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Contact Linguistics

1. Contact linguistics in the narrower sense is concerned with the language borrowing. A more recent definition involes the study of a whole area of language contact and language conflict, both in theory and practice, and based on the results it forms linguistic principles related to bilingualism, multilingualism, language borrowing, translation, foreign language acquisition, language loss or language shift, language planning, and all forms of interference that arise as a result of lanaguage contacts, as well as the culture contact at all levels. In the wider sense, apart from the linguistic study, it is concerned mainly with the cultural borrowing and aspects of non-linguistic nature. There are different types of languge contacts: . !irect "" creating pidgin and creole languages# as a result of geographical closeness, borowing of the words, constructions# it is also present in the multilingual parts where there is a parallel use of the official language and other languages $%o&vodina', or in the parts where there are more that one official language $Canada, (elgium, etc.' ). Indirect "" world languges influence other languges# words are not ta*en over from the giving language directly, but there are intermediary langugaes which already use the word as a loanword. +owever, if the word goes through two intermediary languges, in the new languge it can apprear with two different forms and meanings# via mass media, no intermediary languages. 3.The term contact-contrastive linguistics involves the study of the similarities and differencies between the ,nglish and -erbian $or any other' language, in the conte.t of ,nglish as the nativi/ed foreign languge and its influences on the -erbian $or any other' language. 5.The status of a $prototypical' foreign language is usually determined by 0 criteria: a. it is not the mother tongue or the first language of a given country b. it is not the official language of a given country c. it is taught in the school. (ased on these criteria, ,nglish belongs to the category of a foreign language. +owever, what we should ta*e into account when it comes to the status of ,nglish is its relation to other foreign languages, and especially to mother tongues of foreign spea*ers and students. 1amely, during the last )2 years ,nglish has become the first language of international communication, and for this reason it should be viewed differently from all other languages. !ue to these new socio-linguistic facts, that are a consequence of its new leading role in the world, some additional characteristics of ,nglish appeared, that distinguish ,nglish from other foreign languages. According to these characteristics ,nglish can be seen as the nativized foreign language: a. Ready audio-visual availability "" ,nglish is no longer used &ust in bidirectional spo*en and written global communication in politics, economy, science, culture, etc., but it is also audio-visually available in unidirectional communication, by the means of modern technology, such as satellite or cable television, computers and internet, cinematography, or %+-, !%!, C! or 3C formats. This particular characteristic

ma*es ,nglish more similar to a mother tongue and partially to the second language, but at the same time it ma*es it different from a foreign language. b. Dual acquisition "" there is a tendency for ,nglish to be acquired outside the school system first, i.e. to be learned spontaneously# children are e.posed to ,nglish via T%, internet, films, music, etc. and they grow up with it, along with their mother tongue. The language is acquired non-systematically# only certain words, structures, phonemes, or graphemes are acquired, and *nowledge of the same is insecure, incomplete, and follows the principles of a popular etymology. (ilingual dictionaries are used during this process. The result of this all is a certain level of passive *nowledge that allows only vague understanding of the general meaning. Afterwards, ,nglish is being taught at schools, as a foreign language, but it includes the contents that frequently differ from $and are often simpler' than those already acquired. c. unction of a su!!le"entary language "" it supplements the communicative needs of a given linguistic community by filling in various e.isting and assumed le.ical or other gaps in a mother tongue# this way it contributes to forming a more or less complete communicational resource that is comprised of the mother tongue enriched by the selected elements of the ,nglish language. Inside the big circle $-erbianmother tongue', there is a smaller one $,nglish as the nativi/ed foreign language', with the open borders between them and the constant input of the le.ical and other material from the ,nglish language. As the nativi/ed foreign language ,nglish appears: #$%&$D' the mother tongue $at the level of words through loanwords, phrases and clauses through calques, etc.' #%'() to the mother tongue $with the e.isting translation# the ) languages are used side by side, simultaneously' #*+,-' the mother tongue $without the e.isting translation, use of spo*en and written ,nglish, while the mother tongue is fully suppressed'. ).' %*)$-$/'D ,R'$0% L0 is a subtype of a foreign language which pertains especially to ,nglish. 'nglish as the nativized foreign language 4 means that ,nglish has ob&ectively and sub&ectively became part of many native languages and cultures in the world. -o, some of its features of foreign languages have wea*en

1. 2. $%%'R C$RCL': traditional bases of ,nglish $56, 5-A, Ireland, Canada, Australia, 1ew 7ealand'# ,nglish as a st language# )02-082 million ,3)'R C$RCL': ,nglish is part of the country9s chief institutions $government, education, and media', )nd language $India, 3alawi:'# ;2-022 million '(4*%D$%0 C$RCL': ,nglish important as an international language, but there is no history of coloni/ation and no special status of ,nglish in institutions# ,nglish as a foreign language. (oundaries are not firm, possible is language shift.$eg. <oreign language becomes )nd'# 22 million- billion 5. 6,RLD '%0L$&. "" meaning both standard ,nglish and all ,nglish# it was possibly born in the 5-A, perhaps serving the same purpose as international in the names of American dictionaries. =orld ,nglish may or may not be standard, although standardness was somewhat of a criterion for this definition. It is $according to 3cArthur' standard and non-


pidgin. Aus.%*L '%0L$&.I@ $-mith'"" native spea*ers also need to ma*e an effort in international situations. 5-A-T.ation$eg.nglish as the world9s pre-eminent languageA.g. According to Crystal. . b' economic-emergency of the 5-A as a leading economic power of )2th c. Two-fold: .ical innovation$three *inds: a' e. creole.g. and unarguably prestigious varietyA. regionally neutral. both formal and semantic.pression of new meanings with e. . metonymy. -mith" socio-cultural line T.ation $eg. . 7.I@: an applied linguist and a language teacher -trevens ). wherever it is spo*en. vlog $v$ideo b'log'-shorter )' functional versatility.isting forms $by metaphor.. multiblog'. -A.nglish: non-linguistic: a' historical-(ritish colonial power which pea*ed in the ?th c.isting meanings with shorter forms$by clipping. 1igerian. it is three-fold: . c' political-5-A as a military power linguistic: ' le8ical brevity. +e claims that they are only ) style variants.standard. Deasons for the global spread of . 56-T. !istribution across nations ). 1ew -horter >.ible morphological and syntactic rules for combining words into phrases and sentences. Although this *ind of variety will probably never e. mother tongue and other tongue. and they influence both native and non-native spea*ers when a language serves as a shared international medium.. -tandardness 0. According to him. prefi. ellipsis$eg.. @ingua franca-hood.pressions of new meanings with new forms$by suffi. often in ways that inhibit easy communication.nglish belongs to all its users# ways of spea*ing and patterns of discourse are different across $and inside' all languages and refers to multinational use of .pected to be Aa totally uniform.concerns the availability of productive and efficient mechanisms for le. NOT RELATED TO STANDARDNESS!!! $%)'R%*)$. 0L.nglish and a range of comprehension. Concise Companion $ ??8':A. blending$eg. including all regional varieties . moblog from mob$ile b'log'. two. The term global tends to imply an ecologicalBeconomic scale..nglish $notably in language teaching'# sense of standardness augmented $Trudgill-+annah' by a language-teaching development that became *nown in the ?82s as $T' . three syllables' which are sufficient for fulfilling a wide range of communicative needs.nglish# world and global are the same to him' is e..I@. "" ??2s# it implies a vast use and lin*s the language $often negatively' with socio-economic globali/ation. It is superordinate term for (r.+*L '%0L$&.ist. =eb from =orld =ide =eb front ellipsis'# c' e.ncarta $ ??8' "" =. lingua franca and Anglohybrids.nglish. "" since ?02s. use is communal and significant social ends are being served. conversion $eg. 0 .nglish !ictionary $ ??0' "" a variety of . blog as a verb'# b' e. dialect..I@: @arry .. especially where the Anglo element is strong. is the . global' for the same phenomenon.pression of e. In the end.concerns the availability of a large number of short words $of one. . straightforward and fle. standard or nonstandard. etc. blogger'. Am. there are two names $world. conversion'. 17. 0' gra""atical si"!licity-concerns the availability of simple. there is some Cstandard9 core within The =orld . .nglish $=orld -tandard .nglish in all its varieties as it is spo*en and written all over the world.

Receiving language . one-way. collocations. roaming.Lr<L>= :: the language that receives the linguistic material from another $usually dominant' language. 5sually the mediator is mass units are borrowed $words. such as the e. Angloserbian. Direct borrowing happens when there is a direct contact between spea*ers of @g and @r without a mediator. Aspea*A .L$%03$&)$C *%0L. manageable number of irregular forms of nouns. ad&ectives.. as well as adverti/ing slogans. &ogurt. etc. $nter"ediary borrowing is a process based on a mediator via which @g and @r come in contact. 3il*se&*.+*L$/*)$.% "" . synta. etc# mil*Ee&*. and conce!tual ga!. podici san*ci&e. H . 0iving language . Linguistic borrowing :: linguistic material of any *ind is ta*en over. where more persons are included# the linguistic material is ta*en from a @g and integrated into a @r.nglish $especially the American variety' at the linguistic and cultural level. kilt.change of boo*s.g. -ebian words. and therefore the absence of a le. Languages in contact :: could appear within one person $a bilingual person' who besides the mother tongue acquires another language. -panglish. b.called angloglobali/ation.Lg<L1= :: the language which provides the linguistic material# words and e. Linguistic interference is a result of *nowing and spea*ing more than one and prefi.0L.a. where there are some cultural lin*s.nglish structures-F!a li mogu da vam pomognemGF umesto FI/voliteF Deasons for linguistic and le.$language structure-mo&e ime &e. etc. or between two languages that are geographically close. unnecessary capitali/ation. -%> word order. *rat*a a phenomenon which represents the absence of a certain concept in a specific culture.icali/ed form in that language e. (orrowing does not imply giving bac*. w'. morphemes$suffi.pressions are ta*en from it. e-mails. :: the influence $most often unwanted' of a dominant language $@g' on the receiving language $@r' deviations from the norm that arise in the speech of a bilingual spea*er due to their *nowing of ) languages. 9.. In addition to this. almost without e. 11. That is why we have sales all over the town. dis*men' 1>.ical borrowing are le8ical ga!-is a phenomenon which represents the absence of a formal correspondent in @) of the word in @ e. etc.reduced number of inflectional suffi.ntertainment and computer science. e.g. most often the dominant language c. @inguistic borrowing includes borrowing of all the linguistic material: phonemes $f. names and descriptions of various products. music.nglish and contribute by large to the spread of so. verbs and'. $bilingualism or multilingualism'. pragmatic aspect-we use discourse formulas. which is concerned with the supremacy of . Le8ical borrowing :: the most common type of borrowing when the le. grandparents.g. e. d.'. Linguistic interference :: the influence $most often unwanted' of a dominant language $@g' on the receiving language $@r'# the deviation from the norm that arises in the speech of a bilingual spea*er due to his *nowledge of ) languages. we have all sorts of Anglo-hybrids. all over the world. . pitao me &e da se udam /a n&ega f.ception.

must be accepted by all spea*ers.e. personal names and names of imported ob&ects. It is a change from model towards replica on the level of pronunciation.13.?4R. . a process of adaptation of loanwords characteristic of bilingualism in which influences of @g and @r are present and as a result of that numerous variants of compromise replicas are formed. >. as seen above. however. It is the final form which the word assumes in the @r# no adaptations after that. some elements of the @r are introduced. (efore some form of a loanword becomes socially accepted every spea*er-borrower can form their compromise replica that will more or less resemble the model.ical gaps in the @r. It is then a loanword or a replica. This is then a foreign loan or a compromise replica. 4ri"ary and secondary ada!tation !rocess of loanwords. e. fi. 1.g.ed and established. R'4L$C* "" It is the borrowed element pronounced the way it is done so by the spea*ers of the @r. tends to have an undefined linguistic status. and semantics. 4ri"ary ada!tation. grammar. the borrowed word can have its alternative forms. *eIap. . compromise replica. the complete or nearly complete substitution ensues. not &ust the one who used it first. orthographic.D'L "" A bilingual spea*er introduces new words whose phonetic forms are close to the source forms as much as that spea*er can pronounce them. A loanword is a word from a giving language used in a receiving language# it is completely integrated in $adapted to' the linguistic system of the @r at several levels $phonological. The whole process from a model to a replica would be the transition from the performance $speech-parole' to competence $language-langue'. In the st case. etc. replica D-D:de-ve-de or di-vi-di-still a compromise replica 6ebsite: still a compromise replica . there is only one final form.refers to the changes which sometimes occur within loanwords that have become part of the content of the @r $replica' that are strictly related to the tendencies of development of @r. semantic level'# mil*Ee&*. both the notion and word are borrowed.g. It is characteristic of monolingual spea*ers. It can be due to both phonemic and morphemic substitution# evro and euro are the alternative forms of a compromise replica. in the form of a compromise replica. so the most frequent loanwords are names of places.isting and sub&ective. There are linguistic reasons for the borrowing: the le.ach word does not have to go through all the phases."belongs to the domain of competence. 6his@y:vis*i. If a monolingual spea*er learns the borrowed word. That is a foreign word or a model of a giving language: the domain of performance. dJogirati. ?. waterpolovaterpola$genitive case' . morphological. If an element in the transition from a @g to a @r retains some characteristics of the @g. it is called a compromise replica# evro-euro"transition from the performance to competence 3. i. waterpolo-vaterpolo &econdary ada!tation. C. The loanword can be a result of fashion or necessity. . tramva&. *omp&uter.?$&' R'4L$C* "" partial substitution by the domestic elements. after being ta*en over. That element is the word as it is pronounced by native spea*ers of the @g. A borrowed element. Thus. The replica.

the tas* of a linguist is to recommend one of the forms. ellipsis $according to KrLiL': combine harvester " the whole word is left out so we get komba n. while the second element is the word man# golman >.)MM istrenirati. but rarely the linguistic principles. ad&ectives. postpe&d. ?or!hological level. They are created in order to fill in a le. unli*e anglicisms. It is usually a result of an accident often involving the associations.)MM *lups*i ili lord. dJe/er.lord. distribution of phonemes and intonation. As pseudoanglicisms have anglicisms as their elements. O . 1. but it is not done match-bo*s meI. .nglish origin $anglicisms'. they undergo the adaptation at three levels $phonological. They are built in 0 ways: 1. in it. derivation "" pseudoanglicisms are derivatives formed by an anglicism and the suffi.. $according to KrLiL. and Kl. )hree levels of the ada!tation !rocess. undergo &ust the secondary adaptation# thus they are also called secondary anglicis"s. Kseudoanglicisms. -s*i verbs. no gender differentiation'# club.g. *omba&ner. -e*undarna adaptaci&e-adaptation of the noun according to the morphological system of @r. composition "" pseudoanglicisms are compounds in which the first element is an anglicism. e.nglish ad&ectives-they are same in -g.)MM na&lon pi&aca $flea mar*et' 19.nglish e. pripe&d. donMt have case inflections. &e"antic level.g. waterpolo-vaterpola $imenice u engles*om na BouB prosle *ro/ primarnu adaptaci&u i po obli*u odgovara&u imenicama mus*og roda. 4honological level. ellipsis "" evicting the suffi.hepi end. –ing in .. In cases of compromise replicas. 4seudoanglicis"s are words or e. -econdary adaptation refers only to broadening of the meaning. The statement that the ada!tation !rocess of loanwords is< in essence< governed by the linguistically founded rules and !rinci!les is &ust a wishful thin*ing.g. It is usually done by ordinary people $laymen' without proper linguistic *nowledge.M *lub. – er that is the most frequent mar*er of a pseudoanglicism# autostoper. and not elements of a mother tongue. but &ust borrowing.15. air-conditioning i air-condition. -ov. intrv&ua genitive 7ero transmorphemi/ation primary change. we do not spea* of the linguistic borrowing. analogies. 1arrowingBbroadening the meaning of loanwords.M trenirati. Thus. morphological and semantic'. this is clipping'. train. fair-fer.ical gap but the elements of such new words are loanwords. teniser 3. This is how a word should be borrowed.M na&lon. 1ylon. secondary nouns. 17. (orrowing is rarely done by happy ending.lordov -secondary adaptation-made from the citation form of adapted loanword noun and ad&ective inflections in -erbian 4an. interv&u-narrowed number of meanings-only first meaning is used in -erbian-to interview sb. fit-fit-this is primary adaptation on phonological and morphological level $these are compromise replicas because they have *ept morphological characteristics of . bo.pressions comprised of elements of . but the whole they ma*e is not ta*en from the . intrviewBMintNv&u:B inMterv&u -a*cenat &e promen&en.nglish language since it does not e.nglish and -erbian differ in the inventory of phonemes.

-ft lift. sometimes even lost. )rans"or!he"ization "" the replacement of the morphemes from a @g with the morphemes from a @r. A replica in -erbian assumes melodi&s*i stress and there is no much difference between stressed and unstressed syllables $i. -rd clipboard. vowels are shortened and wea*er. only the stressed syllable is pronounced with a fully reali/ed vowel# in the unstressed syllables. quantity and melody.g. )R*%&?.phonemes which don9t have articulatory equivalents in @r so the transphonemi/ation is based on ortography or nonlinguistic factors. -gd smaragd. /'R.nglish 4nt deterd/ent. The . It is substitution on the phonological level. As this stage of the morphological adaptation is characteri/ed by the /ero morphemes. -n* lin*. there are su!raseg"ental elements that need to be adapted.nglish model is under the influence of the udarni stress. rugby-ragbi# Consonants: golfgolf BgB 4artial or co"!ro"ise trans!hone"ization. nd forhend. detector-dete*tor $Eva u or' Consonats: whis*ey-vis*i $w u v' Importation-u/eli smo f i/ grc*og fen& it is called the Q .R4. vowels': CIeting Cprocesor CrePbutivati According to KrLiL. signal $instead of nl imamo al'. model. %owels: team-tim Bti:mB.>A. vowels: corner-*orner $Eva &e /amen&eno sa er'. so we have H types of stress $combinations of short. Klacement of the stress in replicas belongs to the !ri"ary ada!tation. in . so there is no need for the morphological adaptation of the citation form.'?$/*)$. -yllable. -lm film. -&t ba&t. and not the melodi&s*i stress belong to the primary adaptation. -rt flert. -/d $gro/d'. modem >3. -/hd $du/d' <rom . -sht $plast'.e. . In -erbian at the end of the syllabel we have only H consonant clusters 4st $hrast'. although in the polysyllabic words it is not easy to predict the position of stress. %owels: &am-d/em $u srps*om obicno e' Consonats: punch-punc $nema aspiraci&e u srps*om'.nglish BdB postalveolar. which mar*s only the place of the stress# -erbian has melodi&s*i stress which combines the intensity. in -erbian dental' ree trans!hone"ization.nglish more consonant clusters. rising and falling'. .nglish we have udarni stress.nglish it is possible to distinguish primarily and secondarily stressed vowels from those unstressed. The morphological system of the @r ta*es over these loanwords without changes. In -erbian. In . Those cases where the loanwords have only udarni stress. In . falling'. Co"!lete trans!hone"ization-is replacement of phonemes from @g with phonemes of @r that have the same description. 3o/e se desiti da uvedemo w. They are compromise replicas. In addition to segmental elements. Deplicas: tunel $instead of nl imamo nel'. >1. doc*-do* $in . )rans!hone"ization is a replacement of phonological elements of @g with the ones from the @r. fudbal. All these words are compromise replicas. -ps cips.%: the model is ta*en over as a free morpheme without a bound morpheme. long. the same vowels are modified by the elements of intensity $stressedBunstressed'.g. quantity $shortBlong' and melody $rising. It is the analysis at the morphological level. while determining which stress to use belongs to the secondary ada!tation since the loanword needs to behave li*e a native word in order to get a melodical stress.

R4.-6I $osnova R nulti sufi*s': scout "" -DK-6I $slob.1IC. The result of the complete transmorphemi/ation at the morphological level is a replica that is fully integrated in the @r.I%I1S @S.amples of compromise transmorphemi/ation are compromise replicas with bound morphemes 4er and 4ing. the model corresponds to the replica. 3orphologically. and vice versa. .?4R. etc. Tennis player : tenis R er The most frequent e. ad&ectives. The /ero transmorphemi/ation for all !arts of the s!eech $nouns. 4 a bound morpheme from the @g that is phonologically adapted.R4.C.g. 8 .g. they receive the status of compromise replicas because only the citation forms are morphologically adapted.%I fair : fer fit : fit =ith this type of transmorphemi/ation. -ome compromise replicas will not be further adapted and the bound morphemes from the @g that are retained in the system of @r are considered to be innovations. when we adapt nouns.'?$/*)$. bo&*ot./ero transmorphemi/ation.morfem R nulti ve/ani morf.1S@. so its changes are qualified as !ri"ary changes.but isn9t fully in accordance with the morphological system of the @r. 7ero transmorphemi/ation appears in the primary adaptation. I3. but in our system we call it compromise transmorphemi/ation. we obtain replicas# however.%: continues the adaptation of the bound morpheme from the @g by substituting it with the bound morpheme from @r $with the same function and meaning. (o. e. This only partially adapted form of the model represents a compromise replica at the morphological level. agent'. Dugby : ragbi =his*y : vis*i Interview : interv&u @ift : lift <ilm : film KDI!. na&lon. C. when the ad&ectives are adapted. e.?$&' )R*%&?. but not verbs' has the following formula: free morpheme R /ero bound morpheme.?4L')' )R*%&?.': s*aut -ome citation forms of models that do not end in phonemes or consonant clusters that are typical for the morphology of the @r are considered to be innovations in the distribution of phonemes and the consonant clusters $final –i! "u and final consonant clusters –#t! "lm' in the D.'?$/*)$. fer. These bound morphemes display the high level of integration as they are being used for building pseudoanglicisms. : bo*ser !ribbler :dribler <armer : farmer !oping : doping Kar*ing : par*ing C. fit.%: appears at the morphological level only when the loanword retains the suffi. while they are not adapted in other morphological category $indeclinable'. It appears most frequently with nouns since there are many nouns that end in a consonant and have no bound morpheme.

loss of 4s R -a $f' ).oT ad&ectival suffi. conta"ination $the process by which one word or phrase is altered because of mista*en associations with another word or phrase$ that is conditioned by the meaning analogy between the loanwords and some native words in the @r: !og $n' "doga $f' "analogy $Jivotin&a' <arm $n' " farma $f' " analogy $/eml&a. interv&u.' %. Ky&amas:pidJama# analogy with spavaLica $contamination'. 1ouns: farmer. bungalo. i. D')'R?$%' ).er $m' : bo*ser $m' Sentleman $m' : dJentlmen $m' -teward $m' : st&uard $m' >.. 3any loanwords ending in a consonant assume the masculine gender since many nouns in -erbian that end in a consonant are of masculine gender: (ar $n' : bar $m' (eefstea* $n' : bifte* $m' 3otel $n' : motel $m' Team $n' : tim $m' This principle. (ac* $m' : be* $m' (o. rugby . The second way to determine the gender is to follow the si"ilarity of "eaning and the gender is mar*ed by using the formal mar*ings $B. %ouns in !luralD . reli&a.-: loanwords ending in a consonant are declined li*e the noun Celen. masculine gender in the nouns that refer to the males. There are two ways to do so: A. although there is a formal mar*er of gender in . vaterpolo. CT' -tri*-er" BBBBBBBBBB " Etra&*aI $no compromise relica. Certain number of loanwords retain their natural gender $ta*en with the @g'.3% 0'%D'R: 1.6 ). based on the se8 of hu"an beings To mar* the feminine gender: -a $st&uardesa. poni. ? .es' of the morphological system of the @r $complete transmorphemi/ation'. polo. The loanwords ending in 4o assume the masculine gender as well. according to which the ma&ority of loanwords assume the masculine gender is called ?*&C3L$%' )'%D'%CB. Ca*es: *e*s# li*e other loanwords ending in a consonant $masculine tendency'.(o. -ome of them show signs of a compromise replica: they retain the full nominative form $bungaloa'. hbi.nglish' (.e. etc'. @oanwords ending in 4u retain the do not insert the hi&ats*o U $interv&u R a'. @oanwords ending in 4I insert U $hi&ats*o'# poni&a. reli. &ungle. 3.-er " bo*s-er " bo*saI $replica. although in our language they would be of neutral gender $bendJo. @oanwords ending in 4o are declined li*e the noun 3ar*o. directly from model to replica'. @oanwords ending in 4i and 4u following the masculine tendence also assume the masculine gender# brendi. *uLa' Uungle $n' " dJungla $f' " Euma Vacht $n' " &ahta $f' " lad&a CA-.a.

st&uardov.g. *oosnivaI# re: rei/bori. driblati.formant 4a R suffi. -ti $blefirati' -isati. not secondary adaptation. $"!ortation: the morphological elements from a @g are integrated into the @r and used for the derivation of new words. se*si. standardan. films*a. there are three possible changes: 2 . &ubstitution: the replacement of the morphological elements from a @g by the corresponding ones from a @r. linIovati. and they did not ta*e the characteristics of the -erbian ad&ectives $gender. e. Their citation form is obtained by the /ero transmorphemi/ation. e. the first group are ad&ectives that undergo no changes $!ri"ary ada!tation'. -uffi.g. trenirati' and biaspectual verbs $blefirati. number and case'# fer. mini. interv&uisati. startan They are fully integrated into the @r system and have all morphological characteristics of the native ad&ectives $films*i. driblati. testirati. bo*sati. They are compromise replicas since they retained the characteristics of the . fit. download "" daunloud R ova R ti.. but rather a "or!ho-syntactic one. ). trenirati. films*o'. lordov -an: re*ordan. etc. Three main ad&ectival suffi. bo*serov.: i/-blefirati Infi.ical I to &e secondary &e primarna primarna fle*tivna &edna*o gramraic*A to >5. e.-ira. it is primary. Krefi. 4ti $interv&uisati' .nglish ad&ectives $indeclinability'. 4ti. imperfective $bo* used for the derivation of new ad&ectival loanwords: -s*i: bars*i. -econdary changes"" adding a suffi. &econdary ada!tation: -erbian ad&ectival suffi.g. startovati. bo*sers*i.tension of meaning of the model. *s!ectD Krimary changes"" perfective $faulirati'. films*i. e. *idnapovati. a hybrid: a Sree* formant 4is R inf.-ova. EtampaI. vestern. +owever.: blef-nu-ti "" they became perfective verbs *DE'C)$-'&D . faulirati. according to Krcic. viEe fit'.es 4irati and 4isati are comple. aut< @orner< vis@i< "il@FeC@< Cogurt< @o"!Cuter< far"a< dGungla< ge"<set RecentD daunloudovati< vebsaCt< Changes in se"antic e8tensionD involve restriction of meaning and e.amples: bo&* are added to the already adapted bases $mainly nouns' at the stage of secondary adaptation. flertovati. co"*o: *oautor. or by the root change. As the meaning of the model can be sometimes unchanged in the replica.g. infi. suffi. er "aI# bo*saI. testirati'.. a hybrid: a Serman formant ier"ir R formant 4a R suffi. This is not only a morphological adaptation. gangsters*i -ov: be*ov. derivationl &edna*o"" -irati. )H. They form comparative by using viEe $viEe fer. *ampovati. EutiratiBEutati.-isa' to the model R the suffi.-'R+&: =e add infinitival formants $-a.

DD.perience restriction in the semantic field. The full integration of a loanword into the system of a receiving language ).--AV-. etc. e.replica.3K. so the . e.% . .D.D-(5@!>W.nglish terms were adapted at the phonological and morphological level. gin-dJin.3.t so only one sense of its old meaning is ta*en along. primary adaptation' "*orner-prostor i/a lini&e gola. technical.!W51S@A.A!.A1I1S TDA1-<. grapefruit-gre&pfrut..tension or the restriction of meaning. @. '(4*%&$. After the games became very popular. after being integrated into the @r language system. ?'*%$%0: The general tendency for the loanwords is the restriction of meaning since they are ta*en over by the @r in order to name an ob&ect or a notion ta*en from the culture or civili/ation of the @g. A loanword is usually ta*en only in one specific conte. <I@3-<I@3. <AD3. *ilt-*ilt. /'R.<AD3A. many sport terms started to lose their meaning intensity as well as to e. hamburger-hamburger. R'&)R$C)$. At this stage. ?'*%$%0 of a loanword belongs to the secondary adaptation.nglish.trot.!: (5@@!>7. &'?*%)$C '()'%&$.pansion of the meaning: . U53K.a.1!.' $'LD: there are terms $such as sports terms' that entered the @r with &ust one specific meaning.D-@I!. $e.-S. =e have to distinguish two types of restriction: . +owever.+A1!-<>D+.t to the restriction in number $fewer meanings retained' also e.D ). This is especially the case with those terms that are limited to one speciali/ed area. SA3. ne.D-!*ser. hot dog-hot dog. <>D. )er"s related to food and drin@D beefstea*. .pand the range of its meaning by including the additional elements in the semantic field. '(4*%&$. b. po*er-po*er. only on the plane.U.pansion of*strot.g corner" *orner-udarac s ugla $restriction. (51SA@>=-(51SA@>. U51S@. whis*y-vis*i )er"s related to s!ortsD baseball-be&/bol.ther areasD fo. only then can the loanword e8!and its meaning and distance itself from the use it had in . 3. It usually happened when the rules of certain sport games were translated.g. there are cases where loanwords transfer more than one sense. but this change will happen only if a loanword meets two conditions: . but only on the boat' or steward " st&uard $sluJbeni*.' . >1@V >1. bo. the loanword creates its meaning by the /ero semantic e. hooliganhuligan. secondary adapt. Destriction in number " the @r usually transfers only one specific senseBmeaning.g. <ree use $as one of the native words' within the @r. fair play-fer ple&rugbyragbi. =hen the loanword is fully integrated in the @r language system and after its function to denote a specific notion or an ob&ect is fulfilled. In most cases it means that only one specific meaning is ta*en over.% $% ). boycott-bo&*ot. the intensity and the precision of its meaning starts wea*ening. There are two types of the e.% :: the meaning of the . stays unchanged and corresponds completely to the meaning of the model. not the boat.bifte*.D. and sprinter-sprinter . martini-martini. train. This represents the transition from the general to more speciali/ed meaning. etc' c. pantry " pentri $smoInica. Destriction in the <ield " some loanwords. soccer. In the !ri"ary ada!tation the loanword retains one or two meanings of the model at the moment of the transfer or integration.% . *etchup-* loanword.

na&lon-blu/a " plasti*a $secondary adaptation.. instead of plastiIna vreLica. They related it with sth *nown to them.nglish' represents the e. belongs to the secondary adaptation. e. ) .g. This could be e. $newer' lo*al u *ome se al*oholna piLa pi&u obiIno sto&eLi# when we compare these meanings of the word bar to its meanings in . nylon" na&lon-sintetiI*i material odreXene hemi&s*e formule $restriction of meaning.nglish. lopta &e preEla crtu i i/van &e igre. nylon ""na&lon . and the changes that happen are called 4R$?*RB C. primary adaptation'" na&lon-Iarape. 7ero semantic e. na&lon mo/a*Tmo/a* *o&i spror reagira. This means that the newer meaning of this word e. e.nglish word: nylon " sintetiI*o vla*no I stvari napravl&ene od te materi&e Krimary Adaptation: na&lon $ ' FsintetiI*o vla*noY# na&lon Iarape -econdary Adaptation I: na&lon $)' Fplasti*aY# na&lon stoln&a*.ists there. e. ne posto&i u eng. <rom the moment of integration into the @r the word goes through secondary adaptation. na&lon vreLica -econdary Adaptation II: na&lon $0' pe&orativno /naIen&e# na&lon pi&acaTpi&aca na *o&o& se proda&u be/vredne stvari. e. All e. na&lon plaJaTnudistiI*a plaJa. while the st one $non-e.' " aut-lopta $atribut.tension $the meaning of the model and replica is the same' as well as the restriction of meaning $replica has fewer meanings than the model' belong to the primary adaptation.g. lopta &e ubaIena u ugru $(acio &e aut.plained by the influence of the Serman language"bar-noLni lo*al.. we see that only the )nd meaning e.%D*RB C.pansion of meaning $secondary change'.perienced the restriction $primary change'. plastic as a material un*nown to them.pansion of meaning'""due to the society9s unfamiliarity with the material.*%0'&. prostor i/van crte *o&a ograniIava igraliEte. na&lon mentalitetTprimitivni *ara*ter. ).na&lon-vreLica.secondary ad. which is conditioned by its longer use in @r. The semantic adaptation usually has the tendency to restrict the meaning of the loanword since the word is ta*en over to name an ob&ect or a notion that belongs to the culture and society of the @g. however. It is odd. na&lon hotelThotel na /lu glasu. and all the changes that happen at this stage are primary changes.. for the secondary change to occur before the primary change.'.pansion of meaning' bar" bar. That is called the primary adaptation that ta*es place at the moment of transfer of a word from the @g into the @r. e. and that is usually only one sense. The e. and its meaning can undergo several secondary changes. '(4*%&$.>r out " aut $restriction of meaning. in the 3atica dictionary appears with two meanings: .pansion of meaning. $older' noLni /abavni lo*al s mu/i*om i artistiI*im toI*ama ). R materi&al od na&lona $secondary ad.'"secondary ad. and all changes from that period are &'C. primary adapt.panded and freer uses of the loanword are related to the environment and the area of the @r.pansion of meaning $in number and field'.*%0'&.% $% %3?+'R: certain sociological and socio-linguistic factors play an important part.istent in .

but only un&ustified.222 or ?O 222 dinara'. unnecessary innovations created under the influence of . Concrete e.nglish modified by other languages. Levels of the ada!tation of loanwords: phonological. C/english.nglish meanings and structures.. (ulevar >sloboXen&a $(ulevar osloboXen&a'. *ngloserbian carries the same implication# it is -erbian modified by . *%0L.4*R) > 1.rthogra!hy 4 e-mail $instead of ime&l'. 3h/'. it is a local variety so the %lis& functions.. more or less bilingual. +ybridi/ation of receiving languages $@rs': the mi. we have other Clishes such as Dusglish.ture of two languages which is subconscious. that is with . morphological.nglish meaning " ohrabriti Z encourage# petrol$e&' " ben/in# *opi&e T primerci $polysemy grows' " e. orthographic. a'Anglicisms in the narrower sense# -ebian words with .nglish as spo*en by the spea*ers of +indu. 5.nglish'.nglish as the )nd language.inglish. Koliti*in 7abavni* $Koliti*in /abavni*'. pitao me da se udam /a n&ega $anglicisms in the wider sense T all phrases and clauses in -erbian that follow the norms of . ovogodiEn&i 1obelovci $ovogodiEn&i nobelovci'.very influence that does not change the e. 1ot every influence of . *ngloserbian is a new sociolect. a type of -erbian which abandons the norms of -erbian and is used according to the norms of . film poIin&e u )):02 $)).amples at the level of: . while in -erbian the head is in the final position. That is why the term ranglais is formed# it implies that <rench is influenced by . 3atica -rps*a $3atica srps*a'. >n the other hand. the head of the 1K is placed at the beginning.ical. where we have .nglish language.-. they are incorrect# they imply that the focus is . )he status of 'nglish as the nativized foreign language has brought about so"e new changesD -erbian is used under the influence of . It is used by young. =hen it comes to . 3+/ $?). -panglish. urban people. It manifests itself in -erbian by performing a function of the supplementary language $inside the -erbian language' " they ma*e a whole $a mother tongue supplemented by the elements of . etc. and not vice versa. quotation mar*s. Domglish.nglish norms. semantic and orthographic >.nglish on -erbian is considered a part of Angloserbian. spontaneous. .222 dinara $?O.nglish: u vaEem na&bol&em interesu.nglish. syntactic.nglish. roaming $roming'.pansion of meaning b'Khrases and clauses " used the way they are used in . unplanned# it is the result of the influence of the . the term is &ustified# it is . web sa&t $vebsa&t'. ?).pressive potential of a language is bad $le. 1. ula/a* u )222 godinu 0 . decimal point# anglicisms and englishisms retain the original writing 0..B+R$D&: In <rench. ?O. Sree*glish.nglish. where the terms are not &ustified.nglish' c'>rthography: capitali/ation. who acquire their culture via popular media.nglish norms. as well as the pragmatic aspect'. semantic level $of a sentence'.02'. of unfinished education.

. e.. .nglish language $@ ' to the system of -erbian language $@)'.. even worse. hybrid spelling of words e.'.nglish phonemes li*e BwauB for e.nglish as nativi/ed foreign language.Contrastive "odule implies what has been ta*en and deals with the ways of preventing the usage of -erbian $@)' according to the norms of . air bag.nglish language $@ ' and become a part of -erbian language $@)'. saradn&a sa 51IC.. institutional and other names.nglish language $@ '. osposobl&avan&e'# tautologies e. c' orthography: transcribing words and names into -erbian $cyrilic or latin' in a standardi/ed way and writing of their grammatical forms. morphological and graphological transshaping e. 2.$)222.cludes original or. mislite o tome\ $ra/mislite $o tome''.< $51IC. -pecial attention is given to a' pronunciation: according to the rules of -erbian language without . $instead of &a sam. There are three constituent parts of contact language culture: 4 )he contact-contrastive "odule implies what has not yet been ta*en from . bo/icno sni/en&e cena $boJiLno sniJen&e cena'.g. Contact language culture is a new applied linguistic discipline theoretically and methodologically based on the principles of modern contact and contrastive linguistics and those of linguistic planning as one of the branches of sociolinguistics.&ynta8 4 streI pantalone $instead of pantalone od streIa'..4honology . chacha* $IaIa*'..'.. !Jon <.nglish words and names and pointing out the need for standardi/ation of their ad&ustement in the system of -erbian language and standardi/ed use by the collective. It is possible to differentiate &ustified words from the un&ustified ones $&ustification scale'.nglish language and deals with the way of ad&usting the elements from . svemirs*i spe&s-Eatl $svemirs*i svemirs*i Eatl'.imalan $ma*simalan'.4rag"atics 4 mo&e ime &e. 0.$bivEi'.nglish $bodibilder*a from bodibilder or Te*saEanin from Te*sas'. The primary way of adaptation is translation.The primary way of adaptation of names is phonological. It deals with -erbian in contact with foreign languages with special focus on .g.. *onta*tirati ne*oga $*onta*tirati s ne*im'. that is determining traces of Angloserbian at H . film [arli [aplina $film [arli&a [aplina'. co. ma.<om or 5nicefom'.clamation wow\ b' grammar: determining a basic form for nouns. .<' according to their gender# coining domestic words from words and names ta*en from . d' semantics and pragmatics: the meaning and usage of anglicisms. =illiam as %ili&am. tribunal $sud'.g. ) 4 )he contact "odule implies what has already been ta*en from . wow\ $a-u\ ro oho\ or opa\'# new meanings of domestic words are developed e. . tender and *on*urs'# laJni parovi $*opi&a$*n&ige' because of copy instead of primera*'# recogni/ing words from professional terminologies# translating of geographical. verbs and ad&ectivs# case changes of nouns and names $including acronims li*e ((C and 51IC.isting domestic words $fan and oboJavalac. rela*saci&a $labavl&en&e. trening $obu*a. licenca $do/vola'. where it must be ta*en into account that -erbian Kravopis e. 6enedi bibliote*a $(ibliote*a !Jon $<. synonimity between anglicisms and the already e.&e"antics 4 tender $instead of *on*urs'. image center as BimidJ centarB $imidJ senter'. downloadovati $older anglicisms li*e dJentlmen or tramva& are never being left in the original'.g.' 6enedi'. =hat is emphasi/ed here is the recognition of phenomena in -erbian language created under the influence of the norm of the . obuIavan&e. =hat is emphasi/ed here are general discussions on the nature of . popuEtan&e'. 6ennedy as 6enedi. or /ovem se.(oing QOQ is pronounced as BQ-O-QB $instead of BQOQB'.yu as Bco-taI*a-&uB or B*o-taI*a-&uB $Bce-o-taI*a-ipsilon-uB or Bco-taI*a-ipsilon-uB'.nglish language. roaming or web sa&t. fo*us teJiEta $teJiEte teJiEta'.

pression e. semantics and pragmatics and their correction in accordence with the norm of -erbian language.e.holiIar $wor*.bu*irati $over. vruL *rompir $hot potato'.g. usaglaEavan&e'. hamburger. They are made when a new form its new content are ta*en e. se*si. pronunciation. uprava'.isting -erbian forms used in a new way e. roming.or"ation 4 a' reshaped anglicisms are inovations in form and content. and they become domestic relatively quic*ly e.g.nglish .nglish mouse in the sense of *omp&uters*i po*a/ivaI*i ureXa&'. 5. c' mi. names of institutions. that will in time gain the status of more or less domestic words or affi. printer $EtampaI'. television stations. bilbord $re*lamni pano'. hamburger $pl&es*avica'. rado.pressing it through already e.nglish language are hidden in -erbian. dJogirati. Eto &e pre moguLe $from as soon as posible in the sense of Eto pre'. phonologic. 4rototy!ical anglicis" is the one that is obvious according to its type. without any ad&ustment in writing e. menadJment $poslovodstvo.g. harmoni/aci&a $us*laXivan&e.isting content than the domestic word or e.cepted by the lunguistic community. companies. e*s-. . 6hat does not count as anglicis"sH Kersonal and geographical names. o*e&. tine&dJer. fa&l. d' &ustified anglicism 4 introduces a slight difference in meaning into the system of -erbian language e. br/a hrana $fast food'. It can denote a general word or a bound morpheme $i. afterEe&v $losion posle bri&an&a'. internet.g. prepaid. ru*ovodstvo. organisations. more economic e. miE $from . .g.nglish that have become more or less integrated into the system of -erbian language. c' conditionally &ustified anglicism 4 there is a possibility for a shorter. bands. b' un&ustified anglicism 4 there is a posibility of translating a foreign content by using productive morphosyntactic and semantic means of -erbian language e. fiEburger.ical units. . The term anglicis" denotes two types of le. *omp&uter. e' completely &ustified anglicism 4 introduces a completely new meaning into the system of -erbian language. bestseler.g. semantic or pragmatic.g. bandJidJamping $s*a*an&e s elastiInim *onopcem'. prefi.ical andBor conceptual gap e. pr $odnosi s &avnoELu or sluJba /a odnose s &avnoELu. mil*Ee&*. e-mail. for the given foreigh content e. *ambe* $povrata*'. vauIer. roaming. pripe&d. air bag.&tatus 4 a' segregation of anglicisms is an attempt to completely isolate and ignore foreigh words. mi*roIip.aholic'. a syntagme or a sentence in -erbian that follows norms of . . dJetset.g. vo*men $*asetofon'. spora/um'.Eustification of use 4 a' completely un&ustified anglicism 4 when a domestic word or e.nglish and e. buildings. synta. hamburger. syntagms and sentences ta*en from . Clasification of anglicisms according to: . b' translated anglicisms are made by ta*ing a new content from . thus fulfilling a le. b' hidden anglicisms 4 meanings andBor uses caracteristic of . reali/aci&a'. c' raw anglicisms 4 words. *opi&a $from copy in the sense of primera*'.the level of orthography. pre.' from .pression of a new or already*' ta*en from . completely &ustified or &ustified according to &ustification of use and completely domesticated in the system of serbian language according to its status e. daunloudovati. veli*i prasa* $big bang'.)y!e 4 a' obvious anglicisms 4 words and affi.pression already e. mega-. fan $oboJavalac'. osoba /aduJena /a odnose s &avnoELu'.g.nglish directly. bodibilder. or suffi. implementaci&a $sprovoXen&e. It can also denote a word. mil*Ee&*. reshaped according to its formation.g. newspapers .ed anglicisms are made by reshaping one part of a word and translating the other part e. syntactic. spe&s-Eatl $svemirs*i avion'.nglish that is used in -erbian.g. dil $dogovor.orthographic. b' integration of anglicisms 4 when foreign words are considered to enrich the potencial of -erbian language and they are fitted into its system in order t be gradually e.

11. dJingl $simple words'. graphological adaptation of anglicisms also depends upon these demands: . big-bend.or brand names do not count as anglicisms.icali/ed acronym-anglicisms $51.g. yes. 7. processor. best of.nglish language $@g' and integrated to a different e. &api&evs*i. dragstor. *am*order $word coined by shortening combinations of words'. hemende*s $le. however.-C>B51. 0eneral rules In accordance with the rules of -erbian language orthography. *antri $pevaIica'. 51IC. including acronyms. AI!-BAI!-.ceptions' . be*graund. O . mogu li vam pomoLi. input Decommendations for respelling of acrony"s: ' @e.Although &ednaIen&e suglasni*a po /vuInosti may in speech. flopi-dis*. There are three "ain res!elling rules for word anglicisms: ' .nglish without any adaptation# they have not even started their integration into the linguistic system of -erbian. phrases and clauses that are &ust ta*en over from .icali/ed syntagms'. *nglicis" is a word or a bound morpheme that is ta*en over from the .es'. mil*Ee&* $compound words'. medi&um .g.very noun-anglicism. 1AT>'.<. 9. rebutovati. podignuti san*ci&e. i-e and i-u e.Although &ednaIen&e suglasni*a po mestu tvorbe may e.a letter & is being inserted in the following letter combinations i-a. se*s-simbol. morphological. overdo/ $words with prefi. e. 'nglishis"'. All these names ma*e up a special group of words coming from . )' . it is not shown in writing e. saundtre* $older anglicisms e.very anglicism which denotes a whole in terms of content but in which there is a connection between the elements in terms of meaning is being respelled with a hyphen e. are being respelled either in capital letters $CIABCIA. top-model.g.g.4R$*)'LB used in any @r is the adaptation of the words and names to the system of the @r $-erbain'. re&ting $words with suffi. The general precondition for words and names from any @g to be *44R.very anglicism which denotes a whole in terms of content is being respelled as one word e.nglish language that is differen from anglicisms for the fact that they permanently *eep the status of foreign words and never become domesticated.-6>.g.-6>' or in small letters transcribing the adapted pronunciation in small letters.g. This connection between elements is most commonly based on hyponymy.tent into the -erbian language $@r' at several levels $ in speech. and with an initial capital letter if it is a proper name $CIABCi&a. AI!-Be&ds'.g. Anglicisms are also the phrases and clauses that follow the norms of the .nglish language'# mil*Ee&*.g. are those words.cept when they are a part of a proper name' . 51. w or by the way. andergraund $pisac'. semantic and orthographic level'. d&utifri-Eop.t. fudbal are e. which in singular nominative case appears before some other noun and has a function of an ad&ective $atributive or determinative' is respelled separated from that noun e. fitnes $trener'. Those are occasional interpolations into a speech or a te. seri&al. 0' . etc. it is not shown in writing e. and *rat*a priIa.all anglicisms are being spelled with a small initial letter $e.

)' -emi-le.icali/ed acronyms directly $without a hyphen' when those acronyms are not respelled in capital letters $(i-(i--i&ev.ual harassment instead of se*sualno napastovan&e.ruIa* $copmound'.icali/ed acronyms directly $without a hyphen' whether those acronyms are respelled in capital letters or not e. 51. +owever. iron curtain 4 gvo/dena /avesa. va/duEna vreLa. &tructural translation or calque applies e. KCBpisi'.<a. billboard. for e. ((CB(i-(i--i'. bilbord. Ci&e. user name 4 *orisniI*o ime. !U-a.. 1AT>.nglish and so called @atin pronunciation in small letters.m'. cold war 4 hladni rat. being written in small letters. ' Case and other suffi. C!.clusively to polymorphemic words 4 derivatives. cedea' and with a hyphen when they are $C11-a. being written in small letters. -ome words are not possible to translate and in these cases we ta*e them $with the necessary transshaping' from the giving language. putu&uLa diplomati&a. pronounced. CI&e.. =(AB%(A' or in small letters . 1ase. are being respelled either in capital letters $C11BC11. which are translations of . are added to le.ample neologisms li*e svemirs*i avion. CIA. ).. while when adapting common nouns. are added to semi-le. 5nicefa 5nicefov. shuttle in practice e. and with an initial capital letter if it is a proper name. odbo&*a na pes*u.nglish and e. se*sualno /lostavl&an&e.. 4 Etamp. 1AT>a.<. maltretiran&e ili u/nemiravan&e from se. print. )ranslated anglicis"s are made by ta*ing a new content from ..g.g. C11. Ci&a. written and understood much easier than transshaped anglicisms spe&s-Eatl.pressing it through already e.nglish words spaceshuttle. 51IC.g.-6>. C!BC!. biIvole& or raw anglicisms li*e beach volley or air bag. s*a*an&e sa elastiInim *onopcem for .. =hen adapting names...n-. 1A-e.g. 5nicef.icali/ed acronyms which are proper names should be pronounced according to .nglish letter values $((CB (i-(i--i. S-3BSe-.icali/ed acronym-anglicisms $((C.. realistiIno i neulepEano pri*a/u&u a*tivnosti odabrane grupe l&udi'. ' Case and other suffi. 3T%B.transcribing . !%!'. siguran se*s from save se. Q . instead of be/bedan se*s.aI $suffi. 51. re*lamni pano.m-Ti-%i' and those which are common nouns according to so called latin letter values $!%!B!e-%e-!e.. pametna *artica from smart card instead of inteligentna *artica. 1>. 1asin. brain drain 4 odliv mo/gova. air bag can be. 13. C!-ov'.out 4 i/. without a beJiIni telefon from cordless telephone instead of be/ga&tans*i telefon. we should point out that . The translation can be too long e. beach volleyball.ation'.n. Ci&in.-6a. compounds and phrasal words# it implies literal translation of the elements of words in @ by the coresponding elements from @) e.. ).. to*om duJeg vremens*og raspona. every syllable should be written with an initial capital letter and the word is hyphenated $C11B-i-. pisi&a. it is not the case $!UBdidJe&. !UB!U. hand.nglish bungee &umping or completely imossible li*e reality show $televi/i&s*i program u *ome se. 1A-A. In the case of translated anglicisms we can tal* about domestic neologisms in -erbian coined using morphosyntactic and semantic means of -erbian language and are therefore considered less foreign.isting -erbian forms used in a new way. -ometimes we can find translated anglicisms which are not that acceptable since they can be translated in a wrong way still they have become more or less fi.s-.g. 1asa..nglish compounds are sometimes transfered to -erbian as phrasal words e. )' -emi-le. Eatl-diplomati&a...

organi/ations. du. Koliti*in /abavni*. definitivno instead of /asigurno. . Australia and 1ew 7eland'. 3atica srps*a.-tenovite 8 .mpire -tate (uilding. television and radio stations $Cartoon 1etwor*. geographical. +yde Kar*'. (ulevar osloboXen&a. institutional and other names from . choirs.nglish spea*ing countries $Sreat (ritain. %irgin Dadio'. towns and villages $1ew >rleans'. <alse friendship is one of the most common semantic and pragmatic phenomena $or. O. orthography and grammar norms.g.holiIar $translated base'. Kersonal names are names of people $=illiam'. islands $-hetland Island'. orchestras. if they come after first names are not capitali/ed e.nglish every element of all the mentioned names is capitali/ed. bands $@ondon -ymphony >rchestra. while the others are being borrowed e. organisations. 5-A. =ords derived from geographical names and names of nations are not capitali/ed e. >ther names are names of newspapers and maga/ines $!aily telegraph. 3anchester 5nited'. i/vesno# e*onomi&a instead of privreda# purpuran instead of l&ubiIast# *opi&a instead of primera*# petrole& instead of nafta# re/idencionalni instead of stambeni# originalni instead of translation. and other names. mountains $(en 1evis'. 15. nic*names $=illie'. la. 11.words derived from personal names and surnames are nor capitali/ed e. All proper names.g. wor*. In .ceptions: some geographical. television and television shows. *urs Epans*og &e/i*a.aholic 4 rado.nglish language are peronal. surnames $=illiams'. ovogodiEn&i nobelovci. Trafalgar -quare.g. institutional and other names undergo adaptation at the level of form. companies $3icrosoft'.g. +owever.Kartial structural translation or partial calque 4 only one element $base or affi. buildings and halls $. le. !ire -traits'. Translation can be complete e. Ireland. ad&ectivs or prepositional phrases that can be translated. especially the ones consisting of nouns. .nglish and -erbian when it comes to initial capitali/ation of proper names: In -erbian: . la*es $+uron'. and that means adapting original forms in accordance with standard -erbian pronunciation. companies. rivers $Tyne'. Doc*y 3ountains . =estminster +all'.do/irati se $prefi. Institutional names are names of institutions.g. Seographical names are the names of administrative regions $Vor*shire'. @uvig van (etoven. /acelo. cities. there are e.only the first word in the names of institutions. 1ewswee*' and brand names $Kalmolive. institutional.'.dose 4 pr. over. Associated Kress. =hat is understood under the term !ro!er na"e in . streets is capitali/ed e. shortened names $=ill'. as well as the ma&ority of geographical. Deebo*'.' is translated by a corresponding native or nativi/ed FforeignF element. more precisely. alse friends are pairs of words in two languages that loo* or sound similar. can be adapted at the level of content .g.g. sport and other clubs $<oreign >ffice. streets. names of newspapers and maga/ines. There are some differences between . van'. anomalies' that are characteristic of rec*less Ffunctional styleF e. Uugoslovens*o drams*o po/oriEte. squares and other parts of towns $=all -treet. Canada. but differ in meaning. art wor*s.elements of foreign surnames $de.

dmund. (yron. 3iller.IlaB]ila. Dussel. Kierce. (etty.* 4 !ere*. alB $<rancis.laine.g. !ylan.nglish in -erbian with regard to: . Coe. (oulton. B^B $!er. Cruise' B&u:B_B&5B $+ume. <awcett. 3cClure' 5nstressed vowels: B^B_BeB $. =ordsworth. ClADeB6ler. 3adeleine' BaB $Astaire.therege' Bi:B_BIB $Sene.nglish diphtongs are respelled as clusters of -erbian stressed short vowels $in monosylabic names they can be prolonged'. 3augham.dm5nd 4 . =alter. =ADingB%ering. Uoyce' BouB_Bou. !aniel. (ridges. b' . !ougal. Kamela. . (rewster. as well as elements & and u e. <iona. 3c!onaldB3ac!onald.g. @ucas. -haw. ) 4 'nglish unstressed vowels are respelled as -erbian unstressed short vowels with neutral intonation. (owen. >B $-tone.Keta aveni&a. =arner. . @e Carre. . Sere. >livier' B^rB_Ber. . <ielding. -t>neB-toun c' . <>DdB <ord. !ere*. Dour*e' BoiB_Bo&B $3oira. =eaver. (urgess. <irth. Tommy.dIson 4 . 3cSrath.(ritans*a bibliote*a or partial $translation in combination with transcription' e. Kleasence' BeiB_Be&. . SoodmAn 4 Sudman.nglish voiced consonants are respelled as -erbian voiced consonants b' . (eaumont' BuB_BuB $=ood. !wight' BauB_BauB $Kound. usually with a falling intonation. 3ailer. Cleese. Srant. -earle.'nglish stressed vowels: a' . Voung' Ba:B_BA. (abbage. . They can only be adequately determined according to the relevant letter e. (ritish @ibrary . +owe' BoB_BoB $(ob. Cler*' BaiB_Ba&B $3i*e. -heila' BirB_BirB $@ear. (5DnsB(erns. K>5ndBKaund.nglish latent consonantal element BrB as a part of some monophtongs and diphtongs is always respelled as -erbian consonant BrB e. -h.B $(la*e.planine. -way/ Avenue . Addison.&vonu. (yrd.nglish devoiced consonants are respelled as -erbian devoiced consonants -tressed vowels: BiB_BiB $Tim. . >ates. (lA*eB(le&*. Carpenter.3urray. +arvey.g.nglish short and long monophtongs are respelled as -erbian stressed short and long vowels usually with a falling intonation e. =aring. ? .nglish phonemes are treated as sequences of monophtongs and diphtongs. -omerset. Q. 4rinci!les of res!elling !ro!er na"es from . -tratford-on-Avon . Sough. +arry' BaB_ BaB $(uc*.-tratford na . (rown. <uller' Bu:B_B5B $+oover. Clay. 3>>DeB3ur d' >ther combinations of .dison' 0 4 'nglish consonants: a' . =atson.g.ugene' BurB_BurB $3oore. Ueffries. Sreer. 3IllerB3iler. @awrence' Bo:B_B>B $Kaul. (roughton' Bo:rB_BorB $<ord. !eirde' BeB_BeB $6en. 3ae. 6eat>n 4 6iton. 3ontague.lgar. 3arlowe. !urrel. Salsworthy' BerB_BerB $<airley. (urns. !ewey. Kalmer' Ba:rB_ BarB $Sarland. Chamberlain.g. Clare' B`B_BaB $Chaplin. orB $6ershaw. %anessa.

g. 3ason. +ampshire' BerB $.aborXe. Apart from having to be fully integrated in the new system. editors.dgecombe. =yatt. foreign names must ma*e their foreign origin transperent.=illiam. -ullivan. =ilbur' BiB_ BiB $+amilton. ad&ectives and verbs' which in time gain the status of native words. Taylor. losing or bluring their foreigh origin. . <or this reason they are responsible for the correctness of spo*en and written word. but also teachers.dison. &!ecial language users are those ho can systematically influence the formation of linguistic habits of the public. (arbour' BurB $Turturro. <erguson. 3a&or. orthography and grammar. !acre. Christopher. Aldous' B^rB_ BirB $%irginia. Arthur. 3c6ellar' BorB $Kic*ford. which is why translation. Sallup. announcers. Soodman.nglish as well' is being addapted in accordance with -erbian norms of pronunciation. graphic and art designers. >A. &ournalists. Collier. )2 . Chisholm' BuB $Angus.perts are not the only ones who belong to this group. 6eaton. is e. +ester. . Differece between the ada!tation of na"es and co""on words . Sainsborough. 3cSuire' BarB $Dichard. . KDs and translators. This is not the case with loanwords $general nouns. Cartland' BoB $Tobias. @inguistic e. +ayward. Seorge . Colin' 19.dmund.cluded e. (adham.very name from a foreign language $. given the fact that foreign names predominantly carry the status of foreign words. This is particularly the case with proper names. professors.merson.. as a way of addapting them.