30:
east of north 38 km, 8 . 7
1.32:
a) 11.1 m @ 6 . 77
b) 28.5 m @ 202
c) 11.1 m @ 258
d) 28.5 m @ 22
1.33:
west. of south 41 m, 144
1.34:
1.35: ( ) ( ) m. 6 . 9 37.0 cos m 0 . 12 m, 2 . 7 37.0 sin m 0 . 12 ; = = = =
y x
A A A
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) m. 2 . 5 60.0 sin m 0 . 6 m, 0 . 3 60.0 cos m 0 . 6 ;
m. 6 . 9 40.0 sin m 0 . 15 m, 5 . 11 40.0 cos m 0 . 15 ;
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
÷ = ÷ = = =
y x
y x
C C
B B
C
B
1.36: 500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (a) ÷ =
÷
= =
X
y
A
A
θ
( )
( )
( )
( )
207 6 . 26 180 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (d)
153 6 . 26 180 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan ) (
6 . 26 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (b)
333 6 . 26 360 500 . 0 tan
1
1
1
1
= + = =
=
÷
÷
= =
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷ =
÷
= =
= =
= = =
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷
÷
÷
÷
θ
A
A
θ
θ
A
A
θ c
θ
A
A
θ
θ
x
y
x
y
x
y
1.37: Take the +xdirection to be forward and the +ydirection to be upward. Then the
second force has components N 433 4 . 32 cos
2 2
= =
F F
x
and N. 275 4 . 32 sin
2 2
= =
F F
y
The first force has components . 0 and N 725
1 1
= =
y x
F F
N 1158
2 1
= + =
x x x
F F F and N 275
2 1
= + =
y y y
F F F
The resultant force is 1190 N in the direction
13.4 above the forward direction.
1.38: (The figure is given with the solution to Exercise 1.31).
The net northward displacement is (2.6 km) + (3.1 km) sin 45
o
= 4.8 km, and the net
eastward displacement is (4.0 km) + (3.1 km) cos 45
o
= 6.2 km. The magnitude of
the resultant displacement is
2 2
) km 2 . 6 ( ) km 8 . 4 ( + = 7.8 km, and the direction is
arctan ( )
2 . 6
8 . 4
= 38
o
north of east.
1.39: Using components as a check for any graphical method, the components of B
are
m 4 . 14 =
x
B and m, 8 . 10 =
y
B A
has one component, m 12 ÷ =
x
A .
a) The  x and  y components of the sum are 2.4 m and 10.8 m, for a magnitude of
( ) ( ) m, 1 . 11 m 8 . 10 m 2.4
2 2
= + , and an angle of . 6 . 77
2.4
10.8
= 
.

\

b) The magnitude and direction of A + B are the same as B + A.
c) The x and ycomponents of the vector difference are – 26.4 m and for a
magnitude of m 28.5 and a direction arctan ( ) . 202
4 . 26
8 . 10
=
÷
÷
Note that
180 must be added to
( ) ( )
22 arctan arctan
4 . 26
8 . 10
4 . 26
8 . 10
= =
÷
÷
in order to give an angle in the third quadrant.
d) .
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 26
ˆ
m 0 . 12
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 14 j i i j i A B + = + + = ÷
( ) ( ) . 2 . 22
26.4
10.8
arctan of angle and at m 5 . 28 m 8 . 10 m 26.4 Magnitude
2 2
=

.

\

= + =
1.40: Using Equations (1.8) and (1.9), the magnitude and direction of each of the given
vectors is:
a)
2 2
) cm 20 . 5 ( ) cm 6 . 8 ( + ÷ = 10.0 cm, arctan ( )
60 . 8
20 . 5
÷
= 148.8
o
(which is 180
o
– 31.2
o
).
b)
2 2
) m 45 . 2 ( ) m 7 . 9 ( ÷ + ÷ = 10.0 m, arctan ( )
7 . 9
45 . 2
÷
÷
= 14
o
+ 180
o
= 194
o
.
c)
2 2
) km 70 . 2 ( ) km 75 . 7 ( ÷ + = 8.21 km, arctan ( )
75 . 7
7 . 2 ÷
= 340.8
o
(which is
360
o
– 19.2
o
).
1.41:
The total northward displacement is km, 75 . 1 km 50 . 1 km 3.25 = ÷ , and the total
westward displacement is km 4.75 . The magnitude of the net displacement is
( ) ( ) km. 06 . 5 km 75 . 4 km 1.75
2 2
= + The south and west displacements are the same, so
The direction of the net displacement is
69.80 West of North.
1.42: a) The x and ycomponents of the sum are 1.30 cm + 4.10 cm = 5.40 cm,
2.25 cm + (–3.75 cm) = –1.50 cm.
m, 8 . 10 ÷
b) Using Equations (18) and (19),
2 2
) cm 50 . 1 ( ) cm 0 4 . 5 ( ÷ = 5.60 cm, arctan ( )
40 . 5
50 . 1
+
÷
= 344.5
o
ccw.
c) Similarly, 4.10 cm – (1.30 cm) = 2.80 cm, –3.75 cm – (2.25 cm) = –6.00 cm.
d)
2 2
) cm 0 . 6 ( ) cm 80 . 2 ( ÷ + = 6.62 cm, arctan ( )
80 . 2
00 . 6 ÷
= 295
o
(which is 360
o
– 65
o
).
1.43: a) The magnitude of B A
+ is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
cm 48 . 2
60.0 sin cm 90 . 1 0 . 60 sin cm 2.80
60.0 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 80 . 2
2
2
=


.

\

÷ +
+
and the angle is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
18
0 . 60 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 2.80
0 . 60 sin cm 90 . 1 60.0 sin cm 2.80
arctan =


.

\

+
÷
b) The magnitude of B A
÷ is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
cm 10 . 4
60.0 sin cm 90 . 1 0 . 60 sin cm 2.80
60.0 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 80 . 2
2
2
=


.

\

+ +
÷
and the angle is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
84
0 . 60 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 2.80
0 . 60 sin cm 90 . 1 60.0 sin cm 2.80
arctan =


.

\

÷
+
c) ( ) . 264 180 84 is angle the and cm 4.10 is magnitude the ;
= + ÷ ÷ = ÷ B A A B
1.44:
÷
A = (–12.0 m) i
ˆ
. More precisely,
( )( ) ( )( ) . 180 sin m 0 12 180 cos m 0 12 j i A
. . + =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 14
ˆ
37 sin m 0 18
ˆ
37 cos m 0 18 + = + =
. .
1.45: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i A
ˆ
m 6 . 9
ˆ
m 2 . 7
ˆ
37.0 cos m 0 . 12
ˆ
37.0 sin m 0 . 12 + = + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i C
j i j i B
ˆ
m 2 . 5
ˆ
m 0 . 3
ˆ
60.0 sin m 0 . 6
ˆ
60.0 cos m 0 . 6
ˆ
m 6 . 9
ˆ
m 5 . 11
ˆ
40.0 sin m 0 . 15
ˆ
40.0 cos m 0 . 15
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
1.46: a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i A
ˆ
m 38 . 3
ˆ
m 23 . 1
ˆ
0 . 70 sin m 60 . 3
ˆ
0 . 70 cos m 60 . 3 + = + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B
ˆ
m 20 . 1
ˆ
m 08 . 2
ˆ
30.0 sin m 40 . 2
ˆ
30.0 cos m 40 . 2 ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
b)
( ) ( )B A C
00 . 4 00 . 3 ÷ =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) j i
j i j i
ˆ
94 . 14
ˆ
m 01 . 12
ˆ
m 20 . 1 00 . 4
ˆ
m 08 . 2 00 . 4
ˆ
m 38 . 3 00 . 3
ˆ
m 23 . 1 00 . 3
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
(Note that in adding components, the fourth figure becomes significant.)
c) From Equations (1.8) and (1.9),
( ) ( )
2 . 51
m 12.01
m 14.94
arctan m, 17 . 19 m 94 . 14 m 01 . 12
2 2
=

.

\

= + = C
1.47: a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 39 . 5 00 . 2 00 . 5 , 00 . 5 00 . 3 00 . 4
2 2 2 2
= + = = + = B A
b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B A
ˆ
00 . 5
ˆ
00 . 1
ˆ
00 . 2 00 . 5
ˆ
00 . 3 00 . 4 + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + ÷ = ÷
c) ( ) ( )
3 . 101
1.00 
5.00
arctan , 10 . 5 00 . 5 1.00
2 2
=

.

\

= +
d)
1.48: a) 1 3 1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2 2 2
= = + + = + + k j i so it is not a unit vector
b)
2 2 2
z y x
A A A + + = A
If any component is greater than + 1 or less than –1, 1 > A
, so it cannot be a unit
vector. A
can have negative components since the minus sign goes away when the
component is squared.
c)
( ) ( )
1 25
1 0 . 4 0 . 3
1
2
2 2 2 2
=
= +
=
a
a a
A
20 . 0
0 . 5
1
± = ± = a
1.49: a) Let ,
ˆ ˆ
j i A
y x
A A + =
.
ˆ ˆ
j i B
y x
B B + =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )j i A B
j i B A
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
y y x x
y y x x
A B A B
B A B A
+ + + = +
+ + + = +
Scalar addition is commutative, so A B B A
+ = +
y y x x
y y x x
A B A B
B A B A
+ = ·
+ = ·
A B
B A
Scalar multiplication is commutative, so A B B A
· = ·
b) ( ) ( ) ( )k j i B A
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y y x z x x z y z z y
B A B A B A B A B A B A ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ×
( ) ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
k j i A B
x y y x z x x z y z z y
A B A B A B A B A B A B ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ×
Comparison of each component in each vector product shows that one is the negative of
the other.
1.50: Method 1: ( ) θ cos magnitudes of oduct Pr ×
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
m 5 . 71 187 cos m 6 m 12 cos AC
m 6 . 15 80 cos m 6 m 15 cos BC
m 4 . 9 93 cos m 15 m 12 cos AB
÷ = × =
= × =
÷ = × =
θ
θ
θ
Method 2: (Sum of products of components)
( )
2
2
2
m 5 . 71 ) 20 . 5 (9.58)( ) 0 . 3 ( ) 22 . 7 (
m 6 . 15 ) 20 . 5 9.64)( ( ) 0 . 3 11.49)( (
m 4 . 9 9.64) (9.58)( (11.49) 22 . 7
÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ·
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ = ·
÷ = ÷ + = ·
C A
C B
B A
1.51: a) From Eq.(1.21),
( )( ) ( )( ) . 00 . 14 00 . 2 00 . 3 00 . 5 00 . 4 = ÷ + = · B A
b) ( ) ( )   ( ) . 7 . 58 .5195 arccos 39 . 5 00 . 5 00 . 14 arccos so , cos AB
= = × = = · θ θ B A
1.52: For all of these pairs of vectors, the angle is found from combining Equations
(1.18) and (1.21), to give the angle as
. arccos arccos


.

\
 +
=


.

\

·
=
AB
B A B A
AB
y y x x
B A

In the intermediate calculations given here, the significant figures in the dot
products and in the magnitudes of the vectors are suppressed.
a) , 13 , 40 , 22 = = ÷ = · B A B A
and so
165
13 40
22
arccos =


.

\

÷
=  .
b) , 136 , 34 , 60 = = = · B A B A
28
136 34
60
arccos = 
.

\

=  .
c) . 90 , 0 = = ·  B A