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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010

**Differential Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Frequency Trellis Codes
**

Jorge Flores, Jaime Sánchez, Member, IEEE, and Hamid Jafarkhani, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—Two rate-one differential quasi-orthogonal spacefrequency trellis codes (DQOSFTCs) for multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) channels are proposed. The DQOSFTCs are systematically constructed within an OFDM symbol period, by combining unitary quasi-orthogonal trellis codes and differential modulation over the frequency domain (DF-QOSFTC) or time domain (DT-QOSFTCs). Besides multipath diversity, our DQOSFTCs achieve high-coding gain and simple decoding when the channel state information is not available at both the transmitter and the receiver. Simulation results show that our proposed codes signiﬁcantly outperform the existing differential space-frequency trellis codes. Index Terms—MIMO-OFDM, differential modulation, quasiorthogonal codes, space-frequency codes, trellis codes.

I. I NTRODUCTION PACE-FREQUENCY coded multiple-input multipleoutput orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems are capable of achieving maximum diversity over a frequency selective channel (FSC) [1]. However, acquiring knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) for an FSC with many taps is prohibitively complex. As a result, exploiting the available spatial and frequency diversities, if neither the transmitter nor the receiver knows the CSI, have been recently addressed in the literature. In order to achieve the space-time (ST) and space-frequency (SF) diversity, differential and noncoherent schemes were proposed in [2]–[12]. In many of these schemes, maximum diversity and good performance can be achieved by dividing an OFDM symbol into several subcarriers groups, and perform differential encoding and decoding between adjacent groups. However, the existing differential techniques have several drawbacks. For example, they have a large code size, which exponentially increases the coding and decoding complexity. Moreover, by trying to increase the data rate, they have a low coding gain. In addition, these implementations require constant channel frequency response (CFR) from group to group, which lead to severe error ﬂoor in FSCs. Differential SF trellis codes (DSFTCs) presented in [10], can obtain rate-one (1 symbol per subcarrier), spatial diversity, and a simple decoding comManuscript received March 23, 2010; revised July 20, 2010; accepted September 11, 2010. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was X. Wang. J. Flores and J. Sánchez are with the Department of Electronic and Telecommunications, CICESE Research Center, 3918 Carr. TijuanaEnsenada Zona Playitas , Ensenada, B. C. 22860 México (e-mail: {jtroncos, jasan}@cicese.mx). H. Jafarkhani is with the Center for Pervasive Communications & Computing, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 USA (e-mail: hamidj@uci.edu). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TWC.2010.102210.100463

S

plexity. Even though the DSFTCs increase the coding gain, the error ﬂoor is still signiﬁcant. The differential codes proposed in this letter, called differential quasi-orthogonal SF trellis codes (DQOSFTCs), solve these drawbacks. The proposed DQOSFTCs achieve high coding gain, and are capable of exploiting both spatial and frequency diversity over a MIMO-OFDM system with lack of CSI at the transmitter and at the receiver. In order to guarantee both rate-one and full-diversity, we use the structure of the generalized quasi-orthogonal space-time block code (QOSTBC) derived in [13]. We stress, however, that the construction in [13] does not take into account the coding gain, and it is not suitable for differential encoded process. In summary, the contributions of this letter are the following: 1) In order to get rate-one and high-coding gain, we obtain a sufﬁcient number of full-diversity unitary quasi-orthogonal codes, and following a similar procedure as in [14], we perform set partitioning. Then, we systematically design the unitary quasi-orthogonal SF trellis codes (QOSFTCs). 2) We propose to perform the differential encoding in 2 ways: a) over the frequency domain, b) over the time domain. 3) According to the number of orthogonal matrices (subblocks) within a QOSFTC, we divide the OFDM subcarriers into equidistant groups. In addition, we take advantage of orthogonality of the inner subblocks of the QOSFTCs, by using a simple Maximum-Likelihood (ML) decoder without requiring CSI at the receiver, which is formed by a differential decoder and a Viterbi decoder. Therefore, we obtain a simple differential encoding process, and the assumption of a constant CFR from group to group can be relaxed. Besides being computationally efﬁcient and easy to implement, we show through numerical simulations that in the presence of FSCs, our proposed codes signiﬁcantly outperform the existing DSFTCs. II. S YSTEM M ODEL Consider a system implemented with 𝑀𝑡 transmit and 𝑀𝑟 receive antennas. We assume no spatial fading correlation exists between antennas. Each transmit antenna employs an 𝑁 subcarrier OFDM modulator. We denote the transmitted space¯ 𝑡 = frequency code at the 𝑡th OFDM symbol period by C ] [ 𝑡 𝑇 𝑡 𝑁 ×𝑀𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 , where c𝑖 = [𝑐𝑖 (1)𝑐𝑖 (2) . . . 𝑐𝑖 (𝑁 )] c1 . . . c𝑀𝑡 ∈ C is transmitted from the 𝑖th antenna (𝑖 = 1 . . . 𝑀𝑡 ), and 𝑐𝑡 𝑖 (𝑛) is the complex data transmitted at the 𝑛th subcarrier (𝑛 = 1, . . . , 𝑁 ); superscript (⋅)𝑇 denotes the vector transpose and C𝑛×𝑚 represents the complex ﬁeld of dimension 𝑛 × 𝑚. ¯ 𝑡 satisﬁes the power constraint 𝐸 ∥C ¯ 𝑡 ∥2 = 𝑁 , Moreover, C 𝐹 2 where 𝐸 ∥⋅∥𝐹 is the Frobenius norm. In order to avoid the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) which is produced by the multipath delay of the channel, a cyclic preﬁx with the proper length is added to each OFDM symbol.

c 2010 IEEE 1536-1276/10$25.00 ⃝

. we assume that 𝑁 = 2𝐿𝑝 for some integer 𝑝. Then.𝑘 (Sℓ )C𝑖.𝑘 ∈ C is given by { 𝑘 = 0 I2 . (1) 𝑁 𝑙=0 𝑛 identity matrix and superscript (⋅)𝐻 denotes the conjugate transpose.𝑘 differential encoded matrix to be transmitted at the 𝑡th OFDM symbol period.𝑗 (𝑙) at delay 𝜏𝑙 is a complex 2 Gaussian random variable with zero mean and variance 𝜎𝑙 . . 𝑆2 ) . 𝑆2𝐿 ) ¯ ∈ C2𝐿×2𝐿 . . Let us consider the general class of QOSTBC deﬁned in [13] as ⎛ ⎞ A(𝑆1 . the information codewords to be transmitted must be ¯ = I2𝐿 . D IFFERENTIAL SF T RELLIS C ODED M ODULATION In this section. 𝑖. where 𝑩 𝑖. 𝑘 = 0. 𝑆2𝑙 ) = √ A(𝑆2𝑙−1 . 2) DT: In this case we assume that the channel is quasistatic over one OFDM symbol period and slowly varies ¯ 𝑡 ∈ C2𝐿×2 be the between adjacent OFDM symbols. which is a reasonable assumption if 𝑁 is large enough. Since U𝑖 is a unitary matrix. we derive the rate-one unitary QOSTBC construction. Then. . and describe two differential encoding designs. In the differential encoder. .2𝐿 ).𝑗 (𝑛) + 𝒩𝑗 (𝑛). . 𝑆𝑦 . . . .1 . B. Then. ℓ = 1.𝑘 (Sℓ )C𝑖. (2) III.𝑘−1 (Sℓ ). . 0 ⎟ . we exploit the independence of the orthogonal matrices in (5) by partitioning the total 𝑁 subcarriers into 𝐿 groups of subcarriers. . 𝐿. . we use the symbol Sℓ to denote the pairwise (𝑆2ℓ−1 . . ∑𝐿−1 2 For normalization purposes 𝑙=0 𝜎𝑙 = 1.𝑘 2𝐿 For convenience. . 𝑆2𝐿 ) ⌊ ⌋ ¯ 𝑡 ∈ C2𝐿×2𝐿 . ..𝑘 (𝑆2𝑙−1 . . 𝐿. . Note that the essential structure of the QOSTBC derived in [13] is preserved by the unitary matrix deﬁned in (5). The CFR at the 𝑛th subcarrier between transmit antenna 𝑖 and receive antenna 𝑗 is expressed as ( ) 𝐿 −1 ∑ 𝑛𝛿𝑙 𝐻𝑖. Thus. ⎟ . Similar to the method in [14]. Assuming perfect sampling time and carrier synchronization at the receiver. (3) . and the encoding process is performed again to obtain a frame with 𝐾 codewords. A(𝑆2𝐿−1 . . where 𝑙 = 1.𝑗 (𝑙 )𝛿 (𝑡 − 𝜏𝑙 ). 𝑑𝑖. 𝑨 denotes the Alamouti code [15] for any indeterminate symbols 𝑆𝑥 . 2. . ¯ = √1 ⎜ . We also consider that the correlation between adjacent subcarriers is high. 𝐿. Then. . 𝑆𝑦 ) where space goes horizontally. Unitary quasi-orthogonal block codes The ﬁrst stage of information processing in the transmitter is the trellis encoder.: DIFFERENTIAL QUASI-ORTHOGONAL SPACE-FREQUENCY TRELLIS CODES 3621 We assume that the channel impulse response (CIR) between the transmit antenna 𝑖 and receive antenna 𝑗 has 𝐿 independent delay paths on each OFDM symbol and an arbitrary power delay proﬁle.𝑘 (𝑆1 . 𝑖 = 0. The 𝑘 th transmit codeword is generated as { I2 . In order to support a data rate of 𝑅. where 𝛿𝑙 = 𝜏𝑙 /𝑇𝑠 is the 𝑙th path delay normalized and 𝑇𝑠 is the sampling rate of the OFDM system.FLORES et al. we propose encoding differentially over the frequency domain (DF). 𝑨 ⎝ ⎠ .𝑘 . . . . . it is necessary for a sequence of 𝑅𝑀𝑡 𝐿 information bits to pick a codeword as (3) at each state of the trellis encoder. and A(𝑆𝑥 . . . depending on the input information bits and the current state in the trellis encoder. . . For the sake of providing the required cardinality 𝑨 ∣𝒪∣ = 2𝑅𝑀𝑡 𝐿 . we deﬁne the 𝑘 th unitary codeword sent at period 𝑡 from a trellis encoder as ⎞ ⎛ 𝑡 0 B𝑖. where 𝜏𝑙 represents the 𝑙 th path delay. 𝑆2ℓ ). 𝑆2 ) . . 𝑩 ⎠ . . . We also show the systematic construction for the rate-one ¯ 𝑡 .𝑗 (𝑡) = ∑𝐿−1 𝑙=0 𝛼𝑖. .. the differential encoder sends C0 𝑖. we consider a scenario with 𝑀𝑡 = 2 transmit antennas. and each fading coefﬁcient 𝛼𝑖. . we can write the inner orthogonal matrices as 1 B𝑖 (𝑆2𝑙−1 . then 𝑩 ¯ 𝑖 ¯ 𝑖 = 𝑨 output as 𝑩 is also a unitary matrix. Let 𝑪 𝑖. removing the cyclic preﬁx and FFT processing. DQOSFTCs and the transmitted codeword C A. Let us denote by O the set of all unitary codewords ¯. . ¯ 𝑡 = ⎜ . 𝑡 ≥ 1. after matched ﬁltering. . B𝑖.𝑘 (Sℓ ) = (7) 𝑡−1 𝑡 B𝑖. OU𝑀 }. . (5) ⎝ .𝑗 (𝑛) = 𝛼𝑖. 𝑆2𝑙 ) = I2 for all 𝑘 = 0. where for the sake of brevity. 1) DF: We consider that the channel remains constant during one OFDM symbol period and changes independently from symbol to symbol. At the beginning of the transmission (𝑡 = 0). 2𝐿 0 . which must have a cardinality of ∣𝒪∣ = 2𝑅𝑀𝑡 𝐿 . such that 𝑨 . the signal at 𝑗 th receive antenna and 𝑛th subcarrier is given by 𝑡 (𝑛) = 𝑟𝑗 𝑀𝑡 ∑ 𝑖=1 𝑡 where 𝑁𝑗 (𝑛) is a circularly symmetric zero-mean and unitvariance Gaussian noise term at the 𝑡th symbol duration. 𝑑𝑖. . 𝑆2𝑙 ) diag(𝑑𝑖.𝑘 (Sℓ ) = 𝑡 𝑡 B𝑖. and over the time domain (DT) as follows. 𝑘 ≥ 1. and 𝐾 = 𝑁 . such that 𝒪 = {OU0 . . 𝑀 and diag(⋅) denotes a diagonal matrix.2𝑙 ). C𝑡 (6) 𝑖. . which is denoted as ℎ𝑖. we express an information codeword from the trellis encoder ¯U𝑖 . deﬁned as the number of bits per subcarrier use (b/s/Hz). in the sequel. therefore the full-diversity of 𝑀𝑡 𝑀𝑟 𝐿 is still maintained.2𝑙−1 . 𝐾 − 1. 2𝐿 (4) where 𝑙 = 1. . . 𝑑𝑖. . there is a transition towards the next state in the trellis. 𝑡 𝑡 𝑐𝑡 𝑖 (𝑛)𝐻𝑖.𝑗 (𝑙) exp −𝑗 2𝜋 .𝑘 (Sℓ ). In order to perform differential encoding keeping multipath diversity. . 1. a codeword is selected from a constellation of possible unitary-QOSTBCs. 2. Due to the diagonal structure of (3). 𝑡 = 0 𝑡 C𝑖. we denote as 𝒪 the set of all possible information codewords. 1 . . .𝑘 (𝑆2𝐿−1 . . 1. the 2𝐿×2 ¯ 𝑡 recursive construction of the unitary codeword 𝑪 𝑖.2 . Furthermore. . where I𝑛 is the 𝑛 × ¯𝐻 𝑨 unitary matrices. 𝐾 − 1. . Differential modulation For simplicity. we introduce unitary rotation matrices U𝑖 = diag(𝑑𝑖. 𝑡 0 . in the interest of performing differential encoding after trellis encoding.

Then. ˜3 ). .𝐾 −1 (𝑆2𝐿−1 . ( ) ii) The minimum of the determinant det D𝐻 D ∀ 𝐶1 ∕= 𝐶2 corresponds to the coding gain distance (CGD) and must be maximized. 𝜙2 = 𝜋/4} for the 128 unitary codewords belonging to set O. 𝑆 ) . ⋅⋅⋅ 𝑇 𝑡 𝑇 C𝑡 𝑖. 𝜙2 = 0} for the 128 unitary codewords that belong to set P. C. In Fig. 𝑠 ˜4 ). we asume that the system employs a 𝜋 QPSK constellation. it is noteworthy that the method described here can be extended in a straightforward way to 𝐿 > 2. −𝑗. 1.0 (𝑆3 . 𝑆4 ) . i. 𝐿 = 2. Moreover. we propose rate-one differential QOSFTC designs for two transmit antennas. . Differential QOSFTCs . and the CGD between all pairs of codewords must be the largest CGD. we map ¯ 𝑡 the codeword 𝑪 𝑖. 2) Design criteria: Here we borrow the design criteria for differential space-time-frequency codes of [7]. In addition. and Φ1 = {𝜙1 = 𝜋/4. C𝑖. respectively. 𝑆3 = (𝑠1 − 𝑠 ˜3 ). 𝑠𝑖 = 𝑒𝑗 2 𝑚 denotes a QPSK symbol. According to the current state and the 8 input bits. However. the minimum CGD between codewords at each level of an optimal set partitioning must be maximized. 𝑠2 belong ˜4 belong to the rotated to a M-PSK constellation 𝒜. DECEMBER 2010 Afterwards. .0 (𝑆1 . in order to get a data rate of 𝑅 = 2 b/s/Hz. (8) Fig.0 (𝑆2𝐿−1 . 2. 3) Set partitioning: Note that the codeword structure in (5) guarantees the full diversity criterion. 𝑆2𝐿 ) ]𝑇 ¯ 𝑡 ∈ ℂ𝑁 ×2 . where C D. In the sequel. Set partitioning for sets O and P using QPSK. C𝑡 𝐿 = 2. Then. respectively. Due to the lack of space.e. Fig. 1. . 𝑠2 ) ∈ 𝒜𝑒𝑗𝜙 and (˜ 𝑠3 . 1 shows the set partitioning for sets 𝒪 and 𝒫 with QPSK.𝑘 Full-diversity and high-coding gain QOSFTCs with different number of states can be systematically designed using both the corresponding set partitioning and the design rules described above. C𝑖. VOL. PU1 } such that ∣𝒫∣ = 256. 12. . In order to avoid expanding the original QPSK constellation. Also.3622 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS. where 𝑠1 . we ﬁrst perform the differential encoding using (6) or (7). we get another set of 128 different unitary codewords called P. OU1 } and ∣𝒪∣ = 256. Let 𝜙1 and 𝜙2 be the rotation angles 𝑠3 . Due to the symmetry in (5). . −𝑗. 1). 𝑇 𝑡 𝑇 C𝑡 𝑖. With numerical search. we must assign codewords diverging (or merging) into a state such that both difference matrices have full rank. 𝑠 constellation 𝒜𝑒𝑗𝜙 . Then. 𝑆2𝐿 ) . 1). U1 such that 𝒪 = {OU0 . encoder builds the 𝑘 th codeword 𝑩 𝑖. ¯ 𝑡 . As a consequence. the design criteria for the codewords in set 𝒪 or 𝒫 must be satisﬁed. 3} represents the index of the corresponding QPSK symbol. respectively. we obtain only 128 unitary codewords in O. at the 𝑡th OFDM symbol period SF code as in (8) for [ we form a 𝑇 𝑇 ¯ 𝑡 = C𝑡 ( 𝑆 . let 𝜙 = 𝜋/𝑀 be the optimal rotation that provides the maximum coding gain for the code in (5) [13]. C𝑖. Thus. 𝑆2 ) . 4) Differential trellis encoding: We now show how to use the proposed set partitioning schemes to systematically design rate-one full-diversity differential QOSFTCs. and (b) 퓟 with Φ1 .𝐾 −1 (𝑆1 . 𝑆2 ) . the trellis ¯ 𝑡 ∈ {𝒪. 1. 𝑠 ˜4 ) ∈ 𝒜. In order to design a trellis code.0 𝑖. for the symbols (𝑠1 . while Fig. 3 we propose 4-state and 8-state trellises containing branches with 64 and 32 parallel transitions. if (𝑠1 . 2. such that C 1 2 𝑖. each set 𝒪 and 𝒫 contains 256 rate-one fulldiversity unitary quasi-orthogonal codes using QPSK. Moreover.𝑘 to the OFDM-subcarrier groups. which are identical to those proposed for differential super-orthogonal space-time trellis codes over ﬂat channels in [11]. where 𝑚 = {0. 𝑆2 ) . 𝒫} based on (5). Thus. Fig. 𝑠2 ) and (˜ we assign Φ0 = {𝜙1 = 0. U1 = diag(1. assuming a two-path fading channel model. . 𝑆4 ) . Therefore. we only show the ﬁnal set partitioning. we need to search for the optimal values of U𝑖 (𝑖 = 0. In what follows. we obtain the optimal matrices U0 = diag(−1. 9. NO. Subcarrier assignment After picking the unitary codeword (5) from the trellis encoder output and the differential encoding process. 2 shows a partial set partitioning for O and P. and 𝑠 ˜3 . we express a SF construction for two transmit antennas and 𝐿 subcarrier groups as [ 𝑇 𝑡 𝑇 ¯ 𝑡 = C𝑡 C 𝑖. A key concept is that those codewords that do not belong to the same set are assigned to different states.𝑘 DF-QOSFTC or a DT-QOSFTC. . we partition the sets following a procedure similar to the procedure in [14]. we obtain a new set 𝒫 = {PU0 . we need two unitary matrices U0 .𝐾 −1 (𝑆3 . 1.𝐾 −1 (𝑆1 . . −1). in order to build a After constructing the codeword 𝑩 𝑖. Final set partitioning of sets (a) 퓞 with Φ0 . the differentially encoded matrices are mapped to the same subblock of two adjacent time domain OFDM symbols. 1) Codeword sets: Let 𝑆1 = (𝑠1 + 𝑠 𝑆2 = (𝑠2 + 𝑠 ˜4 ) and 𝑆4 = (𝑠2 − 𝑠 ˜4 ) be the symbols transmitted in (5) by setting 𝐿 = 2. Therefore. Let 𝐶1 and 𝐶2 be two codewords as deﬁned in (5) so that: i) Full diversity is achieved if the difference matrix D = 𝐶1 − 𝐶2 has full rank over all possible pairs of distinct codewords 𝐶1 and 𝐶2 .

5 that both DF-QOSFTC and DSFTC have a robust . We have added a comparison with coherent QOSFTCs and the result is a 3 dB difference. In order to validate the work we have carried out.0 (𝑆3 . differential schemes. independent of the actual number of taps in the system. two consecutive received OFDM symbols are required. 4 provides SER performance for the channel scenarios 1) (showed in dashed lines). which changes independently for each OFDM symbol. As can be seen from Figs. 4 and 5. 𝑆4 ) . we then compare the performance of our proposed DF-QOSFTCs and DT-QOSFTCs. with a) 𝑓𝐷𝑛 = 0. no CSI is required at the receiver. although DF-QOSFTCs also reach coding gain under the channel scenario 2a). (b) 8-state. respectively.0025 and b) 𝑓𝐷𝑛 = 0. We can see in Fig. Thus. achieve the full-diversity order of 4. they suffer a diversity loss. 𝑆4 ) 10 SNR [dB] 20 22 24 26 28 30 E. S IMULATION R ESULTS In this section. 𝑖. Fig.0125. 4 shows that the DF-QOSFTCs and DT-QOSFTCs over channel scenarios 1) and 2a). respectively. which correspond to mobile speeds of 6 and 30 m/s. Fig. Note that to perform differential decoding for the DT-QOSFTCs.0125 Dn 10 −4 8−state Coherent 8−state DSFTC [10] 8−state DF−QOSFTC 8−state DT−QOSFTC 12 14 16 18 10 SNR [dB] 20 22 24 26 28 30 Fig. 𝑆2𝑙 ). It is worth mentioning that both. 10 0 OFDM Symbol Error Rate (SER) 10 −1 10 −2 10 −3 TU fDn=0.. SER performance for 𝑅 =2 b/s/Hz under the TU power delay proﬁle. orthogonality and independence of the inner building matrices in the proposed codes. a single receive antenna. 5. our proposed codes all considerably outperform the existing DSFTC. The delay between these 2 paths is one OFDM sample duration. ] 𝑇 𝑇 C𝑡 . 10 −5 𝑇 C𝑡 𝑖. However. We add a cyclic preﬁx of 20 𝜇s to avoid the ISI. we compare the performance of the 8-state proposed codes versus existing 8-state DSFTC by varying 𝑓𝐷𝑛 . to that of the 8-state DSFTC in [10]. IV. and a total bandwidth of 1 MHz. comprised by the differential decoder derived in [3] and a Viterbi decoder. make it possible to simplify the complexity of the decoding process by separating the decoding of these subblocks. which is based on group codes with the same rate 𝑅 =2 b/s/Hz. The proposed differential codes are decoded using Maximum-Likelihood (ML) decoding.0025 8−state Coherent 8−state DSFTC [10] 4−state DF−QOSFTC 8−state DF−QOSFTC 4−state DT−QOSFTC 8−state DT−QOSFTC 12 14 16 18 10 −4 Fig. We assume a 128-tone OFDM system with two transmit antennas. at high SNRs.. we adopt a typical urban (TU) six-path power delay proﬁle. Next. and 2a) (showed in solid lines). To properly model an FSC. Note that we have designed codes for 𝐿 = 2 and therefore the maximum achievable diversity is four.: DIFFERENTIAL QUASI-ORTHOGONAL SPACE-FREQUENCY TRELLIS CODES 0 3623 10 OFDM Symbol Error Rate (SER) 10 −1 10 −2 2−ray uniform 10 −3 TU fDn=0. We simulate the system over the following channel scenarios: 1) A quasi-static channel with 2-path uniform power delay proﬁle. 2) The channel is quasi-static over one OFDM symbol period and slowly changes between adjacent OFDM symbols by varying the normalized Doppler frequencies 𝑓𝐷𝑛 . This is because the success of the DFQOSFTCs depends on a high correlation between adjacent subcarriers. 3. respectively. This effect can be mitigated either by increasing the number of subcarriers or implementing codes for 𝐿 > 2.0025 TU f =0. 4. In order to estimate the information subblock B𝑡 𝑖. as happens with most well-designed Fig. ML Decoder The successful differential decoding of the proposed DFQOSFTCs and DT-QOSFTCs depends on the assumption that the fading channel remains constant over at least four adjacent subcarriers or two successive OFDM symbols. The performance curves are described by means of OFDM symbol error rate (SER) versus the receive SNR. we provide simulation results for the performance of the differential QOSFTCs proposed. QOSTFTCs using QPSK (a) 4-state.FLORES et al.𝑘 (𝑆2𝑙−1 . the number of subcarrier groups is increased leading to a better multipathdiversity gain. SER performance for 𝑅 =2 b/s/Hz under the 2-ray and TU power delay proﬁles. which is not preserved in hostile FSCs.𝐾 −1 (𝑆3 .

5. 23. Simulation results show that." IEEE Trans. and K. pp. In addition. compared to the existing DSFTC. Liu. Hochwald and W. pp. because of the differences between the channel gain of subcarrier groups for adjacent OFDM symbols. C. “Super-orthogonal space-time trellis codes. [8] Y. Nov. Sep. no. Sep. “High rate trellis coded differential unitary space-time modulation via super unitarity. 12." IEEE Trans. but it is straightforward to design similar codes for more than two taps. signiﬁcant gains can be achieved by increasing the number of states in a DT-QOSFTC and the simple decoding complexity is hold. Oct. “Differential space-time modulation. Z. no. 46. [11] Y. vol. Dec. 5. 2006.. and K. [14] H. “Differential super-orthogonal space-time trellis codes. 7. Liu. Jafarkhani. vol. Ma." IEEE Trans.. 36343643. Sel. is at the expense of increased decoding complexity. Dec. In addition. Inf. pp. VOL. Sel. [13] F. 2041-2052. K. R. Dec. 2006. Borgmann and H. 49. NO. 3305-3314. vol. Su. Wireless Commun. Signal Process. 554-558. pp. W. “Differential space-frequency trellis codes. Nevertheless. the DT-QOSFTC notably outperforms all other codes. 2005. no. Areas Commun. unlike differential and noncoherent SF schemes in the literature." IEEE Trans. Teh. 12. Wireless Commun. 3350-3354. Tepedelenlioglu. vol. Moreover. The proposed differential codes have been designed based on a generalized class of unitary quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes. Wireless Commun. C. Theory. Bölcskei. [6] M. “Towards maximum achievable diversity in space. However. 1847-1857. Furthermore. 2664-2668. vol.. 48. vol. [3] B. [15] S. The provided examples have only been able to achieve a maximum diversity order of four with two transmit antennas. 8. no. “Quasi-orthogonal space-frequency and space-time-frequency block codes for MIMO OFDM channels. J. our proposed codes achieve full-diversity and high-coding gain over practical FSCs. Zhu and H. no.. our proposed codes achieve rate one and can be designed in a simple systematic way. 16. vol. 2006. “A simple transmit diversity scheme for wireless communications. and L. 2000. Jafarkhani. “Differential space-timefrequency coded OFDM with maximum multipath diversity. vol." IEEE Trans. no. Tao. pp. vol. pp. 17991810. V. Inf. [4] B. Areas Commun. Moreover. 1998. 2000. Jafarkhani and N. Also by trellis encoding and grouping of OFDM-subcarriers. and frequency: performance analysis and code design... pp. 4. 4." IEEE Trans. and two transmit antennas. no. and Z." IEEE J. IEEE VTC Spring. DECEMBER 2010 performance in the case of time-varying channels. 1. [9] T. Safar." IEEE Trans. no. Wireless Commun. July 2000.. “A differential detection scheme for transmit diveristy. [2] V. “Single-block differential transmit scheme for broadband wireless MIMO-OFDM systems. pp. pp. This. 54. Thibault. no. time. Oct. Liu. [10] Z. 2005." IEEE J. Li." IEEE Trans. “Noncoherent space-frequency codes for broadband MIMO systems over frequency-selective fading channels. “Differential unitary space-time modulation. Jafarkhani. 4. Wireless Commun. “Noncoherent space-frequency coded MIMO-OFDM. allows a reduced encoding and decoding complexity. L. of course. Jafarkhani. July 2005. vol. the transmission efﬁciency for the DT-QOSFTCs is greater than that achieved in the frequency domain by for example DF-QOSFTCs and DSFTC. no.. [7] Q. 1451-1458. no. C ONCLUSIONS We have proposed rate-one differential space-frequency trellis codes for MIMO-OFDM systems. 5. pp. Jan. Fazel and H. Tarokh and H. vol. Apr. the proposed codes provide better performance in simulated channel scenarios. and K. vol. 2008. Theory. . 9. the independence of inner orthogonal matrices in the proposed codes. pp." IEEE J. 7. “Differential modulation based on quasiorthogonal codes. pp. 2005. 5. 6. time variations of the channel affect the diversity of the DTQOSFTC. 2232-2243. 2008. pp. [12] Q. 10. 2006. R EFERENCES [1] W. Wireless Commun. [5] M. Himsoon. Hughes.3624 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS." IEEE Trans. Sep. Zhu and H. Wireless Commun. Zhang. vol. 184-192. 4. Alamouti. 18... 937-950. pp. Seshadri. Li. Sweldens. 12. 9. where CSI is not available at the transmitter and at the receiver. no. Wireless Commun.. 1169-1174. 3018-3030. no." IEEE Trans.. we obtain a reduced decoding delay. Sel. Nov. 9. 12. 7. 2003. H. because the differentially encoded codewords are transmitted within one OFDM symbol period." IEEE Trans. Su." in Proc. 4. Hong. pp. 2567-2578. no. under practical fading channels. L. Areas Commun. vol.

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