You are on page 1of 7


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The microwave beam behaves like a light beam and it tends to follow a straight line and azimuth. The changes on temperature, pressure and relative humidity tends to refract the microwave beam. So it will follow on a slightly curved path. The radio horizon exists. It is diffracted when grazing over an obstacle. A small shadow area created when some of the energy is redirected. The beam can be reflected from relatively smooth terrain and water surfaces. The criterion of smoothness depends on the wavelength of the signal. At 6 to 8GHz frequency band, rain attenuation is not a problem. But for frequencies 11GHz and above, rain attenuation is very serious. The amount of attenuation depends upon the rate of rainfall, the size of the drops and length of exposure. Atmospheric absorption due to oxygen and water vapor also exists and its magnitude is a function of frequency and path length.

Things to consider in designing terrestrial microwave communication system:  Site Considerations  Sources of Path Data  Path Profile  Interferences and Restrictions  Routes and Sites to be Avoided  Effects of Fading  Diversity Methods to apply  Reliability Objectives  Equipments I. SITE CONSIDERATION:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A full description of each site by geographical coordinates, political subdivision, access roads and physical objects. Any unusual weather conditions to be expected in the area including wind velocity, temperature and relative humidity. A description of the physical characteristics of the site, indicating the amount of leveling required, removal of rocks, trees or other structure. Relationship of the site to any airports. The mean sea level elevation of the site and the path. If possible the nearest location where commercial power is available. The accessibility of the site for maintenance purposes.


1. Maps  Aeronautical charts  Topographic maps  Political maps Aerial Photography  Often useful in rough terrain to show more the details of the path.  Google Map/Satellite Pictures


After the tentative antenna sites have been selected and the relative elevation of the terrain and between the sites has been determined, a path profile can now be prepared.


  The relative curvature of the earth and the microwave beam is an important factor when plotting a profile chart. The beam is normally bent downward a slight amount by atmospheric refraction. Incorporating both earth’s curvature and signal bending will result to an equivalent earth radius, K.

The Equivalent Radius Factor (K): Defines the degree and direction of bending of the microwave beam. Any change in the amount of beam bending caused by atmospheric conditions can be expressed as a change in K.

K = (1 – 0.04665 e
    K=∞ K=1 K = 4/3 K = 2/3

0.005577 Ne -1


: flat earth, curvature of the earth is zero and the beam follows the curvature of the earth : reference : super refraction, K is greater than 1 (Cases where a hot body of land occurs next to a relatively cool body of water.) : subrefraction, K is less than 1 (There is a cold land next to relatively warm sea.)

The Effective Earth radius (Re) Is equivalent to the true earth radius multiplied by the K factor. Re = R x K where: R = true earth radius (6,370 km)

Representation of the Relative Curvature and the Microwave beam: A. Curved Earth –Straight Line Beam Approach A representation of a curved earth with effective radius KR and a straight line microwave beam.
D – maximum radio range

h d1 D d2

h - the change in the vertical dist. from reference line d1 –the dist. from a point to one end of the path d2 –the dist. from the same point to the other end of the path


6F1. so it is important to note that clearance requirements is applied to both sides. o If a reflected signal is bounced within an even-numbered Fresnel Zone. d in miles If K = 4/3 . If K = 4/3 . 2.  In order to ensure free space propagation. d in km h in feet. D in miles h in feet. D in miles D1 = ∞ h in meters. in GHz Fresnel Zone Clearance (Fc) It takes into account the unusual conditions that occur in the atmosphere.Are the radii of the concentric circles corresponding to the cross section of a particular Fresnel Zone. The signal field at the receiver is thus at a maximum value.The first Fresnel Zone is the surface containing every point for which the sum of the distances from that point to the two ends of the path is exactly ½ wavelength longer than the direct path. 200ft.h in meters. h in meters.000ft Note : The selection of the scale will depend on the path length and elevations the site and path. 500ft or 1. D in miles If K = 4/3 .If a reflected signal is bounced within an odd-numbered Fresnel Zone. D in km h in feet. 2 . Drawing SCALES: Horizontal scale: Vertical scale : 1 mile : 1 inch 2 miles : 1 inch 1 inch : 100 ft.  Fresnel Zone Radius (Fn) . d in miles B. h= 0 If K = ∞ .  Fresnel Zone concept: . from one end of the path to the reflection pt. it would arrive at the receiver in “phase opposition” with the direct signal. If K = 2/3 . The signal field at the receiver is seen to be minimum in value. above and below the path. . D in km h in feet. in miles or km d2 = D – d1 (feet) D = path length. it is essential that all potential obstructions along a path must be removed from the beam centerline by at least 0. maximum radio range h in meters. it would arrive at the receiver in “phase addition” with the direct signal. If K = ∞ . d in km h in feet. F1 F2 First Fresnel Zone Radius (F1) √ √ Nth Fresnel Zone Radius (Fn) √ (meters) d1 = dist. o Since the cross-section of the Fresnel zones at any point along the path is a series of concentric circles..Are a series of concentric ellipsoids that surround the path of the microwave beam from the transmitter to the receiver. 3. If K = 4/3 . in miles or km F = operating freq. Flat Earth –Curved Beam Approach A representation of a flat earth with a microwave beam having a curvature of KR. FRESNEL ZONE ..

it is recommended to have an excess of 10 miles apart between the RADAR and microwave receivers. but a wave front extending for a considerable distance about the center line. a. Antenna discrimination be at least 30dB.OF.4. VI. ANTENNA HEIGHT ANALYSIS  The sum of the calculated earth curvature and the calculated Fresnel zone clearance are added together with the elevation of the top of the obstruction. from one end to the reflection pt and to the other end of the path η . 1. Fading due to ground reflection is not only confined to water and perfectly smooth.reflection point coefficient 5. CROSSING OTHER SYSTEM ROUTES Crossing other routes of similar frequency at small angles or near the repeater stations. antenna discrimination 4. EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE  Unfiltered RADAR typically radiates at 60dBm (1kW) for second and third harmonics. ROUTES & SITES TO BE AVOIDED  There are several situations which should be avoided in selecting and establishing a microwave path. Overreach 2. So if possible. receiver selectivity  The acceptable angle is 90˚ to intersect another microwave path. it is recommended to find for substantial earth blocking. Adjacent Section 3. parallel system distance 2. 3 . it must be shown from the three path profile ( K=∞. K = 2/3 path profile must be considered.  If blocking of reflected signal is not satisfied then changes in antenna height must take place in order to reposition/shift the reflection point that would then possibly blocked the reflected signal. 3. An additional receiving antenna is placed on top of the previous antenna.  In reflection point test. η = K = 2/3 Subrefraction . Since the index of refraction under normal atmospheric condition is lower at the top of the wave front and higher at the bottom. reflected signal must be blocked by utilizing any physical obstructions located within the path. Refraction occurs. Growing crops such as corn can also produce serious fading. the wave front travel fester on the upper portion than on the lower. FADING The microwave energy is not a single line.  In the antenna height analysis.d2 Super refraction = - K = 4/3 IV.d1 = . V. Spur or Junction Interference Things needed to do. and since velocity is inversely proportional to the index of refraction. SITES NEAR HIGH POWER RADARS Harmonics of RADAR signals might interfere with the microwave signal. 4/3) that the reflected signal can be bloc ked by any obstructions located along the path. Classifications of Intra-system Interference: 1. where: H1 & H2 – height of the antenna from mean sea level (MSL) d1 & d2 – dist. The microwave beam. 2/3. An improve signal to interference ratio (S/I) Low front – to – back ratio & highly directive antenna system Implements High-to-Low frequency bands for Tx and Rx mode b. Types of Interference in Microwave Communication: 1.  Antenna heights must be determined so that a straight line between the antenna locations clears all the marked points. OVER WATER & LOW FLAT TERRAIN If can’t be avoided. 1. Antenna discrimination against the overreach path.  If blocking is unattainable then diversity technique will be implemented on the system.  The actual antenna heights can be determined by converting the measured height of the point intersecting the path and vertical lines between the two sites. For the unblocked situation. Another alternative is by SPACE DIVERSITY technique. flat surfaces such as dry lakes. INTRA – SYSTEM INTERFERENCE  Interference coming with in the system. LINE. plotted as a straight line must clear from this points. the HIGH – LOW technique must be implemented to redirect the reflection point over rough terrain.  Paralleling and intersecting microwave systems also contributes interference. K=∞ Flat Earth d1 = η D . So this will tend for the signal to bend downward.SIGHT OBSTRUCTION All type of obstructions which is near the LOS may cause interference to the signal. INTERFERENCE AND RESTRICTIONS  One very important in microwave systems is the avoidance of interference. 4. receiver sensitivity 3. Earth blocking in the overreach path for at least 1. Overreach Interference       A longer overreach path as compared to the direct C-D path.000ft. Spur & Adjacent Interference 2. Reflection Point Formula for different values of K. 2. REFLECTION POINT CALCULATION / TEST  The reflected signal can also affects the direct signal. It can cause a delay distortion of the received signal at the other end of the system. Avoidance of interference must improve the ff. To prevent microwave receivers from harmonics interference.

the tentative spacing can be calculated by the formula: h2 = 2.44 min 8.01 0. while irregular or hilly terrain tends to reduce. COMPUTATION FOR SPACE DIVERSITY SPACING: Steps in computing for the space diversity clearance: 1. Its disadvantage is that it doubles the amount of spectrum required.height of the transmitting antenna (in feet) at the h1 end and above the plane tangent to the earth at the point of reflection. In most cases. it is recommended that system reliability is 99. It is expected that implementing diversity technique can improve the performance of the system.3 min 26 sec 2. For K = . Hot and humid coastal areas typically have a high incidence of multipath fading. Multipath fading tends to be greater on long path than on short path and it is a function on path length.1 0. climate.frequency. and terrain conditions.The multi path fading is also related to the well-known RAYLEIGH fading.99% and if diversity is implemented. For systems requiring only one working RF channel. This type of system is difficult to implement. in miles f . in feet ht . so that full testing can be done without interrupting services.99 99.8 hrs 53 min 5.086 sec Let Undp be the non-diversity annual outage probability for a given path.6 sec Day 1. in GHz a = 4 : for very smooth terrain. the following calculation should be made. the most commonly used basic protection methods are: 1. r is defined by Barnett as: r = Actual fade probability Rayleigh fade probability Rayleigh fade probability = 10 -F/10 where: 4 D . Protection switching must be in order to maintain service continuity. including over water = 1 : for average terrain with roughness = ¼: for mountainous = 1/8: mountainous and very dry and temperate area . in GHz D .3 x 10 D FGHz ht 5. Let ht1 = the height of the transmitting antenna (site A) above a plane tangent to the earth at the point of reflection.path length. Reliability % 95 99 99.999 99. 2.86 sec 0.9999 NON-DIVERSITY ANNUAL OUTAGE: Outage Time % 5 1 0. PROPAGATION RELIABILITY: The diversity technique when properly applied can reduce the effect of multi path fading on the line-of-sight. Establish the antenna heights needed to meet the required path clearance criteria. 2. The parameter “availability is designated by symbol A which is also equal to 1-U. The h t2 = the height of the transmitting antenna (site B) above the plane tangent to the point of reflection. it is unlikely that two paths of different lengths experience fading simultaneously. h2 = 1. A typical objective is to restore service within 30 msec to minimize noticeable effects in the message traffics or no circuit disconnection detected.path length. Short haul operation uses one-for-one protection switching because it is simpler to implement but it only requires large amount of bandwidth.6 sec 0.9999%. DIVERSITY TECHNIQUE AND CONSIDERATIONS: Diversity technique when properly applied can reduce the effects of multipath fading on line-of-sight systems.4 min 1. the final spacing will be that calculated in step 3.0001 Outage Time per Year 438 hrs 88 hrs 8.operating frequency. as typical of most industrial systems. The desired vertical spacing at the h2 end will be the smaller of the two calculated value of h2. 3. So it is ideal for non-congested environment.3 min 32 sec Month 36 hrs 7 hrs 43 min 4. frequency.001 0. Flat terrain along a path tends to increase the probability of fading. 3 VIII. in miles 3 4. HYBRID DIVERSITY A special combination of frequency and space diversity technique. For long haul operation (TD 3).2 hrs 14. By providing adequate path clearance to essentially eliminate outages due to earth blocking and providing fade margins of 40dB or more. Its advantage is that it establishes two complete end-to-end paths. but to ensure that it does not result in spacing which would give more than one-half wavelength path difference at K = 4/3. F . VERTICAL SPACE DIVERSITY Deep fading only occurs when secondary ray arrives exactly out-of-phase with respect to a primary ray. 3.2 x 10 D FGHz ht Where: h2 is the diversity spacing at the h2 end. Reliability is commonly expressed in percentage. the radio system uses 12 voice channels: 10 main channels and 2 backup channels for protection (often called as 2 x 10 systems). the system reliability should be improve to 99. VII. Using different path lengths provides protection against multi path fading.9 99. FREQUENCY DIVERSITY A diversity arrangement providing full and simple equipment redundancy.

Rectangular Waveguide Rigid rectangular waveguide is the most commonly used. in dB Tower and tower problem have a significant effects on many microwave path engineering choices. in feet D . P = KV 2    20 lbs/sq. for 4 GHz carrier f F/10 Ifd (6) = ¼(f)x10 . and restriction in the area. shapes location and relative positions of all antennas. Height of tower In meter 10 (33 ft.0 dB/ft 5 . But for longer transmission line. the soil conditioning.25 for ab. for 7-8GHz carrier f F/10 Ifd (11-12) = 1/12(f)x10 . in miles F . for 6 GHz carrier f F/10 Ifd (7-8) = 1/8(f)x10 . twist and flexible sections be minimize. for very smooth and hot paths. extra care should be observed since slight misalignment. flexibility is sometimes enjoyed during installation. -F/10 FREQUENCY DIVERSITY IMPROVEMENT FACTOR The following formula are all experimental.) 2.ft 40 lbs/sq. so waveguide-type are recommended. a coaxial cable are often used with air dielectric type with a typical size of 7/8 inch and attenuation of 2 dB/100 ft.25 abD f x 10 x 10 The product of the terrain and climate factors ab ranges from a maximum of 4 x1/2 = 2. it is desirable to keep the number of bends. There are several things queried in connection with towers.ft 30 lbs/sq.85 dB/ft WR 137. to a minimum of ¼ x 1/8 = 0.5 rm = aD x 10 (f/4)  Over one year: ryr = b x rm Undp = ryr x 10 –F/10 = b x rm x 10 3 1. EQUIPMENTS: 1. bends and introduction of unwanted materials into the guides could create severe discontinuities. in miles per hour The load of a tower depends on the sizes. in GHz s . wind loading. approximate attenuation of 0.fade margin associated with the second antenna. A 30 mile path on relatively flat terrain could call for a tower on the order of 250 feet at each end. higher loses and poorer VSWR are experience if using coax. WAVEGUIDE Wind speed in km/hr minimum 112 131 145 153 maximum 176 206 227 244 Matching the waveguide and transmission line is important in order to reduce the effect echo distortion noise.004 is the recommended value of the EIA V is the actual wind velocity. TYPES OF WAVEGUIDES: A.frequency.031 for mountainous and very rough paths. TOWERS Where : f . ft. And during installation. for 11-12 carrier f Udiv = Undp / Ifd F/10 SPACE DIVERSITY IMPROVEMENT FACTOR: Isd = 7.) 90 (300 ft. The cost of the tower goes up as the height increases. with oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) as the recommended materials.0 fs x 10 x 10 2 -5 F/10 Udiv = Undp / Isd IX. and the local building codes. approximate attenuation of 2. this could go up to 300 to 350 feet in order to achieve desired clearance.) 60 (200 ft. Normal or averages paths has a value of 0.vertical spacing between the center of the two antenna. 4GHz band 6GHz band WR 229. The two generic types of tower are GUYED and SELF-SUPPORTING. reflectors and other paraphernalia’s. If there were hills or trees in the middle. The standard minimum wind loading of a tower is based on 20 lbs/sq. Its loss characteristic is also needed in computing for the over-all losses of the system.5 -6 -F/10 = 1. 0. Ifd (4) = ½(f )x 10 ..path length.) 30 (100 ft. In a 2GHz bands.ft - 71 mph 86 mph 100 mph where : P is the pressure in pounds per square inch K is the wind conversion factor. In all types of waveguide systems. For worst month: 3 -5 1. This ranges from 64 to 1 in terms of worst conditions.

in feet AG = 17.7 dB/ft WR 90. The gain of an antenna is expressed in dBi or dB relative to the gain of an isotropic antenna. attenuation is 4. For example. attenuation is 3.4 dB/ft WR 112. in GHz B .85dB/100ft EW 59. It is bulkier.  = 70/Bf where:  . G = 10 log10 ( 4Ae ) 2  where: G A e  . the gain of a parabolic antenna is given by: The side lobes and front-to-back ratio are caused by imperfect illumination of the parabola and phase errors introduced by the feed and irregularities in the reflecting surfaces.area of antenna aperture . which sufficient enough to operate at back-to-back transmission. antenna beam-width.8 + 20log10f(GHz) + 20log10D(m) where: G . TYPES OF DIRECT RADIATING ANTENNA 1. DP’s usually have less gain than the single polarized.parabolic diameter.parabolic diameter. Gain. in feet 2.parabola diameter. approximate attenuation of 1. in GHz B .wavelength at operating frequency. a filter is installed after the each feed-horn in order to filter out the unnecessary signals. C. By focusing the radio energy into a narrow beam. in dB f .7dB/100ft EW 122. side-lobes magnitude. in dB f .antenna gain over isotropic. Elliptical Waveguide Semi-flexible elliptical waveguides major advantage is that can installed in a single continuous run without no intermediate flanges. heavier and more expensive than the ordinary antenna.antenna efficiency .frequency. attenuation is 0. Shrouded Antenna This is similar to a common parabolic types.5dB/100ft EW 107.half-power beamwidth.5 + 20log10B + 20log10f where: G . WC 281 circular guide is normally used with horn reflector antennas to provide two polarizations at 4GHz and two polarizations at 6GHz. radiation patterns and polarization discrimination are the characteristics which are of great importance in communication systems. in dB . which theoretically an omnidirectional and with a gain of 1.7-8 GHz band 11 GHz band 12-13GHz band B. Parabolic Antenna This type of antenna consists of a parabolic dish. Antenna gain is given by. this antenna has a typical less gain.frequency. except that they includes a cylindrical shield which helps to improve the front-to-back ratio and wide angle radiation discrimination. The simplest form is with single plane polarized feed. It is practical for straight run installation.5 dB/ft WR 75.frequency. approximate attenuation of 3. in degrees f . attenuation is 2. 4GHz band 6GHz band 7-8GHz band 11GHz band 12-13GHz band 3. But introduction of small deformation can result to impedance mismatch to produce severe echo distortion. To minimize the effect of losses. Because of the very complex and critical feed assemblies. approximate attenuation of 2. in GHz B . illuminated by a feed horn at its focus. microwave signal can be directed toward the receiving antenna. It exhibits a high performance antenna in terms F/B ratio.5dB/100ft Highly directional antennas are used with point-to-point microwave systems. G = 7. Other have dual polarized feed (DP) with separate of V & H connections and it has a very complex feed horn.0 or 0dB.75dB/100ft EW 71. They are available either single or double polarized. poorer VSWR than a single band antenna. Cross-Band Parabolic Antenna These are parabolic antenna with feeds designed to permit operation in two widely separated bands (for example 6GHz and 11GHz band). However. in meters  The half-power beamwidth of a parabolic antenna is given approximately by. ANTENNA SYSTEMS EW 37. 6 . Off beam discrimination is reasonably good. attenuation is 1. but front-to-back ratios is on the order of 45 to 50dB maximum which is not adequate for back-to-back transmission (or reception) of the same frequency in both direction.antenna gain over isotropic. With 55% efficiency. 3. It is also capable of carrying more than one frequency band in the same guide.gain over isotropic. which can either be vertical (V) or horizontal (H). approximate attenuation of 4.5 dB/ft Circular waveguide has the lowest loss of all types of waveguide and it can also support two orthogonal polarizations within the single guide. it can provide a F/B ratio of 65dB. Circular Waveguide WR 159. The gain efficiencies of most commercially available parabolic antenna are in the order of 55 to 65%.

RADOMES 2GHz 25.0 dB for heated radome. in dBm Fade Margin.7 46. In some case.7 - 13GHz 41. in dB Transmitter Power. radomes also create high reflective spikes at a particular frequency only. This become very significant in situations where very low VSWR’s are needed to control echo distortion. ft Antenna Diameter.3 40.9 37. Radomes also can be expected to degrade the VSWR of an antenna system.8 42.0 37. in dB Reliability Profile Number Site Latitude Longitude Site Elevation Tower height Tower Type Azimuth from True North miles dB ft dB dB dB dB dB dB ft ft 7 .3 43.5 dB for typical unheated radome to 2.1 41. in dB Net Path Loss.0 31.6 Gain Relative to Isotropics 6GHz 7GHz 8GHz 35.9 48. Total Losses.5 - 4GHz 35.9 45. dB Total Gain. It also introduces loses to signals and the amount may vary from less than 0.3 44.3 48.0 38.5 29.4 40.7 11GHz 40.6 41.0 46.5 46.2 44. in dBm Median Received Power.7 39. ft Antenna Gain. in dBm Practical Threshold.Typical Antenna Sizes & Gains: Diameter In feet 4 6 8 10 12 15 4.2 35.6 45.0 43.5 - Parabolic and shrouded antenna usually includes integral radomes.8 46.1 43.0 47. MICROWAVE PATH DATA CALCULATION SHEET Frequency: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Path length Path Attenuation/Loss Waveguide Length Waveguide Loss Connector Loss Hybrid Loss Radome Loss Total Fixed Loss.8 47.5 33. Antenna Height.9 43.3 39.