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What is a typical NodeB sensitivity level?

The service and load determines the NodeB sensitivity; in general, in a no-load condition, the sensitivity is between -115dBm to -125dBm. For Ericsson, the NodeB sensitivity level is calc lated at aro nd! "#12.2! %#-&$! %#-12(! %#-)($! -12$ dBm -11' dBm -115 dBm -115 dBm

What is a typical UE sensitivity level? The service and load determines the *E sensitivity; in general, in no-load condition, the sensitivity is between -1+5dBm and -12+dBm. For Ericsson, the *E sensitivity level is calc lated at aro nd! "#12.2! %#-&$! %#-12(! %#-)($! ,#-%.! -11' dBm -112 dBm -11+ dBm -1+5 dBm -'5 dBm

What is a typical NodeB maximum output power? The ma/im m NodeB o t0 t 0ower is s ally 2+1 or $+1, that is, $)dBm or $&dBm. What is UE maximum transmit power in your link budget? 21dBm. What is a typical antenna gain? The antenna gain de0ends on antenna model; in lin2 b dget we se aro nd 13dBi. What is a typical maximum path loss? The ma/im m 0ath loss is de0endent on the service and vendor recommendations; ty0ically it is in between 1)5 to 1$+dB 4or rban areas and between 15+ to 1&+dB 4or r ral areas. What is difference between dBi and dBd? dBi is the gain in dB 4rom isotro0ic so rce; dBd is the gain 4rom a di0ole so rce. dBd 5 2.15 6 dBi.

What is the difference between dB and dBm? dBm is a nit o4 0ower level, meas red in milli-watts in logarithm scale, that is, dBm 6 1+ 7 log8171+++9 where 1 is the 0ower in 1atts dB is not a nit, it is the di44erence in dBm. What is 0dBm? +dBm 6 1 milli-watt. ow does !"# work? . T:. red ces system noise, im0roves 0lin2 sensitivity and leads to longer *E battery li4e. #ensitivity is the minim m in0 t 0ower needed to get a s itable signal-to-noise ratio 8#N;9 at the o t0 t o4 the receiver. <t is determined by receiver noise 4ig re, thermo noise 0ower and re= ired #N;. Thermo noise 0ower is determined by bandwidth and tem0erat re, #N; is determined by mod lation techni= e, there4ore the only variable is noise 4ig re. The cascading noise 4ig re can be calc lated by Friis e= ation 8,erald Friis9! NFt 6 NF1 5 8NF2-19>?1 5 8NF)-19>8?17?29 5 ... 5 8NFi-19>8?17?27...7?i9 .s the e= ation shows, the 4irst bloc2 im0oses the minim m and the most 0rominent noise 4ig re on the system, and the 4ollowing bloc2s im0oses less and less im0act to the system 0rovided the gains are 0ositive. @inear 0assive devices have noise 4ig re e= al to their loss. . T:. ty0ically has a gain o4 12dB. There are ty0ically to0 A m0er, main 4eeder and a bottom A m0er between antenna and BT#. . T:. 0laced near antenna with a short A m0er 4rom antenna 0rovides the best noise 4ig re im0rovement B the noise 4ig re will be restricted to the to0 A m0er loss 8NF19 and T:. 88NF2-19>?19, and the remaining bloc2s 8main 4eeder and bottom A m0er9 have little e44ect. To s mmariCe, a T:. has a gain thatDs close to 4eeder loss. What are the pros and cons $advantages and disadvantages% of !"#? En the 0side, a T:. red ces system noise, im0roves 0lin2 sensitivity and leads to longer *E battery li4e. En the downside, T:. im0oses an additional insertion loss 8ty0ically +.5dB9 on the downlin2 and increases site installation and maintenance com0le/ity. What is typical !"# gain? T:. ty0ically has a 12 dB gain; however, the e44ective gain comes 4rom noise 4ig re red ction and the gain is close or e= ivalent to the 4eeder loss.

Why !"# are installed at the top near the antenna and not the bottom near the NodeB? Based on Friis E= ation, having a T:. near the BT# will have the to0 A m0er and main 4eeder losses 8noise 4ig res9 cascaded in and a T:. will not be able to hel0 s 00ress the losses. What is U"!& chip rate? ).($:,C. What is processing gain? %rocessing gain is the ratio o4 chi0 rate over data bit rate, s ally re0resented in decibel 8dB9 scale. For e/am0le, with ).($:,C chi0 rate and 12.22 data rate, the 0rocessing gain is! %?12.22 6 1+ 7 log 8),($+,+++ > 12,2++9 6 25dB What are the processing gains for '& and (& services? "#12.2! %#-&$! %#-12(! %#-)($! ,#-%.! 25dB 1(dB 15dB 1+dB 2dB

ow to calculate maximum number of users on a cell? To calc late the ma/im m n mber o4 sers 8M9 on a cell, we need to 2now! W! chi0 rate 84or *:T# ),($+,+++ chi0s 0er second9 EbNo! Eb>No re= irement 8ass ming )dB 4or "#-12.229 i! other-cell to in-cell inter4erence ratio 8ass ming &+F9 R! ser data rate 8ass ming 12,2++ 2b0s 4or "#-12.229 G! loading 4actor 8ass ming 5+F9 Ta2e 12.22b0s as e/am0le! : 6 1 > 8EnNo 7 81 5 i9 7 ;9 7 G 6 ),($+,+++ 8) 7 81 5 +.&9 7 12,2++9 7 +.5 6 )2.( The n mber o4 sers co ld also be hard-limited by EH#F code s0ace. Ta2e "#12.22 4or e/am0le! a. . "#-12.22 bearer needs 1 #F12( code. b. Total available codes 4or "#-12.22 6 12( B 2 81 #F&$9 B 2 8$ #F25&9 6 12$. c. "onsider so4t-handover 4actor o4 1.( and loading 4actor o4 5+F! 12$ > 1.( 7.+5 6 )$ ers>cell.

are they different? <o 6 own cell inter4erence 5 s rro nding cell inter4erence 5 noise density No 6 s rro nding cell inter4erence 5 noise density That is. Technically Ec><o sho ld be the correct meas rement b t.atio B the ratio o4 the energy in dedicated 0hysical control channel bits to the 0ower density o4 inter4erence and noise a4ter dis0reading. <n *:T#. averaged over 512 chi0s. "# is real-time and cannot tolerate delay so it needs a higher Eb>No to maintain a stronger .#"% stands 4or . i4 Eb>No is 5dB and 0rocessing gain is 25dB then the #<. ty0ically "# is 5 to &dB and %# is ) to $dB B %# is abo t 2dB lower. itsel49. Ec>No and Ec><o are o4ten sed interchangeably. Eb>No 6 %rocessing ?ain 5 #<.F lin2. o4 its own cell. I En the downlin2. Why is Eb)No re*uirement lower for (& than for '&? %# has a better error correction ca0ability and can tiliCe retransmission. . d e to e= i0ment ca0ability.What is Eb)No? By de4inition Eb>No is energy bit over noise density. &ometimes we say Ec)+o and sometimes we say Ec)No.e. there4ore it can a44ord to a lower Eb>No. What is &+-? #<. <o is the total received 0ower density incl ding "%<".8Signal to interference ratio) For e/am0le. i. 8"ommon %ilot "hannel 9to the total received 0ower density 8incl ding "%<". is the #ignal-to-<nter4erence . is the ratio o4 the energy 0er in4ormation bit to the 0ower s0ectral density 8o4 inter4erence and noise9 a4ter dis0reading. What is Ec)+o? Ec><o is the ratio o4 the energy 0er chi0 in "%<". o4 its own cell. What are the Eb)No targets in your design? The Eb>No targets are de0endent on the service! I En the 0lin2. Ec>No is act ally meas red. No is the total received 0ower density e/cl ding "%<". What is -&'(? .eceived #ignal "ode %ower B the energy 0er chi0 in "%<". sho ld be -2+dB or better. ty0ically "# has & to 3dB and %# is 5 to &dB B %# is abo t 1dB lower.

. 2.ctivity 4actor 8ass ming 5+F9 %ole "a0acity 6 81>. . &$.#>E?-?E coverage9.9 > 881.$ 8-@9. %#-)($2 has only 12(2 on the 0lin2. ..& 8*@9.T handover. there4ore the 0lin2 ca0acity is the same 4or both. 1hen the 0lin2 noise a00roaches in4inity then no more sers can be added to a cell B and the cell loading is close to 1++F and has reached its J0ole ca0acityK. ow many types of handovers are there in U"!&? #o4t handover. I %#-)($2! 1&.What is the loading factor in your design? The designed loading ty0ically is 5+F.9 > 8815f9 7 . (&/34.& To calc late the downlin2 0ole ca0acity we also need to 2now! α! downlin2 channels orthogonality 4actor 8ass ming 55F9 %ole "a0acity 6 81>. I %#-&$2! )$. inter-. (.F! . 12. so4ter handover.e.N" selects the better signal coming 4rom m lti0le NodeB.T cell change 8*E moving o t o4 *:T# coverage into ?#:>?%. sometimes a carrier may want to design 0 to 35F load.($+. I #o4t handover 0lin2! .( 8-@9.+++ chi0s 0er second9 R! ser data rate 8ass ming 12. to calc late the 0lin2 0ole ca0acity we need to 2now! W! chi0 rate 84or *:T# ).( 8*@9. i.F 7 1+L8EbNo>1+99 6 12+.N" 0er4orms selection combining. :athematically. ow does soft)softer handover work? I #o4t>so4ter handover downlin2! *E ra2e receiver 0er4orms ma/im m ratio combining.2++ 2b0s 4or "#-12. What is soft handover and softer handover? I #o4t handover! when a *E is connected to cells owned by di44erent NodeB. *E combines m lti-0ath signals and 4orm a stronger signal. (&/015 and (&/654? 1ith same ass m0tions as above! I "#-12.2 8*@9.+& What is typical pole capacity for '&/0121.(8-@9.ive a simple definition of pole capacity? The 0lin2 noise increases with the loading e/0onentially. however.22! 12+. inter.2 8*@9..α 5f9 7 1+L8EbNo>1+99 6 &$. i.e.229 f! other-cell to in-cell inter4erence ratio 8ass ming &5F9 EbNo! Eb>No re= irement 8ass ming 5dB9 . inter-4re= ency handover. I %#-12(2! 1&.1 8-@9. I #o4ter handover! when a *E is connected to cells owned by the same NodeB.

By maintaining m lti0le lin2s each lin2 co ld transmit at a lower 0ower.ed ced *E 0ower 8 0 $dB9.ed ced Node B 0ower which in t rn decreases inter4erence and increases ca0acity. <n lin2 b dget. +dB 8-@9.dvantages! I Evercome 4ading thro gh macro diversity. -isadvantages! I *E sing several radio lin2s re= ires more channeliCation codes. "#-12. i.22! )dB 8*@9.F lin2s. 1hen m lti-0ath signals arriving at a *E. I . the constr ctive and destr ctive 0hases create a variation in signal strength. I -ownlin2 load sharing over m lti0le . I :icro diversity gain over 4ast 4ading. slow 4ading margin is set to 31+. 1dB 8*@9. 2dB 8-@9. we need to have a margin in the lin2 b dget and they are called 4ast 4ading margin and slow 4ading margin. #low 4ading is also called shadowing. +dB 8-@9. %#-12(2! . 1hen a *E moves away 4rom a cell the signal strength dro0s down slowly. 1dB 8*@9. as a res lt o4 m lti-0ath 0ro0agation. Why is there 7soft handover gain8? #o4t handover gain comes 4rom the 4ollowing! I :acro diversity gain over slow 4ading. decreasing inter4erence and increasing battery li4e.I #o4ter handover 0lin2! NodeB 0er4orms ma/im m ratio combining. res lting in lower inter4erence there4ore a gain. What are fast fading margin and slow fading margin? To 4actor in the 4ast 4ading and slow 4ading.e. What is a typical soft handover gain in your link budget? a. NodeB ra2e receiver combines signals 4rom di44erent 0aths and 4orms a stronger signal. What are fast fading and slow fading? Fast 4ading is also called m lti-0ath 4ading. Brief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft handover? . %#-&$2! c. b. and more reso rces on the < b and < r inter4aces. I . the 4ast 4ading margin is s ally set to 2-).

and I :ore 0ower can be allocated to tra44ic channels. . incl ding "%<". lin2 0ower is ty0ically $ to 5dB below the ma/im m NodeB ma/im m o t0 t 0ower.#-%. what are the ma:or components in calculating maximum path loss. 0ower ty0ically ta2es abo t 1+F o4 the total NodeB 0ower. What is a typical Ei-( (Equivalent isotropic radiated power)? The Ei.% 6 $) B ) 5 13 6 53dBm. ow much power usually a NodeB is allocated to control channels? The 0ower allocated to control channels may de0end on e= i0ment vendor recommendation.d. 'onsider downlink only. I Etc. i4 . What is the percentage in time a UE is expected to be in soft or softer handover? Ty0ically a *E sho ld be in so4t handover mode at no more than )5 to $+F o4 the time. 8Common Pilot Channel 9 transmit 0ower.ntenna gain. in so4ter handover mode at abo t 5F o4 the time. a )dB cable and connector loss and a 13dBi antenna gain. cable and connector loss and antenna gain. .% de0ends NodeB transmit 0ower. I B ilding > vehicle 0enetration loss. I Body loss. I Ever-the-air loss. I .#-%. control channels re= ired. ow much is your &9(# $max% link power? . is de0loyed on the same carrier then the total 0ower allocated to control channel may go 0 to 25 to )+F beca se o4 the additional .. %#-)($2! 1dB 8*@9. For a 2+1 8$)dBm9 NodeB. the Ei. starting from NodeB? I NodeB "%<".#-%. is aro nd 21 8))dBm9. <n rban areas where in-b ilding coverage is ta2en care o4 by in-b ilding installations. lin2 0ower is )'dBm.#-%. 4or $)dBm ma/im m NodeB 0ower the .owever. I M m0er and 4eeder connector loss. What is a typical '(+' $'ommon (ilot 'hannel %power? "%<". Ty0ically no more than 2+F o4 the total NodeB 0ower is allocated to control channels. 1ith a sam0le system o4 $)dBm transmit 0ower. "%<". the "%<". may sometimes go as low as 5F beca se! I The coverage area is small since sers are close to the site. +dB 8-@9. For e/am0le.

what is the new path/loss if a <dB body loss is added? 125dB. Nonetheless.What is maximum path/loss? The ma/im m 0ath-loss is how m ch signal is allowed to dro0 4rom a transmitter to a receiver and maintains as good signal. <n the downlin2 the length is de4ined as between $ and 512. with a 60dBm '(+' and a /000dBm UE sensitivity. is there4ore needed in the lin2 b dget to acco nt 4or the inter4erence B and hence red ces 0ole ca0acity. channeliCation codes are m t ally orthogonal. . What is channeli=ation code? "hanneliCation codes are orthogonal codes sed to s0read the signal and hence 0rovides channel se0aration. <n the 0lin2 the length is de4ined as between $ and 25&.e. There are 512 scrambling codes on the downlin2 and millions on the 0lin2. that is. . ignoring anything in between. ow many channeli=ation codes are available? The n mber o4 channeliCation codes available is de0endent on the length o4 code. J-ownlin2 Erthogonality FactorK. why is 7>rthogonality ?actor8 re*uired in the link budget? Nes. &imple link budget. that is. 8+-39 8(-159O85+$-5119. channels 4rom the same cell are no longer 0er4ectly orthogonal and may inter4ere with each other. channeliCation codes are sed to se0arate channels 4rom a cell. #re channeli=ation codes mutually orthogonal? +f so. What is scrambling code? ow many scrambling codes there are? #crambling codes are sed to se0arate cells and *Es 4rom each other. d e to m lti-0ath with variable time delay. What is scrambling 7code group8? The 512 scrambling codes are divided into &$ code gro 0s B each code gro 0 has ( scrambling codes. what is the maximum path loss? )+ B 8B1++9 6 )+ 5 1++ 6 1)+dB. "ode gro 0 i 8i 6 + to &)9 has codes 4rom i7( to 8i5197(-1. &uppose + have a maximum path/loss of 060dBm. ty0ically 5+-&+F. i. each cell or *E sho ld have a ni= e scrambling code.

2 and %#-)($2 4or e/am0le. What is 7soft handover8 and 7softer handover8? J#o4t handoverK is when *E has connection to m lti0le cells on di44erent NodeB. . Which service usually needs higher power. The Eb>No re= irement is 3 4or "#-12. .2 than %#-)($. What is a typical handover window si=e in your network? . a higher noise rise means higher ca0acity and smaller 4oot0rint. Ty0ically the active set siCe is ). What is 7pilot pollution8? #im0ly s0ea2ing. i4 there are more than 2 cells 8besides the strongest cell9 within $dB o4 the strongest cell then there is 0ilot 0oll tion. there is J0ilot 0oll tionK in the area. That is.igher Jnoise riseK val e im0lies more sers are allowed on the networ2. What is Eb)No re*uirement for &9(#? The Eb>No re= irement 4or . The 0rocessing gain is 25 4or "#-12. the Jnoise riseK is de4ined as the ratio o4 total received wideband 0ower to the noise 0ower.9o you divide scrambling code groups into subgroups? (lease give an example2 Nes.2 and 1+ 4or %#-)($. additional noise is added to the networ2. handover window siCe is s ally between $ to &dB. <n theory. a lower noise rise means smaller ca0acity and bigger 4oot0rint. To s mmariCe. so i4 there are more than ) strong cells then there is 0ilot 0oll tion. I :icro layer gro 0! 1& code gro 0s reserved 4or micro 8in-b ilding9 sites. There4ore the 0ower re= irement is higher 4or "#-12. I E/0ansion gro 0! 2$ code gro 0s reserved 4or 4 t re e/0ansion sites. What is 7noise rise8? What does a higher noise rise mean in terms of network loading? For every new ser added to the service. This means smaller 0ath loss can be tolerated and the cell radi s is red ced. Ty0ical handover window siCe is between $ to &dB. '& or (&? "onsider downlin2 and ta2e "#-12. each new ser ca ses a Jnoise riseK. For e/am0le.#-%. we divide the &$ code gro 0s into s bgro 0s! I :acro layer gro 0! 2$ code gro 0s reserved 4or macro 8o tdoor9 sites. -e4inition o4 Jstrong cellK! 0ilots within the handover window siCe 4rom the strongest cell. ty0ically 2 4or 3&(2b0s and 5 4or 2:b0s. when the n mber o4 strong cells e/ceeds the active set siCe. varies with ser bit rate 8data rate9.2 and 5 4or %#)($. and each ser has to transmit higher 0ower to overcome the higher noise level.

J#o4ter handoverK is when *E has connection to m lti0le cells on same NodeB. "ertain idle 0eriods are created in radio 4rames 4or this 0 r0ose and is called Jcom0ressed modeK. <n a %# networ2. I "losed o ter loo0! .T handover. shall the UE power up or power down? %ower down. 9uring a handover.N" calc lates the #<.e. What is the fre*uency of power control $how fast is power control%? I E0en loo0! de0ends on 0arameter setting! . 9escribe the power control schemes in U"!&? I E0en loo0 B 4or *E to access the networ2. &uppose we are designing a '& network and a (& network.5++ times a second. ow many fingers does a UE rake receiver have? $. sed at call set 0 or initial access to set *E transmit 0ower. <n downlin2 a *E can combine signals 4rom di44erent cells.. I "losed inner loo0! NodeB sends the T%" bits to *E to increase or decrease the 0ower at 1. What is the active set si=e on your network? ). is there a ma:or difference in the design consideration? #erver dominance is the 2ey di44erence. if one cell sends a power down re*uest and two cells send a power up re*uest. What is 7compressed mode8? Be4ore *E can 0er4orm inter-4re= ency or <. there isnDt so4t handover in the downlin2 so the server dominance is very im0ortant B meaning ideally there sho ld be only one dominant server in a given area. it needs to have some time to loc2 on to the control channel o4 the other 4re= ency or system and listen to the broadcast in4ormation.s long as a good lin2 can be maintained it is not necessary to 0ower 0 in order to maintain m lti0le lin2s. im0roving the signal = ality. however. . target and sends the target to NodeB 8every 1+ms 4rame9. For 0lin2 and so4ter handover. For 0lin2 and so4t handover. i. . :aintaining nnecessary m lti0le lin2s increases noise rise and shall be avoided. <n a "# networ2 we shall limit the n mber o4 strong servers in any given area to no more than the active set siCe to avoid 0ilot 0oll tion 8in the downlin29. a NodeB combines the signal 4rom di44erent sectors.N" selects the best signal 4rom di44erent NodeB.

. res lting in less 0ower 4or other *E B there4ore cons mes more Jca0acityK. What is power control 7headroom8? %ower control JheadroomK is also called J0ower riseK. I 1ait 4or answer 4rom NodeB. I . is a shared channel on the 0lin2 sed by all *E.". I "losed inner loo0! 1. r ns o t o4 its channel elements. I Each *E m st estimate the amo nt o4 0ower to se on the access attem0t since no 4eedbac2 4rom the NodeB e/ists as it does on the dedicated channel. there4ore may enco nter contention 8collision9 d ring m lti0le ser access attem0ts and inter4ere with each other. Briefly describe why open loop power control is needed and how it works? I 1hen a *E needs to access to the networ2 it ses . . I <nitial *E transmit 0ower 6 %rimaryP"%<". Under what circumstances can a NodeB reach its capacity? What are the capacity limitations? NodeB reaches its ma/im m transmit 0ower. When in 6/way soft handover. I <4 no answer 4rom NodeB increase the 0ower. <n a non-4ading channel the *E needs to transmit a certain 4i/ed 0ower.. to begin the 0rocess. <n a 4ading chennel a *E reacts to 0ower control commands and s ally increases the transmit 0ower.P. etc. 0lin2 noise rise reaches its design target.T)++ B time to wait between . the UE with weaker link $poor -? condition% uses more 7capacity8. &uppose two UE are served by the same cell. ty0ical 15++ms9 I "losed o ter loo0! 1++ times a second.P%ower B "%<".F lin2 will re= ire NodeB to transmit higher tra44ic 0ower in order to reach the *E. I Try and try ntil s cceed or timeo t. should the UE power up or down and why? %ower down. :aintaining one good lin2 is s 44icient to s stain a call and having nnecessary stronger lin2s creates more inter4erence.#"% 5 *@P<nter4errnce 5 constantPHal eP"0rach I <nstead o4 sending the whole message."." retries 81++ms to (+++ ms. if a UE receives power down re*uest from one cell and power up re*uest from the other 1 cells. The di44erence between the average 0ower levels o4 4ading and non-4ading channels is called J0ower riseK or JheadroomK.5++ times a second. a JtestK 80reamble9 is sent.. why does this mean? The *E with wea2er . I The 0 r0ose o4 o0en loo0 0ower control is to minimiCe the chance o4 collision and minimiCe the initial *E transmit 0ower to red ce inter4erence to other *E.

<n a heavily loaded system. <n a lightly loaded system.igher data rate has lower 0rocessing gain and there4ore a NodeB needs to transmit more 0ower to meet the re= ired Eb>No. (hysical layer 8@ayer 1. 0ower control. @19! sed to transmit data over the air. *:T# system co ld be either 0lin2-limited or downlin2-limited de0ending on the loading. the *E with wea2er lin2 8*E at greater distance9 may not have eno gh 0ower to reach the NodeB B there4ore a coverage shrin2age.N" to :#" Briefly describe the UE to U!-#N protocol stack $air interface layers%2 The radio inter4ace is divided into ) layers! 1. What is the impact of higher data rate on coverage? ."9 and . <n the downlin2. @ink layer 8@29! is s0lit into 2 s b-layers B :edi m . What are the interfaces between each U!-#N component? * ! *E to NodeB < b! NodeB to . macro-diversity combining.N" < ! .ccess "ontrol 8:. +s U"!& an uplink/limited or downlink/limited system? .N" to . the *E transmit 0ower sets a coverage limitation there4ore it is 0lin2-limited. res0onsible 4or channel coding. <n the 0lin2. .N" < r! . the NodeB also needs to transmit higher 0ower as more *E are being served. the NodeB transmit 0ower limits the n mber o4 *Es it can serve there4ore it is downlin2-limited. this is called cell breathing.s a conse= ence. . <t is a sim lated networ2 load s ally by increasing the noise rise 4ig re in the Node B. interleaving.s a conse= ence *E with wea2er lin2 8greater distance9 may not be reachable by the NodeB. this means the coverage is smaller 4or higher data rate. What is >'N&? E"N# stands 4or Erthogonal "hannel Noise #im lator."! res0onsible 4or m lti0le/ing data 4rom m lti0le a00lications onto 0hysical channels in 0re0aration 4or over-the-air transmition. re0etition. mod lation. each *E needs to transmit higher 0ower to com0ensate 4or the 0lin2 noise rise. . as more and more *E are served by a cell.What is 7cell breathing8 and why? The cell coverage shrin2s as the loading increases. Q :.@"9. 2.adio @in2 "ontrol 8.

adio .Q .ive some examples of (hysical. -"".@"! segments the data streams into 4rames that are small eno gh to be transmitted over the radio lin2. *E has all ) layers. Q -edicated channel! -". @ogical "hannel! Q "ontrol channel! B"". "%"... F.. 2.. )."8 Medium Access Control) layer... NodeB has %hysical @ayer.. Trans0ort "hannel! Q "ommon control channel! B"." layer.." layer and . ... !ransport and @ogical channels2 1.." layer and . %".. Q Tra44ic channel! -T"." (Radio Resource Control) layer. Briefly describe U"!& air interface channel types and their functions2 There are ) ty0es o4 channels across air inter4ace B 0hysical channel. I Trans0ort "hannel! carries data between 0hysical layer and :.eso rce "ontrol9 is the control 0lan 0rotocol! controls the radio reso rces 4or the access networ2.. trans0ort channel and logical channel! I %hysical "hannel! carries data between 0hysical layers o4 *E and NodeB. I @ogical "hannel! carries data between :. . )... %"".". Upper layer 8@)9! vertically 0artitioned into 2 0lanes! control 0lane 4or signaling and ser 0lan 4or bearer tra44ic. . Q --' 8.".N" had :. 2.. """. -#". . <n im0lementation! 1. "T".

.c2nowledged mode o44ers........ 6 *T.".rea." #tates! "ellP-". What are the --' states? There are $ . %-#"......P%". I .. %hysical "hannel! Q "ommon control channel! %-""%".. no controls and no detection o4 missing data.N . -%"". I *nac2nowledged mode o44ers the 0ossibility o4 segment and concatenate o4 data b t no error correction or retransmission there4ore no g arantee o4 delivery. Q -edicated channel! -%-".<". #-""%". "%<". 4low control. and "ellP%". What are transparent mode. acknowledged mode and unacknowledged mode? I Trans0arent mode corres0onds to the lowest service o4 the ..@" layer. *. *. in addition to *: mode 4 nctions. . %-#".".. %<"... %. #-#".2.egistration . . %"%".. "ellPF. What are the --' operation modes? <dle mode and connected mode. ac2nowledgement o4 transmission. error correction and retransmission. "->".-<"..

I Each timeslot is divided into 25&+ chi0s. :. I Total available codes 4or "#-12. C(&B. *E will cam0 on the cell with the highest #. %com0ensation! a correction val e 4or di44erence *E classes." B 4or ac2nowledged mode 8.Which layer$s% perform ciphering function? .+++ chi0>sec.:! $. What are the symbol rates $bits per symbol% for B(&B.. I "onsider so4t-handover 4actor o4 1.22 4or e/am0le! I .<". 'an a user have >A&? code as 700008? No. %<". I . c. cell ca0acity can be hard-limited by code s0ace. I 1&S. o4 the target cell. # 6 Smean ..%com0ensation d. I There4ore 25&+ chi0s>T# 7 15 T#>4rame 7 81+++ms>1+ms9 4rame>sec 6 ). e.:9 and nac2nowledged mode 8*:9. "#-12. each.eserved! 1 #F&$ 4or #-""%". Smin! minim m re= ired #<.Smin . ow many >A&? code spaces are available? I Total EH#F codes 6 25&.( 6 &( ers>cell. 5(&B and 03C#"? I B%#R! 1. .22 bearer needs 1 #F12( code. I Total available code s0ace 6 25& B $ 81 #F&$9 B $ 8$ #F25&9 6 2$(. and .. Briefly describe U "!& frame structure2 I *:T# 4rame d ration 6 1+ms. Smean! the average #<.22 6 12( B 2 81 #F&$9 B 2 8$ #F25&9 6 12$. b. %-""%". . Ta2e "#-12. 'an code space limit the cell capacity? Nes.. I Each 4rame is divided into 15 timeslots. <4 #T+ then the cell is a valid candidate." B 4or trans0arent mode 8T:9. I (%#R! ). What is >A&?? Erthogonal Hariable #0reading Factor... beca se J1111OK 825& times9 is sed by "%<". What is cell selection criterion? "ell selection is based on! a. 1 #F25& 4or "%<". I S%#R! 2.(! 12$ > 1.($+.

Briefly describe 'apacity "anagement and its functions.333. 1 and 6 to sister sectors? . *s ally a minim m o4 2. <t consists o4 ) main 4 nctions! • • • -edicated :onitored . . 'an we assign same scrambling codes to sister sectors $sectors on same site%? No. mean error and correlation coe44icient. The ty0ical acce0table val es are! I #tandard deviation error! the smaller the better. b t sometimes as low as 5++ bins may be acce0ted. beca se scrambling code on the downlin2 is sed 4or cell identity. They are 0se do random se= ences o4 codes. s ally 3 to 'dB. ow many scrambling codes are there? There are 512 scrambling codes in the downlin2 and 1&.21& codes in the 0lin2. scrambling codes are not orthogonal since they are not synchroniCed at each receiver. s ally 3+F to '+F. .andling! trac2s tiliCation o4 critical reso rces o4 the system. "a0acity :anagement is res0onsible 4or the control o4 the load in the cell.dmission "ontrol! acce0ts>re4 ses admission re= ests based on the c rrent load on the dedicated monitored reso rces and the characteristics o4 the re= est "ongestion "ontrol! detects>resolves overload sit ations What are the ma:or 4 B(+s in propagation model tuning and typical acceptable values? The $ R%<s are standard deviation error.+++ bines is considered acce0table. scrambling codes have to maintain a sa4e se0aration to avoid inter4erence.s a re= irement. root mean s= are error. I . each gro 0 has ( scrambling codes. #re scrambling codes orthogonal? No.oot mean s= are error! the smaller the better.eso rce . 'an we assign scrambling codes 0. I :ean error! the smaller the better. ow many scrambling code groups are there for downlink? There are &$ code gro 0s. s ally 2 to). What is the minimum number of bins re*uired for a certain propagation model? The more bins the more li2ely to come 0 with a good model. s ally I "orrelation coe44icient! the larger the better.

*:T#. :onte "arlo sim lation is there4ore sed to ill strate networ2 0er4ormance nder sim lated loading consition. 4ading and 0enetration loss. etc. cell loading. What is the key difference between a static analysis and a "onte 'arlo simulation? #tatic analysis can only show . di44erent %N codes have the same code se= ence with a time shi4t. +n +&/D< we have a (N reuse factor $(N step si=e% and therefore cannot use all <01 (N codes. 4ade margin o4 5dB! I E tdoor! -11+dBm sensitivity 5 5dB 4ade margin 6 -1+5dBm.owever. For e/am0le. What are coverage thresholds in your U"!& design and why? The coverage thresholds are based on *E sensitivity.#"% and Ec><o in no-load condition. What should be run first $what information should be ready and loaded% before running a "onte 'arlo simulation? Be4ore r nning :onte "arlo sim lation.#"% and Ec><o in sim lated loading condition b t also can show many more others! mean served. I <n-b ilding! -11+dBm 5 5dB 5 15dB in-b ilding 0enetration loss 6 -'+dBm. n 0rediction. What is the Ec)+o target in your design? The Ec><o target ty0ically is between -12 to -1$dB. there4ore we need to maintain a certain %N ste0 siCe to avoid m lti-0ath 0roblem. on the other hand. I .Nes. i4 a networ2 is designed 4or data then the Ec><o target co ld go higher to aro nd -1+dB beca se server dominance is more critical 4or a data networ2 B since there isnDt so4tware in the downlin2. What is 7"onte 'arlo simulation8? #ince *:T# coverage is de0endent on the loading. 0lin2 and downlin2 ca0acity limits reached. is not a synchroniCed networ2 and all scrambling codes are m t ally orthogonal so no need to maintain a ste0 siCe. why isnEt it necessary for U"!& scrambling codes? Beca se <#-'5 is a synchroniCed networ2.#"% and Ec><o9 re0resents the networ2 0er4ormance in no-load condition. static coverage and = ality analysis 8. may r n into the time domain o4 cell B. . I <n-vehicle! -11+dBm 5 5dB 5 (dB in-vehicle 0enetration loss 6 -'3dBm. . i4 two sectors in the neighborhood have a small %N se0aration then signal arriving 4rom cell . :onte "arlo sim lation not only can show . . ca sing inter4erence. the 4ollowing sho ld be com0leted or in ming *E sensitivity o4 -11+dBm.

What are the design B(+Es? 8.I #0read the tra44ic.#"%. ow does UE camp $synchroni=e% to a NodeB? 1. othersU #re &ystem +nformation Blocks $&+B% transmitted all the time? No. I @ow 0ilot #<. Ec><o. service 0robability.ange9. I *0lin2 Eb>No 4ail re. analysis.. reasons 4or 4ail reO9 What are the typical reasons of failure in "onte 'arlo simulation? I -ownlin2 Eb>No 4ail re 8"a0acity9. What are the optimi=ation tools you use? -rive test. I Etc. I -ownlin2 Eb>No 4ail re 8. *E ses the 0rimary synchroniCation channel 8%-#".#"%. mean served. What does 7traffic spread8 mean? JTra44ic s0readK means s0reading tra44ic 8n mber o4 terminals9 in a cell coverage area.9 4or slot alignment 8T# synchroniCation9. ow many snap shots and iteration do you usually have when running "onte 'arlo simulation? 8-e0end on so4tware tool recommendations9. Ec><o. . so4t handover ratioOs9 What plots do you usually check after running "onte 'arlo for trouble spots? 8. 9o you use live traffic or even/load traffic in your design? 8-e0ends9. system in4ormation bloc2 is m lti0le/ed with synchroniCation channel. I -e4ine terminal ty0es. #ynchroniCation channel occ 0ies the 4irst time slot 8T#9 and #<B occ 0ies the other ' time slots. I Noise rise limit reached.

i. I e1b B a 0rimary "%<". What are the ma:or differences between . What could be the cause of soft handover failure? I *E iss e. I <nade= ate #. I -etected set B list o4 cells detected by the *E b t not con4ig red in the neighbor obtain "%<". 0c. becomes better than an active 0rimary "%<". What are the events 0a. What are event 1a/1d and 6a/6d? Events 2a-2d are 4or inter-4re= ency handover meas rements and events )a-)d are 4or <. th s cam0ing to a NodeB. *E then ses secondary synchroniCation channel 8#-#".T handover meas rements. .".e. ). I *E 0lays more 0art in the handover decision. 0b. . etc2? I e1a B a %rimary "%<".9 to obtain 4rame synchroniCation and scrambling code gro 0 identi4ication. 0eriod 8$(+ms9. enters the re0orting range. removed a cell 4rom active set. I B#" instr cts mobile to handover based on these re0orts. I e1c B a non-active 0rimary "%<".eso rce navailable at target NodeB. becomes better than an absol te threshold.2. I . *:T#! I Event-triggered re0orting B *E sends a meas rement re0ort only on certain event JtriggersK./@ev and . leaves the re0orting range. I Etc./S al B mobile sends meas rement re0ort every #. i..e.4ter aligning to NodeB time slot.N" has told *E to monitor.e.. i. re0lace a cell.&" and U"!& handover decision? ?#:! I Time-based mobile meas res o4 . I e1d! change o4 best cell. I :onitored set B the list o4 cells not in active set b t . becomes worse than an absol te threshold. *E then ses scrambling code <. add a cell to active set. I e14! a %rimary "%<".E threshold de4ined. I e1e! a %rimary "%<".. What are the three sets in handover? The ) sets in handover are! I .ctive set B the list o4 cells which are in so4t handover with *E.

I "all set 0 time 8"#! over '5F o4 the time X &-second 4or mobile-to-%#TN. %#! over '5F o4 the time X 5-second9..most o4 the time below +dBm. I e)c! the ?#: cell = ality has moved above a threshold. I B@E.. I .".! over '5F o4 the bloc2s W 2F.#"% and Ec><o are sed to trigger <. I e)d! there was a change in the order o4 best ?#: cell list. I e)b! the ?#: cell = ality has moved below a threshold." "onnection .T handover! I ..#"% W -1++dBm. 'second 4or mobile-mobile. What are the typical B(+s you use to measure a network and what criteria? I . I -ro00ed call! *E not aware o4 a strong scrambling code. I -o yo 2now how to create command se= enceU . What are the conditions you typically set to trigger +-#! handover? .verage -@>*@ thro gh0 t 4or %#-! 21+2b0s 4or loaded. I <ncrease n mber o4 . What may happen when thereEs a missing neighbor or an incorrect neighbor? I .etransP:a/. 0er4ormance! I <ncrease ma/im m *E transmit 0ower allowed! :a/PallowedP*@PTVP%ower. I Ec><o W -1&dBm. I -ro00ed call rate 8W 2F9. I Etc. I <ncrease the n mber o4 0reamble cycles! ma/P%reambleP"ycle. I <ncrease 0ower = ic2ly! 0owerPE44setP%+.ccess 4ail re and handover 4ail re! may attem0t to access to a wrong scrambling code. strong inter4erence.I e)a! the *:T# cell = ality has moved below a threshold and a ?#: cell = ality had moved above a threshold. I <ncrease n mber o4 0reambles sent in a given 0reamble cycle! 0reambleP. 2$+2b0s 4or nloaded. What can we try to improve when access failure is high? 1hen access 4ail re is high we can try the 4ollowing to im0rove . I %oor voice = ality. I %oor data thro gh0 t.ccess 4ail re rate 8W 2F9. What is the typical UE transmit power? Haries . ave your used Ericsson !E"&? +f so.e= est retries! N)++.

eso rces I %oor 2? "overage I :issing )? .N" to *E What are the possible causes for an +-#! ?ailure? I :issing 2? relations I Non availability o4 2? . 9id you work on neighbor prioriti=ation? %lease e/0lain.ow do yo sto0 a log 4ileU #to0 command se= ence t '+F What are the possible causes for a lower (&-? I Non-contin o s .N "ommand 4rom )? .ttem0ts I . I 1hat are the ty0ical commands yo have 4or "# and %# callU I -o yo reg larly sto0 and restart a new log 4ileU 1hy and when to sto0 and start a new 4ileU I .that you have seen in a U"!& network? I %#.andover 4rom *T..elations What is (aging &uccess -atio? What is the typical (&. etc. What is the typical event se*uence of +-#! andover from 6. B %aging .I 1hat are the call se= ences yo ty0ically haveU "# long call. I Event 2d B entering into com0ressed mode B meas rement o4 2? candidates B Event )a B Heri4ication o4 2? reso rces B . %#call. "# short call. wait and ma2e s re all e= i0ment are in idle mode be4ore sto0 logging. to 1.es0onses to the %aging .F "overage B *E going in and o t o4 coverage area 4re= ently .

.andover I @oss o4 #ynchroniCation I Fast Fading .dd the neighbor.ardware <ss es I E/ternal <nter4erence # UE is served by 1 or 6 &' in #&2 +t is identifying a &' from 6rd tier. > "N Bo ndaries What are the possible causes for a 9rop 'all on a U"!& network? I %oor "overage 8-@ > *@9 I %ilot %oll tion > %ilot #0illover I :issing Neighbor I #" "ollisions I -elayed . long time a4ter it moved o t o4 coverage I @ower %aging "hannel %ower I . a &' is coming in to "onitored &et and Event0a is triggered2 But UE is not receiving #ctive &et Update from NodeB and the call drops2 What could be possible causes for this drop? I -elayed .igh Y%eriodic @ocation *0date TimerD B Ree0ing *Es in H@.and in I @oss o4 #ynchroniCation I Fast Fading I -elayed <. &tronger and meets the criteria for Event0a or Event0c2 But & > did not happen because of missing neighbor relations? ow do you optimi=e this issue? I #t dy the %ilot s0illover 4rom the )rd Tier #" and control its coverage I Even a4ter controlling the coverage..T Triggers I .ccess "hannel %arameter <ss es I -elayed @ocation *0date when crossing the @.I Hery . i4 the s0illover is there.andovers I No reso rce availability 8"ongestion9 4or . # UE is served by 1 &' in #&.

UE 'all? What are the possible -? related causes for a delayed '&! in this type of call? I & to ' seconds  : lti0le .es0onses  .3 8. What is the typical 'all &etup !ime for a 6..andover Everhead is calc lated in two ways. UE to 6." . 29 #econdary > Total Tra44ic  Ty0ical Hal es are li2e 1.andover  <t can ha00en in the inter .ccess .ttem0ts 8*E is on 0oor coverage B need more than .ttem0t9  -elayed %age .vg .ard .ccess %arameters What is &oft andover >verhead? What is the typical value in U"!& network? I #o4t .andover in *:T# is a brea2 be4ore ma2e ty0e .I %ilot %oll tion > #0illover iss es What is ard andover in U"!&? When will it happen? I .ctive #et #iCe9 or )5F 8#econdary > Total 9 What will happen to the &oft network? #nd Why? andover >verhead when you apply >'N& on the .igh @oad on %aging and>or .N" bo ndaries where there is no < r lin2.verage . 19 .ctive #et #iCe B Total Tra44ic > %rimary Tra44ic.ccess "hannel  %aging > .

. the inter4erence 8load9 increases. This leads to red ction in Ec><o o4 a %ilot.ed ction in %ilot #0illover will red ce the #o4t .E-+'&&>N EF(E-+EN'E9% What is the &ystem -eference (oint at which all the (ower @evels are measured in Ericsson NodeB? . which red ces the 0ilot s0illovers.I 1ith E"N#.E-+'&&>N EF(E-+EN'E9% What is -!W(? What is the significance of it? I . .ardware <ss es  <m0ro0er . %arameters  E/ternal <nter4erence $?>.". .dmission "ontrol denies  . What are the possible causes for an #ccess ?ailure in U"!&? I :issing Neighbors  %oor "overage  %ilot %oll tion > #0illover  %oor "ell .andover Everhead.eselection  "ore Networ2 <ss es  Non B availability o4 reso rces.eceived Total 1ide-band %ower  <t gives the Total *0lin2 %ower 8<nter4erence9 level received at NodeB $?>.

ntenna9 What are the typical values for Greportingrange0aE and Greportingrange0bE? I ) dB and 5 dB res0ectively. i4 a cell is heavily a loaded and eno gh reso rces in terms o4 0ower.e4 %oint 4or E>>> NodeB is at the o t0 t o4 T:. and .ed ction in n mber o4 Event1a  -elayed Event1a trigger  .llocation 4or a new call and additional reso rce allocation 4or an e/isting call. without changing any other parameters? I .eso rce .I #ystem .ctive #et #iCe  -elay in Event1a co ld increase -@ inter4erence. What will be the impact when you change Greportingrange0aE from 6 to 4 dB and Gtimetotrigger0aE 000 to 610 ms. What is 'ongestion 'ontrol? .verage . which co ld lead to a dro0 call or increase in . 8Between T:.verage %ower %er *ser 8red ction in cell ca0acity9 What is #dmission 'ontrol? I .ed ction in . <ncase. admission control denies 0ermission 4or the additional reso rce re= irement. codes or "Es are not available.dmission "ontrol is an algorithm which controls the .

Pnon-HS) What are Events that can trigger the I &9(# 'ell 'hange? Event 1d . Ence the congestion is corrected.ctive #et Event 1b or Event 1c B .ctive #et ow is typically the 'all &etup !ime of a '&A call calculated in U"!& using @6 messages? '&! is calculated as the time difference between G#lertingE and the first --' 'onnection -e*uest $'all +nitiation% messages2 . What is G'ode "ultiplexingE in &9(#? & users within the &haring the & 'hanneli=ation 'odes among more than one 1ms !!+ period2 $?>. and . "ongestion "ontrol will attem0t to resolve the congestion by either down switching. is used for HS (PHS = Pmax hsPowerMargin .I "ongestion "ontrol monitors the dynamic tiliCation o4 s0eci4ic cell reso rces and ins res that overload conditions do not occ r. "ongestion "ontrol will immediately restrict .E-+'&&>N EF(E-+EN'E9% +n Ericsson &ystem.dmission "ontrol will be enabled. how is the (ower allocated for &9(#H Power unutilized by 99 PS.# B "hange o4 Best "ell in the . <n addition. <4 overload conditions do occ r. What is the maximum number of 'hanneli=ation 'odes that can be allocated for &. the congestion resol tion actions will cease. as per 6.(( standard? I 15 codes o4 #F 1&.emoval o4 the Best "ell 4rom the .dmission "ontrol 4rom granting additional reso rces. CS and Common Channels. or terminating e/isting sers.

This red ces 0ossible adverse health e44ects and red ces the 0ossibility o4 dist rbing other systems. (ower saving. . The handover is seamless and the 4re= ency is not changed. Beca se an *E can have more than one connection it is not 0ossible that a *E located in the middle o4 two cells o4ten does a 8hard9 handover between these two cells. New cells can be added easily beca se no new 4re= ency 0lanning is needed when e/0anding an e/isting networ2. ?re*uency planning and network expansion! Beca se in 1-"-:. Beca se o4 the 0ossibility to correct transmission errors easily by com0aring the signals received by the di44erent antennas 4rom the *E a higher transmission error rate in each lin2 can be com0ensated.. No ping/pong effect. Ene or even more connections 4rom the *E to the *T. radio signal re4lections by walls etc. @ower transmission power level.ence the transmission 0ower level can be lower than in networ2s or sit ations with only one radio lin2 to the networ2. *Es can wor2 longer with same battery 0ower. can better be 4iltered by the *T. Transmission errors can be detected and corrected very well beca se the *T.N are 0 all the time.N receives the radio signal 4rom di44erent locations and can se A st the signal o4 the cell that c rrently has the best radio lin2 to the *E. The 0robability that many radio lin2s at the same time are dist rbed is very low..N. . <n this case es0ecially in b ildings. The s0eech = ality is very good. Beca se o4 the e44ect described above the transmission 0ower level o4 the *E and the cells is normally lower than it co ld be with only one radio lin2 only.What is pre/synchroni=ed handover? # pre/synchroni=ation method in which the source cell chooses a signature for the user mobile to use in the target cell for -#' access. This saves 0ower. all 0artici0ants se the same 4re= ency no detailed 4re= ency 0lanning is needed. There is no short interr 0tion o4 the data trans4er when a connection to one cell is released. and instructs the user mobile to perform -#' access and return to the current cell before a handover command $break command% is issued2 !his causes parallel execution of the U@ synchroni=ation process with the context transfer process among the two base stations Brief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft handover? #dvantages &peech *uality..

ccess What is TDD and FDD? .9isadvantages Costs of computation: Especially in a softer handover (intra ode !"intra R S) many arithmetic e#ercise has to $e done $y the ode ! to do the ma#imum ratio com$ining% &he 'E also has to do this wor(% Even in other soft handover cases the cost of computation $y the SR C to do the selection com$ining are quite high compared to hard handover% )or the latter com$ining is not needed (see *%*)% &his computations cost power and hardware% Complex to implement: &he implementation of the different soft handover scenarios in the '&RA is more difficult than hard handover only% &he firmware"software of the 'E is also much more comple# $ecause it must $e a$le to handle many radio lin(s with different scram$ling codes and has to do ma#imum ratio com$ining% 'E and '&RA have to ad+ust permanently the transmission power level to reduce interferences with other participants% )or more detailed description of the pro$lems that may occur at high transmission power levels see chapter *%. -Macro .igh #0eed -ownlin2 %ac2et .#-%. stands 4or .iversity/% What does HSDPA stand for? .

( Enhanced Dedicated Channel) E-DPDCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel) DPCCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel) HSDPA Channel HS-DSCH For .igh #0eed-%hysical -ownlin2 #hared "hannel 8.#-%-#". -The . -..#-#"".#-%-#".9 is the channel ma00ed to the above . <n this way high s0eed data transmission can occ r at the same time and on the same *E as services that se the standard -".igh #0eed--edicated %hysical "ontrol "hannel 8. HSUPA CHannel 0S'PA channels .igh #0eed%hysical -ownlin2 #hared "hannel 8. to enable the system to carry the high s0eed data. The . This val e is then sed by the base station to calc late how m ch data to send to the ser devices on the ne/t transmission.igh #0eed-#hared "ontrol "hannel 8.#--#".9 . 2 slots ahead. and .T-.. This is beca se they se the same 4re= ency 4or the transmission HSDPA Channel .igh #0eed-#hared "ontrol "hannel 8.9 .9 in4orms the ser that data will be sent on the .s.0le/.stands 4or Fre= ency -ivision .#*%.9 . ... The .0le/ and F-. <n F-. trans0ort channel that carries act al ser data. the Enhanced Dedicated Channel: This . a new trans0ort layer channel. These new channels are! • E-DCH. can be con4ig red sim ltaneo sly with one or more -".mode o4 transmission both the Transmitter and the .#*%. variety o4 new channels have been introd ced 4or .#-#"".mode o4 o0eration either Transmitter or . They are di44erent modes o4 "-:. 0lin2 channel carries on bloc2 o4 data 4or each TT< 8Transmission Time <nterval9.igh-#0eed -ownlin2 #hared "hannel 8.#--#".#-#". <n T-.#-%..#-#"".. This sim ltaneo s transmission is 0ossible beca se they are both on di44erent 4re= encies. -.eceiver can transmit at one time.#%-#". .igh #0eed--edicated %hysical "ontrol "hannel 8..9 carries ac2nowledgment in4ormation and c rrent channel = ality indicator 8"S<9 o4 the ser. The *0lin2 .igh-#0eed -ownlin2 #hared "hannel 8..#--#".9.#--#".#--%"".eceiver transmit sim ltaneo sly.#-#"".stands 4or Time -ivision .#*%. <t is im0lemented by introd cing three new 0hysical layer channels! . . The E--".#--%"".#--%"". has been added to *:T# release 5 and 4 rther s0eci4ication.#--%"". channels E-DCH. .#-%-#".

owever 4or a00lications re= iring relatively low data rates.?".#*%. retransmission se= ence n mber. @arge changes are handled by the E-. • • The E--".?".#*%. the serving grant. channel 0rovides the absol te limit o4 the 0ower reso rces.#*%. E-# CH (Enhanced #elati$e rant Channel): This channel is sed to move the *E serving grant 0. E-DPDCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data Channel): This . -edicated %hysical -ata "hannels. down or remain the same. E-H%CH (Enhanced DCH Hy!rid A#& %ndicator Channel): This . The NodeB sed is the one that has the main res0onsibility 4or the sched ling o0eration. This . . The E-.e. channel carries the control data re= ired by the Node B to decode the 0lin2 channels incl ding the E--".s an e/am0le o4 a ty0ical scenario. <t is 4o nd that the 0hysical layer 0rocessing is 0ro0ortional to the amo nt o4 data to be 0rocessed. The short TT< allows 4or ra0id ada0tation o4 transmission 0arameters and it red ces the end. variety o4 new channels have been introd ced 4or . is ty0ically sed 4or large changes in data rate. These new channels are! • • • E-A CH (Enhanced A!sol"te rant Channel): This . Downlink HSUPA channels . Each *E can transmit 0 to 4o r E-%-".. .s a low latency 8delay9 is one o4 the 2ey re= irements 4or the high s0eed 0lin2 a short TT< 8Transmission Time <nterval9 o4 2 ms is s 00orted in addition to one o4 1+ ms. The channel is sed to send sched ling grants 4rom the sched ler to the *E to control when and what data rate the *E sho ld be sed.s were re= ired.#*%. The n mber o4 E-%-". to enable the system to carry the high s0eed data. and accordingly the shorter the TT< the lower the level o4 data 0er TT<. 0lin2 channel carries 0lin2 ser data. channel is sed to 0rovide the ac2nowledgement o4 the *E data received by the Node B. the overheads re= ired with a 2 ms TT< may be nd ly high. The E-. is ma00ed to a set o4 E--". There is a balance to be determined 4or the TT<.ser delays. etc.#*%. channel is generally sed 4or relatively small changes d ring an ongoing data transmission. that the *E may se. channels at a s0reading 4actor o4 #F25& to #F2. i.?".. Trans0ort Format "ombination <ndicator which indicates the bloc2 siCe. .s s and their s0reading 4actors are varied according to the instantaneo s data rate re= ired.two #F2 E--%-". E-DPCCH (Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control Channel): This . <n these circ mstances a longer TT< is more a00ro0riate. to achieve a 2 :b0s rate the raw data rate o4 early devices .#*%. is only sent by one NodeB regardless o4 the n mber that the *E is comm nicating with.