two greater state detail friction is. t) =AýL ýsin(nnx/L)sin(wnt) Viol r. established he and assuming damping work and confirmed the basic Helmholtz's principles At this of experimental the point firmly bowed string. on the if bridge the spectrum It would is related each with to the an amplitude slope of of the The force at is that point acting string (3. a than.. be accounted Helmholtz the bowed string. wa cut/L. even those with with From this a node of A/n2.. have been excited. apparent bowing that point.1) y(x.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. of sliding By (a coefficient velocity acting a when there of between are two not coefficient equal static yAs when they modes. modes. violin body is independant is a not larger to Practical nearer produce which to the shows that which this as bowing will sound be requires bow pressure. Arthur non-linear Benade and this suggests lead that seems a the bowing one process [3j.

on string/bow may be written The equation system (3. LIVLL-L. a%. W1ULll t. 6S4c e .r CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING.3. VL tl..5 idealized data such available a [exp(-v/10) friction as .. may such be the as bowed string the one in profitably.. driven and of studied the elucidate of system string is being V principles in with force like thoseor in very figure small. ý. bLL . m: k: Figure freedom x.3: Two degree-ofsystem driven a constant primarily phenome non..2. LV and in -8-3.U1-0. the non-linearity is for in bowing process responsible which 3. PACE 44 Helmholtz points excited well recognised away from the the existance bowing of point Losses harmonics which with in the string not motion have at been should when bowing at a node.4. 3.l tt the bow certainly but it is help the to excite these of fact this zjtt) modes.. O 1/10 It and 04' is 1/100... many . C .69 VIm.... x(tI= NEA löp o2')(-1 )P] P.2) the-expression use series so that NB for expansions expanded to into change possible of equation right-hand side . then this The mass by a a friction are' remains as bow constant NM(v). a 11..exp(-v/100)] [4]. as the curve which of relative may fits motion positive . each wave reflection --A L4 aA ýL. k.. motion.._... Before a simpler figure and 3. with to again (3. C . f-rýr. will by a bow with v.2) where series the 'Sform. speed whose characteristics velocity be the of As long the friction +0.. velocity considering system.

the of the simple 3. lists the although the system. so that include With must of (t) Obviously frequency combinations represented as. PAGE 45 (3.1 Using equation out system. the motion tedious.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWED STRING. many (3.5) x (t) _Z7am0n2lw(m*n)t m ý1 and when P= 3. at it all. of this a aflap eJw(m+ý+p)t means that but also at the system vibrates of that not only at or it the any multiple frequency (3. powers powers equal the on the frequencies solution. a Fourier Series. equation (t) must arise.3) any combination possible is to work two or more frequencies. in parameters which given Helmholtz The origin frequency components observed a string bowed at . lengthy. some resonant at is Physically frequency.. different becomes very When P--2. O`yl1 NB + then These k(t) all k is thought appear new of as being right a hand into single side the x which frequency of equation term.6) m 71 p and so on. (3. +00 (3. the power series in New solved. appear. (3. process combinations occur with exceedingly of the w and w.3).4) X (t) QrelWrt 7=-0o so that equation frequencies it can take (3. Table simplest which of a the two normal in modes of the table.3) Z1 (t) = N¬Aj(x(t)l? P-o If k (t) k (t) of introduce zero. possible trivial "a 1äP6-'v CV.3) can on any periodic be in form although ways.

460-34U 3 340+170 3*170 920-170 290+460 frequencies considerably so the list happen even' What ' 3 3 would two than system were system dealt has related a a 800 1090 1380 630+170 340+460 920+170 630+460 920+460 3*460 combination in the bowed 3 degree-of-freedom one When of the a continuous with? series Table tones lumped 3. where the which the frequency may be operator terms with determined r1is defined using as approach. same analysis is frought may has as that with be applied difficulties. speed. with second order bowing may be written (3. is if. rather but the 460 290 340 630 920 120 510 '750 460-170 2*170 460+170 2*460 290-170 terms table up the to third number order 2 2 2 2 3 3 possible been. PAGE 46 node should they tones.61. it as a string is possible very nearly. modes. [f'exp(-Y1)-oe'exp(-c()]. To begin. does.7) jaeyWt_ i! i NA(') Z71 the point the r1impedance Green's z NAf 2 of function the Q? eiw(mrn)t ICI? l nth string and If mode. were now due to be obvious: Order of Coefficient 1 Radial Frequency 170 tow it obtained is combination 1 By including only in of has reduced. . in as the but time such an approach 'domain work in still the this yields problem field recent shown [5. the demonstrate of point how bow placement. terms and pressure equation as of affect motion quality a bowed string. more effectively but the It to the By to use the system. frequency is quite the at domain easy tone the approach to some valuable information.1: The simplest arise which harmonically parameter problem.i CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. simpler working analyzed. lengthy.

scaling to match velocity.the N or decreasing that combination so become more player should important. N=pressure.5 a. oce^'ý1 with '=bow velocity. which speed and pressure the amplitude through of and N. with of string the m±p= n. will the mean as these be string alterred. of the second demonstrates bow force the when the or velocity immediately apparent for a that string the coefficients is dependant V a. cp/(F-. speed alter the amount of second harmonic present in the steady-state Nr=N(Ue'''vibration. change iterating coefficients alterred. It by the position. are motion.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING.. are on It is influenced the is bowing easy slightly depend to impedance and. the discussion that with the so 'far one speeds tones on the a From 25.. already phenomenon been seen to occur. tones that . see that is process. changed on the Increasing 3S combination is il tones-which bowed.= NA(-2' 2 lip values that model of all of n.. hear a more high frequency which has e 30 components. exert influence which As the will term vibrating Helmholtz exhibit Nl is .8) ý ýa. the Figure harmonic a new set the bow coefficients and in the are equation this (3. PAGE 47 are equated. will the..5: The way in which pressure and pressure little string.-NAr-) . These can be those solved predicted of by first by the for all assuming Helmholtz with coefficients calculating terms 3. motion.8). JL Relative value of Nf 1l1ß would and will expect low highý'bow combination Figure bow 3. a bowed string to the the each harmonic arise timbre and. then the normal modes are defined by the series of equations (3. in due way by Z.1 a..

the bow somewhat minimum 'different.8a) Z-. energy must losses"in'Z. how total up.7). ' '3.NA[" NAr its term "negative ' is the 0 As the through the is only one which it supplies have a energy greater to the value system. Ba) below.8) to NAr above which the solutions cannot w in equation become purely imaginary and oscillations Both mechanism force" (the of is these phenomena occur in the bowed string. than It the resistance". . There are limits to the magnitude solution becomes in (3. reached string If the when frone flyback the the Helmholtz bow's portion discontinuity grasp. value Schelleng summarises and the The can no work on this [7]. the and "The although "minimum J. of string as where motion'' will C6 20 J N ti. PAGE 48 increased 40 ' the significantly.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. builds is also a maximum value (3. excellent Bowed String Player" maximum longer a rasping T bow force dislodge growl is the ensues.6. second an ordinary This order terms equations clear"when are ignored to produce equation (3. and near the fingerboard are plotted.6: Harmonic content of 'a note bowed near the bridge Q. (3.8) of to N which allow (3. change in figure demonstrated the frequency cello content 10 13 two notes bowed on a 01 5 Harmonic Figure 3. of area NAI' in Raman ) in his his discussed book [2] paper. of the When this Helmholtz occurs . negative which controls oscillation There for occur. then the Otherwise input resistance cannot balance the losses.

as the loss term for the of first string mode. which exhibit limits the have Examples limits of bow frequency of waveforms the cases and in parameters. note and fundamental time-keeping derives impedance the of multiple Helmholtz fingered is which restored.. As the the discontinuities of the wave string.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. The minimum sufficient friction the there is time bow force to return At occurs to lesser the more. PAGE 49 wave lasts and the magnitude the only bridge. of magnitude.8) range pressures. are shown in with when these been exceeded. Lts-P-d) xö Nmý = .9) Nmax = ZZcV L1 (/tds ). Zo" for the bow The velocity be V L/x. This with r defined of N. only n of the good to an order content along figures N.10) Z_ 1Lz12r(. The condition maximum bow pressure (3.. ud -. forces bow released sent discontinuity are now two. is Schelleng on the minimum and body bow pressure. dependance which on bow on N max and that the range and speeds may be used increases illustrated as the in bow is moved away from where the the bridge.. . The placement limits so (3. a the the when the discontinuity the string just has before before bow and release the string is overcome. of the xa/L its force of the cycle must with xo the distance during ZCVL/xo. that between interval.8)...7) differ pressures (3. their. of These results for a given are figure (3. estimate is. is then discontinuity of with Es ce characteristic is impedance then a string. jumps function value the reaches or to of for bridge and another wave is on the out... [7] dependent (3.

and (c) the first bow speed. _j a: 20- (c) 40 20 0 0 250 500 750 1K 1250 1500 1750 2K Frequency In Hz.6 position 171.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. (b) every third four harmonics harmonic attenuated prevailing. be seen that With are at plotted some point Pressure against very bow position.2 Relative 0. near the at bridge point From this the two figure lines obtain it may meet. O- q/ pressure at a constant speed as a function of 1.7: Multiple slip motion of a bowed string. aý `im ý fiI 1i1 3. PAGE 50 80 (a) 60 40 - 20 i (b) 40- .4 0.000 u_ "100 _ I. . . Figure 3.8 : bow l ice a ° 15 cc Urnn' b Muttipi Multipi slip The range of useable bow 010 "001 01 wf w fO 0 " nO . 'cello bowed faster to progressively was pro(a) odd harmonics duce oscillations with attenuated. k 0. a such a high necessary this one would Figure 1. demonstrated by these A response curves.8 bow position .

and be that the if consequences exceeding The the limits. amount this transmitted between To maximize must transfer impedance This match and string string. shifting of this importance to be a bit perception harmonics to string listener's in the time pitch.8) Equation w will This on this NAt' be complex may easily string is under stiffness. may affect the in with or real the part sound of in some is will heavily other significant be ways too. its tension. the string's the will is be. decreases. the body. Mass and string . which energy reinforce partials and so "brilliance" in the case of Except a very small of wolf-notes. and be as good as possible. then shifted. PACE 51 brilliant Only limits tones! their of on sound the the due to best the string large amount of. domain extremely There bowed string. The peak frequency strings 'cello. narrow very players which nearer but also can make use of permit the avoid such bowing musicians process play rich and beautiful and so reduce Lesser range of fingerboard the disasterous expression.61. and slowly that of sharp of is high due the bowing (3. the increasingly simple for relationship important between tones harmonic so to makes it an possible combination the is to become tones fail inharmonic series generated lost. causes series. by which the effect reponse by bowing observed of a violin the lowest effect Schumacher the tend observes somewhat these same thus counteracted conditions. combination tones the very produced.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWED STRING. interesting discussion [5. which With the the are many other Stiffness factors must the which influence important from the vibrations of these natural the of for the it be the to most partials effect It is of being the string deviate the as harmonic wavelength resonances important. discussed to bridge the shortly. requires the mass of consequently to be as large as possible. bowing parameters shows.

37 7.25 1. and gut evaluating is equal strength the for strings material.3: Inharmonicity strings materials for Several commonly are listed used in with various Young's [7].53 2.12 0.02 0.1 3.. n.2 10.4 1. and also This appears the forms 3. " String type frequency perturbation Bx103 /n20.0 "of Density.8 0.6 used for strings /1010 Inharmonicity [7].5 9. wound gut Violin G. gut Violin Violin D. stiffness.2 are to then the be when E.1 9. PACE 52 Material Silver Brass German Silver Gut Steel Aluminium Table 3.39 19.13 0.8 -2. cannot in table Clea rly and s teel low aluminium Unfortunately be used for worst. 5 8. gut G.24 1. silver strings. parameters 28 13 7 '16 19 22 16 28 21 considered evaluating strings.2. [8]. steel Violin Violin D. materials for table their strings 3. ` on steel Acceptable value Table 3.3 0. gm/cm3 1U.2: E/10" .i CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. with has a very tensile solid a core the By wrapping greatly solid affecting strings a dense wire the 3.05 0. along wound and solid expression for density upon and Young's which the Young degree solid best solid and so inharmonicity Modulus.. wound gut gut G.0 7. the showed of that it is the ratio of ratio E/p? ' which the in part basis defines for silver about inharmonicity.6 8. wound 'Cello Cello C. Table for using Young's expression st ring inharmonicity nfo =1+B n' . Dynes/cm27.06 of using stiffness -.08 0.23 0. stiffness depends. wound gut Cello C.3 mass compares increases various without wound and [8]. strings..7 various material' Inharmonicity E/Pz U* DO 1.

Torsional exhibit Helmholtz of its vibration of motion and yet Vibrations and of the which. there contact unpleasant are many the the cycle. The value and B defined table 3.6]. off Combination and the occur in any noticable usually for gut a occurs string effect in the like whose reinforcement such a case.3 two for is of a the the particular number natural I at such of as in table. time [5. response rapidly Torsional transverse components allowed allows sliding to vibrations can a bowed string bow unless when the it 'too. forms it. The wolf-note. in as may be heard above certainly only the G-string. from sixth occur match the bowed string this is quite falls The tone a violin harmonic. transverse domain. has frequency point is by Helmholtz motion.. frequencies. string at makes times.n in the partial which about tones halfway cannot exert which between harmonics.. on the string similar have to been bow hairs has an effect Both although they of these their that treated of torsional in the vibrations. such although remain as these. with been evaluated for then the will-be is most least closely important waveform associated Helmholtz motion. possible . The velocity as dictated roll. falls n m. known as wolf-notes. to from part are for forms motion still. PAGE 53 I with f77 the frequency string of the the nth harmonic. cannot dull. contact Thus coupling modified remains of the between torsional frequencies the and transverse to exist while modes the waveforms velocity The motion by combination zero over much of cycle. Obviously phenomena musical effects have not at N. in it are possible vastly with in -for different 11 bowIover extreme.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING.

1 of second The fundamental table column.. split combination then impedance. impedances subsystems two-mass be formed possible the single if present the resonant string the in the When bowed. 3. but body. PAGE 54 them to take these string all owe their mode and lumped quite two and its origin coupling to the to same phenomenon. frequencies unaffected generally coupling between As was equation which string due to the these only a demonstrated each frequency in in 3rd 2 94 96 104 106 194 196 204 206 294 (3. excited is a bowed series of If two of forms the a harmonic non-linearities bowing process. doublet impedances where would as is of ordinarily happens formed. These column the produces new frequencies .CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. and formed are low by enough occur action to for them. between is A single analogous If-the the both these course are two the to-the simple are with system parameter similar system a doublet which will frequencies. the bridge was and used plate earlier. starting is 100 Hz. the harmonics tones level. frequencies single be when then a the -exist mode excited.4 above. the to be excited to related tones which take affected the tones combine new such with a an combination appreciable frequencies all string by the series. inharmonically new combination As at then an add an unpleasant whose bridge in in lowest roughness three example are and' harmonics. as those Beats heterodyne between produces the tone. at is too and both of Of these mode vibrate match string string frequencies other simultaneously are by impedance bowed close.7).

whether or not solutions the equation (3. there are the When the always two tuned tuned frequency distinct.12). occuring by looking at an easy matter domain playing to observe of an beats the frequency recorded a 80 60 ah v instrument Figure additional wolf is It under will String in is just appear 3. in c 40 a. the nature and of with the 9PQ + 2711). 250 Frequency Figure 3.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. PI) and B= L/27 (3. a is or wolf rewritten three With distinct may be one. PAGE 55 the original It is list to produce additional ones. The the occur bowed resonances whenever resentation of a wolf-note. defines To determine the resonant occurs which frequencies (3.12) ) jT/w7 w= nii(L- f on a 'cello g-string have important side-bands which cause beats. two. how appear ' these when a shows frequencies action. by solutions equation given one real three real. unequal B /4 +A . the and impedance the plate real are of the to to violin the this plate same at the bridge. root if roots B /4 if +A /27 >0 /27 <0. N 20 to conditions. audible with string three slightly to Z.13) w3 .9 wolf-note.12) Q= -(Lk (2P3are kL+ T+ mL + t)/Lm. these and so on. cnirk mL and 0 Then.9: Frequency 0125 375 in Hz. what . difficult. AL/3 defining (3Q to R= cnnk/Lm. establish a wolf string. domain rep. two lowest harmonics in this (3.wlntrc -w L P= -nnc/L. differently roots there equation.

for wolf-note another The performer As the string length in string will of length have has recourse helps one method oc. the force pc is again decreased. if this ' of so be reduced appear the would to frequencies -useful for solution.14) 271 48l27 <0. which is a much more pernicious in humidity or strings. then invariably roots (3. string reduce tension. . resonance solution to enough must to bring be sought. for together for use. while same could be said such to reducing action plate. oc'l wo + +13wöo<H10ß -k does-not mean that zero This the a wolf-note roots is heard. a remarkable Playing D-string The A-string which a string is on a violin commonly length of the 21. can apply which a vibrating string Some violin-makers wolf-note that (or tuned it occurs need never . at be all a Unfortunately. in string the move more closely several all of which will reduce the action The remedies are pý in suggests- avoiding wolf-notes instruments. on the A(440). the problem) or properly. PACE 56 If the three the string are and plate <0: are tuned to exactly w. to determine effect.. the the so frequency This wolf between is two equal-tempered only if be excited. only violins.I CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. the leaves playing on another has a wolf at a go to extreme lengths to ensure that notes. the a=Tl Lm This (3. -32 cm. and even then the Clearly plate changes age can displace into action.14) effect as equation until the approäches disappears. the sucessful violin is even back 'cello.. removing the note the wolf.3 about. plate impedance Increasing of will not the wolf and response is taken influence the it plate does for an the considerably.

without may be response applied' at other by the sacrificing instrument's frequencies. string often the'strings (3. Playing but higher it is to disappear essential unfortunately upper musically 'technically to use these positions on the G and D-strings.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF THE BOWEDSTRING. a string phenomenon. transverse waves waves polarized 900 to near-infinite . at the the the mis-match frequency Often between just between string enough attached absorber's may be great a mass is bridge to eliminate to one of wolf-note. described angle [ there seems to of Those Wolf-notes lowest value work front for must that of the but A minimum for this some is problem has not of perception published of wolf-notes a guideline value been possible. is of string the vibrates most at this to on a frequency. the resistive resonance to then than If What would the has that this bridge as is commonly peaks. happen if a tuned done with with vibration 'cellos? absorber were attached impedance much larger frequencies. PAGE 57 while on the G-string The lowest as will a of mere 14 cm. may occur plate Cy. to avoid be done on has. this the at other this frequencies is the most been besides troublesome. due interaction motion to Bowing the with see a an effect on its on at possibly and the its bridge polariiation the bow. It and positioned is an excellent the such a vibration performer absorber.14) the wolf by far susceptable this note equation often cause or suggests.. mode. and The bridge mass that is two resonance of the a vibrating plate significant and the bridge bridge violin has alone at these vibration absorber the damping. the onset Schelleng of wolf-notes the to however. determined before for [9]. the wolf-note. is the predicting which of considerable have Although remains have causes learn wolf-note this much about presence. sections so that remedy of it that string acts as short the and the tailpiece..

pp. M. "Self43. long Fundamentals (1976). Raman. 338. (1973). Acustica. string is may reveal the not much more about perception the simple of system mechanics tones. complex bowed time 'domain modelling the the Future process. Schelleng. New Yord. R. complete of this The or be enhance studied work which process. H. (1963). . 26-41. Helmholtz. of Musical book. 'Bogendruks' des Saite". Acoustics. Schelleng. . Acustica. 267273. Woodhouse. the 91- fundamentals 108. reported Schwingungen selbsterregten 30. the bowed J. Technical University "Die Einfluss der Gestrichenen 1973. On'the Sensations Dover Books. Translated of (1954). vol. F pp. Thesis. Oxford University Lazarus. "Inharmonicity Young. PAGE 58 impedance help with triple but to the root they at set the bridge and the regime of of single oscillation. (1979). vol. may'supress could the with Many other torsional types modes at of wolf-notes of bow which exist. JASA. and about certainly complex" it first appeared to be! [1] Ellis. This by Alex. F 53. 119. pp. oscillations (1979). [7) pp.CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF'THE BOWEDSTRING. vol. L. JASA. [4] H. Tone. C. "The bowed string and the JASA. and J. 43. Also auf vol. [2] out [3] Press.136 (1974). 35. Theory Mechanical to second-hand. (1952). Benade. with of motion interaction may possess termination. "On pp. McIntyre dynamics". On the is referred of print A. of Berlin. "The violin as a circuit". player". of Strings. reprint edition. of of bowed Schumacher. of plain wire piano strings". [S] string [6] string". in Cremer. Acustica. sustained 109-120. 24. PP. New York. 'vol. [91 326- J. [$] VOL. R. is the of frequency they vibrate at ulay up a stable Those bridge string the not and waves only its polarized a same direction because couple them.

and ng. importance a violin acoustic a modal If nasal tone Unlike is sound described the in in. as Briefly. on except the for bridge the special the acting on the the due to transverse It is string motion possible in string dependant with learn bowing procedure of it In this the violin. and converts chapter of acoustic examined back parts violin the action several bridge. but obtained as is by eliminating possible of the its violin resonances. behavior. by the n. the in air-cavity. All of the the and front referred plates. the previous the is chapter force that. pure tones solution notes. was shown in the wolf-note. is studied 1. PAGE 59 The Violin's a It case of Design. to are and the illustrated detail. 1 [1]. f igure To understand design described should point rapidly KHz. response as is much and uniform should energy. the keep reasons in mind which the underlie ideal the up to the violin's response frequency quite .CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. its the the therefore and body. be an with human into have convert This is accomplished at by designing this Except were low frequencies. vocal 41Qiz. in subsystems. complex which was one in be to must frequency violin's 1200 Hz. up The formant to gap chapter large -2 Kitz. of of the the to deal to remainder how bridge energy design isolation into will be exactly radiation. frequencies with the above second between responsible coincides irritating violin's sound. as an input level the objective this would would vary and used as the unsatisfactory different output of wildly the the properties bowed string . possible again response from fall 1. and its presence to not a of in the musician where as contributing efficiency is nasal prime loudspeaker. once large this.2 for and the as about at low and this of f 2 . alone.3. input to is met..

PAGE 60 ear make possible It's well the the ear a "quasi-uniform" known that still if response.loudness curve --of a poor quality violin. the between harmonic the correct present even is if string lies will pitch fundamental at due to this the two resonances The loudness and very of such output little a note sound will even radiated be that the frequency. or second" harmonic with violin's and produce tone. in this 4. Since ear a complete assign fundamental in the the missing.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. .1 where both frequency 80and maximum 701 (1 fV response loudness plotted. of a harmonic frequencies if is the series very near itself bowed are to some components a pitch This is to true these even series missing that is of assigns fundamental. 1K notes and 1KHz. of this one may coincide of the resonances a loud The importance phenomenon in figure the is illustrated 4.2: The frequency response below maximum. lowest frequency sound although is the region loud is when curves Below are the 60 resonance c 50 J CL N very little 40 radiated 250 Ejgure 500 750 Frequency in Hz. sound the quite violin bowed. summation of each harmonic's so that though is fundamental the third unimportant.

3: Vibrato violin mode when a steady This property is between figure 4. of high string modes is r to QO N It plays an important role in violin technique. The bands show how the frequency variations of a note with vibrato allow the first and to a much higher level. fall in the also more are the The frequency to excite variation a particular resonances. that peaks in regime.2 there are resonances are similar example for whose lowest curve 300 Hz. a violin in an without instrument must regard which for its collapsed a . PAGE '61 Curves of this limit type are obtained has been by bowing shown to in this curves spaced.1 LTAS below does not same degree previous critical. between low frequency sound Violin technique adapted the modal also to is exploit well response. definite which of reproducable proved a violin to The spacing figure 4. sixth modes to be excited figure 4. structural the first requirements time it was the The design always remain compromise between . as is not a The spacing comparison of for resonances will indeed This figures the the and 4. force. besides to portion string's ensures resonance included oscillating often tone large would the Vibrato. [3]. in and conclusion 1 unanticipated described response Chapter violin showed quality a correlation [1].CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. In two in as is a. adjacent demonstrated Building would strung result up.3. contributing transient of cycle. at give the maximum bowing results be ideal.2 tests prove. enough. resonances this did case the not so favorably show the The maximum loudness of uniformity of these lower 4. example.

of the down-bearing of the proportional nut. a very string to which the (1) CLO as shown in small force the figure. of (2) component directed that dynamic the the plate. F is 32% greater than F. ensuring goes the into bridge energy When a the vibrating height is 4. component directed between mechanical advantage as this vector representation shows. There tension to are or the angle between downwards each may and two ways to lower the reduce reduce string bridge. tension. oint IF the its point.4: Increasing height imprpves larger pivot. immediately requirements. to which drive the the bridge 3 the 4. consequences. be essentially is 250 the only a sounding-board construction on-a enough Another bridge. into of is retain by is a large the the surface of which the force string this and to be driven consequence This force the the resonance string tension motion strings. the string's between on the the bridge loss will reduces of help the ability advantage point clear. KHz.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. The master craftsman is always obvious on a that the violin must frame. a rigid point high only the due to and so a compromise must be reached.4 mechanical Figure bridge to make this as some [4]. reduced through pivot through most of the is F Figure bridge II Fl. which to its a vibrating tension plate string may exert on the the bridge driving is and The force proportional static forces Lowering violin enjoys. PAGE 62 static seeking It and the is dynamic optimum. in this example. A compromise . the force: have dire bridge modern' mounted which load-bearing the string This about can withstand and yet Newtons is light instrument. A has the Below about behaves pivots treble essentially about foot body near bridge.

Materials for may be considered making. 1. the with violin their to flat lacked viol withstand plates.2 gm/cm -. 50 . the family such a down-bearing string force.7 1. as and the amount arching The resonant may be is the vast.3 1. can by the (except of' string is. 33 44 .4 Usable materials E 10 *10 11.9 composite on a core Table 4. which violin 5.4 721 12 . double-bass) bridge limit design to the by the violins benefits of indicates of arched which importance There be arch. 13 Spruce selected by violinmakers Urea-formaldehyde Graphite-Epoxy anisotropic sheet ribbed 2 sheets of 10. sandwich maple sycamore poplar white pine Aluminum magnesium fiberglass 40.1: 1.8 5.5 Dy8 *10 4.3 10. 55 .6 12.4 5.31 >.7 12. only a handfull wave of in a which suitable the luthier material and need for not the high compromise belly. 69. is the arching which allows Viols. 56 . stiffness. but the the of many modes are of in shaped arching design plates increased which have of The range extremes has been used never produced by luthiers results comparable beautifully the Italian masters. orthogonal Dx and Dy stiffnesses. 45. the benefits and The is in. however. ktwo met of the main in a low of density extremely Add to are materials. along this having most different velocities perpendicular axes the .0 E *10 . 2. Structure Dx8 *16 1. used.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. 4 56 . and consequently eclipse of the the plates. are the One area selection 'requirements.7 1.6 20 . PAGE 63 the bridge's mechanical advantage and the down-bearing force of the strings It great must be sought.0 69. tensions The total had to have power of their the and a much smaller arched cousins. to frequencies damping.

be of the iscurved. . length. difference wood across the . amplitude the luthier why these with desireable generally stiffness period of in vibrate is time.1. been used It violin larger to resist the to make violins. must be spruce.5the this the violin's wave orientation that and mode numbers there it). 'is its their own is and also must It be designed is for. the the entire 'small to the means that strings dancing body must be rather thus the was narrow narrow narrow and lowest The kit. over plate.1-indicates length velocities plate's along stiffness two antiresonances has this to do-- and one across in second it! This of wood? But what becomes clear that rather in the than the resonance surprising has two anti-nodes result and along is when one' across the by the Since explained grain. Mechanical properties which. reasons which sudden disappearance sound when was its compared surface emitted feeble -a An additionl"advantage ability series to of divide resonances. have for 'have and for are some man-made materials listed in traits table are 4. by waist. radiating violin. this the so that reason the that strings the top can -. of seperate A noticable the sudden the narrow-waisted vibrating increase change in in areas. be clear A plate may not plates. is making with a low mass will one. point into each with modal at density the 4. This highest violin.5 are top made possible bottom of the wave impedance ýof f igure The vibration (plate holograms clearly' shown ins demonstrate figure along with-the notices plate 4. It. the . -all are number 2. plates. PAGE 64 suitable several natural types material of wood. High than a more massive force essential It also rather down-bearing a long allows to use a larger The third point more obscure. One of or the may be bowedmaster's for its fiddle.0 CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. Any bowed instrument reached bridge so that waist for its of one at a time.

21 at 800 liz. ýA' . [2 . [2.1 1 at 9L0 liz. . . and .11 at 635 liz. 13.:.. N 5UU Hr..!ý 51. F . .

2] low medium.5 show that would mean much closer be about of a the violin.I AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. strong but and when imbedded composite their is a light. light-weight two in a composite this a sandwich to a On bending subject considerable j. Boron flexible.1 in lists the some structures which have different dssemblies when wave prove to a x and y directions. unidirectionaly as form it of which the has turbine mass a material alone properties In this bicycle stiffness layers core. in terms Both Graphite of of stiffness these used. modal uniform two These resonances with mode the can normally octaves When density response a uniform the dimensions to increase spruce violin's the be used range. in the in weak. recent strength the compare engineering and These composite By embedding an epoxy matrix materials with material the most but is a relatively tensile on some of advance. in 4. be more massive sandwich are than used in construction. . fibers is usually with are formed. spruce but the favorably. Table velocities 4. to of blades. in fibers the is a high takes widely of modulus of Glass properties of this. ratio are core is used is even violins important. yet also course brittle. matrix been when measured with great the for "grain". golf-clubs. each. used frames.1] apart using considerably at a frequency this resonance from much closer is to the to [1. the low modulus in that across direction the grain so in that wood the mode. running same and strength materials gives are somewhat offset the by their fibers the used with essentially across success [511i as it is around. [1. PAGE 66 CHAPTER 4 plate reduces [1. in a matrix Glass-fiber of epoxy and extremely however. advantage cost. The ribbed composites.2] is a dispersive the wave velocity occurs figure two plate [1. Fiber-glass tensile known example verry has a high is strength flexible. frequency giving a more assembled instrument. to form When the violins.1] the Holograms mode.

as.11 radiating to be Once the fashioned amount strings. too. plates [5]. far a violin figuring entirely surprising qualities.11 nothing the thickness be increased. but of into produce the the the greatest of the acoustic Increasing which these must is are then the may well resonant area advantage. resonant The plate frequency its [1. PAGE 67 compresive able force normal to its surface Cardboard yet many light materials are used to withstand for violin such a force. vibrating to the and increases resonance like higher R+ which range. increased. the plate's the conditions vibrating greatly considerably. bending the by an increase which mass. as for acoustic material the attributes. tone plate output strength. has been successfully as a core In over one area ' the of graphite-epoxy material will Add to of is this core sandwiches not this material for vary the have greatly a distinct piece adjust appear any to advantage piece as spruce: from to would Yet little do samples through ideal exploitation is its not the wood. much of This for material for the has so. area the volume edges by the along vibrating on all displaced plate. potential and it the damping that an selection substitute of available wood.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. of lacks harmonics There is . valued aesthetic its wood and depth finish. and increase in raises A of viola. met with is of usually the 'commercial success. bottom the because way to a the moment. A rectangular clamped four . for size energy the a great offset the and and plate plate shape yet size has been selected. boundary central plate is bouts. which still will resist lower it needs the force (1. changes free. stillwithout the long increase great middle With of air deal the Cutting the [1.11 the resonance f-holes. frequency. has much nearer a violin's its large the of sounds a violin when-strung-to and power another sacrificing slots near same pitchof the color size.

. such as the f-holes is the of formed plates. [6]. PAGE 68 sides. one degree freedom mechanical either best the system. experimented shapes solution Those and to Stradavarius. Stainer.2 below). is manner. and violin-makers. the the when two of these boundaries and a violin is retained benefits by using sound-post bass its foot to near spread mode the the was treble load. on violins and with greatly style. is made into or air a cavity. by a very this at 440 it in an mass and its usually the The different output located thereby significantly about these Instead. 'i"where strongly. 4. a fitting tribute work. lute. a When an opening violin with This or the the is rose of a guitar volume to a base of a Helmholtz by the of resonator motion of enclosed analogous driven excited. entirely somewhere of an octave low notes second large harmonic gap in excite filled between 220 and'440 Hz. cavity between results The resonance volume or the frequency hole may be adjusted In the by changing violin it is area. `Strength almost twice as much air similarly. the their Each the Amatis. lives developed varied have the for These The greatest the Guarneris.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. violin acoustic half a characteristic possibilities of of a infinitely which been instruments values have best well combination over two and aesthetic It is copied to their centuries. 290 Hz. varying a unique design. located the best 220 and 440 liz. having been shown to produce Already between easily i -n it may be seen conflicting in tabular that the design of a violin is a compromise are most several sumarized and interacting form (see table factors. above will this mode is Hz. are displaces removed. near bridge If the high foot the and the front of bass-bar beneath plate the was designed compass so that it would lowest bottom violin's be handicapped reduced.. throughout sizes.

Table mine 4. of the resonances modal is critical is the at high low enough of frequencies. four regions larger in be divided in air of across. figure to each with 4. one the divide This would lower As the into more frequency vibrating be seen in front plate regions. resonance -Lower radiating"surface -Greater A summary of of the the violin.5. advantage -Better -More bow clearance -Decreases force of down-bearing the strings down-bearing the strings to drive the Reduce tstring :tension 'Increase arching Cut f-holes the able to resist -Better force the bridge resonance -Helttnholtz f req s. contradictory especially -Increase resonance -Raise -Weakens plate damping freqs. into is energy the plate must area. At. not need only the be interested trend the frequency particulars. so that the density in violin-maker response. than the the the wavelength much regions field drops A and a major from one as the portion area plate to remains nbar another. of excitation increases smaller say. deter- design The Bridge as a Transmission Element. and smaller where may easily expect portion. PACE 69 Action Increase thickness plate Desireable Consequences resist Indesireable Consequences able to -Better force the bridge mass vibrating -Increases freqs.2: the requirements of its front which plate. Whereas above about the 1 spacing KHz.. themselves shuttling quite the 800 Hz. quickly divides . resonance -Lower area radiating -Increase mech. into The radiation more vibrating efficiency regions.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. resonance -Raises -Increases -Increases -Increases force of -Less force violin vibrating bending mass moment Increase plate dimensions Raise bridge freqs.

: -C cd 0. increased contributes may be verified without with by the or strings frequency in figure by 4. to but 4 KHz.7 shows essentially that 100 1K 1pK i Frequency in Hz. also exhibited trend.12 gives this range. frequency response should curve of be expected. of a solid made bridge reach at figure consists with 4.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.04 0 o.0 8 ca degree which over transmission significant A noble to violin 0.08 . needs its an expertly full potential. It how then which is and its freedom a is it possible to obtain showed were of the so peak in response in reduced to olimthe irrinasal which with output 1200 from a 2 the the LTAS tests unique important good violin? the bridge of design action as a single element response 0. an_ assembled The.7 section which acts . PACE 70 trend towards reduced which violin damping to this acoustic output with increasing frequency bridge. A glance a violin ..d cný 0 0 0. The led make luthier use skilcan of this output irate tating sound occurs acoustic around Hz. Figure 47: The frequency bridge base de- a mass connected to it by a narrow pendence of damping in plain and in varnished spruce (71.6 spruce below.

8: The three lowPst bridge modes. with for the on a bridge violin's can have tone with of example.8. the output region.. mass and stiffness. the simple the that 3 . which may be represented by a single degree-of-freedom lumped parameter system. around of "darker" probably this decrease 3 kHz. at 3 kHlz. characteristics element figure properly peak is display 2 4. A is F=figure4.f Qý should an increased to in f igure 4 KHz. and bridge the KHz. two bridges their resonances at 3 The greatly would a different the values higher bright. of be enhanced The response a -dramatic quality.10. lighter this but" effect Take. The more in massive output unsuitable ' with subtleties sound be the presents of-chamber caused choice by in bridge. bridge Those are at the modes which a much because frequency continuous these than parameter" The transmission appear adjusted transmission violin in"the which in modes. PAGE 71 as-'a stiffness -element.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. against an Such a tone orchestral music.. so at about are With of such a. The number possibilities which . would such a case. peak in is transmission to output region. motion This simple three to -system degrees plane of is of in the constrained freedom. would but inevitably out bridge would produce violin is response nasality while be well make sound favored increased. kHz. which the of from which string nature "lumped translational and so posseses as lying normal occur higher two may be dismissed forces ofýthe act. frequency important may be observed curve broad if this of response relatively desirable throughout 4. a by soloists but is as it stands for a the background..

these the may be ignored Acoustics.9 passages a string lowest differential }" (4. The 4. straightforward. &1155Ywhich 4. of string In the analysis are in changes violin. force" plays an Arthur that acts on excellent tension states role when There an amplitude book produce that playing is in of this "indirect force important. 0 this is becomes a differential which. PAGE 72 explains :: y=A sintrx/4 )sintwt). mode with his in He of only the the great is variety found been bridge it order was and Musical an of [8]. using expansion. the own plane.9: Vibrating String. "Ax.I CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. On integration this yields (4.1) AS= Ay- ßx2+AyL 1+ftIy/Ex)2 X =A the binomial As.4) - f(t) = 1rrLE(ATT/2L)2sin W-)sin2(wt) ý . dominant. shapes in bridge far of it 'Figure F" its Thus motion string of has the assumed occurs assumed only that in that motion second changes however.3) S L+ Azf sin(wt) 4L The change and kW in length of is related force to the tension downwards by Young's is Modulus the component dynamic directed (4. [9]. maintains which tension Benade. vibrating length 'AS The perhaps'even argument in is its is fortissimo figure A.2) dS= 1+ (dyldx)2/2 . (4.

but_also only acts to as support for belly down-bearing 4.. importance explore. frequency (4. ý'' . 16° to note F(t)-2.. a E-1. which to is . PAGE 73 For. E (Atr/2L)2'sin(e)cos (2wt) This direct be by compared. have already been shown importance.6x106 direct ..5 cm. magnitude assume It that indirect musical One should of both and process this there value phenomenon. to motion used. about then 7.3x10s the A second . with the string the as for Dynes force second both string are is harmonic have the Of the same and the frequency. in any case). form of excitation z (wt).014 interesting. The Function tr of the Sound-post and the Back Plate. not. E-string magnitude Newtons. same. .. It help has already the the been said against that the the sound-post serves force. it with the this musical indirect consequences to small. amplitudes larger of.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.ß properties It is and even dimensions held in place by a jam fit the r. but its another.. excitation bowing force is break-down at least.5) f(t)=TW 2 indirect excitation If the with the all a force "may applied. A2 sin occurs at a . of 2w: cm. not. would be of someone to form of be of the of mathematically to which.5x105 and .. compare though and experimentally. bridge. harmonic likely large For amplitudes with an order however. It is r=0.4) . vary a pivot '.9x1012 that this typical violin E-string L-32. than is for the no (the this approximations direct force. of ttolnlioltz tension -approximation of 7. be encountered. (See figure The post considerably between is made-of from plates spruce one.

the refer Replacing or moving may character to itwill in of an instrument.5) at of in be similar bridge rock feet plate when driven phase string. If at its sound-post part function the foot gravity opposite the an important is not its for determining and how does resonance improve the the frequencies. be very efficient mode would hardly With one foot Fixing constrained the the the If. alter the its it the stiffness Such is soul of of importance the belly violin. very post the the which plate's was resonance resonance This ideal. with not -Thus one would radiator made from but as an efficient that the back. belly the for frequency t" one foot impedance frequency. violin's sound-post would and bass-bar. PAGE 74 quite secure may (unless be but the ignored strings for are its coupling the loosened). frequency. response? of the plate about moving mode be Obviously play ideally. is as an impedance which is device The fact maple.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.. from view does plate Whatever of course which demonstrate is crucial impedance. the solely back to that the impedance presents performance.1) [1. treble lower second the mode can be driven foot in has an advantage the critical low if an much more as the effectively. of entirely that the longitudinal the plates it mode occurs its slightly its location 20 KHz. is bridge strings leverage range. and the by the impedance -would With the each bridge center but 4.2) however. extreme alter French the as a direct between post concern. to the matched impedance the modes could the sound-post's be efficiently function the violin's is by the far it bridge. simple but front it mode would the high at driven at be suppressed presented [1. contact designed as well. and so What. of the the first first equally (figure excited excitation but second would all. the post has expect arises that if ran the back its is characteristics plate. much more . remained to yet both of increased Unfortunately stationary. as "l'ame". lowest Its importance as a at resonator about is.

CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. used and the with mould. resonance. such of work. instruments may be a noticable . the lends support of to this radiated idea. the into front it. front were 1920's some interesting experiment the back still the plate fitted was into the removed an outside bouts. room. from It would the is be interesting plates the scope of of was to. that in and the radiabout 5 violin. Caulking as used by some luthiers used to seal constructing compound was back into any air with the gaps and then violin in the sealed was glued was then place. at the (1.10. to an 8'x positions power of The mould.11 1230 Frequency In kHz. Egure 4. PAGE 75 dense than spruce. sound-post place. for [10]. a good factory-made results violin's in place. requirements could the that benefit test its violin main its Clearly of the a balance back at must be struck front except back's between is the two which in view best low frequencies The radiation significance and this of the an area 1plate the the from `further was function acoustic not is study. sound but back the such a project violin beyond of the Instead. of great back and supports although in one. sults 30 cr m a 20 it t it vvr figure suggest back' plate ation is less of It v I V'1 1 10 v dB that than the plate. 8' baffle on' the attached microphone the sound and placed each side with of the an anechoic baffle were in Seventeen to measure These reappear 4. as an impedance contribution device. measure some' this tested In ribs. with this proportion best violins.10 : The sound-power on both sides of a violin mounted in a large baffle.

plate and the to below one 600 lowest lumped needed be. a mixture of mechanical acoustic Schelleng Hz. Schelleng measured mass at mass in with the to the plate's region maximum frequency. considered. John implicitly contribution the [1. plate coupled however. The importance modelling include significant k of the sound-post. PAGE 76 ti The action fully is of Is in the it understood. transferring belly. would this acceleration (Adding have data had a resonant acceleration ) From another on it a smaller frequency. analogues Electric thesis analogues used and in his work. with This mode may be values these values of of represented equivalent for the front parameter and added the system damping. a small shift point the appropriate To determine stiffness. this front models. As this was obtained effects . the be a great a smooth another deal change area to in be learned impedance study provides This is yet end of applied. smaller effect resonant and the half-powerpoints is possible to determine data all of the from equivalent an assembled parameters violin. possible the of the It other is internal generally energy still component.I CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. the and the difficulties has led Schelleng of the air involved researchers made the first in to the it coupling between in to their the two plates. the for the plate. f-holes? to which S. "4 Modelling the Helmholtz and Front Plate Modes. to so that limited of all the 'the frequency belly's range resonances in his only as model the a mass. understanding and Helmholtz were violin's modes as action by treating resonators throughout are used. main is less role dynamic vibrational but that there it is and lower portions about across should it.1] [11]. assumed to the that upper the its bass-bar.

converted respectively.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. This analogous 4. each mode's Using to the mechanical his sum of analogue results. of sound Since in air shapes . be the the much dot Kh f(t) Mh i Ch U 2 00 300 400 500 600 front 600 Hz. such as that shown in figure Schelleng's Cf Mf Kf CL electrical ana- logue frequency poduced rescurves to line figure the in for velit is first between is not. before and a digital acoustic which relationship computer output must duplicate the The total two curves. ponse similar broken the Frequency 41 " A simple model of the violin b elow Subscripts h and f refer to the f-holes and Figure plate ocity. possible however. to a base excited mechanical system. air Helmholtz of back plate. volume which is takes place as the plate that mode. these levels. and any coupling to the'cavity's The the in modes were resonator the the holes treated less of with in than the the usual way: of shape since sound is to the end be dimensions air throughout and each loading terms much range wavelength their frequency interest the same area for by in unimportant represent reactive correction an equivalent hole.11. radiation intrinsic may be are impedance. lumped It vibrates r f° into is one component the change drives in the of cavity air the model. properties. and on each Radiation is piston may be used most of two may impedance accounts usually The calculated mass found allowing this manner f-hole. simply to sound must these the pressure The phase it is two sources way in smaller which than be considered modes wavelength possible the their to undefstand radiators exact are are interact. PACE 77 of the sound-post.

air the moves through of of the area them and as a uniform velocity. point normal f-holes mass. would be simple at a the axis the convenient the violin to make this plate that then (the at its estimate center.11 figure f-holes and the plate one needs from information vibration the. with force done is shuttle radiation back and between One could and f-holes the work taking are also so that say that the velocity quadrature At frequencies displacement when the the air plate mass. below the Helmholtz with in the its resonance excitation.I CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. frequencies will the had an area SPL at cm? . phase The radiation so that most of these energy two sources will remain the plate 180° out Air very and very the forth place. of will little particle small. in near field. by computer its in the [1. Radiation from compressing the that two areas of the so too and phase "h" output approximately sum of curves and "p" . outwards. will be is well 180° out above of the Helmholtz with its the is resonance forcing enclosed then in the function. air mass so that does the in phase moves inwards. displaces f -holes estimate along the For or If the it was possible of to air its find an equivalent moves with point.. air. on axis The broken calculated one meter well be in. mode Graphical gave mode. 4. may be assumed flow is flow the. area To The volume the of is the product determine velocity) which volume front product the equivalent about holograms. it area the such velocity that of it the to same amount plate It is to it at when it driving the SPL. When the mass will be to compress cavity. \ PAGE 78 critical.3 violin by hand and later of 150 cm: ' in lines for an equivalent Each f-hole represent the At plate.11 and shape readily available integration performed area for the initially test of 6. the will in air then the the air mass plate move displacement moves inwards phase the from air.

revealed but were ignored. violin. will two the to can be no doubt greatly far Output is. together while the back in Schelleng's so much 'about simplifying The mutual as are " the the-effect plate are it subject action a degree of many important vibrating is radiation f-holes of the impedance and the cavity of action air surfaces of as close significance. what third. resonance important frequencies. in it is of benefit. is in almost any second. lowest few modes modes turns the and sixth . the Below impossible case. air resonance one considered is in reduced this especially the but isolation. difficult out that the has modes than It should w is be: simpler not it very to imagine first.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. PAGE 79 figure 4. Other Air Modes in the Violin Cavity. that this as form in of coupling figure. to of real plate undoubtably and the resonances coupling To be must certainly the second major of the importance.11. beyond either the between resonances. The unique resonances plate. these fifth. increased. pitches on'this violin's such produce excitation sufficient any significant of upper at work the to range Strong produce the output below Helmholtz was most at low frequency. The phase difference Helmholtz on each between resonance the two resonators through at frequencies two have close little to the passes 90° and the effect There other. aspects as it the radiation output harmonics. a use for at investigating least the model incorporate of these features. It to is shape occur not of the belly that makes it would air possible be present cavity too for in many more than those that a rectangular any more surprising enclosures.

Q" air modes. . mean that is the first low mode. node would while those it mode at the plate If the then would the plate the the air drive phase.0] the rectangular lowest modes of in room' resonances. ýi C 500 Egure Qmin. (111 Qphase phase Of 'these fifth modes modes only have the third the radiates center energy of in much sound.12 ýý a» ýp.. the f-holes The first while the and second to a node at and'fourth the f-holes.1. .CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.12: The first violin seven SPL. modes have very Saunders -2600. body'air'resonances which confirms that at'1300. modes'do does-not It mostýof these air This radiate to the outside environment (131. the figure upper and lower below.. PAGE 80 are similar to the [1. and fourth The first and are [2. just 'as frequency Figure 4. [3. be driven for contribution 17ýý. not and little that the `standing wave close can be detected reports 3660 directly Hz. drive either opposite when using Green's A point the end air of approach a pressure all. second [12].0]. chapter not at with Consider one would each point the 2).0. 23467 1090 1190 1290 1610 1800 1910 4.0].13: The lowest mode and front plate distribution about not the mode the cavity pressure. Q max.0. while the [2. subsections seven modes appear 4.13 range will couples very-strongly to show why these plate function at to be a modes couple point (see source.0. these of modes are these which unimportant! is of and help on the most interest as it lies to in the the'important [1. SPL. 1J=plate so'strongly. across midpoint at all 4 velocity was symmetric would by Pressure teure 4.0].

I CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. cross-section. measurement resonant equation frequency is was 522 Hz. and S. technique of the outlines [14] to may violin method with made the this by using problem.0. PACE 81 the upper half this of' the is not plate the would case: be opposed the lower to that of of the the plate lower drives half. plate. the test with areas and pressure integration . area. L The pertubation (4. front this when vibrating plate. It may volume velocity the which drives of be found amplitude. the interaction mode. o for These will the mode first be designated subscript which it the former the and' Ste for and the indicating interacts. another. the It is Of course air mode half at the much more strongly. demonstrated method results when applied . it magnitude a point. to define an equivalent as the driving as a glance piston point figure reveals. graphical front gave an effective for the 54 cr4for When dealing and 17 cm? is necessary one for the [1. with air the with effective the been described. This violin's the which violin have integrating product at differential over area the of entire plate surface. using Rayliegh estimate resonant frequency For the-test maximum internal based on this dimension..8) AM= AS cos(21Tx/L) _1 L0 So cross-sectional constant gives dx where So is for the tubes mean area. good Rayliegh but developed Jansson's to this work the equation of almost that the has. for Helmholtz mode'. of plates to use both the air latter.0] the back.0.0] which a deal be it air" affects mode the some air the A the mode must perturbation first made. air with same velocity total effective by represents mode. possible the _ the area on the which. plate second with When modelling account of the be the cavity's interaction shape Jansson of with and the [12] the way in [1.

6 -1.9 in % 1 -8Exp(-xl -2.01 air mode's resonance violin.2 +3. .2)1T Sin.0. the Figure 414: The perturbations [1.0. directly by the shown. the : those for mode as radiation by calculates than is the the largest portion. value but using become 516 Hz. etc. : x. losses but here absorption Jansson be much If thermal thermal due losses.5sin(x-7. but by the finds them to and viscous to the smaller the cavity absorption wood [12 and 16].3sin(x-21. In the 11.14 and table resonance cannot is greatly length when the be frequency compared altered improves completed perturbation experimental the plates.5 Sin (x-77)n 13. test violin The perturbations are predicted. used to calculate frequency. for the this effective the accuracy model is model.9% Table 4. .This accounted walls. length The air of the 4.5 cm.3.5 -sex `2. It will also was be useful no problem to be able with to estimate the Helmholtz local the losses of this mode...3 9 -0.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.721Exp(x-30) -11 change -1.5 2 3 4 7.3: The change . -0-72(4-304) " Inside length 32.2 21.7 to 21.2 to 30 30 to 32. +2. 1 f' limits 0 to 5 Af/f "2. as will apparent evaluated.5 Total -6.7)17/13. may be-significant. Perturbation .2)tt/9 Mean width 8cm. method.0 (x-21. PAGE 82 -2.01 resonance frequency due to the cavity shape. in using with compliance of used figure the the of the in finding the effective 4.

this absorption should be given by (4.9) ý'ý where.'10) ýV . and the the sound-post the back is Even more important for this makes it violin be the way in which treated.0. of oe. Most of is now at the information The work the of needed John to model the will violin below to 600 Hz. is difficult tube from ignored Q-21TfW/P. the'coupling between will belly.. Schelleng [1. cc 4 is '--'The samples Values 'losses calculated defined by the is pw=1 {PZoc.w dS 2/ 8Pc 5 the power lost to the walls. PACE 83 treated as a rectangular room.. and acoustic absorption coefficient coefficient. plaster. . P2' is the pressure. to Jansson's gives a The Q-value experimental value samples calculated of cavity the large encased range the which Considering agreement between value different and the of wood the Q of between experimental 54 is satisfactory. for in a violin 2 this PZdV 'way may be compared in. of the possible before it to accurately is assembled.01 air be extended include plate..04 the the form literature and with the the through in f-holes' of a Q-value.. resistance stored energy The was W oG . Pr. predict response completed r . test the to measure to with small absorption at for 500 Hz.. An were impedance obtained were proved be impossible. mode. (4. hand.W=11 determined data 73..CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN.0. (16].

JASA. second edition.86. rated (1979). = Streichinstrumenenstegs". [2] Soviet [3] pP. of the violin bridge". 73. and quality of twenty-two "Long-time Jansson. pp. York. (1963). Acustica.. resonators". "The vibrations (1937). Oxford University "Decoupling the back and front plates of a (1981). vol. New York. (1966). musical vol. of.372. 491- Theory of Sound. 323--330. "Recent work properties of cavities". PAGE 84 J11. Jansson. JASA. on violins". Schelleng. -Haines and N. 1037. action of violins".1061. "The acoustic 211. r. [4Jý ýW. [10] E. 25. 37. Reinicke. quality". Gabrielsson :. [15] . 498. vol. Acustica. "The mechanical tone of violin appraisal 11. Chang. U. 26-34. of Musical Acoustics.. [51°-. pp. 138.'J. pp. [81 Vlam. [61 i"C. [7] M.245.. Benade. vol. vol. 361. 81Saunders.CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF VIOLIN DESIGN. pp.. 39. violins". Mechanical graphite composites". (1954).. 157161. " Physics. average-spectra 42. ý Dover -- pp. [11] ý. pp. "(1976). . [9] Fundamentals : A. . violin". Beranek. For a further bridge dynamics discussion the -theviolin of of. (1977). JASA. de pp.. B. "ý. acoustic Books. ( . (1976). vol. "Making better Engineering.. and design' (1953). E. 47- and 55. Soc. ' (1945). "Objective Yankovskii. pp. and C. Minneart Physica. Newsletter 19. "ý-. McGraw-Hill. pp.221. Applied-Acoustics. F. Hacklinger. vol. Press. 326. New "On the theory Ingard.. vol. from 3. D. 231. E. vol. pp. no. "Violin frequency to M. =. Acustica. rJrr [16] L. 4vol. (1953). pp. 25-27. Acoustics. 14. physics of violins". Johnson. Acoustics. (1962). "Ubertragungsiegenschaften Catgut Acoust. 4. "The Hutchins. -: -. instruments 98. 98. 25. Scientific American. 35.A. F. . "The violin as a circuit". vol..338. New York. timbre and bridge refer response". (1937). (1973). "C . Saunders.. (1978). pp. . [141 Lord Rayliegh. 9. JASA. [131 :. [12] vol. ' t.

0.. 196. time the more accurate violins. .0. range. to a lesser It see chapter the 4) dictates in the-resonant a violin-shaped frequency.1 resonance may where " be the Just nature show that of the violin thej1. an experiment in This 5. which develop of which two most factors to into further insights model examined. MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. extremely the spacing at low For these from [0.0... by each mode indicated. ýcavity. Including complicated. Schelleng. which 600 Hz. . rather of has mode_is.01. by body.0] is--.. the f-holes gets it .. as that [1.. CHAPTER 5 . this (and . air in the other lead . PAGE 85 The Model. . the mode. account It is and the. . chapter which 4 is occur the in one of one of and in in the countless couples case resonances with with violin. occurs enclosure in one additional air its mode in shape- resonance which the always of -:.0. 'importance. yto same range There is by. to measure tube fitted while pressure the..a real in the formed violin the. used.the the [1. only Every modes.. figure been . a short will probe into and. Schelleng's understanding in : which the the model was important of the for. the are chosen of frequencies this will.1 factor is the front back and. acoustic in output the to remains curve observed . is of. vibrations elucidated f-holes Helmholtz volume of resonance. frequency the response response contribution. . reason be. of the this with easy. -spring-like plate.. the notation more closely approximates . behavior mode. The Helmholtz [0. There . walls. was learned modes which resonances. of-the as well.0] <-. important which It first step towards the and way thefront modes. obviously in chapter critical far lesser what.0] extent is quite length.ý. low. plate all of but and and the these some each of. violin it was a M. cavity.0] higher the model . lowest vibrational were not when which taken mode interact are in now of his course model to and form many and.

falls do so. mode to be shapes no '-provided and change This resonance jTheir frequencies -effect on obstacle. model.1: Resonance which commonly appear in the vlolln's tow frequency range. peaks coupling and considered over post's this effect between frequency resonance plates that known. only the did not show any large This degree in of the no Frequency coupling. is in the mode will that be discussed the backideally plates will some detail -'El. range the of Although interest. the real different parts 5. factor the provided is on the mode shapes ý'' and frequencies is to in another model the -There beginning resonance boundary volume of they known. the for ribs which should 'be the they the the considered ribs will will ` before not affect of have a the violin. and lower As with frequency of the the-air conditions the plate stiffness Helmholtz plates plate's prove resonator.1 are proved imaginary materials plates that insure violin'which ao . 11 should sometimes range happens as well. PAGE 86 like 'a l vibration and of absorber causes this a the doublet air to mode draws be energy from The the plate's vibration consequences It into If-the good. can be judged. . sound-post. it acoustical later.i"" different.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. match of resonanceperhaps not this although the impedance 'this form will between direct through have to the sound-post coupling problem of the be included "which 'the make the parts of Thus it the much more impedances will the aL difficult. u formed. which show in holograms occured One air front range at may the that 'either sound-post frombe conclude need back this 'that Figure 5. in plate. are that equal. the in Fortunately. even' if shapes'and quite I.. a DacK is figure possess ptaLe resonance 550 Hz'* direct vibration motion plate. the` way t'he effect in which are the on the the will may be ignored.

velocity: and pressure as (5.p CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN.16). and f-holes(h) be in developed. . the'equation: ()d s: 2 Ze d2e cz _ d tz dx2 between 0 .. used to kf mf cf mh Ch (2. vibrating mixture strange of mechanical approach to and acoustic the problem. with particle as dP/dx the dP dxS=pSdxd2 i dt dx pressure gradient.3) u= jwe . =.. ' resonance can be calculated by treating them as a spring-like The analysis thus pistons shown in far in acting figure is an begins idealized by including violin.. backtb). equation must done the This standing is most Figure 5.1) . for This is the all with of thel elements air Such a mentioned cavity model and is a right-regular surfaces. pressure distribýition but of before motion for this throughout is possible Air Cavity Imb ° rt> kb cb cavity. PACE 87 Helmholtz boundary. may bewritten (5.P jfcu and .2. dX jwpu.dimension and " `the treated as lumped meters. as three.2: Model of a violin's lowest four modes with the front plate (f) . From this S the F . equation describe the the the wave easily results components used as it a more intuitive The green's may be function. and the-relationships displacement. one . differential pars- then extended Newton's to law.t cross sectional of motion area. as models 5. and e the may be written displacement. when applied to a particle of air.

. point and may be obtained on the vibrating by dividing This the velocity one with a reference surface.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. notation either to describe f. or the.. or h. row) 10 -'wCS is ýýfrlfýý.:.8) usingrthe=relationships. . + equation-of source (s. in The "equivalent" the last it chapter by the is piston this which introduced related integral.12) Theas. f between. (5. ) the total effective or is "effective. driven. are. displacement. 4) P2r) OP(Fr) +d dr jwps(ý-ra)ulr)dV c velocity.. over each plate possible rather than i perform volume integration in the and f-hole This leaves previous-equation. only and the -these to the plates are In-: the and-.cavity -boundaries.5) g(r. which These areas them so S.) u("r)dS and f-holes. is xt+ y3. are however. -K-) no internal by. to of volume velocity area" The -integral-.6) P(r. with. equation (2. on both point air maximum lvelocity. --This equation is. equivalent mth surface. modes . of the A--c2 . . and----B= jw=Pc. PACE 88 Extended zk. surface which drive theca. green's may now be directly written from (5. the into three dimensions motion with with a point the vector at notation r.. rw) . same form function as and pressure equation in (2. the is air therefore sources. fýo)u(? )d5 A (k2-K. b.-J CS violin there drive. of the plates was (F.. a standirigfw-ave. f-holes located a: surface integral on- -. .Mn is it the depend will 4 mode and the be necessary area of to adopt the some.". It .

0 as c)IuFdS. either 0 (5. be pressure below one the which these pressure dimensional..4n K 2. then dP(0). and be imposed in the Hz the 'y' will (kZ Kz1 the In boundary of the order to determine mist shape functions As'the`dimensions figure the 5.3 the conditions violin are than on the problem.6) or 1. x-axis they are meet Waves affected at are each by which the Zo in zx r impedances and Zt: terms.8b) dP(L) dx x-axis jwPP(L)SL ZL at x-O and x'L.3). cos(4)So (5. either 600 x'direction or for orientation) distribution essentially travel along z 'directions. PAGE 89 d rives. ' The normal (5. in much chapter the 2. the pressure way" same then as was done in (5.8) yield string"of. making J If of end.: S.and SL are change An If sign of the areas (5.9a).r CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN.9b) -Ksin(o)=JWPcosfKL+flSL ZL . particle use of the-relationships (5. wp P(0) So dx Zo where: So.a cos(Kx the vibrating ++).8) written case of is to the equations is then the due to geometrical as P. considerations. -: P(r) '_ -ýcS I f uFSF ýýºir) + ubSbr+ uhShn .. (see much greater in . in equations N-01Eure 3' Orientation of axes for discussion of cavity resonances. f? or 1u(? is driven by the this nth air mode. impedances and written velocity. equations (5. Using notation equation may be expressed (5: 7). eg. and Ksin(4)= .

10b) As long " $ and possible relationship.12) are as small $(r) as defined terms so =1 in that the and approximated the effective the with length bracketed chapter K1 possible 'ignore when Kö or . the jwpS. substituting expressions for n11/L. equations (5. »1. la) and (5: 11bß Kö jwp so + SL L Zo ZL [Zo So LL + Kn = (ntt/L)Z- L dimensions ZL Extending these results to three yields (5. will be «1 equation K-K K.. 'It's functions =cos(ffx/L not ). and once again (s. /Zv and the nature as function to express (5.12a) Ký= 52 Izs wvp 1 V Sb +§+ Sho Zc zbbh and (5. makes it Using noting that this ZL (5. average due over to impedance of the'walls. SZ Sri Sbl Ski /02 )2 + Zf + Zb + Zh] _ V where this S is area the of total the surface surface stiffness terms may in be L to area of the cavity of the and ZS the wood.12b) Ký = MIL [Z. mostly absorption and the The bracketed shape 41(r) 4.10a) + $kjwpS0/ZOK. are as they will be in of the the tan case of a violin. PAGE 90 Rearranging terms gives the equations (5: 1oä) and K tan (0) = jwpSo / Zo Ktan(ý + KL) _ -jWPSL/ZL as ZO and ZL »1.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN.

. in the : pressure '` ' (5. at plate 1 Ratio. ). ° It be is surface.7) in Z.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. r If' + _E_5(_'0) ds l) . .. n)VRm)dS . to the plates in the be found. PAGE 91 appear this -in the denominator all of the of loss equation terms (5. surface. pressure These may be calculated distributions.. u. force and velocity using may be written the green's terms 'of 'the pressure function: (5. the and plates their drive effects -term 'represents Although the way in the air on modes the is now and known. 5*`13)ph z+ 4rP(ý)Ü(r-). using much the green's same manner f unction approach. h for (ýo)P(ro)dS: +. which Once again. the still reaction remain as were forces. expressed then pressure $ (rm).Poisson's a point and P(r)'is. 5 at where acting E-on Young's the plate the the cavity 120-v Modulus. as the The'real' and imaginary part of is includes to "of `Kö "'also part it 'is` this' mostly'due" which the mass reactance the Helmholtz which of 'the 'f-holes resonance. The velocity with W(=ý) m could the normalized Similarly. )" a point m W(r.. area as pössible rewrite the equivalent (5..14) u(r) =L Ph u(r) must'be (rý ( AA(`oýWZG obtained of surface and the P..12) are input differentiated. ("r)= to 'vector distribution with on this may. fora plate the first is step is to write the equation of nation..15) Smt1 ýýýý.. FOFO) :: ' where each vibrating be written r. f-holes. surface n indicating'theair'mode. as defining on u(r.. equations. as P.

" need be since considerred.01 air equivalent a node at piston zero mode has the center the"f-holes. and plate. the piston'velocities may be simplified at area the the Shi u explicitly. if treble is of very The algebra the one considers bridge nearly foot.17b) and (5. term + (wg/m)2 ]'/2. PAGE 92 which.0 CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSEOF THE VIOLIN. possible to demonstrates write the reciprocity.17c) Uh =ßhF[ßý. impossible'to due to ) k. (Sp. are. violin's force.7) it K2 with . some to write tedious Only and one. the [1. from as the the the shape deriving equation obtained shape functions cannot the . the and damping foru must equations equations and P related be solved the it is way they is possible extremely action. I . (5.15) due of as to the nature This of orthogonal makes it functions. as of (wn -wt with of may E. . equation (5.17a) uF=ßcFE1-ßb(Sbo0 Sb1cxl ßbh(SkSbt)i0( JVA Igta +o+ l 18 . the the complex functions Instead (k/m plates. in before expressed equivalent values stiffness. m.16) JwV (P S +P S +F 'iii ] um(Fm)= MI mj PhS A(wm -w2) MoYMO the single mode of interest (5.w2) Here be predicted. Shýo) + ßPPbýSbOShoS1'ISbI SýSbd0O Sý 4 o(I1/A u= ßbFfßftSý.0. With simultaneous the but input mass. OSb +SrISb lj'prf (ShoSfISaý«a1) J{/A º. isý. only In shown for was each surface directly do this design be the of in. ' With these simplifications velocities'are [2]: (5. property (5.

and "A.. joints'may tested to on those cannot in however. PAGE 93 and where ß. 4 oon=-jw2p/ICSA (k2 K'. this"with the by. frequency the must are the glue be seperately then There be vastly equivalent violin some to major reassembling are. measure. measured If assembled. even if appear must on the one were violin. --JW(keq-W2meq jWE)/A. more severe to obtain the the testing'-'the "and damping.. the plates were joint tested while the The glue between . =1/2 when h) f] b. the for. )) .. in. to be similar the plate test between and air would mass. response. different so that on re-assembly. ýblh C shs ýý )Z«o« i (5.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. predicted the"modelling and measured was not good. =1 000 (Sbo + S2ol) + ßfßbls Sbý Sbsei 1 0(. ne{O.17) this whether see valid. comparing to experimental simplifications before (5. or when nE[1. predicting the data. measure problems and the conditions modes would involve stiffness.18) A ) 1-ßc(s ö°(o { Ss. were made in the developing parameters test to mofdel are which However. 2« hsdo ýýti o (s s)« ho Cl Evaluating the model Before response In this of way utilizing' a violin it is the nadel it evaluated be cän. the boundary the of ribs the similar sound-post assembled between this should instrument.. equations may be be done. oc. but the of the parameters comparison. which and then possible the by. these upon to minimize at a time problems the ribs. with would coupling the have violin fully the. when measuring the validity In mounted order one be positioned this way. the not plates affect Additionally. the parameters response for. the here: plates largely be accounted plates and A much.

Once from plate glued the had in The same plate a small as was the frame parameters and back.4. had and the all the heavy been front measured plate was was plate 4. which center facility experiment turn any affixed cavity in figure by glueing a rigid affecting plate frame. and were After the as were mass seperated the back front plate been its place. frequency Once occured mass to the resonant frequency . tested.4: Setting up a test in the anechoic chamber. in The the glued removed then ribs on. plate. the test effect. PAGE 94 front-plate parameters importance chapter The were prevent may in 4 and and of so the the ribs was not broken response between of is the measuring assembled as the violin. to modes 5. be seen Flure 5. discussed plate (The in ) frequency plate as its the that back a radiator glue joint the wooden the minimal altering began to from had back an unnoticable to open The the at ribs.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. much for the each when techniques those found was parameters equivalent which the described by measuring attached chapter the shift antinode. The used frame violin the complete to measure in tested described.

plate % 'I. and the loss term the 0. denotes value. gives results for with measurements by-the the plates. ý ° . were ý3dB down 'poiäts.ý .5x10 * 11700 515.- k f Table at low 5. 50* 47 "" in calculated table 5. which its characterize freq uencies. back 150*'" . over had ` been stiffness was determined calculated areas surface.". 1Wm with the normalized the plate pressure ` $o ý1 determined " This was . -4jý'-.1 "' f=holes' 2x6.3 0 0024*.w2me9)1. displacement is shown in figure areas shown parameters. . equivalent areas. . '5.2x10 * 2130 415 4. +w' the product distributions expression integrating Equivalent the plate m. m Units cm? _ cmZ gm . -----200* " _ -----the violin A 1 . ac alculated sound-post removed. .5. savings ' from ' information the ' hologram with of plot each " of needed `to' be 'input' by point `entering by point: the manually' location ' A"computer Figure 5. d 4 r .--. Parameter 5o Sn1 . in this with The equivalentmanner the are along' " other front 150* 54* 33 .. integration a great performed in 'by -time. from tedious and with displacement vibration graphical computer'with although still digitizer fringe holograms. cos(nx"/L). ': ý.. . .1: gm/s gm/s Hz The parameters with 2.5:"Computer version of a vibration hologram used to late.i CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN..: . peak's (k. anassembled`violin Radiation This reactance affected of accounted phase mass and. r. The parameters Basing which almost them are all on which describe from the f-holes were 'all' cAlculated. PACE 95 and equivalent from from found mass the the by were resonance known. `90° out-of'' term' was ut of ..

when calculating The «X equation in air is which mass-loading is applied + 16 this near-field when a surface S/nR /(31T) ] with has dimensions S the area of mrod' aS[1 The loss this and the case therefore cavity in term E was calculated resistance is radiated goes of is from to in in much the phase with same way. PACE 96 the f-hole velocity incompressible so that flow no energy of the air. -resonant . anti-resonance in When the is the the the' energy " frequency measured equal than losses response on the on dB and.1] front of which Helmholtz resonance. This °a -few the Seve ral ý gives similar results: model a good. measured areas in directly were from 1650 cm! the test The remaining violin: cm1 .experiments frequencies of t is predicted produced violin. more violin the plotted two curves generally areas three difference importantly. of energy. single at of one meter the features the to expect [1.. description`of is a good point at: which to once again consider the effect of .2 table 1 and A simple equations the which doublet normal one of computer to the parameters response All (5. the along length. the the volume parameters and interior surface and 2000 cm. to within the is [1.6. velocity inside in radiation energy this the surface the the surface. f-hole drive mode and is radiation already on included only motion. Hz. the On air the however.0. air in and the . when modified program predict center of to as described used the the find.. is mode. equations. appear figure 5. need were Therefore losses one side of each to be considered.0] plotted. was radiated. Both sides due and of to the represented holes must a be lossless considered effect. so that in the levels response have loss are nature a real assembled the figure.17) from would the frequency front the plate.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. was 33. -the. due calculated plate mode. the chapter of 4. which one are hole.

f\ //1\ 0..6 " The theoreticalfrequency response of the post....7).. due to humidity. at a microphone the denter a short probe tube-was At curve alone. i. the look for model at they nothing effect..CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. this which inserted point one= f-hole. model _--1-.. the response resonance 120 dB... which by including pressure remarkably into the interesting violin with of the are levels high.. LPV%&" Utz &J impose measure on the its front plate are implicitly included absorption impedance the walls the in and terms could front the method used as (5. VSr1VUb _ It a was assumed entity .. W 7ö.20 10 \I V 200 Ej 300 400 Frequency in Hz. `11%' .....0] in figure mo dq was at 5. and experimental test violin without 500 ---a sound- re 5. s L... [1. PAGE 97 40 m30 V1\/'\ j%_ . pressure yet the levels a seemingly .7 sound and is that minimum of the so that Helmholtz of almost appears The model impössible predicts figure. were The surface included in the which compliance of equation the cavity-boundary The only is but which gained it inside other important way in affect as a means of as the transferring of the energy model between is already and back than the accuracy in to greater there is this changes to be can occur in is the trying a violin improve to cavity.. to a impedance.....0. violin plates. the ribs on the enter resuiLS violin's the J_ lA response... the air occur A half-inch cavity.. earlier although i1 tinny that they wh4i-h they would that/ need not aiieCL Lne as seperate TL.

plates. the from of influence calculating is By in although of area for each values plate will may be measured be considerably of in the same 'way due to one their different prevents the the sound-post. conducted soundpost ytion. results _ 120 cm V 110 J/ ^A `ý .0/ 1 These exper- invents. present. be used although violin response. stiffness by the The coupling as before. PAGE 98 . although Since to this It only is some of is if equally valid for use where the with the case. CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. complete a new set beforehand.. the air since modes the resonant the frequency violin is using the each plate affected modes when assembled. luthier method who wants to know how plates will . Experimental. is possible and then to find program. use to the effect by on the response a would impossible this modifying of predicting his testing%n response Of course. 500 600. about for the post the soundpost contact model the can no motion occurs often known to be quite interesting must make observations be measured the the violin.7: The SPL inside the violin. these correct values estimating the computer stiffness it and damping. parameters The effective as before. experimental conf irn this. -which without in were a posi- 100 demonstrate 90 200 300 Frequency 400 in dB. that useful dicting the for model is prethe Figure 5.theoretical frequency . of are trial values Once these by a process parameters to observe be its and error. is possible whole to violin's and the individual vary any one in actual is of no of ä known it them and then way_ which instrument.-.

whose (1. PAGE 99 behave left when the he next finally chapter. It without is now results the possible do exactly the using (5. degree (5. but this problem will be for Investigating Violin Design.17). the of violin design from equations is the for were any discussed change.8) surprising.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. while the effective of mass and stiffness 2 to 3 dB occurs per is cent have been decreased between of the the main roughly 20%. In chapter the ability to to 4 many aspects quantify this. strong.5: The test violin (---) und the Increased output brought about by a 200/o decrease in equivalent mass and stiffness(-). the two resonances mass may sen of the the plate use total doublet. light. -and like plate be the An improvement above a large mass. amount but Twenty this to effective percentage fron is of only a small more in The temptation. but even a3 remove wood must if dB increase output little . 500 figure 5. glues them together. to flexible which plates this is Perhaps rather important curves of than is a most obvious rigid requirement but massive rather violin ones. 20 10 300 ' Frequency 400 in Hz.1] In figure plate 'shown the are has been held response constant resonance 40 m30 ßn.

that the solid Helmholtz and plate resonances should occur at 290 435 Hz.1) the nineteenth German and the /l I :/f vý .. a century violin iy^ differmay be bethe in (1.2).. resonances. vv... PAGE 100 --I violin _1I - coilapsesa .CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. - quency (5. perhaps and a4 Figure a2 dB dB be an change region between two main Again.10) difference difference enormous in the so that shows" in at change violin but the how the the volume a must be increased of roughly the to 40% counter produces this. this may Helmholtz peak. 500 The resonances. seem to design large ences observed tween violins ures (1. to the and provide most uniform response of the spacing line demonstrates I bowed loudness of of the two lowest .... also raises fr It the aac roonnnnnn r. \\\ % rý \ two figand one Figure violins 510: An with 200 300 Frequency estimate different 400 in Hz. the will their involves Helmholtz Increasing f-hole increase area radiation..1 1_I Another me- thod creasing put for the inoutthe made. ""ý.. a..

0] mode in response. PAGE 101 other a copy for of a Stradivarius. 600 about T ý' M Figure 5. The cavity and plate resonances with stiffness and-after the [3]. a the powerful differences of violin These G-string. curves appear harmonic's string is having considering basic shown in design which feature of to the the which in' spacing are of the'lowest interest were the two resonances. large German violins which figure should It is (5. peaks . resonance spacing prove to peaks could response in was obtained the literature as these but the suggested considered slightly guide. If we re'altered trying at the about other optimum should to change the the as were be spacing best between many combinations 290 and 440 Hz.11: The change in response by the-lowest air resonance . the model brings (5. calculated Helmholtz motion. 40 A / 30 v c 20 10 250 LL 30 0 Frequency 400 in Hz. lowest figures two the suggested be a good Including change in the the [1.10) to and the including figure contribution volume the produced loudness. '.f CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. be put is the curves the for not have a at all reputation surprising Another test . as well different.0.9). 500 brought . in this case by loudness which second primary (5.11) about a" remarkable A frequency as figure demonstrates.

are for equally as the imdein (5. from-54..a great curve disadvantage of a violin peaks poor.34.not only the area Sri which affects in the the sound-box doublet.-4n the-test and this shows that Ideally minimum the. monstrated figures and lightly curve first 500 400 60( Frequency in Hz. Figure 5.. function with a pronounced as a vibration Sfj cmL at is shows both too an 470 the area resonant absorber-can large. be.13).. produce with the and even with an output doublet level well the which case...01 mode when introduced into plate and the air cavity.0 CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN.12: The effect of damping on the front the (1..14. to the anti-resonance the couple' main between bf -a spaced'and low are an improvement range.response the --is much more powerful would peaks. but Its plate...0. . in of the these be a f igure$ produced violin terior would by whose inhad been ---- cx=0. enough such similar a value. reducing latter equivalent curve 19 cut`. . equivalentarea Sri the in 54 The response where--the would-be improvement and'235 Hz. ' decibels tests appears of throughout instruments to 'be the are alone frequency held frequency regard which [4]. 0x=0.0..04 . double quite response The change for mode shape the which sound-post-brings... ' It cavity is -this have response -.. cx=0.0] the air mode and the frequency. to -about . PAGE 102 doublet minimum is"formed at-the between [1. in particular the good factors violin In of... often although to none of a been discussed produce . is responsible violin.12) The damped length and the damping present portant. if the with occur.. 300 250 (5.

-PAGE 103 varnished. J 600 damping reduces of prethe the but the peak. amount of . ý º n ºi I rý i º 1 º ý r II 11 11 V ý \ ý CL V) 20 response region of NO [1. though violin much ceptable vagaries weather.p CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN.13: Changing the cavity length by the response of the s 1Q°/o greatly alters test violin.0. the sent depth resonIncreasing 400 Frequency in Hz 500 . (---) "10 °/o . certainly poor the it such . would less to of Ala be susthe the would have a in the 10 ca 30 J Ejgure 5. (-) -10 °b . 40 ý .0] ance. it double the antiresonance also reduces Helmholtz In addition moves the peaks plate closer with in a the of resonance together reduction response the plate reSome damping between and Helmholtz sonances.

CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. is 'counter productive.. family. (5.13) length small. It (the this) -the This would upper and response violin (5. like to size case. right corners would . perhaps violin why a full-size to another. It-has cavity possibility appear that modes is by is of Whether composers and violas exploited unique been suggested could improve at that direct the radiation of in a of sound from [6). violin. importance in the between are varies enough from Peaks of a figure the cavity were produced length are of The differences they seldom (5. the the same cannot viola exactly difficult the in about members these but string would would instruments their size be constructed an enlarged play. The cavity.01 of the is resonant two peaks of equal frequency that form and the in test the to one relative the front almost strengths plate's equal of although impedance strength 32. this are gain of the tone designed sorts One of differently are violin it compromises luthier. consequently doublet.15). with in the length controls the [1.14) bass if sizes of violins of the are very similar. this violin curves explain instrument While be said particular. for and most 'cellos instruments instruments have been their more accurately acceptance weaknesses colors. of has stringed these design tried does not to remedy which will aware modern Carleen situation by producing scaled in doubt a new family [5]. PAGE 104 is then necessary-but too much. reached and a standard Hutchins. for explored opening low frequencies a hole near figure the suited one end of be well left"or'lower . of Figure a typical so make them more would these surprising demonstrates properly than the how a 'cello scaled. figure shows.0. With is not be nearly instruments that many exist.5 but cm. the plate other Ideally violin. as -the.

with ensuing equations of the design. 1200 to welcome ý1 ý ý'r over extra 2000 Hz. addition radiator 40- m 30 '. important would range not however.15: Adding a hole to radiate the 11. and If. 500 600 Figure 5. 'of w1ich Y would these the this predicting There would are response of a complete available effect front of plate. but function the approach. The function it sound-post for in the and although the sound-post the three was accounted in place. PAGE 105 increasing Helmholtz -Experiments could well the cavity this such volume would a to compensate the for the is great shift not in the mode that with yield this produce. one. response be of degraded. component The first methods the to the be to calculate provides the be of point impedance which sound-post suited would to also a technique A finite necessary be well analysis would be green's use. violin _model. for violin doing the from this. from sound response of an In this chapter and.0.CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSEOF THE VIOLIN.. ý.01 air mode changes the ordinary violin---. time element for this computer . ý ýý j lF äd ýý'ý ýJ ý! Xtý 5_20 10 250 300 Frequency 400 in Hz. :ý ýr :. from be a construction improvements the radiation of this would at interest significant increases the higher the frequencies. by measuring method cannot its parameters used when parts. the the violin has been successfully used to explore must modelled some points be included plate be at low about frequencies '.

chapter 6. 169- action of instruments 186. pp.. Physics of the violin "Founding Hutchins. .256. family". Institute of Acoustics._ý . 243. for those who could benefit from is such an in approach. of violin plates". between coupling (1979). vol. [4] F.. 35. Scientific American. 23- a family Today. [5] 20. C.86. JASA. hologram interferometry Physics Scripta.. Gabrielsson al. . C.. possibility explored [1] 326[2] the [3] 138. vol. of a violin et. "Air E. Johnson. (1970). (1967). Hutchins. (1962). Saunders. pp. J. PAGE 106 prohibitive third. (1963).CHAPTER 5 MODELLING THE RESPONSE OF THE VIOLIN. vol. 2. [6] "Resonances body studied by A. "The mechanical 17.. s"The violin as a circuit". .. pp. and acoustical methods".. Proceedings of violins". vol. vol. pp. (1946). of fiddles". -"The physics 73. 338.. The and most intriguing. Schelleng. JASA. pp...

makes these so much better by machine may appear violin. PAGE 107 Manufacturing Techniques. time and whole. the plates training. many give explorations way. chance on the of in needed Of course. response of What is an an-automated before predicting together assembled t may be made violin quickly put any adjustments and cheaply. adjusting a market is made instruments as the expense each one which where price method it is is for requires'attention usually of. for a great and be unreasonable skill. of a while fine or by hand. product. instruments. viewed has much to answer processes pays are manufacturing which of the similar. lifetime are industry of musical enjoyment because When unpleasant and physically for.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. own violin Many violin. the plates factory may resonances. dimensions fact These are'cut. the Most attention selection produced specified and may in detail. to expect and time required to employ tap-tones accordingly. It deal adjust would of up a. For is so the vast majority related of violinists. to that produced type the sound of a Stradiverius that children which How first this it remotely by their instrument. be copies has perfect in every no attention been paid this are their to be dynamic otherwise characteristics. their sounds-like begin is only learning to an altogether to play be with different of an inexpensive. some mass-produced have the correct are violins spacing poor can be very of goodby But. but these are of mass-produced discouraging simply painful? expected. violins either they old to It is the individual careful than mass to luthier which to his as well as his wood. quality. The model which was developed in chapter 5 was meant to meet this . primary the so that makes them uncompetitive importance. to be well-made. so that.

is as it both made of from a material only modulus the. A cross-piece. impedance but and resorting posibility once again presents function a further itself some additional . which a small. frequency possible the violin to new mode the post response by treating the green's which has as a point approach. elasticity. between back which in In order and describe to front the This the necessary violin measure parameters sound-post It is of assembled and the position. such as illustrated 6. In chapter relatively be possible advantages.1. to predict no use in shapes production and the applications. of the coupling the the sound-post an is "inserting which could an internal remain perform while same function. has to and may itself tics.. violin in belly figure element and position tested serves adjusted. admirably easily in this capacity to have the for it is easily made impedance be and called.: with then . PAGE 108 need-but include plates plates is-of it with a the major effects is the obstacle of the to remains direct to coupling the be surmounted. section need be used obtain dynamic . 4 the little to back plate radiation remove element in was revealed when compared the to direct as to an impedance It device should by the'front. be be adjusted Ideally the best possible shall light characters should a high "cross-bar".CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS.

by adding A beam designed will would. demonstrated cross-bar.0. the the and good factory this prototype of made violin is 0. similar Additionally. its The bar must have match This the resonance the the part front where impedance in A should 4. plate. is not Although ideal. not of course to match the front plate at at its second resonance it have an infinite must be work is impedance sought with 440 liz. with ribs. it is expansion could If show that its that lowest of stresses cause cracks under beam is is again at extremes weather for this of a uniform spruce to be used easy to a good choice about 700 Hz. the as ideally two Some compromise between many opposing cross-bars the scope requiremnents performed of this and experimental an the optimum feasibility different is beyond is before text. had been measured appears curve peaks is at in figure back was gluld was measured. but chosen. the a of the This isimportant of the as reflections [1. PAGE 109 characteristics from cavity the cross-bar which could are sought. purpose. such A curved to the front of a pictured x 1. to that material plates in a coefficient minimize conditions. and the After` all impedance front -plate parameters response. on and frequency This which 6.0] of air thermal which reduce effectiveness with would mode.3 was fitted in with just 6. figure was beam. and the a dimensions shortened attached it sound-post was measured in wedged between the usual the way.2.0 cm. of such Such work a design demonstrated clearly.3. A reasonably cross-piece spruce violin plate. as of front a layer was the plate of material.I CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. the spacing frequencies . and crosssome lossy chapter determines resistive easily of the dimensions of the match between bar material impedances to a may be surface obtained latter. frequency of the response resonance certainly low encouraging.

was The with valued modal density is quite high at the be frequencies sort of a properly so highly designed in chapter bridge. these could easily above be 1 KHz. 5 50 ment This the with response to support theoretical and ---test violin of the the sound-post .2: The prototype violin with its cross-bar in position. PAGE 110 Figure 6. 1 could response which obtained. curve adjusted.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. confirms belief that 250 Frequency Figure 6. Once 60 t lie of 0 has again modelling the made to violin it ac- 11 _' 40 possible c curately 30 estithe freq- mate 20 uency of the response instruitself.3 : The frequency a cross-piece ex perimental 400 in Hz. so that.

. are a cross-bar way is might could doubtful. With presents rigid between levels. of great compared. a small the noticed between and although 40 Figure 30 64: noticeable. different be made massive Air but'coüld the This be made plates spruce. removal The of the sound-post plate an intriguing possibility and back of need no longer like the the back.4. both using noticable instruments however. frequency difference effect the crossbar the to replace of the the traditional completed sound-post violin from it is its to predict response the itself. 500 0 600 /\I V dB 0 enough overcome resistance such aaý. a VSGO Ana1-h-f-4p ýllG - a. using 6. and 'importo 'the. be can no violins portion of Oould the be new design beam obscures back and it mass-produced only is with a small easy it still to as the the- plate when viewed adjustments"to from the make any necessary in place. is beautiful constructed made in the while designs this whether novice or virtuoso. 220 300 Frequency 400 in Hz. . and a well to behold! with traditional small. perhaps the coupling would to appreciable model only and the possibility was investigated in figure the responses is may be it compared Unfortunately curves. then drive belly. would not tant be probably 1ý\ \ :: L The theoretical frequency response of violins with maple--spruce backs. rn important finished to maple the back violinist. be There compete with Whether violins of a violin carefully The effect when back-plate of that benefit radiation. To make frequency response . the latter without a sound-post. for question..CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. to change. PAGE 111 by using possible components.

6. as violin plate by a High combined Machines part plates of to costs make and the fully automated be assigned need no longer an assembly shape cut function can cut to the line. purfling different size. directed these Even the automatically. versatility of production a single.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. area by raster scan Adjust Measure impedance Final Determine assembly Figure good Evaluate poor involved corrective action in manufacturing front plate a violin. on the availability the and machines of as the its when a certain computer. upon versatile instructions efficient therefore production programmer. traditional use of advanced this great advantage techniques at a low cost it is necessary to use some production labour to and equipment. operation The process The } necessary as and. PAGE 112 wet Raw materials sand bouts form ribs with crossmember Store ek lfu e m ois onten ry Raw materials mill plates.5: The steps is the It be controlled. blocks. and adjustments when tools for so thickness. the the the blocks. . operations can be selected The steps below the in figure follow to build but it a violin are shown that not diagramatically the route It is is entire which depends should be emphasized center is pieces through of a production fixed. same milling make groove cutting micro-processors centers unchanging machine a have reality. computer The entire process may frequency asseman of the response to predict ability bled over violin which gives such a system an advantage forms of violin manufacture. cross-piece Calculate (y response Store Assemble front plate and ribs Determine eq. &.5. necessary 6. microprocessor.

. but size whose cutter other violins. very with briefly which below. until needed components assembly-or storage The bouts reached along the with be thinned they and for the by sanding. are sent to When be formed these into have ribs. forming thinness.. this work with the details of all but has been intimately involved. spruce and maple for the plates and for the crossis Raw materials. corners. can all be cut and shaped Not only by a milling violins. Vacuum heat processes are ribs being ribs to a frequently the allowed the plates. also positioning. such as 3/4 if machine . of next the finally the the major assembly of process. area such applicationsbent. stringed controlled-by instruments their computer. head" possible Sr. equivalent areas and . must required blocks.: or cut finished testing. makes for using interpretation for analog possible computer "raster automatically. the a device over of this to scan" to measure holographic the data done the to portion frequency to calculate First front such it response measure is necessary The parameters easily [1]. too.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. proper which and moisture that the before set of it necessary must glued from front portion In the wood is to to be easily to the means be to the return moisture content 'a The microwith adding the processor can select content to complete holding proper sound- moisture post and join the first plate. as that impedance by may be quite Ian Firth measured Computer designed the excitation "impedance It is Sr. the process and the the then modelling to evaluate is the used violin. bar. the production engineers. used cross-bar. are if initially smaller on the they models may have As for components are for same machine are sent to properly areas programmed. and it the a the which characterize using control plate. PAGE 113 process the left last to is described portion. from the frequency.

and the to to laser the index. of Rather intensity interference two beams on*a a small at possible area. vibration to illuminate into holography. of this for information the available violin in to the computer the response may be predicted. It combined be possible a single to use the and the to interfaced same machinery position the raster-scan. this research If distribution changes is of by in' perhaps the are each 'plate to many more modes than range. solid-state laser could would be even the can with and photocell computer. PAGE 114 technique over the time plate 'a plate when it part is of driven the at its resonant work frequency. by a computer. by hand or photographed. of any to extend changes for the response about to the evaluated. amplitude small It two the information it will possible improve frequencies directions. is complete any point no need for Once all frequency including frequency necessary plate sensitive. photographic photocell. amplitude. or head. the and this were used curve the calculate response. . The most determine To do the this consuming parameters vibration amplitude case experimental measuring the made. by it. programmed emulsion. required to areas. involves hologram function the equivalent must be reconstructed. carefully modes providing alterations chosen. In ' and the in a integrated must either which photograph somehow be intepretted process entire would operation produced as is by be commercial but'once again application computer than such a lengthy control recording of the the uneconomical.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. mode makes which resonant opposite thickness move even the in course different are pogsible amounts. a to use a small. can be responds measure positioned It very is small unit. makes this the possible. The computer directly and laser/photocell then determine impedance at vibration large amplitude lasers. which points also to done in to the conventional intensity.

suggestion one change with design would years be dismissed of as useless. the and the How can collective countless factory work but three-hundred Stainer. craft. of argue of finally. their copy to this even the And yet whose their and sound. the testing. perhaps attached. level While of would he most its a no doubt might scoff at the many of intention the ideas to presented raise of the the applaud quality violin's the factory-made modelling in instruments.CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS. sing a master's the or more common they lack reconcile thesis. creates i to'enjoy of a beauty. music. which which a bridge. may be a perfect which sought through same. with a richness The violin-maker machine may make need not a violin with luthier. industries revolutionize production A violin-maker in this work. lacks form Stradivarius. body spirit. the fear for his sound. analysis and construction. work of in genius others. lowly. is so little experience. people man's . there the of Amatis. by computer. it is for the although musician that a who a lovely with his makes the a thing lifetime creativity. of and the But more individuality. beauties likely Perhaps is the to another's work violin whose object can be made mass-produced today. PAGE 115 once to its final the predicted assembly response where the of back the is violin glued is on. machine to may give appreciate us more people the genius of music. the just violin. Guarneris. made which of violin. to the cut and tested The automated the on same equipment processes leading produced are only could assembly a few begining be applied of in violins. acceptable it is it goes on and varnished.

instruments". Acustica. Firth. 348349. vol. pp. PAGE 116 "Small mechanical [1] impedance head for use with I. 35. (1976). musical .CHAPTER 6 MASS-PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS.