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CANC

RM No. L6L27a

NACA
RESEARCH MEMORANDUM
AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS AT HIGH SPEEDS OF FULL-SCALE PROPELLERS HAVING DIFFERENT SHANK DESIGNS By Julian D. Maynard Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Langley Field, Va.

CL.AS SIRCA-1 iON CANCELL''
Authority r., Aeron. Rte ea ^^ the National Cefense t the United Ithln the m.=of the Eaplon Act,
USC 59:31 and 32. Its transmission or the revelation of Its contents in any manner to an

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—1horized person Is prohibited by law. Information an chassified may be Imparted only to persons 1n the military and th e ^Nted States , Bl'rs cfvt^en^o ce end'lyd@1so215 Government who have a legitimate interest thereinand to United States citizens of (mown
loyalty and discretion who of necessity must be tigef lu !!Il tie!

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NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMT "THIUM 66 to FOR AERONAUTICS the filar of th e Ndtion^
WASHINGTON

Advisory Committee

February 13, 1947

for Aeronautics
Washington, D. C,

CLASS-5TP1CTEL CANCELLB"

NACA PM No. L6L27a

CLAURCkTini
R1= SEARCH MLMORANDUM

CANCELLB

NATIOVAL AD`IISORY COIdMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

AERO:YNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS AT HIGH SPL.EDS

OF FU LL-SCALL- PROPL-r LF.RS HAVING DIFFEREVT SHANK DESIGNS By Julian D. Maynard SUMMARY
Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers 'Which differed only in shank des!.gn have been made in the

Langley 16-foot high-speed tunn el^ T`ze propellers are
designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08) -03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA 1()-(5)(08)-03R. which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of con-ventional blades. The propellers were tested on a 2000-horsepoTer dynamometer through a range of blade angles from 20 0 to 55 0 at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions- and the vahiation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is -ithin the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation.

Bcth propellers were very efficient, the maximum envelope efficiency being approximately 0.95 for the NACA 10 - (5)( 08 ) - 03 propeller and about 5 percent less for the NACA 10--(5)(03)-03R propeller. Based on constantpower and r•oteti oval speed, the efficiency of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller was from 2.8 to 12 percent higher than that of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller over a range of airspeeds from 225 to 45C miles per hour. The loss in maxim-o-m efficiency at the design blade angle for the NACA 10-(5)(08;-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers was about 22 and 25 percent, respectively, for an increase in helical tip Mach number from 0.70 to 1.14.

IEr, CLAURGATION CANCELL

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NACA RM Yo. L6L27a

The high drag of the thick inrer suctions of the NACIA 1C-(5) (08) -03R pz•opel.lar was the chief source of efficiency loss, especially at hi-7h values of advance ratio corresponding; to high forward speeds. 14Th0DUCTI0N The NACA has designed and constructed a series cf full-scale 10-foot-diam:;ter propeller blades to be used in an extensive research program for the purpose of improving tha high-spend efficiency of propellers. The program includes investigations to determine the affect of Blade-shank design Blade-secti o n camber (or desi g n 11-ft c(-efficient) Prcpellar solidity Thickness ratio of the blade sections Different blade s3ct 1,-ns (Clark-Y and F[ACA 16-series) This program was first delayed by dif-L'iculties in the design and construction of a suitable dynamometer with which the full-scale propellers cov.ld be tested at high speeds. SubsequJntly, special war -tLme pro,i. cts with higher priority dela " ed the tests, and an emerganey program of tests was begun in the NACh 6 -foot high-speed tunnel,, These tests ware mad.- with model p ropellers 4 feet in diameter, and the results showing the effect of comp ressibility, solidity, and canibar are raportad in references 1, 2, and 3. Furth.ar tests cf modal propellers made in th,3 B3 -foot high-.speed tunnel (reference 4) have shown that tile. higtest nropaliar• efficiency can be obtained only if the shanks are broad and thin. Hlso, wake-survey measurements made in flight tests of one of the NACA designed prrpeller•s with round shanks (reference 5) have s-lown the imncr• tanca of improving the shank sections of propellers used on high-spend airplanes. Tests of th° fall-ccale propellers are now being made in the Lanoley 16-frot hi gh-speed tunnel and, because of the ur_Tant n.::ed f,-r design information, the data in the

an y blac. Tha characteristics of tw o c.rees 00 4R blad. secondary curpc^se ci the pr esent 3 pa^. and the variation of airstream Mach number with advance. at any radius.. feet rer second propeller rotational speed. eL h d tlade .e section bl. cqcrd air-strewn Itiac l? number helical tip Mach number cirsbeed. an le at 0.ar• is to compare values of px°opulsive efficiency as found in the model tests vrith values of nrcpeller efficiency based cn shaft tension as f .i o .u6L27a present paper are presented t^ det^rzmina the effect cf blade-shank design. ? .cn maximum thickness b i^ g V n hale width.ll. R r X prop.nkC-4 Rm.red only in shank design are presented fir blade an.-uad in the fullscale tests.75 radius .er nre-raticn.e1l3r advance ratio (V/nD) .ada anal:.11ar tip radius radius a. de?-. r D J propeller diameter. ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed pror):. . feet proD. The resultant tip speeds cbtained simulate actual fl.71es ranging fr-m 20 0 to 550 at various rotational speeds and of airspeeds rangirgr frnm 60 to 496 miles per hr?fi .`f 1 +.f the NjiCA propellers that dif fc. degrees . {uht conditir-ns.sect'cn design lift coefficient blad„ sacti. rps ri t M. E.

r-fairing junct l . both thrust and torque maasurem-Ints rive strai g ht -line oalibraticnse rigur..d up to 2280 rpm.zra due to the p_r• opaller operation.ffcrd a correction for any change in pressure at the spinn:.. propeller.a exr._nded thr-ugh a single propeller.r supply affords an accurate speed ccntrrl from . and.. Pressure orifices are located between tlh. thrust ar?d t^rque being proportinnal to the pr'-'ssu-a required to restrain the motion.s 1 ar. ja variable-frequent) pcw. The d7namomater is calibrated with the propeller shaft rotating. Thrust p?--ensure is indicated as thrust force by means of pnaumat c. pn2D 4) P power absorbed by th:.AFi-il :JS Pr•r yeller dvnamcm. and figure 34 is a skatch showin g nr•incipal d`mansions of tha dynamometer housing in such a way that their casings are fra: to fairing and spinn r. p^unds C T thr ust c ^ef'1 icient IT.NACA RM No.<-s and torque nressu?.ter.ncwer electric maters arranged in tandem and coupled fcr the presant tast y to allow the power of both motors to . A L. The shape of th. fortpounds per second C P power cr3fficient TI propeller efficiency (1'/pn"zDc) /I/ iJCP. spinner and forebody is desi^-nad to produce uniform axial flow at fraastream velocity in tha Plane of the nrrpaller.raphs of the dynamomatar• mounted in the Last suction -f the tunnel.^:.r_ 2000-h^rsapower prop-_llar dynamoin-ter was used to test the propellers in the Langley 16-f"cot high-spJad The dynamomatar is powered by two 1000•-hors.. scal. 1 00 to 2100 rpm with a parris-sible oversp. The motors are s zpported in a rotat and also free tc rr:ova axially with th 'Ar shafts.d 2 are photo . G6L27a P T 1 mass densit y rf air. : e as torque by means of liquid marinmaters.stationary fairing and the orcpallor spinner to a.d by pneumatic pressurra cansulas. slugs per cubic foot propeller thrust. The axial and rctatirnal movamants are restrain... The holes in the spinn_er .

x)e lla r sr innar• is 21. Efficient airf( . r nE--. L6 .r sur.sts.0 3 and NACA 10-(S)(U')-n 5 first jrriiap of n?mibers represent the propeller diameter in feet. bast blade shape for that loading when a thickness distribution is assum.load distributi^n is maintained except for third FrcuD represent the solidity ner blade at the 0.' the pr(.ank.T n numbers. most of the t. il sections extend to the srin n:.. :'et-.? ACA RM L^10 . tests at blade ane-las of. The latter R indi.7 sections nea. 20° 25_. and rotational weed wars measurad foo aac I prop' lar during. The 'LACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propellor r--prasants a structural compromise having cylindrical shanks typical of conventional prop-lljrs.the spinn .faca for this propeller. the digit in the first rarenthesis is ten times the basic desigli lift coefficient. x comparison of the shank sections at twc radii is shown in figure 7. and 55 0 at the threee quart r (45-inch) .7 radius. trrcua.cates a Made with a ccnvantional cylindri-cal s'. The diameter of. and th.fri g: nrofil„ drag ass .radius. The desiFn procedu? e used coasists in f india the cpti:mun loading .. all but the most eleman'tary strength considerations being disregarded. o' adv_zncc ratio (J = n7) was cover: d by clanging the tunnal . and Iti. 35. 3..(6)(08) .The two-blade propellers tasted are designated here-In b y their blade desi. 50 0 . 40 o . 4`°.7 percent of the diameter of a 10-foot propeller.lcr blada shanks are made very small (fiP. Ti?:. and the di. which is :lesiFned to bave t.-.d.Th aarodynariic efficiency. The digits of the blade dosign numbers have the following significanceo Tlie digits in the Pre .pell er bl ades.^ 'ACA lv^^-(5) (08)-03 prcr)allor is desi gn:d to obtain vary hi. 1) but are not scaled.27a surface for the r)ro-oel.7 radius and an advance ratio of 2. A constant rotational speed was used fc^.1.r surface.ci t s in the radius. N CA 10 . TESTa Thrust. and figures 5 and 6 are phctcc*rani~s cif the b-ladas.. Clad---fo rm curves for the two designb ar-. 30°. The 1q-ACA 16-series blade sections are ^zsed.--m--d to be zero and than datermiain=T th. the digits in the second narenthesis are the thIckness ratio in percent at the 0. shown in 'M ura 4.ho Betz minimum induced-anargy-loss loading (re fer•er_ce 6) when op--rating at a blade angle of 0 45 at t:^e 0.

c-..001 by this correction to the spinner thrust. for forces actin '. Def initicn_cf . nus bean corrected by the amount of tila tare thrust f ound in operating the dynamora.. r thrizst.Prop--11..nce.on the spinner are presentad in the form of th:. At the higher blade angles the tional speeds because of pow er complete range of advance ratio could not be covered at the higher rota- limitaticns. This correction Is n. usual thrust and power coefficients and propeller ^f. In er3.d with propallar operating conditions and was deter. The chant in spinner thrust due to a change in pressure at the spinner-fair ing juncture vari:... f'in.twaen the pro- paller spinn-r and th fixed fairing.A tunn-A... sam3 valu. is de.: . which could be varied from ab o ut 60 to 496 miles per hour. juncture betwe3n the spinn._flciency. For these t.sults corrected for tunnel-wall interfarance and. datum v . tar and spinner without propel.. tunnel. The indicated pro pallar thrust.d as` th-by th3 sx)innar-to-tip part of th e blad.ssary bi:. -^rcp.1r and tha stationary fairing.Vesponding fr:re-straam airspeed. at the rear of the spinner. 11.r .s of airspa::d as w.r to obtain propellor characteristics at maxitnum tunnel airspeeds a blade angle (45 0 ) was chos. L6G27a airspeed. Values of thrust coefficient w:re changed an average of 0. ... lccity to obtain thj co..ld of the propalltir acting at thy.caus the flow Fast the propaller is eoristrained by the walls of th:.ficiancy operating condition could be attained when the tunnel airspeed was a maximum and the dynamometer was operating at its maximum power and rotational speed.. sts at a blade angle of 45 0 the rotational speed was varied to obtain data from peak efficiency to the zaro-torque operating condition.6 MACA RM No.minad from pressure maasuramints in the juncture b:. The range of blade the tests of tha two prnoallers is given in table I. and the co.r thrust. rotating in the air strJam.nce of the pressure fi:.n for which the peak af.ra used in the propellor tests.lar blades at the. R2DUCTION Or DAT1i angles covered at the various rotational speeds usad in Th3 test r:. Correction for wind-tunnel-wall intarfa~:.rr :cction has baen arplied to thu . A further corretien was made fcr the influ:.:haft tension caused as usad herein.

figures i-iving T3rcp.be y .2..r :d accilr=+te to within 1 pare3nt and the fuire:l :....rat.e theoretical correction has been.:re trots cf tree NACA 10-(5) (08)-03 prcr•ellar at a rotational s:a:. Saverai Tests ti3re repeated dur•i.i corc. ^SULTS AN DISCTz.ng the test program and t'n_: resu)_ts obtaiL agr„ad with the results nres--rtad within 1 p r c .d f rr blade angles of 45 0 and 50 0 .ecti.lcpes are b_11_eved to be accurate to w -tn' n much cicsar limits. For purpcsas c.-)wn on the fi g. ara c^nside.vith advance ratio is shown on the . in figures 17 through 22 for the ^1ti^h propeller.11e:.'Iach number and halic . Test points are s'. 133' nia.. In .t .7 efficiancv.rence amcunt--d to lass than 2.-estigation has been made (reference 8) which indicates tr. ind prcoall . The maxirum cor. but for the peak affi- ciwncy conditi_on the correction for wind-tunnel wall interf . i ^f 1140 rpm a bJ --flutter condition was en.cn of opez. only tn.on for any condit.. tip ". 0.a. was found to agree.tion was ax-proximately 7 percent (highest value of t'-irust coefficient for the lowest value cf advanc3 ratio). thzrefcr .aras giving thrust and power ceefflc.n tiia blades were operating in a stallad condition as sh r. 16 for the N C nr•cpellar and.. L6 L27a 7 in t1re vind tunnel differs fr^m that which would occur in free air under the sane operating ccndit ens.euatar:_. the 3-ita.r.7 and to less tr^an 1 percent at values above 1.pari son.rcent at all values of advance ratio nbov. This equivalent free airspeed >^as teen determined experimantally and.n. tilso an i.ent.ienca.NACA R7 Yo. nv:. Tiro flutter was detected oy sound and occurred w?-. .SIO?^T Faired curves of thrust coefficient. well with values calculated from Glauert's equ•aticn (reference 7) .31.at no tunnel-wall effects of significant magnitude exist other than those axial valocity which occurs in front of the propeller for which Gl:auert's correction is aphlied.res 8 through.i. power coaffiei.2 p-..:n in figure 8.sts. used for the data obtained in these t:.i_:nts Tha vartaticn of air-stream .r efficienc y plotted against advance ratio are pi esentad in fi Tu .

attributed primarily to di`'far:.r• cal shanks than "or the propallar with efficient airfoil shanks. partianralop .1.1. rs.f slid.eugh then. (Sirr.stchticn cf th wake. rted in refa~'ance 4. This di f f-arenc Is in agr•eerrant with tha results shoz. Losses in afficianc7 dUe to prcfil.95 at an ..ficienc... ratios (corresporiding to low fc i ward speeds) a large increase in -rotational speed has on17 a small e.e hCti 10-(5) (08)-G3R propeller is dui princ z pally to the hiqizar mower ccuffic i antc at maximum efficiency.Oua of advance rutic and rotational speed.^n^ll..lsl.1 the differ .:r. ^ta in ra r• two rapertad in refer ace 4.d of 1350 rpm. sections at the inner radii.^sts re po3d feanca 5. efficier_c^.rar showy .d to Nava the r3•E) tz r0_ninium i_nducad-energy-less loading when operating in t 1e ragicn of peak efficiency..The envelops curvas ^ .t 6 percent. Th . The curvas snow high efficiencies for noth nrr-pl-1 hers.cnts at maximum :.v.nvelona efficiency of the advance ratio of 2. and the diffarance inc.r.8 NACA Rid No. Thls in the flit-ht t:. tri g lower ef. inc =a in waxit:ium efficiency cf the Alt}.ura 9(b) shows that the values of n-. 111 1 1 cylindrical-shank or• cpaller 10.^lts of comriztat'ons pr.mum plan form.d in refa.ases with increasing values of advance ratio. preptact rotational spuds a]..re desi wn.s::nt.90) 1s abut 5 percept lass at the sang. t ip.-ence 6 show that profile: drag has a large effect on the onti.) Since both propallirs w:. nt curves in figure 18(b) with thos. r:. di ffer•ance in power. cticn (probably small) to tiza induced losses du-J to d:i. This comparison at the lotArar advance. snacd the NAC:i 10-15)(03)-03 prep-ller has an proaell ers is abcu. eft'icienc^r c. In fi gure 24 the envelope curves of propeller afficiency for the NACA 10-(5) (08)-03 and l0-(5)((38)-03R .coeff ici .D in fi.zp as direct power losses and also as a corr•i.ifact on tflo lose in afficienc-y caused by the inefficient sha:zk sacti.nces in profile drag of the blad..war co„fficient for max . allers. coefficients for maximum efficiency may be.^r of tr.'e svinwn iii figure 23 for tree NACk 10-(5) (0?)-03 and 10-(5) (08)-03F-L prop. s tin€t t cularly at a rotational spe:. r comparison of the po^aar .mum efficiency are hLE _har for the propeller with cvlind.g.ilar results were rapr. At this rotational.e fficiency for the two propa1..htly mere than 0.cns of the was also shown %iCA 10-(5) (08)-03k pr. L6 G27a Effeot of shank ^ dasi_rrn on max_mlur. is some difference in the thrust coeffici. liar a fficienc5 at the different f.: d. tit 21EG rpm and an advance ratio of 1. :.

ncies of th.ir.rf'oil shames' is vary small.r .ffici.nt test rotational speeds.lc-.ar with affIcient airf n il sharks. rcominn both th.^-n th....i°able jffort in ov-.:Iopas .d whdr. in the wind-ti.-n the soinn_:r surface and tha wide shanks is k. for the propell.. sfficier. opti:iur!1 efficiency was calculated by a method neglecting all profile- drap.d unl•ass the gain b ttiv.. The curves in figure 24 shrew that the pro. loss..r rotational speeds w.by wida train blade-rc p t s.zrr.mant with th.3r power losses nresantI-d in r.-ar vvitb efficient a l. ^1ho highast afficiancy (appr . structural and the blade-spinner-juncture the thick inn--r• s--etlons of conventional cylindrieal- problems encount3red for a practicabl. ra not definitely aUtablishjd bjcaus . The..rnc. A curve joining the peaks of the affici_ncy . This raslzlt is in agre.-.which slow that sliank propall^:rs are the chief sours. the enN=:.Betz minimurl induced- 9 an..ly.varlat ?cn of air-stream Mach numb. as was don. especially at high valu.NACA R!k4 Yo.f . s of advance ratio. ll.:.:nt v.lar oper- ating at the same values of power coefficient as wane obtained with the 1JACA 10-(5) (08)-03 nr-pallar. '.e efficl.. The . 9.. but semi mjans snould ba d. tna shank sctions of. thanrotical analys::.:Mcy with helical tip Mach number is shown in figure 25 for the NTACA 10. Unfor•tunat. ^ffact rf compressibility on maxi.ra.r.lop p. L^L27a 3 50 rpm are compared with the optimum propellers at 1.ndad to the sninnar surface.ctions cruld ba uxt .a lz-s at soma of thu hi?h:. .st3.tiimataly 0.frr aach prrt-^cll. and the dlffaronc^j incr: asas with increasing values of advanc3 ratio and forward s p eeds.-ACA 10-(5)(08)-031 prop..c blade:-dra t.l t ^.s bbtw.filu-drag less--s are arproximat. .rs are sufficidnt to warrant consid. nc.nv .s of prep-. the . The d! ff. 11.:. efficiency of a propeller with th-.3 c.fficiancy loss du.cy . This would ba difficult to accomplish for an actual installation rf a variable pitch prcpall::r on an airplane. design using.. 25.nn.:r wculO shover the maximum _Me!.f.rgy-loss loading.^ of the pow^.rencas 6 arid.propu.Tha variation of env.vis:.r at ach rctatIcnal spend is also shown on fi _ ^. curve of.(5) (08) -03 and 10-(5) (08)-03R prrp all:r•s at tree diff.95) shown in figure 24 for the "Tac-A l0-(5) (08)-03 propeller may not be achiava.liar. to p rofile drab.ry small. losses (r.r with helical tip Mach numbz.ly 3 to 5 parcent graater for the cylindricalshank nrcpall r than for th..r3nce 9) for a two-blade propel.obtai_nabla at any combination cf rotational sp...3d and air-stream IAach numb6r.q _CA 10-(5) (08)'-03 and prcpJll. 'T:n-.

10 NACA RM No.f the NACTi 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller dropped 11 narcent for a change in helical tip Mach number from 0. ?At the high-. The maximum effi_ciancy of the NACA 10-(5) (08)-03 propeller decreased from abo.70 to 0.83.-(5) (08)-0::.eus discrepancies in the data. in figure 26 for the twr propellers tested at a blade angle of 45 o at the 0.st helical tip Mach number obtained in N. reference 3) is shown for comparison.73 at a helical tin Mach number of 1. propellers is perhaps due. The corresponding decrease in maximum efficiency for the i^ACA 10-(5) (U8)-03R :-.90 to 0. The familiar less in maximum efficiency due to compressibility is shown.35 the envelope effa cisncy c. The corresponding loss in envelope efficiency for the cylindrical-shank propeller was about 12 percent. number of 0. or a loss of 25 percent.cessari_ly indicate sari.75 radius.03. The data for the higher helical tip iv.ach numbers were obtained from the results presentad in figures 1.75. The critical tip Mach number for tna cylindrical-shank propeller was also about 0.-straam Mach.ratio and forward s p eeds and also shows that the losses due to inefficient shank ections of conventional constant-spe:d propellers may be considerable at low values of .14. however.90 to 1.83.65. At a constant rotational spend of 1140 rpm the difference between the env lop:e efl ciancy of the NACA 10-(5) (08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R nrcnellers increased 4 percent frr a change in helical tip Mach hi-Lmber frrm 0. L6L27a lirr_itatiens previously mentioned * At an air. to the d fficulty in definitely establishing this print from the available data and does not n. The diff^rjnce in critical tip Mach number fcr the full scale and modal . The 0.95 at a helical tip Mach number of critical tip Mach number for this 22 percent less was about 0. In figure 26 tha variation of maximum efficiency with helical tip the tests (M 1. For a constant rotational sped tee envelope curves cf p ropeller efficiency for tle two p ropellers diverge asthe helical tip Mach number increases with airspeed. that the fullscale tests were.a. It should be oointad out.t 0.tCA 10_(5)(58 :)-03R prnp::lle r was only 0.. extended to include higher helical tip Mach numbers than those obtained in trio modal tests.23) the maximum fficiency of the i'Naeh nurriber for a modal propeller (:^JtiCA 4.57.'^ and 22.60 tc 0.ropeiler• was from 0.helical tip Nach number. This comparison clearly shows the superLnrity of the p renellar with aerrd-namically efficient airfoil shanks at high values of advance .

ll„r is alrricst the same as for thJ ^: y C y 10-(5) (03)-03 nrrp:. aff.11. Over this rang:. tune 1.r is 14 p:. ^^ n eff'ici ncy bcin of 1140 rpm and a constant p cwdr coaffic? . peas. nt airfoil s}.r coefficient for a ecristar. the data w. but at an advance ratio of 3. ntod i.Airplans propali-.3 thr.ancy of t11. r hour. nal s p a:. effici<.AIACA RM No..ias of constant pcw:. percent morn officiant than thJ NACU• 10-(5) (C8)-031 prcp..The model of th. Th-.or.n fi7ura 27. the highdr rdsultant sactic . 11--rs than and basad on advance ratio alone. _.. the --ffici. prrvide a b.stributien shown by wake survj-7s. Since thia p(-w3r-absnrpticn nualitias of the NACA 10 .' r•^t^ A 1G-T5 08 -C3 rrcp611 jr' wac t. and the superiority of t'hz3 idlaCA 10-(5) (0e)-03 prop.r blade of 0.cr.ra analyzed at several vall.^ l0-(.--r coefficient was similar fnr both ratios.s^ sjcticns.rsa compr--ssibility.eds the h6lical tip 'Vlach numb--r did not exc—d 0.ntional prcpallars male--s i^ necassary frr th. two prcp: . irr fi^ * ura 28 th.ncy of tha p rop.r.d rf 11 410 rim-. i. Similar results were repert-d in 4 and w.llar over the prop3ller is d-. rc cf.re axclainad by the Jiff Branca in load di. This eff-. `1'he results of this anal lysis. f initdlr illustrated fr y.ff-lciant outboard s--ctions n us detrIrr ntA without sz^ri tit high spaads.anks.79. rr. 56L27a 11 Cons tan t .^l fasts..omplishdd at low speeds propollers.ll r at an advance ratio of 0...1 is shown rv„r a range of airspeeds from 225 to 450 miles p--..ct of incr.ncy cf the cylindrical-shank propell-.nt p:.(5) (Or?) -03R pro p .J.. ot is characteristic for all prop:.(5) (OS) -03 p ropulldr was from 2.r p ith afficil. both climb and high-sped conditions of operation. ..po war =rjp 11°r oR^jraticn. how--v--r.8 to 12.rtions of ccrnr. n speeds WU-1 cause aarli.d at the lower value rf constant pc-w.r adv<. kt a powar coefficient of C. Comparisrn .-ia high thrust loads for tha sJcticns of tha prrpeller that hav..tan cp rata cvacan axtjnsiva ran^Ta of advance ratio at ccristant z-otatonal spJJd and torque..t rot:ati .low lead-carryir_g capacity of the cylindrical shank s. of airsr:.. which may re ace.075 par blade) tha afficianey of the ACIt 10 . Tr-.:asing the to carry more lead.(5) (08)-03 p ronjller differ-dd from those of the VnC..affects cr stall of th.ith r ^ul t s from mrd.15 (0. and the twoen the two prrpalldrs for a constant r r-taticnal spend advance ratios and was increased at th6 higher advanca NAbA 10.:tt r comparison cf the affic.F5)(()3)-03R pro p ellar..3st: din the L_inglay 8-foot high-spe)ud.cy was dacraas.11.rcent l ss than the af...f'ici. and the results are .llars.

Tha heynolds numbers for the model tests were (3) The spinn-. T'-.tting. (2) lower than those for th.s are comnar . nt. which has ..sts.r was 0. which was 4 feet in diameter (?ACA 4-(5)(08)-03 nrcnaller).er by 12 to 2 percent over the range of advanea r•atic from abcrt 0. prrp:.s of constant air-strum Mach number.. Such a comparison alim _natas discr3parncl3s which might sh^w up as a result of a slight diff .ll.175 to 0.f advanc_. based co shaft ten sicn. twoblade pr ^ n :ll...sts.-Irices in ernaalrp_ afficiancy may possibly be explain:.333 of the propeller fic _ent at s:. diainet^_r in the modal t-. -veral blade angl„s for thraJ vale-. r op.envelope efficiency of t12e full-scale pro-reller is higher than that of the model prcz all. agraem_ .:rs arj designat d by their blade design numbers. G6 *-j27a presantad In reference 3. but the diffar.1„l.d as follo:^s ences over most of this range r. The data from the tests of this model rr•cnaller.tz.:rs hau„ been male for a ra 1F°e r.ranee in blade-an Egla s..r are based on propulsiv_-. full-seal-. The diffarof data . The prop. particularly in th range of maximum effici-. whjraas the values for the modal pr-p:111_. full-seal:. the tests of th.-scale and model propellers ov--r a range of air-st y e-im Lach numbers from 0.Ir. The curves for the two prcnall3rs ar in cics:.-.full-scal y and modal CONCLUSIONS High-spa--d wind-tunnel tests of two full-seal:.8 to P.ratio ar•a perhaps w_thin the limits of expjr•imantul accuracy rf the two sets (1) Tha values of thrust for the full-scale prrpallar ar. tl z sts and 0.ration. oropallar. r diamat_.12 NACA RM No.thrust and no allowaneJ is mad-. PIACH 10-(5)(03-03.. F'i4ure 29 shows a c(-mparisen of the envelope efficiencies cf the full.ll_-. d in figure 30 by curves showing tha variation rf p owr coc3fficient with thrust ccef- The characteri ti^s of the ..ncy.-.for tit:: change in skin friction due to the prop:. 20 0 to 55 0 at airspa^3ds up to 496 miles per hour.217 of the prcpaller diamc^t^er in the full-seal-.S.56. f bled„ an g les frrn. have been compared with the data from.

..la of 45 0 is anproximatcly Oo83 for both tha NhCA 10-(5)(08)-C3 and 10-(5)(O8)-O3R prcp^llers.l.) .prop.Cr.nnsr sacti.ticn (pcw.. T.(e) (08) -G3 and 10.8 to 12 r?or-^ --ffirient than th.6 7127a aerodynamically efficient air.ns 1.. 2 1 Baced on constant ncw3r absori.ITACA PM No. propallars are vary afficiant.1.lical tin Mach number do g s nest excdad 0. Th-.1 p:r blade) and constant rrtaticnal s p eed (1140 rrm) tr3 v. particularly fcr tha design condi tion ^f operat'en.iCA 10-(5) (08)-03Fz pre pall-. ..:.-.nt.ied from pr--vi-us tests of a rredel pr•n paller (NACh a-(5) (O8)-03 prcpallar) lad t o the frlJowlag ccnrlusi(.r ov3r a range of air. NACA 1C-(5) (0. 4.ds the h:. c !ally at high val.u3s of adv_:nca ratio corraspcnding to nigh for-nard sn.75.d of 1550 rpm the NAC.:llars i^ about 22 and 25 parc. The high dra7 of tna thick l.e criti_-. N'cr this rotational speed and ran ' ja of airsp. raspactiv3JIT.each ru uber from 0.^3 wr_ich has thick cvlindrica. and 13 .. as p :.--ds.ff^il shank sections.(`.70 to 1.14. 5.r coafficie nt of 0..spe3ds from 325 to 450 mils par hour.CA prc-. for an incr. The results of ti ase tests and corr. N.!'ti 10-(5) (08)-03 is from 2.. ._Dartsons witti results obtai.asa in h. nr r -) pellar is abut 5 p ercent lass at th:: same valua rf ad^ u unce ratio and rotational sn e ac .lar aus an envelope jfficiency of a p pr o ximately 0..95 at an advanc<.. 3..11ar was the chief source of efficiency less.ul tin Much number for maximum affici--ncy at tha dest-rn b1nde ant-.. 10-(5) (08) -03 and 10-(5)(0E)-O3 z fi prop. blades. 1ha anvelope 3f°ici_anc7 cf thu 10-(5) (08)-03F.l 311ank sacti_ons typical of convernticnal.ltcal tir.l l i%CA 1C.) (08) -03F.^ 10-(5)(03)-0'.. ratio cf 2.cns cif the Ni-.. at a rctaticnal ti e. The lose in maximum affici3ncy at the desi=ra blade ang1a of 45 0 for tha 4.

ay . is higher than the anvalopa efficiency obtained for the model prcpaller. The envelope efficiency obtained for the fullscale pr•orallar. NACA 10-(5)(08)-03.l. .. 16127a 6. Langley Yworial Aeronautical Laboratory National Advisory Committse f o r naranautics Lang. FACA 4-(5)(08)-03 J by only 1 1 to 1 percent ovar a rangy of air-stream Mach numbers from 02175 to 0.14 NACA RM No.Fl d ld .56. Va .

1944. .. ITI . John L. 1943. Morton: Comparison of Tests of a 4-F'oot- Diamater Propallsr in the Langluv G-Fact and 16Fnot High-Spaad Tunnels.. "CA 'ALE No. and 'eldman.: The Effact of Shank Design on Pr^pellar P •arforniance at High Spe _ ds .. . Glauert. Eugene C.. ACA 4 . 7. Auk. 1942. Delano.e lmis: Invasti. Stack. Harbert Charts for Determining Propeller Efficiency. .: Flight Measuramants of Compressibility Effects on a Two-Blade Train Clark Y Propaller. 3.6 !. L5H31. NACA ACR No. Criglar. 2. 1943. L4I29.F15.d Speeds in the NACA 6-Foot rfigh-ap.(5)(OS) . T`IAC-A xCR No .James B. James B.:. John.. 3106.IT ACA R?. Hartman. and Carmel.gati^n of Two-Blade Propsl. . f C ^S l5 1. A. James B. Liwis: Investigation of Two-Blade Propellers at Hin:h Frrwar.: The Glam3nts of Aerofoil and Airscrew Thaery. and Feldman. Malvin M. Lewis: Aerodynamic Froblems in the Design rf Efficient Prnpkjllars.. :tank. Delano.affects of Compressibility and Solidity. James B. ds in the NACA B-Fnot High-Spend Tunnel.5 and N ACA 4-(10)(08)-03 Elauas. 1945.. Vogeley. 6. I .^ T 7 o . NACA ACR '1I^ . and Feldman. F.lers at High Fnrward Spa^. and Talkin.'ACx 4-305-045 Blade.. NACx ACR. Delano. TT . Draley. 1944. NxCA 4-'7 08-03 Blad e . Drale.^'. LE..J7. pp.ffents of Compre s s ib alit: y . J. 5. 1946.. John. I.: Investi g ation of Two-Blade Propellers at HiF _-h Forwa -^d Sr-.. .ty. vti hCr 'No. 9. Edwin P.27a S l n:^F F . L61X_ _-. 4B16..P. NACA ACR No. Ccorer. lugene C. 1946. Tr-e MacIvAllan Cc.Effects of Camber and Coinpressibili. NACA JXR No. 222-226.ads in r. 410 19 1944. 6. F?.he iinCzI 3-F'oot HighSpeed Tunnel. 4. Dilanc. Aml-rican _ ^ d.ed TPlnnel..c.

16 NACA RM No.5 20 25150 s5 40 2C 25 1 50 1 1 I 4.'Ej-' Fi w g ^_lre.6r. f hr tat. EMade — An— .' ? ACA 10. T. 5 40 45 50 j 45 20 11 1 P 1600 25 50 155 40 45 if.51 . I — raa-1 S-D a t3 d . P0.(5) (OP) -C"'7R 17 1140 75 40 45 50 55 18 19 20 21 22 1550 1500 1600 2160 Varied 20 2. 0..on Of) 05 5 0 7 n 2000 21 1 00 21eO Va r I a d 2 0 25 50 3 5 20 2 3 2 0 5 150 I 4..75R (deg) i0-(5) (0-8) -03 or e 1 e r _5 40 45 50 55 8 1140 1 1 9 10 13 1 50 1500 7 20 25 30 1 13 .91 7 0 1 35 ' 4C 45 50 11 4. I AL SP-.75 radius.27a T!kBT Or O Lt-iDE L\TGL^ AND IEOTATIO.-le a.5 .

NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller mounted on dynamometer in test section with tunnel open.C^ 0 t-' C' Figure 1. r• Orl ..

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS LANGLEY MEMORIAL AERONAUTICAL LABORATORY .NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller mounted on dynamometer in test section with tunnel closed.C) 0 C r Figure 2.LANGLEV FIELD. VA ^' ' ..

RESTRAINED BY PNEUMATIC THRUST CAPSULE NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE fop AEWNAUTICS FIGURE 3.CONFIGURATION OF DYNAMOMETER FOR TESTS OF NACA 10-(5X08)'03 AND 10-(5X08)-03R PROPELLERS.r r ED TUNNEL WALL —NOSE SPINNER AND PROPELLER SPINNER FREE TO MOVE AXIALLY.. (7q W .C^ FAIRING FASTENED RIGIDLY TO DYNAMOMETER HOUSING AND SUPPORT STRUT O -' l 303 — .

6 .2 4U .8 .64 .7 U O O i . I NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller --.08 C .2 .09 .6 a^ .04 . L6L27a .1 Lb 0 I.02 .3 .08 .--- I I----I I Leading edges^^ Spinner location I 78 0 .NACA 10-(5X08)-03R propeller 74 70 11.0 .60 .56 .0 4 0 Fraction of tip radius.5 .7 . .05 o .36 s .9 .48 . 4 NACA RM No.8 c } U 62 58 OId .03 .3 4 .2 a^ .I .01 0 0 .07 U b/D 1 1 \ \ - 66 .44 .40 .5 O U) } 16 h^b 50 a .2o U_ 3.Fig.4 ° m ° 46 42 38 m .04 m U i -- - 54 0 . r/R NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 4.9 .Blade-form curves for NACA 10-(5X08)-03 and 10-(508)-03R propellers.28 a 0 I24 a^ 06 1 I i Developed plan form I --.52 .32 c .

NACA RM No. 5 Figure 5.Blades of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller. . L6L27a Fig..

NACA RM No.Blades of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. 6 Figure 6.. L6L27a Fig. .

r NACj (b) Blade sections at 0. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 7. 1 .3 radius.-Comparison of shank sections of NACA 10-(5X08)-03 and 10-(5X08)-03 R propellers.0 r.

0 1.06 -I-U-) 04 . — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller.12 .0 2.6 1.2 14 1.1140rpm 0 . Rotational speed.O-q 00 P) 14 .6 .8 1.6 3.2 34 3.8 3. J (a)Thrust coefficient.02 F- 0 0 2 4 .8 2.10 08 o .8 40 Advance ratio .2 24 2.6 2. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 8.0 3.

C^

.40 .36 I .32

z 0

U 28
c
U
a^

r

.24
.20

0

.16 a^ .12

08 04 00
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 14 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 24 2.6 2.8 30 3.2 34 3.6 3.8 4.0

Advance ratio, J (b) Power coefficient. Figure 8 Continued. Rotational speed, 1140 rpm.
NATIONAL .ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS F-^•

0'q

CD

r•

CID

C7

1.0

.8

C G
L
Q^

6 E
4 c .2 0

z
1Z
ti

0

.2

4

.6 .8 1.0 1.2 14 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 24 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 34 3.6 3.8 4.0

Advance (c)Efficiency. Figure 8

ratio, J
NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

L-1

Concluded. Rotational speed, 1140rpm.

L-1

C^

0

U ,— .10
a^

^.I2

r

r

v 08 o .06
U

.04 .02

0 0 .2 4

.6 .8 1.0 1.2 14 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 24 26 28 30 3.2
NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

Advance ratio, J (a)Thrust coefficient.

Figure 9. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller. Rotational speed, 1350 rpm.
r•

W

8 n > -.06 T` .12 ^- .2f 1.0 32 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS CO H L Advance ratio. 24 . i\ -- c 16 - _ 14 o .I 8 y .2 4 6 .20 . 4 ^ 08 .0 1.8 3.8 20 2. 1350rpm.2 24 26 2. .26 .04 L i 00 .CPq .28 . Continued.T 14 1. J (b)Power Figure 9 7C coe I f i c i e nt . Rotational speed.6 > LH 711+1477\ _1 1..22 .

6 5 4 a^ 3 W . Figure 9 .8 10 1.C^ 0 r r .2 4 .2 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE iOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio .8 a) L .0 3.6 28 3.6 0 1.2 6 c 4 ca .0 ^ . J (c) E I I I c Iency.7 .2 14 1.2 24 2.2 > PO 1.1 0 0 .-Concluded. Rotational speed. .8 20 2. 1350rpm.6 .

L6L27a .9' v a 16 c a^ .2 1. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller.22 . 0 E L C W 06 .7 14 12 6 c .8 2. 04 02 01 . 1500rpm. i 20 26 2. 18 0 .1 0 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 10. ^60.4 $ `c as .2 6 v 4 .20 .Fig. .6 .2 24 Aavance r a t io. 10 d NACA RM No. Rotational speed.5 1.8 a^ 14 0 0 .75R 45°.2 v c o' 10 08 0 .I .24 .

1600 rpm. Rotational speed .to 0 r r U c a) w U U O U i F— 0 .6 .0 1. Oq .8 1. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller.8 20 2.2 14 1. Figure I I.6 1.2 4 . J (a) Thrust coefficient.2 24 26 28 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio.

r .6 .6 28 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS z 0 (b)Power coefficient.8 1.0 2.06 I 04 02 0i 0 2 4 .2( r• 0^3 18 16 N a . J 1.6 Advance ratio .14 U . Figure II .12 U . 1600 rpm.2 14 1.— Continued.2 24 2.0 1.10 O " .8 2.08 o . Rotational speed.

6 2. 1600 rpm.6 .2 1.5 0 r-{ r .2 .0 U U a 4 8 i a^ 6 Li .8 0 .0 2.2 4 S_ 2 0 a .4 1.4 A dvance rat io .2 24 2.6 1. Figure 11 .0 9 8 7 6 .2 1.1. Concluded. Rotational speed.8 2.8 10 1. J NATIONAL ADVISORY 0 (c)Efficiency.

Rotational speed.2 4 . 1800 rpm. Figure 12.6 1.8 20 2.6 . z a r Iv .8 10 1. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller.a^ n UH c a^ U Cll O U N D i v0 . J (a) Thrust coef f icient .2 14 1.2 24 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio.

Figure 12.2 24 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (b) Power coefficient. 1800rpm. Rotational speed. Continued. .8 1.H l 1 1 N FHA^ L-I C (H^ L U c a^ U_ 44- 0 U i N o- 3 0 0 .8 2. J 1.2 14 1.0 1.6 .6 Advance ratio.2 4 .0 2.

0 Concluded. 1800rpm.6 .2 24 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio.o^ n .6 1.2 . Rotational speed.4 .2 14 1.8 20 2.0 1.0^ i N T . J Efficiency. Figure 12. .8 1.^ U C U_ U •^ 8 ^ E n C U 6 c— W a 4 2 c^ 0 \ C \CJ ^> 2 .

NACA RM No.8 Advance ratio. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 13.0 1. 2000 rpm . . J a Thrust coefficient. 13a Ir1 U a^ H . Rotational speed.c U I 4U O U U) CS 0 .2 14 1. L6L27a Fig. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller.6 .6 1.8 1.2 4 .

Rotational speed.6 .6 1.2 14 Advance ratio .14 .12 v . J 1. . 13b NACA RM No.2 4 . 2000rpm.10 0 06 0 . L6L27a .Fig.0 1. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS. tinued.8 (h) Pr)WPr roa f f icient.08 04 3 0 02 0 .8 1.

6 1.4 c 0 .2 14 1.8 Advance ratio. J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS r l Cf `C / LI ficiency Figure 13.2 .2 1.NACA RM No. .6 E .I 2 0 . L6L27a Fig.E 1.6 .c 4 U U . Concluded.0 1. Rotational speed.0 U C N ^^ .8 1.^ q w 8 Z L . 13c i -- . 2000 rpm.

Fig.2 4 1. 2100 rpm. J 1.2 A 1. 14a NACA RM No. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 14. Rotational speed.6 Advance ratio..0 . . L6L27a 12 ..8 ..6 (a) Thrust coefficient.— Characteristics of NACA 10(5X08)-03 propeller.10 08 w C 06 0 . 04 N i t '-.0 2 a^ 0 0 .

12 .6 . 14b .2 14 1. L6L27a Fig. ..8 1.04 a.08 y. Figure 14.0 1. U w .2 4 .6 Advance ratio . . J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (b)Power coefficient.02 0 0 . Continued. 2100 rpm. Rotational speed. 0 U O 06 3 .10 Q.NACA RM No.

0 1. Concluded. 14c NACA RM No.6 Advance ratio .9 .2 14 1.7 I .8 .G W E 2 '^ I f L V v .2 r 0 10 .8 1. COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 14.6 . 2100rpm.5 v c aD 4 .3 2 i N .Fig. Rotational speed. J NATIONAL ADVISORY (c) Efficiency.0 .. L6L27a 1. .6 r .2 4 E .

8 1.24 . .6 . 2160 rpm.12 . Rotational speed. Characteristics of NACA 10-(5)(0%03 propeller.0 1.10 U .08 c a^ U 0 U . Figure 15.6 Advance ratio.2 14 1.04 ~ 02 0 0 .06 i t N . 15a . NACA RM No. J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (a) Thrust coefficient. L6L27a Fig.

6 . 15b NACA RM No.2 14 1. Rotational speed.0 1.8 1. L6L27a U 0- c a^ U vN O U L N 3 0 Q- W 0 . — Continued. .Fig. J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (b) Power coefficient. 2160 rpm.6 Advance ratio.2 4 . Figure 15.

2160 rpm .i U C N U W a . L r . 15c .. L6L27a Fig.L C Figure 15.NACA RM No. . Rotational speed. Concluded.

6 0 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (a)Air-stream Mach number at maximum efficiency.02 L.2 1. Figure 16.0 2. Advance rat i 2.4 1.Fig. 0. to J v a^ O v U) V 4 L L .2 24 to . — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller at high forward speeds.2 1. c^ w .611. ! l 1 i! 1 1 i iET [.8 2. . ^v c . /6 0758 = 45.10 .16 14 ^U a^ O O U 1.08 0 3 Q.06 .04 .8 E v C 6 w CIA W . L6L27a IfN a.12 . 16a NACA RM No.0 ^ w .

2 24 2.—Concluded. Figure 16. c w 1.NACA RM No.6 r m 0 U . .04 .10 v c n^ w 2 M v U w L .4 0 .6 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMiTTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio l J (b) Air-streom Mach number at maximum efficiency.4 r .02 2 1.0 .0 2. 16b I r% U CL w c a^ v= .12 3 0 Cl. 0.08 8 E Z w 06 .14 1.16 a^ .8 2.641.2 1. L6L27a Fig.

0 r-{ r-a .06 04 O 0 .2 24 2.8 1.6 3. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS c^ M^ N Figure 17.6 28 30 3.2 .6 . 1 140 rpm.4 .0 1.Oq i^ 1- U .I 2 U Q) 10 08 . 0 .8 40 42 Advance ratio.4 3.6 18 2.. — Characteristics of NACA 10.2 14 1.0 2. J (a) Thrust coefficient.(5X08) -03R propeller. Rotational speed.2 3.

- _ IR - - ^_ I L t-. Rotational speed. - - .8 3. J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (b) Power coefficient.2 24 26 2.6 3.28 -- L - r - - i --n` -- 1-.6 ._ . .8 1. 1140rpm. _ ..0 1.6 1. -14-1- 0 r .2 34 3.I2 ..0 3.1Z Jb _ 32 U.2 14 1. I I - ^. I I a> I - . °^ . Figure 17.8 20 2.^ . r• Continued.08 04 - - 4 41T 0 0 2 4 .8 40 42 Advance ratio.-r.

2 4 0 .4 36 38 4U 42 Advance ratio. NATIONAL REVISORY COMMITTEE fO11 AERONAUTICS ^ I Gi Figure 17.) E1 i 1cl ency.8 3.6 1. 1140 rpm.2 3.0 3.2 14 1. Rotational speed. .8 1.6 2. (c . Concluded .2 v U c^ 0 . J .6 . r .0 1.6 4 .0 2.8 2.0 8 Cll .2 24 2.

2 4 . Figure 18.6 .2 24 26 28 3.C^ .2 14 1. 1350 rpm.02 0 0 .12 c .8 10 1.0 32 3. CID PO . J NATIONAL ADVISORY FOR AERONAUTICS COMMITTEE icie nt.— Characteristics of NAGA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller.06 .14 U .04 .08 0 r r R^ O .4 i'I Advance (a) Thrust coeff ratio.10 U . Rotational speed.8 20 2.6 1.

.

Figure 18 ratio.6 C U U_ . J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AEROMAUTICS Concluded.0 3. 1350 rpm. 00 .6 1.8 20 2. Rotational speed.5 4 a^ P L W 2 I 0 0 .6 .0 .4 U Ad vance E I f I c 1 e n c y.8 .0 1.2 14 1.2 ( c) c- U G 4 .7 .8 1.n 1.2 24 26 28 3.2 3.9 1^J N 0 r .

J 26 .8 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 19. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03R propeller.18 U 3 3 1.16 o . 1.0 7- :^ L 08 d N O V . L6L27a 24 22 20 d.0 2.82. 19 NACA RM No. c .06 .04 W E c .2 i 0 _— 1 0 2.4 1. Fig. .2 1.4 e . 1500rpm-.6 2.14 V 2 0 1 Q. / 07513 -45°.2 Advance ratio .10 0 U a.6 3 L V L IE . Rotational speed.4 02 0 i 1.

C^ U c a^ I- 0 t-^ t^ U Q) O U rn i I' v 0 .5X08)-03R propeller.2 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Advance ratio. Rotational speed. 1800 rpm.8 20 2.2 4 .2 14 16 v 1. — Characteristics of NACA 10-(.8 10 1. (a)Thrust coefficient. Figure 20. Gq 0 .6 .

COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS z G Continued.16 .6 _.14 I ca_ I ^ 11 441 -1 - 0 12 I .2 NATIONAL ADVISORY z c^ 1Z (b) Power coeff icie nt.6 .8 20 2.0 1. Rotational speed.06 04 I .8 1.2 14 Advance ratio. . 1. 1800 rpm. r w .10 ^V I o .08 U 3 0 .2 4 .02 0 0 . J iltl N 1. Figure 20.

Concluded.I.6 . 0 .6 1.8 1.0 1.6 ° U 2 .2 Oz3 (c) Efficiency.2 r P L^ . Rotational speed. io NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 20.8 40 2 0 20 2.I 0 0 .0^ .2 Advance rat .2 .7 .0 . J 1. 1800 rpm.5 4 r .8 H_ 0 .8 2 U Li E .4 .6 14 .9 .

08 4C x.Fig.6 . L6L27a .2 4 . COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 21.06 0 0 U N i L 04 E--. Rotational speed.8 1.10 c) . .2 14 1. 21a NACA RM No. 2160 rpm.— Choracteristics of NACA 10-(5X08)-03R propeller. J NATIONAL ADVISORY (a) Thrust coefficient.6 Advance ratio.0 1.02 0 0 .

. . L6L27a Fig.6 Advance ratio.6 .10 a- 0 C .0 1.8 1. 21b 12 .06 U U 3 a_ 0 i .04 02 0 0 .4 . Figure 21.08 a> vo .2 14 1. Continued.NACA RM No. Rotational speed s 2160 rpm.J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (b) Power coefficient.2 .

c NACA RIA No.6 .1 0 0 .8 10 1.2 .4 .7 .5 4 U C N E 7 G U a . J (c) Efficiency.3 w 2 . L6L27a 1. 2160rpm.Fig. 2].8 .0 .9 .2 14 1.6 Advance ratio . RototionaI speed. Concluded. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 21. .6 .

10 'O w 1. 22a 10% 18 a .? L U W 3 Y 8 .12 1.04 0 U . Figure 22. NACA RM No. L6L27a Fig.2 $ .0 M w U C O .4 02 A i 1 2 .4 w vd U L U 0 .22 .08 U .16 U as B c . 0.—Characteristics of NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller at high forward speeds.14 i' 1.06 V V .24 2.6 0 I 0^ 0 NATIONAL ADVISOPY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS (o)Air-stream Mach number at maximum efficiency= 0.645.0 0Advance ra tio 2.6 E O ^ ^' w ? .75R = 450 .

v c v 04 0 .661.Fig.2 1.9 c^ . .0 Advance ratio . 22b NACA RM No. L6L27a I.6 .4 .— Concluded.0 c .06 .I . .5 U 1. U C^.10 C L .4 "w .14 12 .02 01 . Figure 22.5 E c .2 10 CA t .4 .8 U U L 4D .0 .0 ^v o w .2 .7 1.6 .8 08 . J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOG AERONAUTICS (b) Air-stream Mach number at maximum efficiency =0.

1.0 .—Envelope curves of propeller efficiency . J (b) NACA 10-(5XO8) . Figure 23. e- c4+ cb Gd av Advonce rotio .9 JtT __ fi- i fil .03R propeller. U C N U w b i3 W Iz Ifi I. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS w .0 al V. C w 0 .8 w w . C.7 (a) NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller.b ID c)J 4.

1350 rpm --- Optimum efficiency of propeller with Betz loading C y„ U .0 J 2.0 9 ^.. z 0 CD r J P^ .Fid Oq 1.8 1.4 2.7 I v- W 60 4 .8 — — — -- Envelope efficiency of NAGA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. 1350rpm ='.(5X08)-03 and 10-(5XO8)-03R propellers a two-blade propeller at 1350 rpm with the optimum efficiency of with the Betz loading. Envelope efficiency of NAGA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller. — Comparison of the envelope efficiency of NAGA 10.2 Advance 1.2 36 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 24.6 ratio 2.8 3.

88 . — Effect of compressibility on envelope efficiency for NACA 10-(5X08)-03 10-(5X08)-03R propellers.n .6 L 0 .1.80 84 .5 4 0 c' 3 U 1 IT T r.0 i a^ Ernrelo efficiency of 1140 rpm I r Pm O r P pm rPm n 2000 rpm .9 .8 i 100 rpm s 5 I` 0 NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller \ 2160 rpm P L a 2 . MT COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 25.72 76 .64 68 . 2 U_ W .12 NATIONAL ADVISORY Helical tip Mach number.streom Mock number M NACA 10-(5X08)-03R propeller E . and M C-.60 .56 .7 Air.92 96 100 104 108 1.

5 .3 Helical tip Mach number ^ M t Figure 26.7 5 =45 .Q a_ CD .7 E 2 •E x . Effec t of compressibility on maximum efficiency.9 1.2 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS .0 1.8 .6 .1 . 0.1 1.54 14 1.E a NAGA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller — — — — NACA 10-(5XQ8)-03R propeller -----NACA 4(5X08)-03 propeller (reference 3) .7 . r Iv 0 .9 w 8 V w .

6 2..8 1.10 .stream Mach number 4 .20 P.— Efficiency of NACA 10{5X08)-03 and 10-(5X08)-03R propellers at constant power coefficients and constant rotational speed of 1140 rpm .NACA RM No..0 c.15 . .. 27 1.6 NACA 10-(5x08)-03 propeller . L6L27a Fig.10 20 .2 3.6 ratio .8 A ll. . ..6 w w 3 2 E Air.5 U T c 4 U Helical tip Mach number 8 .7 1A..0 CP =.NACA 10-(5x08)-03R propeller 1.2 Advance 1.0 24 2-8 3. J NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 0 4.0 Figure 27.L U O 2 ^ 0 0 4 .9 C=.

_ C 12 U i a10 _Difference in efficiency C a^ 8 ^U i 1. 0.6 O 2 v 0200 250 300 350 400 Airspeed. constant power coefficient per blade. —Variation of the difference in efficiency between NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers with airspeed. 28 NACA RM No. L6L27a 14 . Constant propeller rotational speed.Fig.8 a a .0 6 a^ U C 24 . mph --4 450 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 28. . 0 ^ c Mt . 1140rpm.1.

8 0 3.2 Advance rat io.0 Zvelope efficiency of NAGA 4-(5X08)-03 propeller C) 9 0 8 r 8 Helical tip Mach number 2 T U C U w 7 i 6 Air-stream Mach number a^ E C 4 -c +-.6 LIJ 0 5 4 0 4 .2 NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE f01Z AERONAUTICS Figure 29.0 Envelope efficiency of NAGA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller 1.6 1.) .1.4 2.0 J 2 2.8 1. 2. — Comparison of envelope efficiency for NAGA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 4-(5)(08)-0: propellers. (Data from reference 3.

12 w C Z . — Comparison of chnracteristics for NACA 10-(5X08)-03 and 4-(5X08)-03 propellers.10 wa^ e 08 i 0. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 30. ( Data from reference 3.20 . L6L27a .) .06 .08 10 .12 Thrust coefficient. CT (a! I ]= O 20.250 - 06 :.75R-.-----NACA 4-(5X08)-03 propeller .18 16 14 NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller .J4 I / i Z 20° 02 0 0 .Fig.014 . 30a NACA RM No.02 .

12 350 c: . NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AEkONAUTICS Figure 30: Continued.NACA RM No.10 .^ (^ U) M = 0. 30b .12 1 1 1 1 1 i Thrust coefficient.----NACA 4-(5X08)-03 propeller .40° 0 .20 18 .08 .06 04 02 0 i NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller 0 ( .02 . 35.04 .16 14 P0. CT (.75R.08 0 0- 30° 3 .10 . .06 . L6L27a Fib.

18 1 4 A0.02 00 NACA 10-(5X08)-03 propeller INACA 4-(5X08)-03 propeller 11—i—L.1 2 w t^ .04 (c) 06 . NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS Figure 30.04 .10 Thrust coefficient? CT 0.08 .14 / i / Z400 x.06 . L6L27a 20 .75R= 145 16 / .1 1 1 1 1 1_ .08 a) . — Concluded. .12 02 .43. 30c NACA RM No.Fig.10 U U 0.