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# 1.

30:

east of north 38 km, 8 . 7

1.32:

a) 11.1 m @ 6 . 77
b) 28.5 m @ 202
c) 11.1 m @ 258
d) 28.5 m @ 22

1.33:

west. of south 41 m, 144

1.34:

1.35: ( ) ( ) m. 6 . 9 37.0 cos m 0 . 12 m, 2 . 7 37.0 sin m 0 . 12 ; = = = =
 

y x
A A A
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) m. 2 . 5 60.0 sin m 0 . 6 m, 0 . 3 60.0 cos m 0 . 6 ;
m. 6 . 9 40.0 sin m 0 . 15 m, 5 . 11 40.0 cos m 0 . 15 ;
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
÷ = ÷ = = =
 
 

y x
y x
C C
B B
C
B

1.36: 500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (a) ÷ =
÷
= =
X
y
A
A
θ

( )
( )
( )
( )
  
  

  
207 6 . 26 180 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (d)
153 6 . 26 180 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan ) (
6 . 26 500 . 0 tan
500 . 0
m 2.00
m 00 . 1
tan (b)
333 6 . 26 360 500 . 0 tan
1
1
1
1
= + = =
=
÷
÷
= =
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷ =
÷
= =
= =
= = =
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷
÷
÷
÷
θ
A
A
θ
θ
A
A
θ c
θ
A
A
θ
θ
x
y
x
y
x
y

1.37: Take the +x-direction to be forward and the +y-direction to be upward. Then the
second force has components N 433 4 . 32 cos
2 2
= =

F F
x
and N. 275 4 . 32 sin
2 2
= =

F F
y

The first force has components . 0 and N 725
1 1
= =
y x
F F
N 1158
2 1
= + =
x x x
F F F and N 275
2 1
= + =
y y y
F F F

The resultant force is 1190 N in the direction

13.4 above the forward direction.

1.38: (The figure is given with the solution to Exercise 1.31).

The net northward displacement is (2.6 km) + (3.1 km) sin 45
o
= 4.8 km, and the net
eastward displacement is (4.0 km) + (3.1 km) cos 45
o
= 6.2 km. The magnitude of
the resultant displacement is
2 2
) km 2 . 6 ( ) km 8 . 4 ( + = 7.8 km, and the direction is
arctan ( )
2 . 6
8 . 4
= 38
o
north of east.

1.39: Using components as a check for any graphical method, the components of B

are
m 4 . 14 =
x
B and m, 8 . 10 =
y
B A

has one component, m 12 ÷ =
x
A .
a) The - x and - y components of the sum are 2.4 m and 10.8 m, for a magnitude of
( ) ( ) m, 1 . 11 m 8 . 10 m 2.4
2 2
= + , and an angle of . 6 . 77
2.4
10.8

= |
.
|

\
|

b) The magnitude and direction of A + B are the same as B + A.
c) The x- and y-components of the vector difference are – 26.4 m and for a
magnitude of m 28.5 and a direction arctan ( ) . 202
4 . 26
8 . 10 
=
÷
÷
Note that

( ) ( )

22 arctan arctan
4 . 26
8 . 10
4 . 26
8 . 10
= =
÷
÷
in order to give an angle in the third quadrant.

d) .
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 26
ˆ
m 0 . 12
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 14 j i i j i A B + = + + = ÷
 

( ) ( ) . 2 . 22
26.4
10.8
arctan of angle and at m 5 . 28 m 8 . 10 m 26.4 Magnitude
2 2 
=
|
.
|

\
|
= + =

1.40: Using Equations (1.8) and (1.9), the magnitude and direction of each of the given
vectors is:

a)
2 2
) cm 20 . 5 ( ) cm 6 . 8 ( + ÷ = 10.0 cm, arctan ( )
60 . 8
20 . 5
÷
= 148.8
o
(which is 180
o

– 31.2
o
).

b)
2 2
) m 45 . 2 ( ) m 7 . 9 ( ÷ + ÷ = 10.0 m, arctan ( )
7 . 9
45 . 2
÷
÷
= 14
o
+ 180
o
= 194
o
.

c)
2 2
) km 70 . 2 ( ) km 75 . 7 ( ÷ + = 8.21 km, arctan ( )
75 . 7
7 . 2 ÷
= 340.8
o
(which is
360
o
– 19.2
o
).

1.41:

The total northward displacement is km, 75 . 1 km 50 . 1 km 3.25 = ÷ , and the total
westward displacement is km 4.75 . The magnitude of the net displacement is
( ) ( ) km. 06 . 5 km 75 . 4 km 1.75
2 2
= + The south and west displacements are the same, so
The direction of the net displacement is

69.80 West of North.

1.42: a) The x- and y-components of the sum are 1.30 cm + 4.10 cm = 5.40 cm,
2.25 cm + (–3.75 cm) = –1.50 cm.
m, 8 . 10 ÷

b) Using Equations (1-8) and (1-9),

2 2
) cm 50 . 1 ( ) cm 0 4 . 5 ( ÷ = 5.60 cm, arctan ( )
40 . 5
50 . 1
+
÷
= 344.5
o
ccw.

c) Similarly, 4.10 cm – (1.30 cm) = 2.80 cm, –3.75 cm – (2.25 cm) = –6.00 cm.

d)
2 2
) cm 0 . 6 ( ) cm 80 . 2 ( ÷ + = 6.62 cm, arctan ( )
80 . 2
00 . 6 ÷
= 295
o
(which is 360
o
– 65
o
).
1.43: a) The magnitude of B A
 
+ is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
cm 48 . 2
60.0 sin cm 90 . 1 0 . 60 sin cm 2.80
60.0 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 80 . 2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
+
 
 

and the angle is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

 
 
18
0 . 60 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 2.80
0 . 60 sin cm 90 . 1 60.0 sin cm 2.80
arctan =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷

b) The magnitude of B A
 
÷ is
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
cm 10 . 4
60.0 sin cm 90 . 1 0 . 60 sin cm 2.80
60.0 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 80 . 2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷
 
 

and the angle is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

 
 
84
0 . 60 cos cm 90 . 1 60.0 cos cm 2.80
0 . 60 sin cm 90 . 1 60.0 sin cm 2.80
arctan =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+

c) ( ) . 264 180 84 is angle the and cm 4.10 is magnitude the ;
  
   
= + ÷ ÷ = ÷ B A A B

1.44:
÷
A = (–12.0 m) i
ˆ
. More precisely,

( )( ) ( )( ) . 180 sin m 0 12 180 cos m 0 12 j i A
  
 
. . + =

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B
ˆ
m 8 . 10
ˆ
m 4 . 14
ˆ
37 sin m 0 18
ˆ
37 cos m 0 18 + = + =
 

. .
1.45: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i A
ˆ
m 6 . 9
ˆ
m 2 . 7
ˆ
37.0 cos m 0 . 12
ˆ
37.0 sin m 0 . 12 + = + =
 

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i C
j i j i B
ˆ
m 2 . 5
ˆ
m 0 . 3
ˆ
60.0 sin m 0 . 6
ˆ
60.0 cos m 0 . 6
ˆ
m 6 . 9
ˆ
m 5 . 11
ˆ
40.0 sin m 0 . 15
ˆ
40.0 cos m 0 . 15
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
 
 

1.46: a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i A
ˆ
m 38 . 3
ˆ
m 23 . 1
ˆ
0 . 70 sin m 60 . 3
ˆ
0 . 70 cos m 60 . 3 + = + =
 

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B
ˆ
m 20 . 1
ˆ
m 08 . 2
ˆ
30.0 sin m 40 . 2
ˆ
30.0 cos m 40 . 2 ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
 

b)
( ) ( )B A C
  
00 . 4 00 . 3 ÷ =

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) j i
j i j i
ˆ
94 . 14
ˆ
m 01 . 12
ˆ
m 20 . 1 00 . 4
ˆ
m 08 . 2 00 . 4
ˆ
m 38 . 3 00 . 3
ˆ
m 23 . 1 00 . 3
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =

(Note that in adding components, the fourth figure becomes significant.)
c) From Equations (1.8) and (1.9),
( ) ( )

2 . 51
m 12.01
m 14.94
arctan m, 17 . 19 m 94 . 14 m 01 . 12
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= + = C

1.47: a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 39 . 5 00 . 2 00 . 5 , 00 . 5 00 . 3 00 . 4
2 2 2 2
= + = = + = B A

b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) j i j i B A
ˆ
00 . 5
ˆ
00 . 1
ˆ
00 . 2 00 . 5
ˆ
00 . 3 00 . 4 + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + ÷ = ÷
 

c) ( ) ( )

3 . 101
1.00 -
5.00
arctan , 10 . 5 00 . 5 1.00
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= +

d)

1.48: a) 1 3 1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2 2 2
= = + + = + + k j i so it is not a unit vector

b)
2 2 2
z y x
A A A + + = A

If any component is greater than + 1 or less than –1, 1 > A

, so it cannot be a unit
vector. A

can have negative components since the minus sign goes away when the
component is squared.

c)
( ) ( )
1 25
1 0 . 4 0 . 3
1
2
2 2 2 2
=
= +
=
a
a a
A

20 . 0
0 . 5
1
± = ± = a

1.49: a) Let ,
ˆ ˆ
j i A
y x
A A + =

.
ˆ ˆ
j i B
y x
B B + =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )j i A B
j i B A
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
y y x x
y y x x
A B A B
B A B A
+ + + = +
+ + + = +
 
 

Scalar addition is commutative, so A B B A
   
+ = +

y y x x
y y x x
A B A B
B A B A
+ = ·
+ = ·
A B
B A
 
 

Scalar multiplication is commutative, so A B B A
   
· = ·

b) ( ) ( ) ( )k j i B A
ˆ ˆ ˆ
x y y x z x x z y z z y
B A B A B A B A B A B A ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ×
 

( ) ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
k j i A B
x y y x z x x z y z z y
A B A B A B A B A B A B ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ×
 

Comparison of each component in each vector product shows that one is the negative of
the other.

1.50: Method 1: ( ) θ cos magnitudes of oduct Pr ×

( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
m 5 . 71 187 cos m 6 m 12 cos AC
m 6 . 15 80 cos m 6 m 15 cos BC
m 4 . 9 93 cos m 15 m 12 cos AB
÷ = × =
= × =
÷ = × =

θ
θ
θ

Method 2: (Sum of products of components)

( )
2
2
2
m 5 . 71 ) 20 . 5 (9.58)( ) 0 . 3 ( ) 22 . 7 (
m 6 . 15 ) 20 . 5 9.64)( ( ) 0 . 3 11.49)( (
m 4 . 9 9.64) (9.58)( (11.49) 22 . 7
÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ·
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ = ·
÷ = ÷ + = ·
C A
C B
B A

1.51: a) From Eq.(1.21),

( )( ) ( )( ) . 00 . 14 00 . 2 00 . 3 00 . 5 00 . 4 = ÷ + = · B A
 

b) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) . 7 . 58 .5195 arccos 39 . 5 00 . 5 00 . 14 arccos so , cos AB

= = × = = · θ θ B A

1.52: For all of these pairs of vectors, the angle is found from combining Equations
(1.18) and (1.21), to give the angle| as

. arccos arccos
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
=
AB
B A B A
AB
y y x x
B A
 
|

In the intermediate calculations given here, the significant figures in the dot
products and in the magnitudes of the vectors are suppressed.

a) , 13 , 40 , 22 = = ÷ = · B A B A
 
and so

165
13 40
22
arccos =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= | .

b) , 136 , 34 , 60 = = = · B A B A
 

28
136 34
60
arccos = |
.
|

\
|
= | .

c) . 90 , 0 = = · | B A
 