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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

Evaluation of Transformational Leadership Associated with Bernard Bass

Summary of the Theorists Work Transformational leadership is a leader who uses many mechanisms to encourage motivation, morale, and output of the group followers. This type of leader is a role model encouraging followers to be more accountable for their work and understanding the members of the group and their specific strengths and weaknesses. The transformational leader is able to have the group members assigned to tasks that enhances their personal performance (Avolio, 2008). Bernard Bass views personal values as most important to the outcome of an individuals, groups, or organizations ultimate performance. Bass described the transformational leader as one who is focused on values of integrity, fairness, trust, and more focused on group success rather than on oneself (Bass, 2003). Bass spoke to the importance of people in the corporate world looking at a large range of objectives and concentrating in the payoff resulting in an individual having the ability to make changes from within (Bass, 2003). Bass addressed contingent rewards. These rewards happen based on assessing a past behavior and what one has done to make a change, thus a positive transformation in ones behavior (Bass, 2003). The Bass Theory Advancement of Leadership Bass has divided the concept of transformational leadership into four areas, known as the four Is (Weese, 1994). The following are elements of the theory that have contributed to new understanding of transformational leadership:

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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Inspirational leadership Idealized influence

Intellectual stimulation The leader is able to have the group look at a problem in a more innovative way encouraging them to see a challenge as an opportunity. The leader is able to identify with the collective groups creativity. Waldman et al. reported that workers under a transformational leader could be able to think about problems in different ways (Waldman, 1987). Individualized consideration There are two factors associated with individualized consideration that Bass refers too. The first factor of this element is that there has to be a high importance to viewing each member of the group as an individual. The leader must be able to listen and understand the followers. The second factor is that the leader must be able to identify members weaknesses and help them to resources to become more successful to meet a goal. The leader is supposed to help the members to work in a direction that allows them to achieve their goal at a higher level of success (Waldman, 1987). Evaluation systems can be used with the transformational leader and its group members to help create job evaluations, organize, and set career goals (Waldman, 1987). Inspirational leadership

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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

The transformational leader is one who can inspire its members. These leaders are able to take a vision and deliver it clearly to the members allowing them to become excited and motivated which will lead to attaining the end goal. This element helps to build identity between the leader and the group members (Avolio et al., 1999). Idealized influence Idealized influence represents the respect that the group has for the leader. The members of the group believe that the leader is proficient and will advance the group to the main goal; consequently, their efforts are valued by the leader. This is when group members must have trust and confidence within their leader to accomplish the overall project goal (Waldman, 1987). Contingent Reward Another element that Bass used to describe the transformational leader is contingent reward. Contingent reward clearly outlines what the group member must achieve and how that member will be rewarded (Avolio et al., 1999). Rewards are based on the performance of the group member and only received when the goal is met. Relevance to Today The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is a survey that was used with the armed forces to have subordinates rate their leaders (Avolio et al., 1999). The MLQ survey was used for many different professions and found to be helpful in evaluating all levels of employees (Avolio et al., 1999). The MLQ has six factors that are applied to the world today. Three of the factors are transformational, two are transactional, and one is passive avoidance. Cognitive

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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

reward is one of the transformational factors that is studied and questioned by researchers as to the need for its own category within the study (Avolio et al, 1999). Later studies using the MLQ, using nurses, the scored categories are divided differently resulting with little variations in the results (Avolio et al, 1999). The MLQ is a useful survey that has been utilized by middle-level manages is business, students and the US Armed Forces. This survey is an excellent evaluation system to help CEOs, department chairs and managers assess the progress of their employees and use as a guide to produce more efficient and successful leaders. The main elements characterizing this type of leader are intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, Inspirational leadership, idealized influence, and contingent reward. The MLQ survey develops supporting theory to help better ones leadership capabilities. Transformation leadership will evolve as society changes and people become more accountable for their performance. Conclusion Bernard Bass is recognized for his study of transformation leadership. The elements that comprise the transformational theory are relevant to the past as well as the future. Many professions and the Armed Service have found the MLQ survey based on Basss theory to help improve leadership. This theory has been studied for many years; the elements can be associated with the changes of the 21st century.

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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

References Avolio, B. J. (2008, October). Bernard (Bernie) M. Bass (1925-2007). American Psychologist. p. 620. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.7.620.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of occupational & organizational psychology, 72(4), 441-462. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&d b=a9h&AN=2635131&site=eds-live&scope=site Bass, B. M. (2003). Face to Face Power to change: A conversation with Bernard M. Bass. Leadership in Action 23(2), 9-11. Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Einstein, W. O. (1987). Leadership and outcomes of performance appraisal processes. Journal of occupational psychology, 60(3), 177-186. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail?sid=7c5ed5bace77-4a79-a21fe14f31f15454%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2 NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d Weese, W. (1994). A Leadership discussion with Dr. Bernard Bass. Journal of sport management,8(3),179-189. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail?sid=8172ca14-1c70-4f93-8a70-

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Leila Liberman May 2013 DEPM604 Assignment 1

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