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Babur in Kabul: AD 1504-1525 Babur, founder of the Moghul dynasty in India, is one of history s !

ore endearing "on#uerors$ In his youth he is one a!ong !any i!%o&erished %rin"es, all des"ended fro! 'i!ur, (ho fight a!ong the!sel&es for %ossession of so!e s!all %art of the great !an s frag!ented e!%ire$ Babur e&en "a%tures )a!ar*and itself on three se%arate o""asions, ea"h for only a fe( !onths$ 'he first ti!e he a"hie&es this he is only fourteen$ +hat distinguishes Babur fro! other bra(ling %rin"es is that he is a *een ober&er of life and *ee%s a diary$ In it he &i&idly des"ribes his triu!%hs and sorro(s, (hether riding out (ith friends at night to atta"* a (alled &illage or !ooning around for unre#uited lo&e of a beautiful boy$ Babur s throneless ti!es , as he later des"ribes these early years, "o!e to an end in 1504 (hen he "a%tures Kabul$ ,ere, at the age of t(enty-one, he is able to establish a settled "ourt and to en-oy the delights of gardening, art and ar"hite"ture in the 'i!urid tradition of his fa!ily$ +ith a %o(erful ne( .ersian dynasty to the (est /under Is!ail I0 and an aggressi&e 12be* %resen"e to the north /under )haibani Khan0, Babur s Kabul be"o!es the !ain sur&i&ing "entre of the 'i!urid tradition$ But these sa!e %ressures !ean that his only "han"e of e3%anding is east(ards - into India$ Babur feels that he has an inherited "lai! u%on northern India, deri&ing fro! 'i!ur s "a%ture of Delhi in 1456, and he !a*es se&eral %rofitable raids through the !ountain %asses into the .un-ab$ But his first serious e3%edition is laun"hed in 7"tober 1525$ )o!e forty years later /but not sooner than that0 it is e&ident that Babur s des"endants are a ne( and established dynasty in northern India$ Babur thin*s of hi!self as a 'ur*, but he is des"ended fro! 8enghis Khan as (ell as fro! 'i!ur$ 'he .ersians refer to his dynasty as !ughal, !eaning Mongol$ And it is as the Moghul e!%erors of India that they be"o!e *no(n to history$ Babur in India: AD 1529-1540 By the early 19th "entury the Musli! sultans of Delhi /an Afghan dynasty *no(n as :odi0 are !u"h (ea*ened by threats fro! rebel Musli! %rin"i%alities and fro! a ,indu "oalition of ;a-%ut rulers$ +hen Babur leads an ar!y through the !ountain %asses, fro! his stronghold at Kabul, he at first !eets little o%%osition in the %lains of north India$ 'he de"isi&e battle against Ibrahi!, the :odi sultan, "o!es on the %lain of .ani%at in A%ril 1529$ Babur is hea&ily outnu!bered /(ith %erha%s 25,000 troo%s in the field against 100,000 !en and 1000 ele%hants0, but his ta"ti"s (in the day$

Babur digs into a %re%ared %osition, "o%ied /he says0 fro! the 'ur*s - fro! (ho! the use of guns has s%read to the .ersians and no( to Babur$ As yet the Indians of Delhi ha&e no artillery or !us*ets$ Babur has only a fe(, but he uses the! to great

)her )hah$ '(el&e years later. is enough to re"o&er hi! his throne$ But si3 !onths later .indu !a-ority$ In 1592 he !arries a . @ahangir$ .a-%ut %rin"ess. rather than alienation of the . Babur (ins$ >or the ne3t three years Babur roa!s around (ith his ar!y.the son .indu$ In 1594 he abolishes a ta3 le&ied on %ilgri!s to . do(n to a le&el affe"ting e&ery .u!ayun is *illed in an a""idental fall do(n a stone stair"ase$ . they su""u!b to slo( gunfire fro! the front and to a hail of arro(s fro! Babur s "a&alry "harging on ea"h flan*$ =i"tory at . (ould see! to ha&e little "han"e of holding on to India$ ?et it is he (ho establishes the !ighty Moghul e!%ire$ A*bar: AD 1559-1905 In the early years of A*bar s reign. in a ne( (ay .and all the (hile re"ording in his diary his fas"ination (ith this e3oti" (orld (hi"h he has "on#uered$ .by "onsensus and "oo%eration. inheriting in 1559.u!ayun *ee%s a tentati&e hold on the fa!ily s ne( %ossessions$ But in 1544 he is dri&en (est into Afghanistan by a for"eful Musli! rebel.but only at an ene!y "harging their %osition$ It ta*es Babur so!e days to te!%t the Indians into doing this$ +hen they do$ .indu shrines$ In 1594 he %uts an end to a !u"h !ore hallo(ed sour"e of re&enue .is 14-year-old son A*bar.ani%at brings Babur the "ities of Delhi and Agra.a-a of A!ber /no( @ai%ur0$ )he be"o!es one of his senior (i&es and the !other of his heir. his fragile inheritan"e is s*ilfully held together by an able "hief !inister.e "olle"ts <00 "arts to for! a barri"ade /a de&i"e %ioneered by the . Baira! Khan$ But fro! 1591 the 15-year-old e!%eror is &ery !u"h his o(n !an$ An early a"t de!onstrates that he intends to rule the t(o religious "o!!unities of India. using si!ilar ta"ti"s.ussites of Bohe!ia a "entury earlier0$ )heltered behind the "arts. after -ust three years in India$ . or annual ta3 on unbelie&ers (hi"h the Aur an sti%ulates shall be le&ied in return for Musli! %rote"tion$ . at )irhind in 1555.u!ayun a "han"e to sli% ba"* al!ost uno%%osed$ 7ne &i"tory. rene(ed "i&il (ar (ithin India gi&es . daughter of the . e3tending his territory to "o&er !ost of north India .u!ayun: AD 1540-1559 Babur s "ontrol is still su%erfi"ial (hen he dies in 1540.a-%uts (ho had the!sel&es been on the &erge of atta"*ing Ibrahi! :odi$ 'he ar!ies !eet at Khanua in Mar"h 152< and again. Babur s gunners "an go through the laborious business of firing their !at"hlo"*s . (ith !u"h booty in treasure and -e(els$ But he fa"es a stronger "hallenge fro! the "onfederation of !ale relations in A!ber -oin A*bar s "oun"il and !erge their ar!ies (ith his$ 'his %oli"y is &ery far fro! "on&entional Musli! hostility to (orshi%%ers of idols$ And A*bar "arries it further. Musli! and .

under the &eil of indulging in hunting $ A great deal of hunting does o""ur /a fa&ourite &ersion uses trained "heetahs to %ursue deer0 (hile the underlying %oliti"al %ur%ose .indu style. is unli*e anyone else s$ It rese!bles a s!all to( "arried on$ +arfare brings its o(n booty$ )igning a treaty (ith A*bar. and for subduing o%%ressors. thus a&oiding the e!ergen"e of regional (arlords$ And ste%s are ta*en to ensure that the ta3 on %easants &aries (ith lo"al "ir"u!stan"es. treaties. holding "ourt in a s%lendid "a!% laid out li*e a "a%ital "ity but "o!%osed entirely of tents$ .see .is biogra%her. Bengal in the east and in the south a line a"ross the sub"ontinent at the le&el of Aurangabad$ ?et this ruler (ho a"hie&es so !u"h is illiterate$ An idle s"hoolboy. or %resenting a (ife to his hare! /his "olle"tion e&entually nu!bers about 400 . his e!%ire is larger than any in India sin"e the ti!e of Aso*a$ Its outer li!its are Kandahar in the (est. #uir*y. and al!ost i!!ediately abandons. A*bar finds in later life no need for reading$ . A*bar s !asons start (or* on (hat is to be "alled >ateh%ur / =i"tory 0 )i*ri$ A third boy is born in 15<2$ A*bar s %ala"e. des"ribes this royal %rogress as being for %oliti"al reasons. "lose to the shrine of a )ufi saint (ho has i!%ressed hi! by foretelling the birth of three sons$ +hen t(o boys ha&e duly a%%eared. instead of a fi3ed %ro%ortion of their %rodu"e being auto!ati"ally le&ied$ At the end of A*bar s reign of nearly half a "entury.e %refers to listen to the argu!ents before ta*ing his de"isions /%erha%s a fa"tor in his s*ill as a leader0$ A*bar is original. instead of the gentler "ur&es of Isla!$ Bea!s and lintels and e&en floorboards . ty%i"ally. at >ateh%ur )i*ri$ >ateh%ur )i*ri: AD 15<1-1565 In 15<1 A*bar de"ides to build a ne( %ala"e and to(n at )i*ri. (ilful$ . Abul >a2l. so does his re&enue$ And A*bar %ro&es hi!self an ins%ired ad!instrator$ 'he e!%ire s gro(ing nu!ber of %ro&in"es are go&erned by offi"ials a%%ointed only for a li!ited ter!. Kash!ir in the north.of ( "o!%le3 "hara"ter is &i&idly suggested in the strange %ala"e (hi"h he builds. !ade u% of "ourtyards and e3oti" free-standing buildings$ 'hey are built in a linear . in&ol&es a "ontribution to the e3"he#uer$ As his real! in"reases. !arriages .are!s0.At the sa!e ti!e A*bar steadily e3tends the boundaries of the territory (hi"h he has inherited$ A*bar s nor!al (ay of life is to !o&e around (ith a large ar!y.

!u"h as if the !aterial (ere oa* rather than stone$ 'he %ala"e and !os#ue o""u%y the hill to%. he builds a s%e"ial ibabat-*hana / house of (orshi% 0$ . @e(s and Dhristians$ 'he fero"ity (ith (hi"h they all atta"* ea"h other %ro!%ts hi! to de&ise a generali2ed religion of his o(n /in (hi"h a "ertain aura of di&inity rubs off on hi!self0$ 'he Dhristians in&ol&ed in these debates are three @esuits (ho arri&e fro! 8oa in 1560$ As the first Euro%eans at the Moghul "ourt. artists to illustrate the! /the illiterate e!%eror lo&es to be read to and ta*es a *een interest in %ainting0$ . !aintained also during the reign of his son )hah @ahan$ . %artly be"ause A*bar has o&erloo*ed %roble!s of (ater su%%ly$ ?et this is (here his !any and &aried interests are gi&en %ra"ti"al e3%ression$ . "ourtiers not in&ol&ed in the dis"ussion "an listen unseen$ In the di(an-i-*has A*bar deals !ainly (ith affairs of state$ 'o satisfy another %ersonal interest. on the floor belo(.u!ayun is to be inter&ie(ed so that &aluable infor!ation is not lost$ 'he building !ost "hara"teristi" of A*bar in >ateh%ur )i*ri is his fa!ous di(an-i*has. . and @ahangir s effe"ti&eness as a ruler is li!ited by his o(n addi"tion to both al"ohol and o%iu!$ But the e!%ire is no( stable enough for hi! to %reside o&er it for t(enty-t(o years (ithout !u"h danger of u%hea&al$ Instead he is able to indulge his "uriosity about the natural (orld /(hi"h he re"ords in a diary as &i&id as that of his great-grandfather Babur0 and his lo&e of %ainting$ 1nder his *een eye the i!%erial studio brings the Moghul !iniature to a %ea* of %erfe" -oin A*bar in the "entre$ Mean(hile. on (hi"h A*bar sits. or hall of %ri&ate audien"e$ It "onsists of a single &ery high roo!.ere there is a de%art!ent of history under Abul >a2lB an order is sent out that anyone (ith %ersonal *no(ledge of Babur and . is -oined by four narro( bridges to a bal"ony running round the (all$ 7n the bal"ony are those ha&ing an audien"e (ith the e!%eror$ If re#uired. they are a %ortent for the future$ @ahangir: AD 1905-192< A*bar is su""eeded in 1905 by his eldest and only sur&i&ing son.are "ut fro! red sandstone and are elaborately "ar&ed.ere he listens to argu!ents bet(een Musli!s. @ahangir$ '(o other sons ha&e died of drin*. (hile a s%ra(ling to(n de&elo%s belo($ 'he site is only used for so!e fourteen years. furnished only (ith a "entral %illar$ 'he to% of the %illar.ere A*bar e!%loys translators to turn . Corastrians.indus.indu "lassi"s into .in a res%e"tfully "rou"hed %osition . in "o!%arati&e religion. so!eone "an "ross one of the bridges . @ains. s"ribes to %rodu"e a library of e3#uisite !anus"ri%ts.

Moghul !iniatures: 19th . the Moghul i!%erial studio %rodu"es (or* of e3"e%tional beauty$ In )hah @ahan s ti!e e&en the "ro(ded narrati&e s"enes. @ahangir .u!ayun and the young A*bar ta*e lessons in dra(ing$ . sho(ing "ourt "elebrations.ersian artists fro! the s"hool of Bih2ad$ . in 1555. are %eo%led by finely obser&ed and "on&in"ing "hara"ters$ )hah @ahan and Aurang2eb: AD 192<-1<0< During the reigns of )hah @ahan and his son Aurang2eb. forts being stor!ed and endless battles$ 'he resulting i!ages are a treasure tro&e of histori"al detail$ But as %aintings they are slightly busy$ A*bar s son @ahangir ta*es a s%e"ial interest in %ainting.e is !ore li*ely to (ant an a""urate de%i"tion of a bird (hi"h has "aught his interest.u!ayun (ins his (ay ba"* into India. but not add to their nu!ber$ .ersian s"hool.rofessional Indian artists learn too fro! these .1<th "entury AD +hen . and distributes re(ards to those (ho !eet (ith his a%%ro&al$ Detailed s"enes are (hat A*bar li*es.ersian !asters$ >ro! this blend of traditions there e!erges the &ery distin"ti&e Moghul s"hool of %ainting$ >ull-bodied and realisti" "o!%ared to the !ore fan"iful and de"orati&e . and his re#uire!ents differ fro! his father s$ . "heetahs released for the hunt. he brings (ith hi! t(o .indu te!%les shall be destroyed$ A Musli! tradition states that unbelie&ers !ay *ee% the shrines (hi"h they ha&e (hen Isla! arri&es.e !a*es his "riti"is!s. it de&elo%s in the (or*sho%s (hi"h A*bar establishes in the 15<0s at >ateh%ur )i*ri$ A*bar %uts his artists to (or* illustrating the !anus"ri%ts (ritten out by s"ribes for his library$ Fe( (or* is brought to the e!%eror at the end of ea"h (ee*$ . gardens being laid out.though at the &ery start of his reign he %ro&ides the )i*hs (ith their first !artyr (hen the guru Ar-an is arrested. in 1909. and that of his son )hah @ahan. so %o%ular (ith A*bar. or a %oliti"al %ortrait sho(ing hi!self (ith a ri&al %otentate$ In either "ase the i!age re#uires "larity and "on&i"tion as (ell as finely detailed realis!$ 'he artists rise su%erbly to this "hallenge$ In @ahangir s reign. and dies under torture$ In 1942 )hah @ahan signals an abru%t return to a stri"ter inter%retation of Isla! (hen he orders that all re"ently built . the %oli"y of religious toleration introdu"ed by A*bar is gradually abandoned$ It has been largely follo(ed by )hah @ahan s father.

e&er sin"e the e3%ansi&e days of A*bar s e!%ire$ ?et it is in the 1<th "entury that ne(s of the (ealth. fro! the !arble %a&ilions of his "astle %rison$ Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 22 May 1545) (Persian/Pashto: ‫ "ا! ش ر شاہ سوري‬#$‫ر‬% – Farīd Xān Šer Šāh Sūrī& 'irth na(e Farid Khan& a)so *no+n as Sher Khan& .<G> ? 'ri))iant strate0ist& 4her 4hah 6roCe3 hi(se)1 a 0i1te3 . telling of ho( Aurang2eb *ills t(o of his brothers and i!%risons his ageing father. ?1ter his a99i3enta) 3eath in 1545& his son 8s)a( 4hah 'e9a(e his s299essor.<4><5><6><A><8> Be 1irst serCe3 as a 6riCate 'e1ore risin0 to 'e9o(e a 9o((an3er in the M20ha) ar(y 2n3er Da'2r an3 then as the 0oCernor o1 Dihar.-he .indu !er"hants and %easants$ At the sa!e ti!e Aurang2eb is obsessed (ith e3tending Moghul rule into the diffi"ult terrain of southern India$ .e lea&es the e!%ire larger but (ea*er than he finds it$ In his eighties he is still engaged in %er!anent and futile (arfare to hold (hat he has sei2ed$ In the de"ades after the death of Aurang2eb.ion /in0. "ausing hi! to be"o!e *no(n as the 8reat Moghul$ 'hey ha&e a tou"hing tale to tell of )hah @ahan s lo&e for his (ife and of the e3traordinary building.ed >ort at Agra . )hah @ahan. s%lendour. in 1<0<.Mahal. but it be"o!es standard %oli"y during the reign of his son Aurang2eb$ .sei2ed by lo"al offi"ials or lando(ners (hose des"endants be"o!e the ra-as and na(abs of !ore re"ent ti!es$ Moghul e!%erors "ontinue to rule in na!e for another "entury and !ore.(ith the 'a.) +as the 1o2n3er o1 the 42r 5(6ire in 7orth 8n3ia& +ith its 9a6ita) at :e)hi.a-%ut territories in 19<5 !a*es ene!ies of the .is deter!ination to i!%ose stri"t Isla!i" rule on India undoes !u"h of (hat (as a"hie&ed by A*bar$ An atta"* on . the Moghul e!%ire frag!ents into nu!erous se!i-inde%endent territories . the 'a.Dire"t %ro&o"ation of this *ind is unty%i"al of )hah @ahan.eal %o(er has de"lined gradually and i!%er"e%tibly throughout the 1<th "entury.Mahal in his &ie( a"ross the @u!na. 8n 15=A& +hen Da'2rEs son B2(ay2n +as e)se+here on an eF6e3ition& 4her /han oCerran the state o1 Den0a) an3 esta')ishe3 the 42r 3ynasty.indu %rin"esB the rei!%osition of the -i2ya in the sa!e year ensures resent!ent a!ong . (hi"h he %ro&ides for her to!b$ And as )hah @ahan s reign !erges into Aurang2eb s.<=> ?n ethni9 ?10han& 4her 4hah too* 9ontro) o1 the M20ha) 5(6ire in 154@. ar"hite"tural brillian"e and dynasti" &iolen"e of the Moghul dynasty first i!%resses the rest of the (orld$ Euro%eans be"o!e a signifi"ant %resen"e in India for the first ti!e during the 1<th "entury$ 'hey ta*e ho!e des"ri%tions of the ruler s fabulous (ealth. but their %restige is hollo($ . in the . they "an astonish their hearers (ith an oriental !elodra!a of a *ind !ore often asso"iated (ith 'ur*ey.

6. Bis reor0aniHation o1 the e(6ire )ai3 the 1o2n3ations 1or the )ater M20ha) e(6erors& nota')y ?*'ar the Ireat& son o1 B2(ay2n.<12> Bis 0ran31ather& 8'rahi( /han 42r& +as a no')e a3Cent2rer +ho +as re9r2ite3 (29h ear)ier 'y 42)tan Dah)2) . 4her /han 'e)on0e3 to the Pasht2n 42r tri'e (the Pasht2ns are *no+n as Afghans in histori9a) Persian )an02a0e so2r9es). MaHar o1 8'rahi( /han 42r sti)) stan3s as a (on2(ent in 7arna2). 4her 4hah +as 'orn as Farid Khan in the 6resent 3ay 3istri9t o1 Mahen3ra0arh in so2th Baryana& ear)ier 6art o1 Bisar 3istri9t o1 9o('ine3 P2nKa' in 8n3ia.<1@> Be 12rther 3eCe)o6e3 B2(ay2nEs Dina-panah 9ity an3 na(e3 it 4her0arh an3 reCiCe3 the histori9a) 9ity o1 Pata)i62tra as Patna +hi9h ha3 'een in 3e9)ine sin9e the Ath 9ent2ry J5.<4><G> Be eFten3e3 the Iran3 -r2n* Loa3 1ro( Jhitta0on0 in Dan0)a3esh to /a'2) in ?10hanistan.+ro20ht si)Cer& a 9oin o1 si)Cer.-The S+r represen" "he$se&. Bo+eCer& the on)ine 5n9y9)o6N3ia Dritanni9a states that he +as 'orn in 4asara( (Dihar)& in the Lohtas 3istri9t.en kos in &eng"h) si"ua"ed on "he %anks of "he 1u$a&2 They en"ered in"o "he ser.<= :2rin0 his ear)y a0e& Pari3 +as 0iCen a Ci))a0e in Par0ana& 4haha'a3 (9o(6risin0 6resent 3ay 3istri9ts o1 DhoK62r& D2Far& Dha'h2a o1 Dihar) 'y Q(ar /han& the 9o2nse)or an3 9o2rtier o1 Dah)2) /han .<11> Be is a)so 1a(o2s)y re(e('ere3 1or *i))in0 a 12))y 0ro+n ti0er +ith his 'are han3s in a K2n0)e o1 Dihar.<2> a)so 9on1ir( this 1a9t. !" #as a" "he "i$e of "his %oun"y of Su&"'n (ah&o&) "ha" "he grandfa"her of Sher Sh'h) %y na$e !%r'h*$ Kh'n S+ri). %u" in "he 0u&"'n "ongue 5Rohr*26 !" is a ridge) a spur of "he Su&ai$'n 0oun"ains) a%ou" si7 or se.e /oun"ry) and $arried a daugh"er of one of "he Afgh'n /hiefs of Roh23 #i"h his son 4asan Kh'n) "he fa"her of Sher Sh'h) /a$e "o 4indu-s"'n fro$ Afgh'nis"'n) fro$ a p&a/e #hi/h is /a&&ed in "he Afgh'n "ongue 5Shargar*)6. Rhen his 1ather 3is9oCere3 that he 1)e3 to serCe Ma(a) /han& the 0oCernor o1 Ma2n62r& Sttar Pra3esh& he +rote Ma(a) /han a )etter that state3: Far*d Kh'n) %eing annoyed #i"h $e) has gone "o you #i"hou" suffi/ien" /ause2 ! "rus" in your kindness "o appease hi$) and send hi$ %a/k> %u" if refusing "o &is"en "o you) he #i&& no" re"urn) ! "rus" you #i&& keep hi$ #i"h you) for ! #ish hi$ "o %e ins"ru/"ed in re&igious and po&i"e &earning2 <1=> Ma(a) /han ha3 a3Cise3 Pari3 to ret2rn ho(e '2t he re12se3.i/e of 0uha%%a" Kh'n S+r) D'+d S'h+-khai&) "o #ho$ Su&"'n (ah&o& had gi.<G> :2rin0 his 1iCe year r2)e 1ro( 154@ to 1545& he set 26 a ne+ 9iCi9 an3 (i)itary a3(inistration& he iss2e3 a 9oin o1 si)Cer +hi9h +as ter(e3 the Rupiya& 3eriCe3 1or( 4ans*rit +or3 rūpya& +hi9h (eans as des/endan"s of 0uha$$ad S+ri) one of "he prin/es of "he house of "he 1horian) #ho &ef" his na"i. Tarikh-i Khan Jahan Lodi (M4. 151). Pari3 re6)ie3 in a )etter: .<4> Be +as one o1 a'o2t ei0ht sons o1 Mian Bassan /han 42r& a 6ro(inent 1i02re in the 0oCern(ent o1 Dah)2) /han .o3i..en in 8'g*r "he parganas of 4ari'na and (ahk'&a) e"/2) in "he 9an8'%) and "hey se""&ed in "he pargana of (a8#'ra2 <2> O?''as /han 4ar+ani& :. Pari3 /han an3 his 1ather& +ho ha3 seCera) +iCes& 3i3 not 0et a)on0 1or a +hi)e so he 3e9i3e3 to r2n a+ay 1ro( ho(e.a3(inistrator as +e)) as an a')e 0enera). Bis 0ran3 1ather 8'rahi( /han 42r +as a )an3 )or3 (Ma0ir3ar) in 7arna2) area an3 re6resente3 :e)hi r2)ers o1 that 6erio3.o3i o1 :e)hi 32rin0 his )on0 9ontest +ith the Ma2n62r 42)tanate.

. . Ui)aTiT/2hna (osV2e& '2i)t 'y 4her 4hah in 1541& at P2rana Ui)a& :e)hi& a B2(ay2n 9ita3e) starte3 in 15==& an3 )ater eFten3e3 'y hi(& a)on0 +ith the 9onstr29tion o1 4her Man3a)& an o9ta0ona) '2i)3in0 insi3e the P2rana Ui)a 9o(6)eF& +hi9h )ater serCe3 as the )i'rary o1 B2(ay2n. Be ha3 (a3e 8n3ia 1)o2rish in s29h a +ay that the *in0 o1 Persia an3 -2ran a66re9iate it& an3 haCe a 3esire to )oo* at it.ater sensin0 the 0ro+th 4her 4hahEs 6o+er in Dihar& Ma)a) so20ht assistan9e o1 Ihiyas233in Mah(23 4hah& the in3e6en3ent 42)tan o1 Den0a).an*a& 8n3onesia& Ma2riti2s& Ma)3iCes& 4ey9he))es a(on0 other 9o2ntries.<1> 8n 15=G& 4her /han 1a9e3 B2(ay2n in the 'att)e o1 Jha2sa.<1><4> De9a2se o1 his Ca)or& Dahar /han re+ar3e3 hi( the tit)e Sher Khan (Tiger Lord).!f $y fa"her #an"s $e %a/k "o ins"ru/" $e in &earning) "here are in "his /i"y $any &earned $en? ! #i&& s"udy here2 <1=> Conquering Bihar and Bengal Pari3 /han starte3 his serCi9e 2n3er Dahar /han . Ihiyas233in sent an ar(y 2n3er Ienera) 8'rahi( /han.ohani& the M20ha) IoCernor o1 Dihar. BaHrat ?rsh ?shiyani (?*'ar the 0reat) 1o))o+e3 his a3(inistratiCe (an2a) (Ha+a'it) 1or 1i1ty years an3 3i3 not 3is9ontin2e the(.<14> Rupee is to3ay 2se3 as the nationa) 92rren9y in Pa*istan& 8n3ia& 7e6a)& 4ri .<1> D2t he 9o2)3 not 9a6t2re the *in03o( 'e9a2se o1 s233en eF6e3ition o1 5(6eror B2(ay2n. ?ss2(in0 the tit)e Sher Shah& he as9en3e3 the throne o1 :e)hi. -h2s he a9hieCe3 9o(6)ete 9ontro) o1 Dihar. 8n siF years he 0aCe s29h sta'i)ity to the str29t2re (o1 the e(6ire) that its 1o2n3ations sti)) s2rCiCe.. Io)3 9oins 9a))e3 the 0ohur +ei0hin0 16G 0rains an3 9o66er 9oins 9a))e3 Da$ +ere a)so (inte3 'y his 0oCern(ent. 8n the sa(e 8n3ia 32e to a')e a3(inistration o1 the +e)) +ishers o1 the 9o2rt& nothin0 is )e1t eF9e6t ra'')e an3 K2n0)es.<4> Government and administration 46e9ia))y 4her /han +as not an an0e) ((a)a*) '2t a *in0 ((a)i*).. “MirHa ?HiH /o*a& son o1 ?ta0a /han& in a )etter to 5(6eror Mahan0ir -he syste( o1 triT(eta)is( +hi9h 9a(e to 9hara9teriHe M20ha) 9oina0e +as intro329e3 'y 4her 4hah. Be 1or9e3 B2(ay2n o2t o1 8n3ia.<1> 8n 15=8& 4her /han atta9*e3 Den0a) an3 3e1eate3 Ihiyash233in 4hah. D2t& 4her /han 3e1eate3 the 1or9e at the 'att)e o1 42raK0arh in 15=4.<14><15> 4her 4hah '2i)t (on2(ents in9)23in0 Lohtas Port (no+ a S754JQ Ror)3 Berita0e 4ite in Pa*istan)& (any str29t2res in the Lohtas0arh Port in Dihar& 4her 4hah 42ri MasKi3& in Patna& '2i)t in 154@–1545 to 9o((e(orate his rei0n. ?1ter the 3eath o1 Dahar /han& 4her /han 'e9a(e the re0ent r2)er o1 the (inor 42)tan& Ma)a) /han. Rhi)e the ter( rūpya ha3 6reCio2s)y 'een 2se3 as a 0eneri9 ter( 1or any si)Cer 9oin& 32rin0 his r2)e the ter( rūpiya 9a(e to 'e 2se3 as the na(e 1or a si)Cer 9oin o1 a stan3ar3 +ei0ht o1 1A8 0rains& +hi9h +as the 6re92rsor o1 the (o3ern r26ee.

is 2n3er )ater M20ha) 5(6eror& ?*'ar aro2n3 158@& 6roCi3es a 3etai)e3 3o92(entation a'o2t 4her 4hahEs a3(inistration.Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi (4is"ory of Sher Shah)& +ritten 'y ?''as /han 4ar+ani& a #a@ia-na. .