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Fertilizing with Sulfur and Putting Together a Corn/Soybean Fertility Program

Daniel Kaiser U of M Twin Cities 612-624-3482 dekaiser@umn.edu

Sulfur Response
• Yield responses are increasing-Why?
– Sulfate deposition have decreased – Sulfur in fertilizer sources (other than S fertilizers) and pesticides have decreased – Less manure – More crop residues

• What is the most important factor?

% Corn Yield Response to Sulfur Fertilizer
20 Trials in Northeast IA, 2007 (Sawyer and Lang)
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
ls ls ls ls sl sl sl sl sl sl sl sl ll ll l ll ll l l l Soil Texture sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil sil
2.1 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.9 2.8 2.7 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.9 2.5 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.0 3.4 1.5

Sulfur Fertilizer Rate n 10 lbs S/ac n 20 lbs S/ac n 40 lbs S/ac

Soil Texture: ls = loamy sand sl = sandy loam l = loam sil = silt loam

Sp Sp

F

Di O

Soil Organic Matter, % O CF K S R K K Dr F

F

F

D

D

D

F

Sulfur Recommendation Update .

38 P<0.1x2 r2=0.120 Relative Yield (% of maximum) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Kaiser U of M 2011 These points deleted When SOM(0-6")<2.0001 Albert Lea 2009 Clarkfield 2008 Clarks Grove 2008 1 2 3 4 5 6 0-6" Soil Organic Matter .3x-12.7+62.57: 20.

180 Clarkfield 2008 160 140 120 100 100 90 Isanti 2008 Corn Grain Yield (bu/ac) 80 70 60 50 200 Clarks Grove 2008 180 160 140 ** ** 250 200 150 Albert Lea 2009 ** a ab b b a a bc c b a ab bc 100 -S +S -S +S No Starter N Starter -S +S N+P Starter -S +S -S +S No Starter N Starter -S +S N+P Starter -S +S -S +S No Starter N Starter -S +S N+P Starter Low Organic Matter (0-2%) Medium Organic Matter (2-4%) High Organic Matter (>4%) .

Renville. MN : June 3. 2009 3rd year corn no current manure or S history Harps/Okaboji Complex: 5.1% SOM (0-6”) Source: Google Earth .

Sulfur Timing and Rate Study 2009 260 Corn Grain Yield (bu/acre) 240 ** Response to 10 lbs is significant at P<0.10 220 200 180 160 New Ulm Theilman Renville 0 10 20 30 40 Kaiser U of M 2011 Sulfur Rate (lbs S/acre) .

Sulfur Timing and Rate Study 2010 240 Corn Grain Yield (bu/ac) Otisco MN 2010 Corn Following Corn 220 200 180 160 Sulfur Applied Broadcast at Planting and at V3-V4 0 10 20 30 40 Sulfur Rate (lbs S/ac) Kaiser U of M 2011 .

42(rate) . S ac ) .0258(rate) 2 R =0.9 + 1.Renville 2010 Data Corn Yield Data 0-24" Spring soil test Sulfur (ppm) RelYLD = 82.98 P<0.0.89 P<0.02 60 4 2 40 0 0 Kaiser U of M 2011 10 20 30 -1 40 2009 Sulfur Application Rate (lbs.02 Plateau ~ 25 lbs 2 10 100 Relative Corn Yield (%) 8 80 6 SoilS = 4.04x 2 R =0.42 + 0.

2008-2010 U of M Studies • Sulfur may be available for more than 1 years crop – Soil texture is important for carryover • Rate data has been inconclusive – 10-15 lbs has been adequate – 20-25 lbs has been needed at times • Sulfur can be applied up to V3-V4 – Grain moisture may be affected • Guidelines may vary by previous crop!!! .

/A 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 0 2 4 1 1 --Surface dribble Surface dribble --Surface dribble Surface dribble --Surface dribble Surface dribble --Surface dribble Surface dribble In furrow In furrow N+P+S Application rate lb N+P2O5+S 0+0+0 3+0+5. † APP.9 30+16+2.8 29+0+11./A gal.8 34+16+11.5 6+16+2.5 29+16+0 31+16+5. 12-0-0-26 Rate Placement gal. 10-34-0 UAN. 28-0-0 Rate Placement Rate Placement gal. P & S fertilization of continuous corn No.8 5+0+11.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Funding provided by AFREC and Fluid Fertilizer Foundation .8 10+16+11.5 5+16+0 7+16+5.N./A 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ------------In furrow In furrow In furrow In furrow In furrow In furrow In furrow In furrow 0 0 0 8 8 8 0 0 0 8 8 8 0 8 ------Surface dribble Surface dribble Surface dribble ------Surface dribble Surface dribble Surface dribble --Surface dribble ATS.5 24+0+0 27+0+5.

21% 209 bu/A.June 21. Waseca 193 bu/A. 16% .

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In-F 8.9 16.4 2 J.8 1. SB 13 4.gal / acre ------- 1 0. In-F 0.1 202 207 219 223 212 209 210 10 Plant Leaf height Chloro inch % 28.7 94 35. SB 14 4.0 95 34.9 92 34. plant height at V7 and relative leaf chlorophyll at VT at Waseca Rate / placement of fert. SB 10 4. SB 0. In-F 8. SB 2.7 19. In-F 0.Corn grain moisture and yield.1 97 1.6 18. SB 0.10): Funding provided by AFREC and Fluid Fertilizer Foundation 20. In-F 8. SB Average LSD (0.8 17. In-F 8 4. Trt # APP UAN ATS Grain H2O % Grain Yield bu/A ------. SB 0. SB 1.0 93 37. In-F 0.4 90 32. Vetsch – U of M SROC .0 18. SB 1.2 18. In-F 0.9 92 35. SB 2. In-F 11 4. SB 7 4.

6 a 17.5 b 34.8 a 91 c 96 b 99 a J.7 b 214 a 214 a UAN (28-0-0) surface dribble band None 18. Vetsch – U of M SROC .7 b 35. plant height at V7 and relative leaf chlorophyll at VT at Waseca Main effects of trts 1-12 APP (10-34-0) in-furrow None 4 gal/A Grain H2O % Grain Yield bu/A Plant Leaf height Chloro % inch 32.4 b 35.6 a 8 gal/A 17.0 c 215 a Funding provided by AFREC 32.3 a 95 a 96 a 18.5 a 95 b 96 a ATS (12-0-0-26) surface dribble band None 19.0 b 218 a 4 gal/A 17.Corn grain moisture and yield.5 a 209 b 2 gal/A 18.7 b 216 a 212 a 32.6 a 34.

P & S for cont.2010 N. corn summary • One year (two site) data • Excellent visual (early growth. and S fertilizers enhanced early growth and decreased grain moisture at Waseca. J. Vetsch – U of M SROC Funding provided by AFREC and Fluid Fertilizer Foundation . • N. vigor. and color) response to treatments at Waseca • Sulfur fertilization alone increased yield 6–9 bu/A at Waseca. P.

&SB 4 gal 16.2 Injected no 17. rate. and timing at Waseca in 2010.Corn grain moisture and yield as affected by S source.6-lb) planting 2 gal AMS/Gypsum PP 10-lb AMS/Gypsum PP 20-lb Gypsum V5 10-lb Gypsum V5 20-lb ATS (10-lb) V5 3.8-lb) planting 1 gal ATS (5.5 Grain Yield bu/A 181 183 188 205 210 226 222 224 209 18 . Vetsch – U of M SROC Grain Placement APP rate H2O per acre % none no 21.5 gal J.2 In-fur.10): 1. Nutrient management Sulfur Source S timing S rate per acre Control none none APP Control planting none ATS (2.0 In-furrow 4 gal 19.0 Broadcast no 18.9 Broadcast no 16.9 In-furrow 4 gal 18.1 Broadcast no 17.4 Broadcast no 16.3 LSD (0.

Residue Levels and Sulfur Response • Does the type of residue matter? • C:S ratios (source Soil Fertility and Fertilizers 7 ed.immobilization • 2008 data – crop stover – Albert Lea. MN Wheat: 286:1 – Perley. MN R8 Soybean: 125:1 – Strathcona. MN R8 Soybean: 123:1 – Hanska. MN R6 Corn: 151:1 – Lewiston. MN R6 Corn: 333:1 – Clarkfield. MN Wheat: 291:1 . ) th – <200:1 – mineralization – 200-400:1 no change – >400:1 .

Residue and Response • Amount and type of residue is important • Residue likely is the reason for sulfur responses increasing – Corn and wheat residue may not mineralize S – Soybeans likely will • Soil organic matter is important in S mineralization – In cont. corn thing become fuzzy – Clearly the important factor in SB rotations .

Where Should I Apply? • Broadcast has the least risk of damage • Ammonium Thiosulfate can be banded – Better if placed away from the seed • Am Thio placed with UAN may have some inhibition effects for nitrate conversion – Not as big as other N inhibitors – Ammonium thiosulfate is not the same as ammonium sulfate (dry) .

Corn Emergence 14 days after initial emergence Percent Corn Emergence (% of total) 100 80 60 40 Soil Type 20 Le Sueur CL Zimmerman FSL Port Byron SL 0 5 10 15 20 0 Nitrogen Rate Applied (lbs N/ac) Kaiser U of M 2011 .In-Furrow ATS .

58 gal/ac 15.89 gal/ac 3.76 gal/ac Le Sueur CL – 13 DAE 1.0 gal/ac 0.79 gal/ac 7.1 gal/ac .

58 gal/ac 15.1 gal/ac .89 gal/ac 3.79 gal/ac 7.76 gal/ac Zimmerman FSL – 13 DAE 1.0 gal/ac 0.

Corn Dry Matter Produced 14 Days After Emergence 8000 Total Above Ground Plant Weight (mg per flat) Soil Type Le Sueur CL Zimmerman FSL Port Byron SL 6000 4000 2000 0 0 5 10 15 20 Nitrogen Rate Applied (lbs N/ac) Kaiser U of M 2011 .In-Furrow ATS .

ATS Applied In-Furrow • Low rates of ~1gpa (3 lbs S) may be okay – Still risk some damage • Emergence data say that higher rates can be used • Effect on plant growth increased as rates increased • You can use some in-furrow but you do accept some risk .

Current U of M Recs Where are we at?? • Recommend sulfur on fields with eroded knobs or organic matter <2% and sometimes when <4% • 10-15 lbs of S was the optimum rate broadcast for 2009 – Still unsure of this • Corn on corn we are seeing situations where the organic matter level recs do not hold – Recommending S for these fields regardless of soil organic matter levels • Keeping older guidelines on sandy soils • No clear recommendation on soil testing for S .

Proposed Corn Sulfur Guidelines for Southern Minnesota Broadcast sulfur to apply (lbs S per acre) 0-6” Soil Organic Matter Rotation Corn-Corn Corn-Soybean Sandy Soils 0-2 20-25?? 10-15?? 25 2-4 15-20?? 10-15 25 >4% 10-15 0 25?? ** ??. denotes where we have limited data on response and need more data .

Fertilizer Sources • Any sulfate source should act the same • Elemental sulfur takes time to become available – Better the farther south you go • Apply the source that makes the most sense – Corn – N+S may be a good fit • Keep on-seed rates low .

Can Soybeans Benefit From Sulfur? Wabasha Co. 2009 20 lbs of N at Planting 20 lbs of N + 25 lbs S at Planting Kaiser U of M 2011 .

150 % of Control (no starter or S) * Increase was not significant over the control + 25 lbs S No additional S a 140 a b a b b 130 b b b a 120 b b b ab 110 b* b* b* c* c* c* 100 No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P Hanska 2008 soybean EG Istanti 2008 Lewiston 2008 Theilman 2009 Kaiser U of M 2011 .

corn EG 160 % of Control (no starter or S) * Increase was not significant over the control + 25 lbs S No additional S a 150 140 a a a a 130 b b 120 a a 110 bc* b* ab b* b* b* bc* c* c* b* b* 100 90 No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P No Starter Starter N Starter N+P Kaiser U of M 2011 Clarkfield 2008 Clarks Grove 2008 Isanti 2008 Albert Lea 2009 .

Plant Early Growth • Soybean Growth differences were still apparent at the end of the season – Corn was not • The combination of N + S greatly increased growth • At Hanska all starter treatment advanced maturity .

no S 6 4 N+P Starter w/25 lbs S Lewiston 2008 2 Hanska 2008 Isanti 2008 0 -2 -4 **Vertical Bars Represent Standard Errors of Treatment Means .8 Yield Increase Over the Control (bu/ac) Sulfur Starter Experiment Strip Means Soybean Sites 2008-2009 Theilman 2009 Broadcast K-sulfate (25 lbs S) N Starter .no S N Starter w/25 lbs S N+P Starter .

Sulfur and Soybean • Potentially could see an yield increase when organic matter <2.0% • Yield increase may be related to growth increases • Too much growth may be bad • Additional nutrients may still come into play – K is critical for soybeans – Responsive areas are also natively low in K .

Sulfur Strategy • Focusing on corn is the best strategy • A single year application may have multiple years’ benefits – Both for corn and soybeans • Residue is likely the reason for increasing responses • Large yield benefits may only be temporary – Still need to consider some application in following years .

edu/~dekaiser/ .Thank You Questions? Daniel Kaiser University of Minnesota 612-624-3482 dekaiser@umn.edu http://www.tc.umn.