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Solutions for a Real Analysis midterm.

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**(10 points) Show that
**

∞ n=0

1/((n + 1)(n + 2)) = 1.

**Solution: Observe that 1 1 1 = − , (n + 1)(n + 2) n+1 n+2 so the partial sums telescope:
**

k

n=0

1 = (n + 1)(n + 2)

k

n=0

1 1 − n+1 n+2

=1−

1 . k+2

Hence

∞

n=0

1 1 1 = lim = lim 1 − (n + 1)(n + 2) k→∞ n=0 (n + 1)(n + 2) k→∞ k+2

k

= 1.

2. (10 points) Show that the series

∞ n=2

1/(n log n) diverges.

Solution: Recall the Cauchy test for convergence: if a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · · · ≥ 0, then the ∞ k series ∞ k=0 2 a2k converges. Since x log x n=1 an converges if and only if the series is increasing and positive on (1, ∞), we have 1 1 > > · · · > 0. 2 log 2 3 log 3 Moreover, the sum

∞

k=1

2k = 2k log 2k

∞

k=1

1 k log 2

diverges (one can see this, for example, by another application of the Cauchy test). Hence the sum ∞ n=2 1/(n log n) diverges. 3. Suppose that {an }n≥0 is a sequence in R. Let α = lim supn→∞ ∞.

n

|an |. Assume that α <

∞ n=0

(a) (8 points) Prove the Cauchy-Hadamard theorem: show the series verges if α|z | < 1 and diverges if α|z | > 1.

an z n con-

(10 points) Show that if f : R → R is continuous and f (R) ⊆ Q. n−1 n Solution: The series ∞ converges if and only if ∞ n=1 nan z n=1 nan z converges (multiply the original series by z ). then f is constant. Without loss of generality. y ) so that f (t) = C . Since {xn } is Cauchy. so {f (xn )} is Cauchy. there exists m > 0 so that 1 < n1/n < 1 + ε when n ≥ m. there exists N ≥ 0 so that for all n1 . f (y )) < ε. When we apply this criterion n to the series ∞ n=0 an z . Since f is uniformly continuous. Solution: Suppose x. f (xn2 )) < ε for all n1 . limn→∞ n1/n = 1 (the binomial theorem gives the bound 0 ≤ (n1/n − 1)2 ≤ 2/(n − 1) for n > 1). since there are no two terms xm and xn with m = n so that |xm − xn | < 1. and the latter converges when β |z | < 1. then the series ∞ n=1 xn converges when ξ < 1 and diverges when ξ > 1. Solution: Let ε > 0. since it converges to 0. Since R \ Q is dense in R. Hence f cannot be uniformly continuous on (0. This contradicts the assumption f (R) ⊆ Q. we have d(xn1 . n2 ≥ N . where β = lim supn→∞ |nan |1/n < 1. note that if 0 < ε < 1. then {f (xn )}n∈N is a Cauchy sequence in Y . n→∞ n→∞ Hence ∞ n=0 an z n converges when α|z | < 1 and diverges when α|z | > 1. Solution: The sequence deﬁned by xn = 1/n is a Cauchy sequence. By the intermediate value theorem. xn2 ) < δ . ∞). f (y )). n2 ≥ N . This implies that β = lim supn→∞ |an |1/n = α. (a) (8 points) Show that if f : X → Y is uniformly continuous and {xn }n∈N is a Cauchy sequence in X . 5. This implies d(f (xn1 ). assume f (x) < f (y ) and x < y (replace f by −f if necessary). y ∈ R so that f (x) = f (y ). there exists δ > 0 so that d(x. .Midterm 2 Solutions 2 Solution: Recall the root test: if ξ = lim supn→∞ |xn |1/n . y ) < δ implies d(f (x). 4. there exists t ∈ (x. Hence f is constant. we ﬁnd lim sup |an z n |1/n = lim sup |an |1/n |z | = α|z |. there exists C ∈ (R \ Q) ∩ (f (x). The sequence {n} is not Cauchy. However. f (xn ) = n. so f (x) = f (y ). Now. (b) (2 points) Show that the function f (x) = x−1 is not uniformly continuous on (0. ∞ n=1 (b) (2 points) Show that if α|z | < 1. then the series nan z n−1 converges. To see the ﬁrst equality. This implies that α ≤ lim supn→∞ ≤ (1 + ε)α. ∞).

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