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• A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) takes a set of binary levels and creates a single analog value. • The simplest DACs are derived from opamp summing circuits with different amplification ratios for different bits.

R1 D3 2R1 D2 4R1 D1 − + Vout R2

• The circuit at right requires a scaled resistor set. For Dn=0 or 1, where 1 is set to VCC, the output will be:

8R1 D0

V CC R 2 D 3 D 2 D 1 D 0 - + ------ + ------ + ------⎞ V out = ----------------- ⎛ -----⎝ R1 1 2 4 8⎠

For VCC=5V, R2=1kΩ , and R1=1.25kΩ the four indiviual resistors for the inputs would be1.25k, 2.5k, 5k and 10kΩ. The nominal step between input values (LSB) is 0.5 V. The maximum Vout = 7.5 V.

LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II

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• The amplifier must be able to drive the full range. • For 16 bits this is a range of over 64000 from the lowest to highest possible value with accuracy and sensitivity appropriate at all scales. • The dynamic range may be insufficient. • For a large number of bits one needs a large range of resistors. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 2 of 13 .Output Errors • There are specific types of errors that can arise from a DAC such as a summing junction.

5kΩ+1/9kΩ) = 3. • Scale error If in the 4-bit example the only error was that R2 = 1. the output voltage is 5V*1kΩ/(1/2.65 V.25k.33 V. let the 4-bit example above have input resistors with 10% tolerance. but the errors in the resistors are not large enough to cause one output value to be lower than the preceding one.89 V and 4. • Nonmonotonic behavior For instance. 3.25kΩ+1/4. The steps would all be equal at 0.5V. Full scale would be 7. 7 and 8 now give outputs of 3. 4. the output voltage is 5V*1kΩ/1.25kΩ resistor.11 V are far from equal. • Nonlinear behavior Similar to nonmonotonic errors. an output lower than the one for 7.00 V respectively. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 3 of 13 .37k.89 V. An example from above would be to replace the 1. Inputs 6. For a digital input of 8.Scaling Errors • There are also error types associated with DACs with sufficient dynamic range.04 kΩ.37kΩ = 3.56 V and 0.5k and 9k. The steps of 0. Within tolerance it is possible that these resistors are actually 1.8 V instead of 7. 2. For a digital input of 7.52 V.37kΩ resistor with a 1.

LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 4 of 13 .R-2R Ladder • The R-2R ladder converts binary bits to scaled currents. Rf − + D3 2R Vref R R R 2R D2 2R D1 2R D0 2R Vout • The equivalent resistance between Vref and ground is R. • Half the current from Vref goes towards D3. since the opamp will hold the non-inverting input to ground as well. regardless of the switches. 1/8 goes towards D1. The op-amp sums the input currents and multiplies them times Rf to get Vout. • Note that only two resistor values are needed. and 1/16 goes towards D0. • An analog switch would be needed to convert binary signals into switch controls. 1/4 goes towards D2.

= IrefR. That means that VE-V. • The op-amp will hold the non-inverting input to ground drawing a current from Iref = Vref/R0. • The voltage at all the emitters will be the same and the R-2R ladder will again cause each transistor in line to draw half the current of the preceding one. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 5 of 13 .Current Switch ICs • These chips use the R-2R ladder design directly with transistors to make an analog current proportional to the binary number input. Vref R0 D3 + − R VR R R 2R 2R 2R 2R 2R D2 D1 D0 Iout Note: the line through the bases connects all the bases to the op-amp output. That current flows into the collector of the transistor and the op-amp will hold the base such that IC = Iref.

DAC C R Vout • The capacitor eliminates switching noise and a 100Ω resistor will convert the 1 mA to 100 mV.Analog Current Switches • Consider a DAC with 1mA full scale output. DAC C 100 1k − + 99k Vout • Vout at full scale equals 10V. • Op-amps can also be used to drive the output voltage. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 6 of 13 .

RC must be long enough for the output to settle. +5 PE U/D CLK CP *R P0 P1 P2 P3 TC Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 O R Vout C LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 7 of 13 . • Ideally RC > 0. where n is the number of bits and T0 is the input clock period. • To avoid nonlinearity. • The averaged rate multiplier is a slow form of frequency-to-voltage converter useful in temperature control. The digital pulses can be averaged using a low-pass filter to get a voltage. • A frequency-to-voltage converter uses a counter to feed into a low pass filter. counters can be used to generate a frequency.69(n+1)T0.Time Averaging Converters • Instead of summing voltage or currents.

Pulse-width Modulation • This is similar to the frequency to voltage converter. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 8 of 13 . a magnitude comparator is used to vary pulse width. but the counter controls pulse width instead of frequency. this is slow due to the RC time constant. • It is very useful for slow loads. • Like the frequency to voltage converter. particularly mechanical systems or systems like thermostats. binary data PE U/D CLK CP *R P0 P1 P2 P3 TC Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 B A A<B C R Vout • Instead of a preset to the counter.

• The 555 timer is used as a monostable multivibrator. and used as a voltage averaging device. • The output will be high for a fraction of time equal to Tf. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 9 of 13 . where f is the frequency of input pulses. with a pulse width equal to T = RC. +12 V R THR 555 OUT points C TRG DIS A • The zener diodes and capacitor protect against over voltage spikes from the engine. • The capacitor and resistor divider on the TRG input bias the input pulse to match the threshold of the 555. • The ammeter is slow.Modulation with a Timer • A mechanical tachometer can be built from a 555-timer.

• If all resistors are equal. • The latch outputs go into a summing amplifier. then the output is the sum of the 1’s in the counter at one time. also called a twisted ring counter is a shift register with feedback. CLK S S S S S S S S D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q D Q Q R R R R R R R R R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 − + Rf vout • The inverse of the last output is fed back to the first input. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 10 of 13 .Johnson Counter • A johnson counter.

the frequency is 1/16 the clock frequency. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 11 of 13 .Johnson counter truth table count 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Q0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Q4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Q5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Q7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 out 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 The period T is 16 times the clock period τ.

• Use ω = 2π/T = π/8τ a0 -+ v(t) = ---2 [ a n cos ( n ω t ) + b n sin ( n ω t ) ] ∑ n=1 ∞ For an even wave the bn = 0. • The period can be written in terms of the Johnson clock period.Digital Wave Generation • The resistors in the Johnson counter need not be equal. • The Fourier coefficients are 1 8τ 1 8τ n π t⎞ n π t⎞ ⎛ . one can simulate a sine wave. • Different value can make different shaped waveforms.dt = ----. • To get a specific wave the signal can be broken down with Fourier analysis. • • For instance.dt a n = ----v(t) cos ------v(t) cos ⎛ ------⎝ 8τ ⎠ ⎝ 8τ ⎠ 8 τ –8 τ 4τ 0 ∫ ∫ LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 12 of 13 .

a3 = a4 = a5 = 0.8 KΩ. LABORATORY ELECTRONICS II 13 of 13 . C = 0.Seven-bit Sine Wave • The v(t) are quantized in steps v1 .1 KΩ.392 If R4=Rf=10 KΩ. R2=R6=14. R3=R5=10. A = v1 = v7 – v 6 B = v2 – v1 = v6 – v5 D = v4 – v3 C = v3 – v2 = v5 – v4 2πn πn πn πn -⎞ + 2 B sin ⎛ 2 ---------⎞ + 2 C sin ⎛ 3 ---------⎞ + D sin ⎛ 4 ---------⎞ a n = ----2 A sin ⎛ ----⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ πn 8 8 8 8 ⎠ • Solve to minimize the higher order harmonics.. v7. B = 0. • From symmetry.1 KΩ.363.278. these can be reduced to 4 separate values. D = 0. A = 0. R1=R7=26..150.

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