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# Diseño de Sistemas de Drenaje

Jorge G. Zornberg, Ph.D., P.E.
The University of Texas at Austin, USA

President,

International Geosynthetics Society

Cover systems

Vegetation Soil layer Geotextile filter (if needed) Drainage layer Geomembrane liner

Bottom liner system
Protective soil layer Geotextile filter (if needed) Leachate collection layer Geomembrane liner

Geosynthetics in Landfill Applications

Flow Capacity .

Thickness of liquid layer in service… In service conditions of a drainage layer on a slope subjected to a uniform rate of liquid supply: Solutions to governing differential equation are called “mounding equations” . Flow capacity at the end of design life … 2.Flow Capacity (Cont.) Important design considerations : 1.

Design Criteria for Drainage Systems: – Liquid Head smaller than prescribed value. (2000a) . e. 0.3 m – Liquid Thickness smaller than drainage layer thickness Calculations are needed for the Liquid Head and Liquid Thickness Head and Thickness Source: Giroud et al.g.

: .There is a drain at the toe of the slope • The shape of the liquid surface depends on the “Characteristic parameter”.The liquid supply rate is uniform and constant . qh • Hydraulic conductivity of drainage layer. k Calculation of the Maximum Liquid Thickness • Equations are available to calculate tmax if: .  • Liquid supply rate.Geometry of Drainage Layer on Slope Maximum liquid thickness (or maximum head) as a function of: • Drainage length.The liquid collection layer is underlain by a geomembrane liner without defects .The slope of the liquid collection layer is uniform . L • Slope angle.

> 0. (2000a) McEnroe’s Equations (1993) .25 Liquid surface ttop Liner tmax xm    0.25   ~ 0  Source: Giroud et al.

• Equations are extremely sensitive to the number of digits in numerical calculations.Comments on McEnroe’s Equations • Rigorous solution of the differential equation governing the flow of liquid in a drainage layer with uniform liquid supply. Giroud’s Equation (1992. 1995) • • • • • Approximate solution (1%) Slightly conservative relative to McEnroe’s equations Very simple (one simple equation instead of three) No numerical problems Has been used in numerous landfill designs . More than 15 digits are necessary in some cases. • Used in the HELP Model.

Factor j in Giroud’s Equation Source: Giroud et al. (2000a) Giroud’s Original Equation (1985): Giroud’s Modified Equation (1992): .

(2000a) Simplified Equation .Comparison Giroud vs McEnroe Source: Giroud et al.

Simplified Equation Incorrect Equations: Moore’s equation (1980) USEPA Equation (1989). from Moore (1983) .

can use the hydraulic transmissivity.Parameters for Determination of tmax • • • • Slope. L Hydraulic conductivity. k Liquid supply rate.  : . qh Parameters for Determination of tmax : Hydraulic Conductivity • Hydraulic conductivity. k : • Only in the case of geocomposite drains.  Drainage length.

0 1.2 – 1.5 1.2 RFbc 1 – 1.0 1.5 .5 .3 – 1.2.4 – 2.0 .1.5 .2.0 1.5 RFcr 1.5 .4 RFcc 1.Long-Term-In-Soil Hydraulic Transmissivity Application area Retaining walls Surface water drains for covers Leachate Collection and Removal Systems (LCRS) Leachate Detection Systems (LDS) RFin 1.5 1.2. k Liquid supply rate.1 – 1.2 – 1.1.0 1. qh .0 1.3 .5 .2 – 1.  Drainage length.0 1.5 1.4 1.2.0 1.0 Parameters for Determination of tmax • • • • Slope.4 – 2.2.5 1.5 .2. L Hydraulic conductivity.

LCRS: – Use HELP • Base liners.Parameters for Determination of tmax : Liquid Supply Rate • Covers. LDS: – Consider conservative scenarios for defects in primary liner HELP Model • General Basis: – Quasi 2-D – Deterministic – Water balance • Simplifying Assumptions: – Only gravitational forces are responsible for water flow – ET depth is predefined – Soil moisture content of barrier layers always remains at field capacity • Input Parameters: – Weather data – Soil data – Design data . general case: – Use soil saturated hydraulic conductivity • Covers. arid climates: – Use HELP • Base liners.

3 m (1 ft) – Liquid thickness smaller than liquid collection layer thickness Minimum Prescribed Values: – Thickness 0.HELP: Typical Landfill Profile Precipitation Evapotranspiration Runoff Cover Soil Geocomposite Geomembrane Clay Liner Infiltration Lateral Drainage Percolation Waste Sand Geocomposite Geomembrane Clay Liner Lateral Drainage Lateral Drainage Leakage Percolation LEACHATE COLLECTION LAYER DESIGN Design Criteria: – Liquid depth smaller than 0.3 m (1 ft) – Hydraulic Conductivity 1 x 10-4 m/s (1 x 10-2 cm/s) (Hydraulic Transmissivity 3 x 10-5 m2/s) – Slope 2% .

(2000b) liner .Special Mounding Equations derived from Giroud’s Equation • Equations for double slope • Equations for double layer • Equations for radial flow Upstream section Double Slope Cover Downstream section up Soil layer Drainage layer Geomembrane liner Drain down Upstream section Double Slope Bottom Liner Downstream section Protective soil layer up Leachate collection layer Geomembrane down Drain Source: Giroud et al.

0  104 m/s (these values correspond to those prescribed by current regulations). . The University of Texas at Austin. The rate of liquid supply is 100 mm in one day.5.. The proposed granular layer has a thickness of 0.30 m and a hydraulic conductivity of 1. If this criterion is not satisfied either redesign or consider a geocomposite drainage layer.E. A granular layer is selected. The following geometric characteristics of the liquid collection layer are tentatively considered: a length (measured horizontally) of 30 m and a slope of 2%. Ph. International Geosynthetics Society Design Example: Granular Drainage Layer A liquid collection layer is designed for a landfill cover. P. Zornberg. USA President.Ejemplos: Diseño de Sistemas de Drenaje Jorge G.D. Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.

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A hydraulic transmissivity test was performed on the proposed geocomposite (including the geotextile filters) under stresses and hydraulic gradients consistent with those expected in the field. The proposed geocomposite has a core thickness of 9 mm under representative field conditions.6  103 m2 /s. Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.5. A geocomposite drainage layer is selected. The rate of liquid supply is 100 mm in one day.Design Example: Drainage Geocomposite A liquid collection layer is designed for a landfill cover. or redesign. . The following geometric characteristics of the liquid collection layer are tentatively considered: a length (measured horizontally) of 30 m and a slope of 2%. The stresses were applied for 100 hours before the hydraulic transmissivity was measured. The transmissivity value thus measured was 3.

The adopted solution is to change the geometry of the liquid collection layer. a length (measured horizontally) of 15 m and a slope of 3% are now considered. Specifically. or redesign. . Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.5.Redesign of Drainage Geocomposite The liquid collection layer in the previous example is redesigned.

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References on Design of Drainage Systems Giroud.G. pp.” Geosynthetics International. H. A. 7. Vol. Sardinia. R. Nos. “The Myth of Hydraulic Transmissivity Equivalency Between Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers”. 453-489. 1. J. . 613-640. Nos.. “Design of Leachate Collection Layers”..P.. Zornberg. (2000a). pp. (1995). Giroud. (2004). 11. pp. M.F. and Zornberg.F.. Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers. 4358. “Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers Comprising Two Different Slopes. (2000c).” Geosynthetics International. J.P. Giroud. Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems. J. 381-401.. pp. 7.G. Vol. Giroud. Zhao. “Liquid Flow Equations for Drainage Systems Composed of Two Layers Including a Geocomposite. Tomlinson. 4-6. J. Geosynthetics International. J. “Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers. and Zhao.M. Vol. J. 285-380. Zornberg. February..P. Italy. 7. Vol.. J.” Geosynthetics International.G. A.. pp.P.. and Beech. J. 2. Proceedings of the Fifth International Landfill Symposium. and Houlihan. and Bonaparte. No. J. October 1995. Vol. Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems. 4-6. Nos. (2000b).P. Giroud. 4-6.. Zhao. A.