You are on page 1of 17

Hermathena, Trinity College Dublin Published: Number 161, 1998, pp.53 6!.

The Place of writing: P"#C$, P%$T&', P%"(T(C) (N T*$ +&(T(N, %)$#./) *$#N$' At the beginning of The Cure at Troy, Seamus Heaney’s translation of Sophocles’s Philoctetes, the chorus speaks on the function of poetry in the midst of political and cultural turmoil:
Poetry Allowed the god to speak. It was the oice !f reality and "ustice. #he oice of Hercules #hat Philoctetes is going to ha e to hear $hen the stone cracks open and the la a flows. %The Cure at Troy, &'

It is the contention of this essay that Heaney’s use of classical imagery in his poetry ser es to assert the oice of (reality and "ustice’ in the middle of a time when (the stone cracks open and la a flows.’ #he imagery of stones and la a in this e)tract is, in my opinion thematic of a central concern in Heaney’s work, namely the politics of place and culture in *orthern Ireland. Attachment to place is a central trope of politics in Ireland, and especially in contemporary *orthern Ireland. #he territorial imperati e is a ma"or factor in much of the iolence with which our history is riddled. Indeed, in +uly and August of each year, that same possessi e notion of place is the cause of tension and iolence in *orthern Ireland, the names of -ar aghy .oad and /rumcree ha e been engra ed on the consciousness of the world during +uly 0112 as signifiers of a iolent linguistic attachment to place. #he ideology of both *ationalist and 3nionist traditions has politicised the land which they share by linguistic marks of possession. Paul de 4an has termed this process of politicisation of place, of ethnic attachment to the land, (aesthetic ideology,’ and #erry 5agleton has gi en a concise definition of it: 0

ethical and political realms. becoming part of the (holmgang’ of *orthern Ireland where.’ %01' In terms of The Cure at Troy. %The Ideology of the Aesthetic. #he writer can then either ascribe to this ideology of place. and sinking. as Heaney noted: two berserks club each other to death <or honour’s sake. then reason and debate ha e little chance of success. grie ed in a bog. and is thus in danger of con erting the accidents of meaning to organic natural process in the characteristic manner of ideological thought. one that imposes a ision of (reality and "ustice’ on the ideology of place in *orthern Ireland. In an essay appropriately entitled The Place of Writing. =8' or can take a different route. $hen the aesthetic is prioritised within the political realm. 08' #his ideology of place. or he can listen for the ( oice of Hercules. the writer can either become capti ated by cracking (stones’ and flowing (la a’. a destination in art arri ed at by way of art. %North.aesthetic ideology in ol es a phenomenalist reduction of the linguistic to the sensually empirical. Such aesthetic ideology. naturali7es or phenomenali7es the former. and emoti e issues of culture and ideology are foregrounded. alidates what +ohn 4ontague has termed (the omit surge 9 of race hatred % The Rough Field.’ It is the contention of this paper that for Heaney. a confusing of mind and world. and goes on to add that (we are more and more aware of writing as a place in itself. :. cognition and percept.'. aporetic relation which holds between the spheres of language and the real. sign and thing. & . which is consecrated in the Hegelian symbol and resisted by 6ant’s rigorous demarcation of aesthetic "udgement from the cogniti e. Heaney makes the point that (the poetic imagination in its strongest manifestation imposes its ision upon a place rather than accepts a ision from it’%&8'. and I will e)amine some passages from Heaney’s writing to e)plore this iewpoint. by introducing emoti e aesthetic criteria into disputes. the oice of Hercules stands for a broader concept of place. by repressing the contingent.

the passage sets in motion an interaction which will allow Heaney to impose a ision on the place. or more accurately. helmeted.’ and only then points to the pump. as part of the classical world where the great B . Here Heaney is describing his own home place and he does so in terms which foreground the place of classical thinking in his aesthetic. the cradle of $estern ci ili7ation. and repeat it. and to create a place of writing where reason and language might help. painted a dark green and set on a concrete plinth. omphalos. and hence the centre of the world. Ay putting forth the idea of different worlds. fuses the psychical centre of Heaney’s childhood world with a psychical centre of an imaginati e world. Ay in oking the centre of the classical world. %Preoccupations. Heaney begins with the (word’ which means the (na el.#he first passage I would like to focus on comes from the beginning of Preoccupations. until its blunt and falling music becomes the music of somebody pumping water at the pump outside our back door. iron idol. the American troops manoeu re in the fields along the road. meaning the na el. rather than hinder the process of change. and facilitate the dictum that (art can outface history’ %Preoccupations. the oice %and one thinks of (the oice of Hercules’'. omphalos. omphalos. In a real sense. #he American bombers groan towards the aerodrome at #oomebridge. as part of a rhetorical chain of imagery which attempts to pose an alternati e to the ( holmgang’ of aesthetic ideology in *orthern Ireland.’ #he classical reference is used here. Heaney is grounding himself as part of this world. on its (concrete plinth’ which marks (the centre of another world. the metaphorical soil of ancient -reece. a slender. /erry in the early 01:8s. to interrogate the gi ens of aesthetic ideology. #here the pump stands. marking the centre of another world. and hence the stone that marked the centre of the world. but all of that great historical action does not disturb the rhythms of the yard. #he passage that will be analy7ed here is taken from the opening of (Mossbawn : I would begin with the -reek word. aesthetics and politics. 0=?0@' #his passage opens with the classical association of the word omphalos. omphalos. the word omphalos. I would suggest. 11'. Heaney is pointing towards a point of ad"udication in terms of the present. as symbolic of the imagination of the writer. dressed down with a sweeping handle. snouted. It is >o. Here.

where the modern and ancient. each open pool the unstopped mouth of an urn. which allows him to (step through origins’ is imagined as ali e: kinned by hieroglyphic peat on a spreadfield to the strangled ictim. who saw that e ents could be iewed from the perspecti e of a particular culture sub specie durationis or from the perspecti e of eternity sub specie aeternitatis. #his poem attempts to grant the intensity of racial dri es.. the aesthetic is being brought under the "urisdiction of classical alues. In this poem.. :8?:0' : ... #he land. in the shape of the apostrophised #acitus. and also to seek a "uridical warrant outside of the hermeneutic circle of those dri es. and its problems. Heaney is.emancipatory ideals of "ustice were first hammered out.. the racial and ethnic dri es which power nationalistic identification with the land are gi en e)pression. %North. in his olume North. #he latter perspecti e is. . #his synthesis bears fruit in !inship.. through classical imagery. but it is seen by Spino7a as a regulati e notion by which we can be guided. impossible. of course. within the spatial and temporal categories of a broader world iew. >lassical tropes gi e him this iewpoint as they are spatially and temporally distanced from the (ruminant ground’ of *orthern Ireland. He is looking for a point of reference from where he can locate *orthern Ireland.. seeking a Cuasi?eternal perspecti e on his own place. Ay creating this dual ision for 4ossbawn. !ne could associate this process with the conceptual scheme of Spino7a. .each bank a gallows drop. Here. the Irish and the classical again coalesce imaginati ely. a moon?drinker.I lo e this turf?face..

’ and the oice of the poem. As I raised it the soft lips of the growth muttered and split. se)ually acti e in terms of the (I’ of the poem D and gi en the nationalist background of the author. or rather rebirth to (a goddess. %North. the shaft wettish as I sank it upright. seems to be allowing itself to come under the spell of place. the fact that the implement that penetrates the land is o ergrown (with a green fog’ is hardly accidental. an image redolent of a Cuasi?se)ual relationship with the land: I found a turf?spade hidden under bracken. telling us that: I grew out of all this like a weeping willow inclined to the appetites of gra ity.. :B' . laid flat.. #his penetration of the land gi es birth. like that of the opening of Mossbawn. the land is imaged as ali e. and o ergrown with a green fog..I stand at the edge of centuries facing a goddess. . . a tawny rut opening at my feet like a shed skin.#he third section of !inship has the (I’ of the poem penetrating the land in a phallic manner. %North.. :&' Here. female.

and the simile of the weeping willow. #acitus. !ur mother ground is sour with the blood of her faithful. an intensity that seems to alorise a type of necessary (slaughter’. in a manner similar to that of the Mossbawn piece. #his classical referent. #he persuasi e power of such an aesthetic ideology is granted in this fine poem. reminding us of Heaney’s comment in Preoccupations: At one minute you are drawn to the old orte) of racial and religious instinct. before inclining back towards it. obser e how I make my gro e on an old crannog piled by the fearful dead: a desolate peace. seems to point towards a time and place where disputes were settled differently.Here. %Preoccupations. #acitus. B:' #he final section of !inship both grants the intensity of the aesthetic relationship with place. which grows out of the earth. and brings such practices under e)ternal "udgement. they lie gargling in her sacred heart 2 . by an introduction of something to this particular circle both temporally and spatially.’ It attempts to break the hermeneutic circle of place. the power of aesthetic ideology is imaged in the almost gra itational pull of the (I’ towards the land. at another time you seek the mean of humane lo e and reason. the (mean’ of (reason. And you. and (report’. In the middle of the bloodshed and erbs of iolence D (slaughter’ and (sha"e’ D we note the two erbs associated with #acitus and the legions D (obser"e’. #he rationality of the (I’ seems to ha e been diminished under the gra itational pull of aesthetic ideology.

. >ome back to this (island of the ocean’ where nothing will suffice. report us fairly. with whom the (I’ of the poem also has a #inship D that of a ci ilised user of language.ome. and by the presence of the legions as a type of ci ilised audience to these barbaric rites. and by analogy with the omphalos of the Mossbawn passage. It is the discourse of the <orum. and recorder of customs and practices.. #he in"unctions to (obser e’ and (report...fairly’ bring the rites of kinship under a different discursi e regime. with their intense relationship to the place.' #here is a different le el of discourse being suggested by the address of these lines to #acitus.1'.report us fairly’.as the legions stare from the ramparts. It symboli7es the perspecti e of eternity. :. is lessened due to the framing de ice of the inclusion of a passi e watcher. where laws were framed and disputes settled. #he discourse associated with him embodies these ci ilised and rational alues D (obser e. . %North. of ob"ecti ity.. it is the discourse of the Athenians who built their supreme court = . #acitus stands in synecdoche for . for the pa$ Romana. as #acitus did in the Agricola and the (ermania.ead the inhumed faces of casualty and ictim. how the goddess swallows our lo e and terror. for the ci ili7ing faith in art (aere perennius’ %already Cuoted in Whate"er %ou &ay' &ay Nothing' North. . Ay e) of "ustice. #he suasi e power of the earlier sections of the poem. It is the discourse of science.. sub specie aeternitatis. how we slaughter for the common good and sha e the heads of the notorious.

in the present tense. or at least offer a different perspecti e on these rites of kinship "ust as the omphalos presents a different conception of place. #hey are gi en a special place within the temple. #hey are reminded of a higher power than theirs %)n the *"e of the Millennium. similar to that discussed in the rest of this poem. is of course the )resteia by Aeschylus. makes it clear that the lines are symbolic. !f course. but the placing of this (world’ in "u)taposition with the (world’ of #acitus ser es to place both iews in an economy wherein they can interrogate each other. offers some hope of containment of the iolence inherent in aesthetic ideology by offering other aesthetic images which posit a different. feuds and battles still continued in the classical age. SeCuential time and place cohere. #he paradigm for such a containment of isceral forces.’ #he Hellenic enlightenment gestures towards a different way of dealing with disputes o er territory.omans ne er coloni7ed Ireland' does not stop the (slaughter 9 for the common good’. #he attractions of a Cuasi? sacral relationship to land are granted their fullest intensity in !inship. #he presence of #acitus and the legions %a historical anachronism as the . sub specie aeternitatis. by the -oddess Athena. but there was in place an alternati e paradigm D Heaney’s (mean of humane lo e and reason’ D which offered another option to the ( orte) of racial hatred. Art. the @ . #he furies are contained. as noted by >onor >ruise !’Arien. what it does is present a different world? iew which may contain the iolence. 1&?1B'.on 4ount Areopagos where "ustice was dealt in the midst of a world where barbarism and iolence. #he classical references allow for the symboli7ation of a different politics of place. by creating a distancing perspecti e. more reasoned relationship with place.’ It is this difference of language which is central to Heaney’s interrogation of the aesthetic ideology that per ades nationalist consciousness. as she attempts to break the cycle of blood feuds. a different use of language to that of terror and death. as the classical figure symboli7es a different perspecti e. #he ery fact that these lines are addressed to a li ing #acitus. Such a relationship must be e)pressed in poetic terms because the central trope of aesthetic ideology. they allow the poet to proffer a place of writing where alues of reason and critiCue hold sway o er the (holmgang. was rife. but their engeful nature remains the same.

. on aesthetic ideology.. Heaney is attempting a process of isualising the same e ent through two different perspecti es. as seen in !’'. deeply implicated in the aesthetic ideology of place %(I stand at the edge of centuries 9 facing a goddess’'. due to the in ocation of the -reek word omphalos. especially when these pieties are generally gi en symbolic and iconic representation. because when feeling and emotion enter the political realm. or e en march there is to partake of this type of organicist ideology. with dangerous o ertones when it o ersteps the line of demarcation between literature and politics.stare.. ser es the same function as the "u)taposition of the omphalos and the pump in Mossbawn. #o feel that one is (rooted’ in a piece of land. religious and racial codes is a literary trope.. a central place in a parochial world.. but it is also. #he perspecti e of the (I’ of !inship. sub specie aeternitatis.personification of place.’ #he placing of the classical referents within this chain of aesthetic ideology. who sees the land as intimately connected with the language of his tribe %(this is the owel of earth 9 dreaming its root’' is framed within the perspecti e of the eye of #acitus and the legions %(obser e. #he pump. then ata isms do not lurk far beneath the surface: (the goddess swallows 9 our lo e and terror. Such an outside perspecti e is necessary to offer a critiCue of the pieties of *ationalism and 3nionism and that therefore no other tradition has any right to li e. in Mossbawn is part of a local en ironment. and if there is no outside perspecti e to ask ($hy is this soE Support your position with argument $here is your e idenceE’ then the ideology becomes self?perpetuating. I would argue that the classical tropes in these two pieces of writing by Heaney ser e to represent a distancing perspecti e. using the symbolic discourse through which aesthetic ideology has come into being. as opposed to rational lines of argument. is an essentially poetic term. a pointer towards another world iew. #he e)pression of names of places as part of comple) cultural. #he almost se)ual relationship between self and place posited in !inship gestures towards the possessi e nature of this ideology.. or the gi ing of face to a land % prosopopoeia'. namely the postulation of a new politics of place wherein the place of writing will be to impose different isions of the relationship between people and place. and any chance of a more rational or 1 .

Antaeus and +ercules and Antaeus. In the discourse of 08 . in North' can be read as a paradigm of this organicist aesthetic ideology as it attempts to gi e oice to these territorial pieties and possessi e dri es. the earth mother. symbolically. the oice of the poem is imagined. already noted in !inship. in a leitmotif of rebirth. to represent his mother further strengthens this sub. Such is the strength of the identification that the rhetorical strategy that is used is a type of in erted personification. the writer seems to be seduced by the place. son of (. so the indi idual who is the focus of aesthetic ideology is a son. #he (I’ is stripped of the attributes of humanity. #his framing of the isceral by the rational. the organicist notion of a special relationship between race and land has closure in terms of a politics of place in literature.enlightened political approach is denied. #he fact that the land appears. through simile. in fact. +ust as Antaeus is the son of the earth. or daughter of a particular piece of earth. $ithout this perspecti e. the imagery takes on symbolic o ertones. is (cradled in the dark’. as being part of the land. !ne stan7a from Antaeus. #his pattern of imagery is sustained throughout the stan7a.. and where he is (nurtured’. the relationship with the earth is.ect-land-language ne)us. and likewise draws strength from this personified piece of land. Here. #he womb?like (ca e’ is the place where Antaeus.omantic legacy of a sentient nature. %North. and instead becomes one with the land itself. 0&' Here. is further e)plored in the two framing poems of Part 0 of North. the constituti e factor in the sub"ecti ity of Antaeus. to which access is gained by the language of poetry. a leitmotif which foregrounds the . without any outside perspecti e: /own here in my ca e -irdered with root and rock I am cradled in the dark that wombed me And nurtured in e ery artery Fike a small hillock. rather than imposing his ision on the place. Here.

Antaeus is (weaned’ at last from: .B' and becomes (a sleeping giant 9 pap for the dispossessed. of !inship.. and the nursing child. the secret gullies of his strength. who again symbolises the power of a different perspecti e to weaken the territorial imperati es of the land. though Antaeus.&' He is (sky?born. Fike the furies in the )resteia.&?. feeding off the earth mother.’ and hence symbolic of that more rational perspecti e. his. there is no hint of escaping the seducti e power of the land. Here. Hercules: . the ri er? eins.Antaeus. %North..the cradling dark. . the hatching grounds of ca e and souterrain. (. %North. in the companion poem. gi ing rise to rebirth. both bonds are se ered. the debate between a politics which takes its ision from place and its people. Here.’ #he twin metaphors for this relationship ha e been the se)ual penetration . he is brought under some kind of containment. and that containment is enacted through that rational perspecti e which has been an ongoing trope in our 00 . *ow.’ Here.. .has the measure of resistance and black powers feeding off the territory. as The Cure at Troy e)plained (is the oice 9 of reality and "ustice. and through his action in the poem.. a grappling where different faculties struggle. #his will not come until the mention of Hercules. is symboli7ed in terms of a wrestling match. in Antaeus. +ercules and Antaeus. Hercules breaks the organic relationship between nati e and place. symbol of aesthetic ideology is not completely anCuished. and one which imposes a more rational ision upon place and its people.

#his is made e)plicit in +ercules and Antaeus. <rom within the place where he writes. and (intelligence’. that effects the metamorphosis of that relationship from organic bodily dependence. an almost umbilical connection. where ideas sub specie aeternitatis can offer a more ob"ecti e line of ision on those which are sub specie durationis. %North. a blue prong graiping him out of his element into a dream of loss and origins. debate and the imagery of (light’. the mould?hugger. the application of reason and thought to the relationship between people and place. to that of thought. is weaned at last: a fall was a renewal but now he is raised upD the challenger’s intelligence is a spur of light. #he final piece of Heaney’s writing that I wish to consider in this conte)t is Personal +elicon.&' Here. .S!*AF H5FI>!* 0& . so his personal +elicon will pri ilege classical sources as his personal 4use. #he different perspecti e sub"ects the unthinking dependencies of aesthetic ideology to a critiCue which posits a politics based on reason P5. the final poem in /eath of a Naturalist. +ust as his personal iew of Mossbawn pri ileged the classical notion of the omphalos.readings. where it is (intelligence’ that causes the se ering of the bond between nati e and place: Antaeus. it is the intelligence. the poet will create a place of writing.

and (*arcissus’ in the final stan7a.oland Aarthes would term a cultural code to bear on our reading of the poem. So deep you saw no reflection in it. the smells !f waterweed. %/eath of a Naturalist . #hese proper nouns. A shallow one under a dry stone ditch <ructified like any aCuarium. *ow. in a brickyard. #o stare big?eyed *arcissus. as opposed to the seemingly concrete world of Heaney’s childhood. to pry into roots. a rat slapped across my reflection. $hen you dragged out long roots from the soft mulch A white face ho ered o er the bottom. out of ferns and tall <o)glo es. !thers had echoes. we seem to ha e come full circle. into some spring Is beneath all adult dignity.As a child. fungus and dank moss. ga e back your own call $ith a clean new music in it. locate the poem in the abstract realm of myth.=' At first. they could not keep me from wells And old pumps with buckets and windlasses. to set the darkness echoing. !ne. I lo ed the dark drop. the title of Heaney’s poem immediately brings what . I rhyme #o see myself. to finger slime. And one $as scaresome for there. In other words. I sa oured the rich crash when a bucket Plummeted down at the end of a rope. back to Mossbawn. the trapped sky. with a piece of writing referring to the poet’s early home. . and to water imagery. Howe er. they place the 0B . with a rotted board top. both of -reek deri ation. #he complete te)t is framed by two proper nouns: (+elicon’ in the title.

but being unable to communicate with him. she e entually faded away into rock. all he can see is his reflection. 0: . =:' #he myth of *arcissus and 5cho is well known. sub specie aeternitatis. there is no outside to the relationship. In political terms both the *ationalist and 3nionist traditions are locked in a similar time?bound perspecti e. sub specie durationis. #he remembered child in the poem lo es the (echoes’ that will transform his (call’ and then return it with (clean new music’. As the oice of place. there is no widening of perspecti e. 5cho. sub specie durationis. when *arcissus drew back. which gi es rise to the conflict seen at /rumcree during the Summer of 0112. it is monologic. At e ery attempt to make physical contact. immediately fell in lo e with it. in a te)t which foregrounds the myths of *arcissus and +elicon. within a framing chain of classical imagery which represents the more detached iew. He e entually faded away and died. e)cept the power to repeat the final word of a sentence. <rom it two fountains flowed. Hence. doomed to repeat only the final words spoken by an other. is a locus classicus of aesthetic ideology in that she e)ists within the confines of a place.recounting of early e)perience. *arcissus. *arcissus suffers the same fate. and can only repeat the final sound of a speaker. her ocabulary is strictly limited. and can impose no ision on the place. points the common noun to its mythological antecedent. the reflection returned. the Hippocrene and the Aganippe. #he use of (echoes’. still ha ing the last word. #hese two myths form a cultural ne)us through which the poem may be read. and all that was left of her was her oice. 5cho. and those who drank from their waters were inspired with the gift of poetry. the ery title of the poem undercuts any literal reading in terms of recalled referentiality and conscious intentionality. seeing his own reflection in the waters of a fountain. the reflection disappeared. Aoth figures are seen as ictims of an o er?determined relationship with place. Ha ing fallen in lo e with *arcissus. 5cho was punished by +uno for talking too much by being denied all speech. 4ichael Parker relates the etymological deri ation of 0+elicon : Helicon was a mountain in Aoeotia. sacred to the 4uses. %&eamus +eaney1 The Ma#ing of the Poet.

. 5cho’s auditory repetition of the end of messages is far too limiting a concept for a personal poetic credo. in short. "ust as the oice is modified by the perception of place. like the image of #acitus in Ireland. the sound he alues comes from other wells which: . in this poem. the poet sees that the two reflections of place symbolised by *arcissus and 5cho. #he imagery of the echo as something new. who is capable of seeing his earlier self at a distance. cannot be literally true. %/eath of a Naturalist . both temporally and culturally D the (child’ who could not be kept from wells could hardly ha e known about *arcissus and 5cho. for as Heaney notes in The Cure at Troy: And that’s the borderline that poetry !perates on too. . ga e back your own call with a clean new music in it. the ( oice’ of place is to be silenced D because. A critiCue of such ideology makes this clear. if. are flawed and one dimensional.. as this poem surely is. aesthetic ideology in ol es a transference and a pro"ection into insentient molecules of attitudes and ata isms from the race or tradition in Cuestion. and some of the wells in Personal +elicon bring forth (a rich crash’ when a bucket (plummeted down’. and the in ocation of #acitus in !inship D it brings about a de elopment in terms of perception of place. In terms of place.=' #his (clean new music’ has the same effect as the sound of the word ( omphalos in Mossbawn. is the mature self of the poet. politics. is to be taken with respect to place. history. e en something of a dialectic between the two. #here is a dialogue. debate D are ital if an enlightened approach. always in between $hat you would like to happen and what will D $hether you like it or not. due to a distancing of perspecti e. $hile the pump in 4ossbawn brought forth water. $hat Heaney wants is a reflection which interacts with its medium and therefore brings about a change in both poet and attitude to place. sub specie aeternitatis. when all is said and done. . the lessons of the classics D myth.had echoes.#he e)ternal perspecti e. in the language of the poem. #he perception of place is modified by the oice. 0.

. will disturb and critiCue these dark forces of racial hatred. Hercules and +elicon function as images of the rational critiCue which. and will not adhere to the suasi e power of the ideology of place: *ow.=' It is this clarity of ision that connects the e)amples offered in this essay. Heaney refuses to be part of such a iew of place. will bring the ( oice of reality and "ustice. #he politics of place espoused by this classical chain of imagery makes the place of writing the place of thought and reason.’ the (mean of a humane lo e and reason’ to bare on the dark ata isms of the pull of place. sub specie aeternitatis. He is captated by a ision of place and in no sense looks for a different perspecti e. #he place of writing then. a new ision. into some spring Is beneath all adult dignity. and looks for a blend of auditory and isual perspecti e which will not take images passi ely from the (darkness’ %symbolic of the ata isms so aptly described in !inship'.%The Cure at Troy. I rhyme #o see myself. as when he looks at place. a self that is kinned to the norms of #acitus and classical thought. in this case water. #he waters that flow from the +ippocrene and the Aganippe will inspire a writing that will impose a rational ision upon the politics of place. the furies of aesthetic ideology can be contained. all he sees is himself. to the heights of the hill of Areopagus where through reason and debate. is to lead the intellect from the depths of the (sour’ bog of !inship and the (slime’ of Personal +elicon. but rather will impose a new ision on the politics of place. to finger slime. #he omphalos. *arcissus would also seem to be another locus classicus of the dri e of aesthetic ideology. 02 . &' At the le el of isual reflection. #o stare big?eyed narcissus. #acitus. as in the )resteia. %/eath of a Naturalist . It imposes this rational ision on place. to pry into roots. Here. to set the darkness echoing. and gi e him a new sense of self.

011B' #acitus.oland &234 #ranslated by . %Fondon: +onathan >ape. &pino?a and the origins of Critical Theory %!)ford: Aasil Alackwell. de 4an.ichard 4iller.outledge. >larence F. Seamus. 5ullfinch s Mythology1 (The Age of Fable’4 <orward by . 01@1'. Aullfinch. >onor >ruise.' %01=&' The World 5oo# /ictionary4 #wo Golumes. 01=8' 0= . The Rough Field %/ublin: /olman Press. >hicago: /oubleday. &eamus +eaney1 (The Ma#ing of a Poet’. Handford %Harmondsworth: Penguin >lassics. 01=. #homas. Heaney. 01@2'. Preoccupations1 &elected Prose 9:. North %01=. !)ford: Aasil Alackwell. 4attingly. 012@'.0(0"(%. 01=&'. %>hicago: /oubleday. Paul. #erry %0118' The Ideology of the Aesthetic.&#P*' Aarthes. 5agleton. Seamus. %4inneapolis: 3ni ersity of 4innesota Press. >hristopher. Fondon: <aber. Seamus. >hristopher. 0122' Heaney. !’Arien. *orris. %/ublin: -ill and 4acmillan. The Place of Writing %-eorgia: Scholar’s Press. The Resistance to Theory4 Theory and +istory of 6iterature' 7olume 88. %ed. Parker. Fondon: <aber. 0118' 4ontague. Seamus. 4ichael. )n the *"e of the Millennium %*ew Hork: <ree press. translation re ised by S.'. *orris. Paul de Man1 /econstruction and the Criti>ue of Aesthetic Ideology %Fondon: .'. The Agricola and the (ermania #ranslated by H.A. Heaney.<-9:=< %01@8'. Heaney. +ohn. .obert -ra es. 011:'. Heaney. 01@@'. /eath of a Naturalist %Fondon: <aber. Seamus. The Cure at Troy %Fondon: <aber. 0110'. Aernhart.