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Diesel cetane ratings

Diesel combustion
In order to make sense of cetane, we need to look at diesel combustion in a bit more detail. You probably already know that ignition occurs when the heat from compression ignites the fuel, instead of a spark plug. But there are some important details of this process you might not know about.

Unlike most petrol engines, diesel is injected into the cylinder as small droplets near the end of the compression stroke. As anyone who has dropped a match into a pool of diesel will know, liquid diesel isn’t easy to ignite because it has to evaporate first. First, the injected droplets must absorb enough heat from the compressed air to evaporate some of the fuel from the surface. This evaporation requires heat, so the liquid droplet and miniature cloud of gas are cooled. Then, the gas must mix with enough air to form a combustible mixture. This will happen progressively and spontaneously, but requires time. Finally, as the temperature of the first bit of evaporated fuel reaches the point of spontaneous combustion, the fuel will start to burn. If the delay between evaporation and ignition is long, then there is more time for mixing with air to occur. Once ignition begins, any fuel already evaporated and mixed with air will burn very rapidly. In relative terms this burning will be practically instantaneous, explosive even, resulting in a sharp pressure rise which causes the classic diesel knock or rattle. In petrol engines, all of the fuel is present in the combustion chamber when ignition is started by the spark plug. In theory, it will all be evaporated and mixed with air in a combustible mixture. However, in diesel engines, fuel is injected at a fixed rate. Under light throttle, the injection pulse will be very short, while full throttle will require a longer injection period. The first fuel injected into the diesel cycle combustion chamber will need to be heated, first to evaporate it and then to raise it to ignition temperature as already described. Slightly later in the cycle, fuel will be injected into a mixture which is already burning, so heat and pressure will be produced at a steady rate. In order to minimise the ignition pressure spike, the amount of evaporated diesel present must be as small as possible. Ignition which takes place late in the cycle after much of the fuel has been injected and evaporated will explosively burn a large amount of fuel all at once. This reduces efficiency, causes high emissions and may damage the engine in much the same way as detonation in petrol engines. Therefore, the time between injection start and ignition should be as short as possible.

they are rapidly heated. This enhanced air to fuel heat transfer helps to rapidly initiate combustion. As the droplets are heavier than air and moving at high speed relative to the incoming air. The fuel injector is located inside the combustion chamber. near to the outlet of the orifice. This means that ignition happens sooner. Under ideal conditions. when very little fuel has been injected and even less has evaporated and mixed with air. air is forced through an orifice into the separate combustion chamber at high speed. resulting in a quiet. It also makes the engine easier to start from cold.High cetane fuel has a much shorter delay between the start of injection and ignition. Design The design of diesel engine combustion chambers and injectors is a complex process involving many parameters. ignition will occur very shortly after injection begins and the explosive burning of fuel vapour will be limited. but a small quantity is aimed directly into the oncoming air flow. During compression. whereas a high cetane fuel will easily auto-ignite. efficient and longer living engine. One key objective is to design the diesel engine to run well on moderate to low cetane fuels. It may help to consider that high octane petrol will resist auto-ignition. One early design feature. still used in many light industrial diesels. Most of the fuel is directed towards the centre of the chamber. . reduces the ignition delay period and lowers the explosive pressure spike. is a ‘Ricardo’ swirl combustion chamber.

Cetane As with octane ratings for petrol. The high efficiency. This method is essentially a static heated combustion chamber. a range of other methods may be used. The ASTM D613 method requires specialist equipment. Remember that can of starting fluid you used when it was really cold or you had an engine which wouldn’t start? The main component of this starting fluid was dimethyl ether. have a cetane rating of 100. If the performance of a tested fuel is equal to that of a blend with 50% alpha methyl naphthalene and 50% n-cetane on the test engine. expensive and the results are not very precise. This gives much more reproducible results. and Australian diesel with a minimum of 46. cetane ratings are based on the performance characteristics of the chemical n-cetane. However. So a fuel made up of 100% n-cetane will. The performance of a commercial diesel blend is then equated to the performance of the appropriate blend of n-cetane and alpha methyl napthalene. ASTM D4737 uses API gravity (density) and various temperatures in the boiling range to estimate cetane performance. evaporate and ignite. is time consuming. Future improvements to the weight. real diesel fuels are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. cost and output of diesel engines may be possible through the use of fuels with even higher cetane values. Of course. Electronic injection makes it possible to inject a small pulse of fuel early in the compression stroke. while D613 remains the primary reference method.Most modern car engines use electronic direct injection. high pressure electronic injection and high cetane fuels. poor fuel economy and high emissions. This chemical can be produced from methanol and when used neat has a cetane rating between 55 and 60. If you use fuels with an inadequate cetane rating. Therefore. . most diesel engines are not any stronger than they need to be. A single charge of fuel is injected and the ignition delay period is measured. This fuel takes time to heat up. smooth running and high power to weight ratio possible with modern diesel engines is largely due to a combination of combustion chamber design. Later. Cetane values for commercial blends of diesel tend to fall in the range between 35 and 55. when the main injection takes place. in practice. All of these help to reduce pressure spikes associated with ignition delay. injected fuel encounters heat from already burning fuel and the delay before it starts burning as well is greatly reduced. the initial pressure spike is also very small. not to mention rough running. This allows the use of lighter components and higher power outputs. then the cetane rating will be 50. Cetane fuel ratings for these fuels are determined using a test engine in accordance with ASTM D613. The method most closely related to D613 is the Ignition Quality Tester (ITQ). compared to standard diesel in Europe at 51 and US #1 diesel at 44/45 and #2 diesel at 40. but still requires skill and specialist equipment. by definition. but because there is only a small amount of fuel. A range of methods based on common laboratory instruments or physical properties have been tried with varying levels of success. the added stresses on your engine may cause early failure. rather than a separate combustion chamber.

So. greener. lorries. Their low speed allows the use of comparatively small injectors which inject fuel over a longer period of time. The second reason why lorry fleet operators might be unhappy with high cetane fuels is that they tend to release less energy when burned. fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high-compression engines that generally have higher performance. trains or even ships tend to operate at lower speeds and are much more tolerant of low cetane fuels. The higher the octane number. fuels with lower octane numbers (but higher cetane numbers) are ideal for diesel engines. and the presence of water and dirt. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Dimethyl ether has a high cetane rating because it evaporates easily and has a very low ignition temperature. In broad terms. In contrast. remember that there are other important qualities to look for in diesel. So. are equally important. Since high cetane fuels are also generally more expensive. You see. you can see why they are not so attractive for engines where they are not needed. Octane rating From Wikipedia. the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating. This slower injection rate also means that less fuel will be present to detonate at the end of the ignition delay period. search Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the performance of a motor or aviation fuel. Extremely high cetane fuels in engines which don’t need them can cause mixing problems if the fuel ignites before it can be distributed throughout the combustion chamber. Also.2 Motor Octane Number (MON) o 2. use fuel with a high cetane rating and everyone’s happy. Things like lubricating ability (for some older pumps). before you decide to start experimenting with alternative diesel fuels because they are cheaper. Use of gasoline with lower octane numbers may lead to the problem of engine knocking. consider their likely cetane rating against that recommended by the manufacturer of your engine. not exactly. large diesel engines such as those on tractors.3 Anti-Knock Index (AKI) o 2.[1] Contents [hide]   1 Principles 2 Measurement methods o 2. This means they have to buy and carry more fuel.4 Difference between RON and AKI . Diesel engines of the future may be even more powerful than petrol engines and run on renewable fuels which are nothing like what we currently call ‘diesel’. right? Well.1 Research Octane Number (RON) o 2. waste materials or untaxed.

If it is heated and/or compressed too much. blow head gaskets. One member of the octane family. Ethanol BTUs can be compared with gasoline BTUs in heat of combustion tables.[2] A rating of 90 does not mean that the petrol contains just iso-octane and heptane in these proportions.2.2.4-trimethylpentane (iso-octane) and heptane that would have the same anti-knocking capacity as the fuel under test: the percentage. rather than exploding in an uncontrolled manner.6 Aviation gasoline octane ratings 3 Examples 4 Effects 5 Regional variations 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links o o Principles[edit] Octanes are a family of hydrocarbon that are typical components of gasoline. or major engine damage if severe. This causes much higher pressures than engine components are designed for and can cause a "knocking" or "pinging" sound if light. but that it has the same detonation resistance properties.5 Observed Road Octane Number (RdON) 2. The higher the number.4-trimethylpentane in that mixture is the octane number of the fuel. high intake density and/or temperature) or unusual operating conditions (low-speed. the definition has been extended to allow for octane numbers greater than 100. In a normal spark-ignition engine. . For example. Engines that have aggressive designs (high compression pistons. the ignition timing will be automatically altered by the engine management system to reduce the knock (detonation) to an acceptable level. The octane rating is a measure of how resistant a fuel is to spontaneously or explosively ignite under such conditions. air-cooled engines such as small aircraft) require higher octane fuels. Isooctane (upper) has an octane rating of 100 whereas n-heptane has an octane rating of 0. isooctane. is used as a reference standard to benchmark the tendency of gasoline/petrol or LPG fuels to resist self-igniting. the more resistant the fuel is. of 2. or even self-ignite before the ignition system sparks. the air-fuel mixture is heated due to being compressed and is then triggered to burn (relatively) slowly by the spark plug and ignition system. as well as damage other components. damage rod bearings. Where the octane number is raised by blending in ethanol. energy content per volume is reduced. The most typically used engine management systems found in automobiles today have a knock sensor that monitors if knock is being produced by the fuel being used. It is only a measure of the fuel's tendency to burn in a controlled manner. then it will explode when triggered (detonate). petrol with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 90% iso-octane and 10% heptane would have an octane rating of 90.       2. The octane rating of gasoline is measured in a test engine and is defined by comparison with the mixture of 2. Because some fuels are more knock-resistant than iso-octane. melt pistons. (See section 4 of this page and heating value). Octane ratings are not indicators of the energy content of fuels. They are colourless liquids that boil around 125 °C (260 °F). In modern computer controlled engines. by volume. This can break connecting rods.

See the table in the following section for a comparison. Observed Road Octane Number (RdON)[edit] . Difference between RON and AKI[edit] Because of the 8 to 10 point difference noted above. Motor Octane Number (MON)[edit] There is another type of octane rating. called the Anti-Knock Index (AKI. LPG and alcohol fuels such as methanol may have octane ratings of 110 or significantly higher. and often written on pumps as (R+M)/2). as it is determined at 900 rpm engine speed. Lead in the form of tetraethyllead was once a common additive.[4] and is not typically published for those countries that use the Anti-Knock Index labelling system.[citation needed] Anti-Knock Index (AKI)[edit] In most countries. but its use for fuels for road vehicles has been progressively phased-out worldwide.A US gas station pump offering five different (R+M)/2 octane ratings It is possible for a fuel to have a Research Octane Number (RON) more than 100. because ISO-octane is not the most knock-resistant substance available. the headline number is the average of the RON and the MON. It may also sometimes be called the Pump Octane Number (PON). however there is no direct link between RON and MON. RON is determined by running the fuel in a test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions. including Australia and all of those in Europe[citation needed]. and variable ignition timing to further stress the fuel's knock resistance. which is a better measure of how the fuel behaves when under load. higher engine speed. and comparing the results with those for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane. beginning in the 1970s. and some other countries. instead of the 600 rpm for RON. Depending on the composition of the fuel. Racing fuels. the MON of a modern gasoline will be about 8 to 10 points lower than the RON.[1] MON testing uses a similar test engine to that used in RON testing. Brazil. the "headline" octane rating shown on the pump is the RON. ETBE. Normally. but with a preheated fuel mixture. avgas.[3] Measurement methods[edit] Research Octane Number (RON)[edit] The most common type of octane rating worldwide is the Research Octane Number (RON). but in Canada. the United States. This difference is known as the fuel's sensitivity. isooctane and toluene. Typical "octane booster" gasoline additives include MTBE. called Motor Octane Number (MON). the octane rating shown in Canada and the United States is 4 to 5 points lower than the rating shown elsewhere in the world for the same fuel. fuel specifications require both a minimum RON and a minimum MON.

New Zealand. normally at wide open throttle. The following table lists octane ratings for various other fuels.[5] Aviation gasoline octane ratings[edit] Gasoline used in piston aircraft common in general aviation have slightly different methods of measuring the octane of the fuel.[6] The second is the "aviation rich" rating and corresponds to the octane rating of a test engine under forced induction operation common in high-performance and military piston aircraft. One is referred to as the "aviation lean" rating and is the same as the MON of the fuel up to 100.4 55. The original testing was done in cars on the road but as technology developed the testing was moved to chassis dynamometers with environmental controls to improve consistency.8 26.9 65 78 67 83 .2 91–92 82–83 87 83 61. it has two different ratings. This utilizes a supercharger. respectively.0 60 62 69 88 90 92 71 80. and uses a significantly richer fuel/air ratio for improved detonation resistance.[7] Examples[edit] The RON/MON values of n-heptane and iso-octane are exactly 0 and 100.0 26 46. called Observed Road Octane Number (RdON). Similar to AKI. and an aviation rich rating of 130. by the definition of octane rating.[4] The most commonly used current fuel 100LL. has an aviation lean rating of 100 octane. although it is referred to only by the lower of the two.[8][9] Fuel hexadecane n-octane n-heptane (RON and MON 0 by definition) diesel fuel 2-methylheptane n-hexane 1-pentene 2-methylhexane 3-methylhexane 1-heptene n-pentane requirement for a typical two-stroke outboard motor[10] Pertamina "Premium" gasoline in Indonesia "Regular" gasoline in Japan (Japanese Industrial Standards) n-butanol Neopentane (dimethylpropane) "regular" gasoline in Australia.Another type of octane rating. It was developed in the 1920s and is still reliable today. Canada and the US RON < -30 -10 0 15–25 23 25 34 44 MON AKI 0 0 23. is derived from testing gasolines in real world multi-cylinder engines.

"SP95" in France "Premium" or "Super unleaded" gasoline in US (10% ethanol blend) Shell "V-Power 97" in Malaysia Shell "V-Power 98". "SP98" in France "SuperPlus" in Germany Tesco "Momentum^99"[12] in UK "Premium" gasoline in Japan (Japanese Industrial Standards) Pertamina "Pertamax Racing" in Indonesia Shell V-Power in Italy and Germany Eni(or Agip) Blu Super +(or Tech) in Italy IP Plus 100 in Italy Tamoil WR 100 in Italy San Marco Petroli F-101 in Italy(northern Italy only.1 90. just a few gas stations) Petro-Canada "Ultra 94" in Canada [13] Aral Super 95 in Germany Aral Super 95 E10 (10% Ethanol) in Germany Aral SuperPlus 98 in Germany RON 92 92 94[11] MON 82 AKI 87 90. Esso Mobil "Synergy 8000" and SPC "LEVO 98" in Singapore Great Britain. Caltex "Platinum 98 with Techron".3 95 95 95 95 97 97 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 101 101.5 95 95 98 85 90 85–86 87-88 90–91 92-93 89–90 89–90 88 87 93–94 93–94 88 87 94 88 85 85 88 94 .Fuel Pertamina "Pertamax" gasoline in Indonesia Shell "Super" in Indonesia n-butane Isopentane (methylbutane) Pertamina "Pertamax Plus" gasoline in Indonesia Shell "Super Extra" in Indonesia Shell "FuelSave " in Malaysia "EuroSuper" or "EuroPremium" or "Regular unleaded" in Europe. Slovenia and Spain.

3-dimethylbutane ExxonMobil Avgas 100[14] Shell "V-Power Racing" in Australia .3[18] 115 98 discontinued"[17] t-butanol 2.1[18] 118 118 108.4[18] 97–98 97 103 100 100 .5 108 98.7[20] 108.6[20] 119 120 > 130 120 120 99.4 94.3-trimethylpentane toluene E85 gasoline propane 2.5 (min) 100 100 101 102[16] 102 103 106.discontinued July 2008 [15] "isooctane" (RON and MON 100 by definition) benzene i-butane "BP Ultimate 102 .7[20] 106 116.1[18] 108 109.6[20] 89.Fuel Aral Ultimate 102 in Germany IES 98 Plus in Italy 2.6 93–94 91 99.65 99.3-trimethylbutane xylene isopropanol methanol ethanol 2.2.3-trimethylpentane ethane 2.9[18] 107 85-87 97 101.5-Dimethylfuran methane hydrogen RON 102 98 MON 88 AKI 93.2-dimethylbutane 2.15 105 114 94-96[19] 97.6[18] 121 102-105 112 112.

than when purchasing a lower grade. Retarding the ignition timing reduces the tendency of the fuel-air mixture to detonate. but not always. The octane rating was developed by chemist Russell Marker at the Ethyl Corporation in 1926. and thus demand fuels of higher octane. thus they extract more energy from a given quantity of fuel. Since higher octane fuels have higher activation energy requirements. Engines with higher compression ratios develop more area under the Otto-Cycle curve. the starting pressure or air / fuel volume would be 2 times that of the normally aspirated engine. The compression ratio is directly related to power and to thermodynamic efficiency of an internal combustion engine (see Otto-cycle). which is why conservative compression ratios are used in consumer vehicles. A fuel with a higher octane rating is less prone to auto-ignition and can withstand a greater rise in temperature during the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine without auto-igniting. Some modern high performance engines are actually optimized for higher than pump premium (93 AKI in the US). this translates into a low starting pressure. This is why many forced induction engines have compression ratios in the 8:1 range. thus allowing more power to be extracted from the Otto-Cycle. The power output of an engine depends in part on the energy density of the fuel being burnt. which in turn retards the ignition timing when detonation is detected. which sends a signal to the engine control unit.Effects[edit] Higher octane ratings correlate to higher activation energies: This being the amount of applied energy required to initiate combustion. Most fuel filling stations have two storage tanks (even those offering 3 or 4 octane levels): those motorists who purchase intermediate grade fuels are given a mixture of higher and lower octane fuels. Other isomers of heptane produced from crude oil have greatly different ratings. Purchasing 91 octane fuel (where offered) simply means that more fuel of higher octane is blended with commensurately less fuel of lower octane. under conditions of high load and high temperature. 10:1 for the normally aspirated. 200 kPa (14. a given engine may have a more consistent power output with a higher octane fuel. The detergents and other additives in the fuel are often.7Psi). When auto-ignition occurs (before the piston reaches the top of its travel) the up-rising piston is then attempting to squeeze the rapidly heating fuel charge. Because of this. identical. In the case of the normally aspirated engine. During the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine. Many high-performance engines are designed to operate with a high maximum compression. In a forced induction engine where at the start of the compression stroke the cylinder pressure is already raised (having a greater volume of air / fuel) Exp. Many modern engines are equipped with a knock sensor (a small piezoelectric microphone). However. abnormally high cylinder pressures may result in the mixture auto-igniting or detonating. at the start of the compression stroke the cylinder air / fuel volume is very low. This would translate into an effective compression ratio of 20:1 vs. As the piston travels upward. Fuels of different octane ratings may have similar densities. and the minimum grade sold is fuel of lower octane. "Premium" grade is fuel of higher octane. . but also reduces power output and fuel efficiency. If during the compression stroke the air / fuel mix reaches a temperature greater than the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel. or forced induction engines (see supercharged or turbocharged engines). The 2001 . burning fuel with a lower octane rating than that for which the engine is designed often results in a reduction of power output and efficiency. The selection of n-heptane as the zero point of the scale was due to its availability in high purity. There are two types of induction systems on internal combustion engines: Normally aspirated engine (air is sucked in using the engine's pistons). as such fuels are less prone to detonation. it is less likely that a given compression will cause uncontrolled ignition. as the air / fuels mix is compressed its temperature rises (PV=nRT). This will usually destroy an engine quickly if allowed to continue. otherwise known as autoignition or detonation. the fuel self or auto-ignites. Car and Driver magazine tested a car using a dynamometer. A common misconception is that power output or fuel efficiency can be improved by burning fuel of higher octane than that specified by the engine manufacturer.2007 BMW M3 with the S54 engine is one such car. but because switching to a higher octane fuel does not add more hydrocarbon content or oxygen. the engine cannot develop more power. and found that the power output increased as the AKI was increased up to approximately 96 AKI.

RE85 is only suitable for flexifuel cars that can run on high-percentage ethanol. and 98 RON fuel is also reasonably common. instead of 98. establishes the following ratings: Plus 91 (at least 91 RON) and Super (at least 95 RON). 90 RON and 92 RON are available at almost all gas stations with a negligible price difference between them. Chile: 93.[21] United Petroleum sells 100 RON unleaded fuel (10% ethanol content) at a small number of its service stations (originally only two. standard in all petrol station in the country and advertised as (Jayyid) for Regular or 91 and (Mumtaz) for Premium or 95. Denmark: 95 and 98 RON are common choices.[25] Costa Rica: RECOPE. The three types are unleaded Colombia: "Ecopetrol". but 98 is available for vehicles that need higher octane fuel. In some rural areas it can be difficult to find fuel with over 93 RON. Finland: 95 and 98 (RON). All fuels are most of which are located in major cities (stopped in August 2008). Ref: gas stations are being required to offer a minimum rate of the new mixture of "Super" 95 RON with up to 10% Ethanol branded as            . E85 is being implemented but has yet to be finalized in the parliament.htm Australia: "regular" unleaded fuel is 91 RON. Due to a new European Union law. Most cars run on 95. All fuels are unleaded. advertised as "over 99 octane".[26] Cyprus: All fuel stations offer unleaded 95 and 98 RON and a few offer 100 RON as well. which is 85% ethanol made from biodegradable waste (from which the advertised name "ReFuel" comes). Costa Rica's distribution monopoly. In the beginning of 2011 95 RON was replaced by 95E10 containing 10% ethanol. "Extra" is the most commoly used. Big suppliers such as Shell or Aral offer 100 RON gasoline (Shell V-Power. at almost all gas stations. Bahrain: 91 and 95 (RON). containing 5% ethanol.[27] Egypt: 80 RON is commonly used for all taxis and old cars and is the predominant rating in rural areas. Shell offers V-Power. 95 and 97 RON are standard at almost all gas stations thorough Chile.[28] Germany: "Super E10" 95 RON and "Super Plus E5" 98 RON are available practically everywhere. Ecuador: "Extra" with 87 and "Super" with 92 (RON) are available in all fuel stations. In limited areas higher rating such as 99 RON is available.Regional variations[edit] The selection of octane ratings available at the pump can vary greatly from region to region. 95 RON is becoming more common especially in the big cities and upscale suburbs.[22][23] All fuel in Australia is unleaded except for some aviation fuels. "premium" unleaded with 95 RON is widely available. but it has now expanded to 67 outlets nationwide). "Normal" 91 RON is only rarely offered because lower production amounts make it more expensive than "Super" 95 RON. advertised as such. ST1 also offers RE85 on some stations.   Colorado: State of Colorado is among a group of states where regular unleaded gasoline has a lower octane level (85) than is normal elsewhere in the country (87). China: 93 and 97 (RON) are commonly offered. and 98 RON by 98E5. or older models containing parts easily damaged by high ethanol content. Shell used to sell 100 RON petrol (5% ethanol content) from a small number of service stations. Some varieties of low percentage Ethanol mixtures are offered at larger gas stations. Aral Ultimate) at almost every fuel station. Colombia's monopoly of refining and distribution of gasoline establishes a minimum AKI of 81 octanes for "Corriente" gasoline [24] and minimum AKI of 87 octanes for "Extra" gasoline.

Sometimes "high octane" is sold under different names. All variants are unleaded. Israel: 95 RON & 98 RON are normally available at most petrol stations. with RON values of 93 and 97.g."Super E10". Malaysia: Had RON 92 until 2009. such as "F-1". Shell. There have been calls to re-introduce 95 RON. Two variants. 96 RON is also available at a large number of gas stations but 95 RON is more preferred because it's cheaper and performance differences aren't very wide and noticeable. but the calls have been rejected by all petrol station chains. 98 RON is sold. Japan: Since 1986.[citation needed] Producers are discontinuing "Super E5" 95 RON with <5% Ethanol[citation needed] so cars that are unable to use E10 must use 98 RON petrol instead. Both variants are unleaded. Replaced with "regular" unleaded fuel Ron 95 RON. "green"). some independent tests have shown that one year after introduction[when? ] it was downgraded to 95 RON[citation needed]. and Shell's V-Power Racing is rated at min 97 RON. OMV) offer 98 RON as the premium type. and "high octane" is >=96 RON. only a few fuel stations (Agip. 95 RON and 98 RON widely available. India's economy-class vehicles usually have compression ratios under 10:1. Also available Super LRP 96 RON for older (non-catalytic) vehicles. In "LUKOIL" gas stations E85 (bioethanol) gasoline. India: India's Ordinary And Premium Petrols are of 91 RON. Recently Agip introduced "Blu Super+". Lithuania: 92 RON. And Pemex Premium (92 AKI) is sold at almost all gas stations. As a "premium" fuel. 98E15 (15% of ethanol). 98E25 (25% of ethanol) are available. Other options are "Pertamax" rated at 92 RON and the "Pertamax Plus" rated at RON 95. IP. citing that 95 RON was phased out because of market forces. were launched.65/liter. whereas 98 RON "Super Plus" is being phased out in favor of "premium" fuels. thus enabling them to use lower-octane petrol without engine knocking. which are all 95 RON fuels with extra additives. Shell V-Power is a 97 RON (labelled as 95 due to the legalities of only using 95 or 98 labelling). BP). EKO. a bioethanol flexfuel rated at RON 100 (sold in gallon can container only) Ireland: 95 RON "unleaded" is the only petrol type available through stations. Montenegro: 95 RON is sold as a "regular" fuel. 97+ & 100 RON unleaded offered by some companies (e. Those values are defined in standard JIS K 2202. IES. that do not really change the octane value. many Shell and Tamoil stations close to the cities offer also V-Power Gasoline rated at 100 RON.)[29] México: Pemex Magna (87 AKI) is sold as a "regular" fuel and is available at every station. Indonesia: Indonesia's "Premium" petrol rated at 88 RON and being subsidized it cost only about US$0. "Pertamax Racing Fuel". Latvia: 95 RON and 98 RON widely available.               . The premium petrols are generally ordinary fuels with additives. "regular" is >=89 RON. a 100 RON gasoline. lead free. Lebanon: 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available. whereas in neighboring Germany Shell V-Power consists of the regular 100 RON fuel. "Regular" fuel is 95 RON. "Speed 93" and "Speed 97". Netherlands: 95 RON "Euro" is sold at every station. "premium" fuel is rated at 97 RON(but for Shell 97 RON is V-Power 97. Italy: 95 RON is the only compulsory gasoline offered ( verde. although E5 (99 RON) is becoming more commonplace. Both variants are unleaded.  Greece (Hellas): 95 RON (standard unleaded). Hong Kong: only 98 RON is available in the market.

90 RON is the regular petrol and 95 RON is called 'Super Petrol'. In LIOC filling stations. Shell . $0. Philippines: A brand of Petron. South Africa: "regular" unleaded fuel is 95 RON in coastal areas. New Zealand: 91 RON "Regular" and 95 RON "Premium" are both widely available. 98 RON is available instead of 95 RON at some service stations in larger urban areas. 98 RON is available on some stations but it's usually quite expensive compared to the lower octane rating fuels. Caltex Gold. Shell offers V-Power Racing fuel which is rated RON 100. 0. 90 RON remains as regular petrol and 92 RON is available as 'Premium Petrol'. only Super Premium RON 95 was available and the pumps weren't coloured in any specific order. 92 RON (Regular) has been dropped in 2006.S. Other "super premium" brands like Petron XCS. "Premium 91" (RON 91) where the pumps are coloured green. 80 RON gasoline is available for old cars and motorcycles. Many stations around cities and highways offer other high-octane "premium" brands.R. once again most fuel stations optionally offer 95 RON. these are 92. 91 RON benzine/petrol withdrawn on Jan 1st 2013 to increase uptake of gasohol fuels. Taiwan: 92 RON. Inland (higher elevation) "regular" unleaded fuel is 93 RON. ExxonMobil. Trinidad and Tobago: 92 RON (Super) and 95 RON (Premium) are widely available. 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available at gas stations in Taiwan. 98 RON and E85 are widely available.R.60 (U. Petron Blaze is rated at 100 RON (the only brand of gasoline in the Philippines without an ethanol blend).16) per litre respectively. which comes at a premium price. and 98 RON. However. sometimes under brand (Orlen . Caltex Silver. While gas stations in Saudi Arabia are privatized. while Petron Xtra Unleaded. telling the people to use the "red gas" only for high end cars. Turkey: 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available in gas stations.A. Typically. Shell has removed 92 RON. and "Super Premium 95" (RON 95) where the pumps are coloured red.Ultimate. Sweden: 95 RON.Verva. Ukraine: the standard gasoline is 95 RON. Thailand: 91 RON and 95 RON are widely available. 95. since 2009. Shell V-Power are rated at 95-97 RON. but 92 RON gasoline is also widely available and popular as a less expensive replacement for 95 RON gasoline.                . Russia and CIS countries: 80 RON (76 MON) is the minimum available. Prior to 2006.V-Power) and usually containing additives. Spain: 95 RON "Euro" is sold in every station with 98 RON "Super" being offered in most stations.S. Poland: Eurosuper 95 (RON 95) is sold in every gas station. therefore big educating campaigns were spread. Caltex. Saudi Arabia: Two types of fuel are available at all gas stations in Saudi Arabia.12) and S. the standard is 92 RON and 95 RON. BP . The cost of premium petrol is lower than the cost of super petrol. and Shell Super Unleaded are rated at 93 RON. The public didn't know what Octane rating was. the prices are regulated by the authorities and have a fixed at S. and save money on using the "green gas" for regular cars and trucks.A. Sri Lanka: In Ceypetco filling stations.45 (U. 0. Portugal: 95 RON "Euro" is sold in every station and 98 RON "Super" being offered in almost every station. SPC and Shell have 3 grades of petrol. Super Plus 98 (RON 98) is available in most stations. Singapore: All four providers. $0.

E10 which is an ethanol blend of fuel at 10% ethanol is available the octane rating however is still to be tested and confirmed but it is assumed that its around 95 Octane. In the Rocky Mountain (high elevation) states. a typical naturally aspirated engine draws in less air mass per cycle because of the reduced density of the atmosphere. over 40 states and a total of over 2500 stations offer ethanol-based E-85 fuel with 105 AKI. filling stations near US racing tracks will offer higher octane levels such as 100 AKI[citation needed]. although most cars in Venezuela would work with 91 RON gasoline.     Knocking A petrol/diseal engine basically works on the combustion of oil in the presence of Air which produces enough thrust by spark and burst to push a piston Forcibly. . which as the name suggests. A disadvantage to this strategy is that most turbocharged vehicles are unable to produce full power. and was priced at about two and half times more than their 97 RON fuel. Tesco and Shell both offer 99 RON fuel. 95 RON petrol is the most widely used in the country.vs 0. The reason for this is that in higher-elevation areas. In April 2006. therefore deterring knock. and 91 AKI (95 RON) is the maximum octane available in fuel[citation needed]. BP Ultimate Unleaded 102 was available throughout the UK in only 10 filling stations. In March 2010. E85 available from 3 outlets with an octane rating AKI index of between 102-105 depending on the base petrol the Ethanol is blended with. Venezuela: 91 RON and 95 RON gasoline is available nationwide.[30] Although BP Ultimate Unleaded (with an octane rating of 97 RON) and BP Ultimate Diesel are both widely available throughout the UK. BP started a public trial of the super-high octane petrol BP Ultimate Unleaded 102. United States: in the US octane rating is displayed in AKI. BP stopped sales of Ultimate Unleaded 102. All gasoline in Venezuela is unleaded. In some east coast states. in all PDV gas stations. This is because petrol prices are heavily subsided by the government(0. citing the closure of their specialty fuels manufacturing facility. Vietnam: 92 is in every gas station and 95 is in the urban areas. 2011. up to 94 AKI (98 RON) is available. but at sea level the fuel may cause damage to the engine. and Tesco fuel stations also supply the Greenergy produced 99 RON "Momentum99".[31] Shell V-Power is also available.[33] Often. has an octane rating of 102 RON. It is safe to fill a carbureted car that normally takes 87 AKI fuel at sea level with 85 AKI fuel in the mountains. even when using the "premium" 91 AKI fuel.[32] As of January. but in a 99 RON octane rating. This directly translates to less fuel and reduced absolute compression in the cylinder. with 97 RON fuel being widely available as the Super Unleaded.061$ per gallon 91 RON).083$ per gallon 95 RON. United Kingdom: 'regular' petrol has an octane rating of 95 RON. The piston in turn rotates the gears of engine in circular manner as shown. Zimbabwe: 93 octane available with no other grades of fuels available. 85 AKI (90 RON) is the minimum octane.

In diesel engine In a similar but exactly opposite way knocking is observed in Diesel engine. Diesel Knocking Diesel contains compounds which are highly branched or aromatic which delays the combustion of the oil in the engine.In petrol engine The saturated long chains of hydrocarbons (petrol oil) is too good for combustion/burning. This in turn produces crackling noise (just like rattling of hammer). It disturbs the harmony in which the piston moves up and down. This is called knocking of a petrol engine. .

Measurement of knocking . * Wastage of fuel as well energy produced by it. Disadvantages or drawbacks of knocking * Causes harm to engine. * Harms piston and cylinder. * Increases maintenance cost.This delay disturbs the harmony in which the piston moves up and down and causes knocking of diesel engine.

for Reference and convention Octane number of iso-octane is taken as 100 Octane number of n-heptane is taken as 0 . Octane number is the percentage of iso-octane present in mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane. This causes knocking of petrol engine. Thus. iso-octane is a compound which has very good.In petrol engine The knocking in petrol engine is measured by Octane number. calm and controlled combustion properties. n-heptane detonates and burns readily before it is expected to burn.

The steps 2 and 3 have to be as fast as possible (1/500 th of a second). Cetane number is percentage of n-hexadecane present in mixture of n-hexadecane and methylnapthalene. Then oil is injected inside. Working of diesel engine A diesel engine demands more arrangements as compared to its peer petrol engine. 3. it has Cetane number 100 whrereas methylnapthalene delays combustion Thus. 4. 2. Firstly. So. for reference and convection n-hexadecane ignites readily Thus. 1. The presence of aromatic and branches hydrocarbons produces delayed combustion And ignition lag causing Knocking of engine. it has Cetane number 0 .In diesel engine Cetane number is used to measure knocking in diesel engine. Atomization of oil begins at these elevated temperatures and carbon of diesel combines with oxygen of air to form CO2 (other gases are also produced because of impurities). air is pumped and compressed in the engine to attain 500C-700C temperatures. In order to appreciate the diesal engine one needs to know how it works.