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1654

PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20–23, 2011

The Study on Electromagnetic Force Induced Vibration and Noise from a Normal and an Eccentric Universal Motors
K. Shiohata1 , R. Kusama2 , S. Ohtsu3 , and T. Iwatsubo4
1

Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan 2 Toyota Ltd, Japan 3 Yamagata, Hitachioomiya, Ibaraki 319-3111, Japan 4 Kansai University, Japan

Abstract— There are many harmonic components in the electromagnetic force caused by
electrical motors. The harmonic components induce the structural vibration and noise, frequently. The unbalanced electromagnetic pull force is generated between the rotor and the stator when the rotor is not corresponding to the center of the stator, that is, eccentric in the electrical motor. In the paper, first, the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a normal and an eccentric universal motor are discussed numerically. Then, the effect of the difference of the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a normal and an eccentric motor on the structural vibration are discussed numerically. From the numerical simulation, the spectrum distribution is different in the space region between a normal and an eccentric motor. And the 12th time order components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise of eccentric motor are larger than those of a normal motor. 1. INTRODUCTION

Universal motors shown in Fig. 1 have been the major source of power for power tools and vacuum cleaners since their early days. Recently, the motors have become to run in very high speed and to generate much higher horsepower per unit weight and mechanical structure have become lighter and smaller. As a result of these trends, mechanical vibration and noise are increasing. The lightening of the motor core was also attempted, consequently the electromagnetic exciting force increased by magnetically saturating, and the vibration and noise became easy to be generated. The reason of noise and vibration is the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a motor. The waveform of an electromagnetic stress is shown as Fig. 2. By FFT in the time and space domain of the waveform, many harmonic components are obtained at one point along the inner bore of the stator In the production of the electrical motor, it is difficult that the center of the rotor always coincide with the center of the stator. The unbalanced electromagnetic attractive force is generated between the rotor and the stator when the rotor does not coincide with the center of the stator, that is, eccentric in the electrical motor. In the eccentricity, there are two patterns. One is static eccentricity which rotor center does not coincide with stator center, and the other is dynamic one which is generated by mass unbalances. The unbalanced electromagnetic attractive force becomes a cause of the vibration and noise from the motor. Iwatsubo et al. [1] discussed the stability of induction motor. B. S. Rahman and D. K. Lieu discussed the relation between electromagnetic stress and radial offset [2].
Electromagnetic stress [kPa]
100 80 60 40 20 0 0 180 Electrical angle [deg] 360

Figure 1: Schematic of universal motor.

Figure 2: Waveform of electromagnetic stress at a position of rotational angle.

Harmonics Analysis of Electromagnetic Stress This analytical method has been presented by Kobayashi.4 mm and. These distributions are calculated at several points along the inner bore of the stator. The electromagnetic force is calculated in two steps. the calculated distribution of radial electromagnetic force at one point along the inner bore of the stator is shown. and the noise characteristics of the normal condition of the motor [3]. 4(a) and the unit is Pascal. it is necessary to transform the electromagnetic force stress calculated by two-dimensional analysis into three-dimensional electromagnetic force. ANALYTICAL METHOD 2. angle of eccentricity is 0.2 mm against air gap 0. Transformation of Electromagnetic Stress into Exciting Force for the Structural Vibration Calculation To calculate three-dimensional structural vibration. the space order k participates in the deformation in the radial direction along the stator circumference. the electrical. respectively. Magnetic flux density along the stator inner bore is calculated. Radial electromagnetic force stress therefore consists of many frequency components along the inner bore of the stator. (b) show this transformation. On the contrary. Morocco. From the above calculation results.l = dk. And akl and αkl are amplitudes and phases of the harmonic components and are calculated as follows: ck. Marrakesh. In Fig. the exciting force on the structure is actually in three dimensions as shown in Fig. 4(a). 20–23. Ohts et al. 45. The electromagnetic density is expressed by the Fourier series as follows: σr = k l ak. A negative time-harmonic order indicates backward rotation of the electromagnetic waves. and noise characteristics are studied for static eccentricity rotor of universal motor.l = ak.l sin(kx − lω t + αk. However. The relation between circular mode order n and space order k is n = k × (p/2) (7) 2. and 135 degree.l (3) (4) (5) (6) αk. Mar.l + dk. reported the test equipment of universal motor and reported the electrical.l dk. .l Figure 3 shows the example of the spectrum of electromagnetic stress Calculated harmonics are plotted in the k -l plane. 4(b) and the unit is Newton. Figs. 90. because the frequency is low. In the paper. k and l are the space and time harmonic order. et al. [4]. the vibration. respectively. The electromagnetic stress is calculated along the inner bore in two dimensions as shown in Fig. 2. 2. the harmonic components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise from universal motor with rotor eccentricity are numerically discussed comparing with normal rotor. taking into account the motion of the rotor and the eddy current in the rotor bars. electromagnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress equation: 1 2 2 σr = Br − Bt (1) 2µ0 where Br and Bt are radial and tangential magnetic flux density. The magnitude of eccentricity is 0. vibration. The number of points depends on the meshes divided by using the finite element method.2.1. a two-dimensional finite element method is used.l ) (2) where ω (= 2πf ) is frequency of the stator current (rad/s). On the other hand. the fundamental component has only a small influence on the vibration and acoustic noise.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. In this study.l = tan−1 ck. 2011 1655 In this study.l = σr sin(kx − lω t)dtdx σr cos(kx − lωt)dtdx 2 c2 k.

2. Figure 6: Cross section of the universal motor. The air gap is 0. Fig. Analytical Model The rotational speed of rotor (armature) at no load condition is 24000 rpm. Air-gap is divided especially in detail in consideration of the rotor eccentricity. The elements are defined in the radial and circumferential directions and the 4-nodal point solid is used. The degree of freedom is 14752. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE STRESS 3. March 20–23. 2011 200 100 0 60 or de r ac e k -60 Tim e ha orde rl 60 0 ha m 0 rm o nic on ic (a) (b) Figure 3: Spectrum of electromagnetic stress. the electromagnetic force fm is distributed at the nodes of element m. the electromagnetic stress in the axial direction is almost constant. and the rated consumed electrical power is 1100 W. θm ). it is necessary to calculate the exciting force on element m (m = 1. It is possible to use the universal motor even in both of alternating current and direct current. When the structure is divided as shown in Fig. Figure 5: Configuration of the test apparatus. And the electromagnetic force fm is calculated by multiplying by area Sm of element m. all iron cores laminate silicon sheet of the 0. the center of gravity of the element m (rm . In this analysis. The number of rotor (armature) slot is 12. 6 shows the cross section of the universal motor. Then the electromagnetic stress σm is calculated by Eq.5 mm thickness in order to decrease eddy current loss and exothermic reaction.1656 Magnitude (kPa) PIERS Proceedings. It is defined for the amount of eccentricity ε and the angle of eccentricity φ based on a rotor center position in the state without the eccentricity as shown in Fig. . The number of carbon brush is 2 and the number of segment is 24. 8. . 3. Finally. M ). 7 shows the FEM model for the electromagnetic field analysis. Fig. the electromagnetic force is distributed at the nodes of element m equally. the exciting force on the entire structure is determined. Fig. . Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Analysis In the electromagnetic field analysis. (b) Excting force of structure analysis (three dimensions). Sp Figure 4: Transformation of electromagnetic force into structural exciting force. (2) at point (rm . 3.. Marrakesh. 5 shows the configuration of test apparatus used in this study. (a) Electromagnetic force stress (two dimensions). θm ) is calculated in terms of polar coordinates. 2-D FEM analysis is applied and ANSYS software is used.1. MOROCCO. Then. Next. 4(b). When the motor is not a skew structure.4 mm in the radial direction. First. including the universal motor. The same calculation is carried out for all elements. . The exciting force on the structure is therefore also assumed to be constant in the axial direction.

12. the magnetic flux density is symmetry in the original point. housing and motor assembly. 2011 1657 Figure 7: FEM model. From the comparison. the impact tests are done for stator. vibration modes.2 mm and 45 degrees. Marrakesh. The difference between the measured and calculated natural frequency of the parts is about 7%. 9. The electromagnetic stress of 0th. Modeling of Structural Vibration Analysis In the structural vibration analysis. magnetic flux is calculated. 24th time order component are particularly dominant. From the Fig. MUMERICAL SIMYULATION 4. . On the contrary. respectively. The electromagnetic stress at 12th time order is fundamental component caused by the number of rotor slot. 4. (1) The electromagnetic force component at the odd number of the space mode doesn’t exist when the rotor is not eccentric.3. By FFT analysis following Eq. The maximum of the magnetic flux density is about 2 T. the magnetic flux density is the maximum in the 45 degrees and 225 degrees. Fig. 12th. 13 shows the electromagnetic stress of the 0th to 10th space order component of 12th time order. 10 shows the 2nd circular mode of housing in the motor assembly at 2779 Hz. 12 shows the spectrum of the electromagnetic stress for a normal rotor. Fig. From the Fig. The contour of the magnetic flux density distribution for a normal and an eccentric motor is shown in Fig. In the air-gap. The magnitude and angle of the eccentricity is 0. and 0. 24th components influence the vibration and noise. 0.1 mm. The electromagnetic stress at 12th time order when it is 0. Mar.3 mm in the amount of eccentricity is shown in figure. The 12th. The degree of freedom is 54186. Fig. 11. 20–23. 13.1. Figure 10: 2nd Circular mode of housing (2779 Hz).Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. To make the model with high accuracy. in the eccentric motor. 6000 Stator Housing 4000 Cal[Hz] Figure 8: Definition of eccentricity. 3. the harmonic components of the magnitude of the electromagnetic stress is obtained. Electric Magnetic Force By using FEM software ANSYS. 3-D FEM analysis is applied and ANSYS software is used.2 mm. the following are discussed. the magnetic flux density is not symmetry in the original point. Morocco. (2). In the normal rotor. From the tests. natural frequencies and modal damping are analyzed. Assemblye 2000 2779Hz 0 0 200 400 Exp [Hz] 6000 Figure 9: Comparison of natural frequency. The measured and calculated natural frequencies are shown in Fig. the accuracy of the structural vibration model is well.

(1) The displacement of the eccentric motor is larger than that of the normal motor. (3) The magnitude of electromagnetic force depends on the space order. Figure 13: The harmonic components of the electromagnetic force stress at 12th time order in 45 degree direction. (b) by contours. 4. 4. and the locations in the radial direction are 1m outside from the housing. the 8 positions are chosen to discuss the difference of the displacement between the normal motor and the eccentric motor.1658 PIERS Proceedings.”. The locations in the circumferential are the same as Figs. (2) The ratio of the maximum displacement is about 1. Noise Caused by Electromagnetic Force The noise radiated from the surface of the motor housing is calculated by BEM (Boundary Element Method) which is named as the Acoustics contained in the software “LMS Virtual Lab. l 20 30 30 20 10 Space order 0 k 40 Figure 12: Spectrum of electromagnetic stress in the time and space region. In Fig. φ = 45 deg) in the 8 locations shown in Fig. From the figure. 14. March 20–23.2 mm. (3) Both displacement of the normal motor and the eccentric motor is larger at 3 and 7 . (2) The magnitude of electromagnetic force at the space order depends on the amount of eccentricity. The mean value of noise .2 mm. 14(a). Then. The exciting force is added to the housing in the motor model and the vibration of the surface is calculated. Electromagnetic stress kPa] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 12th 24th -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 Time order. but the magnitude correlation is not constant.3. 16. In Fig. 17. but the magnitude correlation is not constant. 2011 (a) Normal motor (ε=0) (b) Eccentric motor (ε=0. φ = 45 deg) are shown.2. Then. Both contours are different a little. Vibration Caused by Electromagnetic Force The electromagnetic stress is transformed to structural exciting force by procedure in the Section 2. 17. the magnitude of noise is shown. Fig. the difference is compared quantitatively. Marrakesh. MOROCCO. ϕ=45deg) Figure 11: Contour of the magnetic flux density. The displacement of the housing center of the normal and the eccentric motor (ε = 0. 14 and 15.2.2 mm. 15 shows the displacement of a normal rotor and eccentric motor (ε = 0. The locations in the axial direction are the center of housing same as the Fig. the contours of noise of the normal and the eccentric motor (ε = 0.23. φ = 45 deg) at the natural frequency 2779 Hz is shown in Figs.2. the following are discussed.

CONCLUSION The harmonic components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise from universal motor with eccentricity were numerically discussed comparing with those of normal universal motor and the following are concluded. (2) The distribution of noise is almost the same between the normal motor and the eccentric motor. 2011 1659 Min Y X Z Max (a) normal motor (b) eccentric motor Figure 14: Contour of displacement of the housing (ε = 0. 225 deg and 315 deg directions is dominant. ϕ = 45 deg). (4) The magnitude of noise from the eccentric motor is overall larger than that from the normal motor.2 mm. From the results. (a) Normal motor (b) Eccentric motor Figure 17: Contour of noise of the motor. the following are discussed. of 8 positions of the normal motor and the eccentric motor is 69 dB and 72 dB respectively. 20–23. Y X Figure 15: Displacement of housingcaused by electromagnetic force at 2779 Hz. Marrakesh. although the electromagnetic force harmonic components . (1) The magnitude of noise in the 45 deg.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. Figure 16: Location of calculation of vibration of the cross section of housing. Morocco. From the figure. Mar. 5. In addition. 135 deg. the 12th time order components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise of eccentric motor are larger than those of a normal motor. (5) The maximum of the mean value of noise of the normal motor is 3 dB larger than that of the eccentric motor. (3) The distribution of noise in the eccentric direction is a little bit difference.

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