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IMPROVIN
(A Classroom A
1
This thesis is submitted
English Depa
TEACHER
THESIS
ING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MAASTER
BY USING WORD WEBS
Action Research on the Third Grade of SDN
1 Salatiga in the 2009/2010 Academic Year)
By:
RIANA INDRAWATI
NIM K2206007
tted to fulfill the requirement for Undergraduate D
partment of Teacher Training and Education Facu
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
ER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY
SURAKARTA
2010
ERY
Sidorejo Lor
Degree in the
culty
TY
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ABSTRACT
Riana Indrawati. K2206007. Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery by Using
Word Webs (A Classroom Action Research on the Third Grade of SDN Sidorejo
Lor 1 Salatiga in the 2009/2010 Academic Year). Thesis, Surakarta: Teacher
Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University, Oktober 2010.
This research is aimed at finding out whether word webs can improve
students’ vocabulary mastery and how word webs can improve students’ vocabulary
mastery at the third grade of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga. It also finds out the
problems arising when word webbing is implemented in the classroom activity.
The method used in this research is a classroom action research. The action
research was conducted in two cycles, in which in the first cycle there were 4
meetings and in the second cycle there were 4 meetings. Every cycle consisted of five
steps: planning the action, implementing the action, observing and monitoring the
action, reflecting the observation, and revising the plan. In collecting the data, the
researcher used observational technique consisting of interviews, field notes, and
photographs. To analyze the qualitative data, the researcher used constant
comparative method. There were four steps to analyze the data: data reduction, data
classification, and data synthesis. To find the improvement of the students’
vocabulary mastery after the research implementation, the researcher conducted test.
The tests were conducted before the action (pre-test) and after the action (post-test).
The researcher analyzed the mean score of each test to find out the improvements of
students’ vocabulary mastery after the action was conducted.
The result of the research shows that word webs can improve the students’
vocabulary mastery. Implementing word webs as brainstorming, main activity, and
post activity made the students actively involve in the teaching learning process. The
students were eager to join all activities. Almost all students could pronounce, find
word meaning, spell, and use words correctly. Implementing word webs made the
students remember the vocabulary not only at the moment but also at the following
meetings. Implementing word webs stimulates the students to tune in the lesson and
also builds the students pre-knowledge. Then, as the main and post activity, word
webs can increase their vocabulary by adding it according to the material from the
teacher. The teacher led them to add their vocabulary based on the text. After the
students had been familiar with the words, the teacher drilled them to pronounce, led
them understand the meaning, spell, and use words in sentences. The problem faced
in implementing word webs was when the students became very noisy in answering
the teacher’s question. Good class management was needed, that is, asking the
students to rise their hands before answering the teacher’s questions.
Based on the fact above, that is, word webs can improve students’ vocabulary
mastery, the researcher suggests English teachers to implement word webs in
teaching vocabulary.

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MOTTO
Success is a journey, not a destination
~ Ben Sweetland ~
Deserve the best thing in this world because you are precious
~ Anonymous ~
Don’t worry about failure. Worry about the chances you’ll miss
when you don’t even try
~ Harry J. Gray ~

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DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to:
My Beloved Mom and Dad

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Praise is to Allah the Almighty who has given His blessing so that the writer
can finally finish this thesis as a partial fulfillment in achieving the Undergraduate
Degree of English Education.
The writer realizes that this thesis could not be achieved without the help and
assistance from others. Therefore, in this occasion the writer would give her
appreciation to the individuals and institutions who have given their help during the
process of writing so that this thesis is finally finished. She would like to express her
deepest gratitude to the following:
1. Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd, the Dean of Teacher Training
and Education Faculty.
2. Drs. Suparno, M.Pd, the Head of the Art and Language Education
Department.
3. Drs. Martono, M.A, the Head of the English Department of Teacher
Training and Education Faculty.
4. Dr. Ngadiso, M.Pd, as the writer’s first consultant for his guidance and
advice.
5. Dewi Sriwahyuni, M.Pd, as the writer’s second consultant for her
guidance and advice.
6. Drs. Purwanto, M.Pd, the Headmaster of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga for
facilitating the writer in doing the research.
7. Septi Wulandari, her bestfriend and the colaborator in this Action
research.
8. All of the students in class III A of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga for
participating well in this research.
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9. Her beloved Mom and Dad for their caring, love, and sincerity. It’s my
pleasure to be your daughter. Her sister and brother for this cheers and
beautiful life.
10. Dhani Anggriawan for the spirit and prayer. It is fabulous to understand
everything with you.
11. Lusiana, Anggita, Dewi, Upik, Vina, Wiwid, and all of her beloved
friends in the English Dept’06. Thanks for every beautiful moment in this
last four years.
12. Her beloved friends in Duta Kost and Romo Hadhie Kost, Iin Cs. Thanks
for this friendship.
13. The last, thank you very much for Iin, Mayang, Nanang, Billy, Hana,
Dhimas, Uzwa, and everyone who has ever played role in her story of life.
The researcher realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect. She
accepts gratefully every comment and suggestion. Hopefully, this thesis will be
useful for the readers and English education improvement.
Surakarta, October 2010
RI

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TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE OF PAGE ...........................................................................................
APPROVAL ....................................................................................................
LEGITIMATE ................................................................................................
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................
MOTTO ...........................................................................................................
DEDICATION ................................................................................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................
TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................
LIST OF APPENDICES ................................................................................
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ...............................................................
A. Background of the Study ………………………………
B. Problem Limitation .........................................................
C. Problem Statement ……………………………………..
D. The Objectives of the Study ……………………………
E. The Benefits of the Study ………………………………
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED THEORIES . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Review on Vocabulary …………………………………
1. The nature of Vocabulary …………………………..
2. Vocabulary Mastery ………………………………..
3. Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners ………….
B. Review on Word Webs ………………………………...
1. The Definition of Word Webs ……………………...
2. Procedures of Making Word Webs ………………...
3. Word Webs in Teaching Vocabulary to Young
Learners …………………………………………….
C. Teaching English to Young Learners …………………..
1. Young Learners and Their Characteristics …………
i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
vii
ix
x
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1
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2. Teaching English at Elementary School …………...
D. Rationale ………………………………………………..
E. Hypothesis ……………………………………………...
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METODOLOGY ..........................................
A. The Setting and the Subject of the Research …………...
B. Research Method .... ……………………………………
1. The Definition of Action Research ………………...
2. The Feature of Action Research ……………………
3. The Process of Doing Action Research …………….
C. Technique of Collecting the Data ………………………
D. Technique of Data Analysis ……………………………
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ..................
A. Introduction .....................................................................
B. Research Findings ...........................................................
C. Discussion .......................................................................
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion .......................................................................
B. Implication ......................................................................
C. Suggestion .......................................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................
APPENDICES ................................................................................................
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28
29

30
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32
32
35
35
38
45
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LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
Appendix 10
Appendix 11
Appendix 12
Appendix 13
Appendix 14
Appendix 15
Appendix 16
Syllabus...................................................................................
Lesson plan
.............................................................................
List of students’ name.............................................................
Field notes...............................................................................
The result of pre-test and post-test..........................................
T-test computation..................................................................
Test analysis............................................................................
Interview notes........................................................................
Researcher’s diary...................................................................
Photographs ............................................................................
Colaborator’s notes.................................................................
Validity and Reliability...........................................................
Blue print ................................................................................
Test items................................................................................
Sample of students’ worksheet ..............................................
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131
132
161
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166
177
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208

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Today, many elementary schools in Indonesia choose English as local
subject choice. That decision is based on Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional
(Permendiknas) no. 22 tahun 2006 about “standar isi”. In that rule, the government
allows elementary schools in Indonesia to explore and improve their own
competency. The competency deals with art and language skill. Almost all
elementary schools in Indonesia choose English as local subject besides their own
local language. English is chosen by almost elementary schools because it is useful
for the students’ daily life. This language is used to face globalization era in which
English is as the international language.
The purpose of implementing teaching English in elementary school is to
develop the students’ language accompanying action. In the other words, the final
purpose of teaching English is the students not only know and understand the
language, but also use the language for communication. Introducing English as
foreign language for elementary students will make the students accustom to that
language. Brumfit (1991: vi) says that elementary school is the best time to learn
language as well because the earlier students start learning language the more time
they get. It is also stated that the chances of becoming more proficient in the target
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language will be higher when a child is introduced to a second language at an early
age (www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/younglearner). After learning
vocabulary, the students are expected to be able to pronounce, understand the
meaning, spell and use the words properly.
Learning language is successful when learners can use the language in
communication, both oral and written. The four skills in communication are listening,
speaking, reading and writing. To comprehend the four skills, vocabulary mastery
should be reached. Decarrico (in Celce and Murcia, 2001: 285) says that “vocabulary
learning is central to language acquisition, weather the language is as first, second, or
foreign language.” It means that vocabulary mastery is important for all languages.
Communication cannot run smoothly without good vocabulary mastery.
Realizing that the vocabulary mastery is also important in English
acquisition, the teachers should internalize the vocabulary for the students. Just
memorizing the equivalent meaning of the foreign or second language is not enough
for the students because when they communicate in a real situation, sometimes they
forget what the meaning is; moreover, the students cannot apply the words in
communication. Cameron in http://scribd.com/doc./vocabulary-mastery says that
“Persons said to ‘know’ a word if they can recognize its meaning when they see it”.
The recognition of vocabulary includes four aspects: forms (pronunciation and
spelling), words usage, meaning, and grammar (for advance). After reaching those
aspects, the learners are expected to use the words appropriately according to the
context. It means that they can internalize the words in their mind. When the students
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have internalized the words in their mind, they can also apply the words in the real
communication.
Based on the writer’s pre-observation on the third graders of SDN Sidorejo
Lor 1 Salatiga in the 2009/2010 academic year, the studdents had problems dealing
with vocabulary mastery. First, they couldnot pronounce the words correctly. Second,
they found it hard to remember words and words meaning. Third, they found it hard
to spell words correctly. The last they could not use words in proper context.
Those problems above arise because of some factors. Firstly, factors from
the students theirselves. They did not particpate in the teaching learning process.
Some of them just chatted each other and played with their friends. The teacher
always reminded them to pay attention to the lesson, and even the teacher should
scold them. The second factor coming from the teacher. In English lesson, the teacher
just asked the students to do a lot of assignments from the LKS. She just gave the
meaning when the students asked about some difficult words. The last factor is the
condition of the class. The communication just occured when the students found
difficulties in doing the assignments. There was no discussion and teamwork among
students and teacher. The lesson was just doing assignment. It made the students
could not pronounce, remind word meaning, spell, and use words properly.
Third year student is categorized as young learner. In this stage, vocabulary
mastery is crucial, so the words should be internalized appropriately. Based on the
writer’s pre-observation in the third year students of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga,
teaching English as foreign language is not easy. The teacher tries hard to make the
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students remember the words. The teacher also uses media, such as picture, to help
the students comprehend the aspects in understanding words (pronunciation, spelling,
grammar, and usage). The use of the picture is very helpful, but sometimes students
feel difficult to organize and associate the words they have learned. Besides pictures,
the teacher can use word webs to demonstrate word association. Decarrico in Celce
and Murcia (2001: 288) says that the teaching of words through word association
techniques has proven to be a successful way to learn a large number of words and
retain them over time. This technique can be collaborated in teaching the four skills to
help students learn words. This is a good technique before, during, and after activity
to improve students’ vocabulary.
According to Decarrico (in Celce and Murcia, 2001: 288), “Word Webs is an
activity that helps bring into consciousness relationships among words in a text and
helps deepen understanding by creating associative networks for words.”
Based on what is stated above, learning vocabulary is not only remembering
the equivalent meaning of words in L1 and L2, but also understanding how to
pronounce, spell, and use the appropriate words in certain context. One technique to
teach vocabulary to young learners is by demonstrating the diagram. Word webbing
is the diagrams which can be used as the technique which can help students retain
their vocabulary understanding. By using word webs, students can see and understand
the relationship among words. After understanding the relationship among words, the
students are expected to be able to apply them in the sentence and even real
communication.
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Considering the importance of the technique in teaching vocabulary, the
writer decides to conduct a research on “Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery
by Using Word Webs (A Classroom Action Research on the Third Grade of
SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga in the 2009/2010 Academic Year)”.
B. Problem Statement
Based on the background of the study, the problems can be formulated as
follows:
1. Can word webs improve the students’ vocabulary mastery at the third year
students of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga in the 2009/2010 academic year?
2. How do word webs improve the students’ vocabulary mastery?
3. What problems arise when word webs is implemented in the classroom
activity?
C. The Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are used to find out the answers of the problems
above. The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To identify the improvement of the students’ vocabulary mastery at the third
year students of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga Academic year 2009/2010.
2. To identify how word webs can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.
3. To identify problems arising when word webs is implemented in the classroom
activity.
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D. The Benefits of the Study
The benefits expected by the writer are as follows:
1. It enables the teacher to get information and apply appropriate technique in
teaching vocabulary mastery. It is important for the teacher to use and develop
appropriate technique in his teaching learning process in order that the students
can be interested in the teaching learning process and retain the lesson in long
time.
2. The result of this study is expected to be able to give more information about
word webs so that it can be applied in SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga and also
other elementary schools.
3. It increases students’ interest in learning vocabulary. Memorizing vocabulary is
not always monotones by making words list, then, the students translate them.
The student can use webs as more interesting technique.
4. For the writer herself, the study can bring a better understanding of bringing the
changes and the improvement in students’ vocabulary mastery.
5. It enables other researcher to get reference the implementation of word webs in
improving students’ vocabulary mastery.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED THEORIES
A. Review on Vocabulary
1. The Nature of Vocabulary
Linse (2005: 121) defines vocabulary as the collection of words that
an individual knows. Ur (1996: 60) defines vocabulary as follows:
“Vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the
foreign language. However, a new item of vocabulary may be more
than just a single word: for example, post office and mother-in-law,
which are made up of two or three words, but express a single idea.
A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about
vocabulary items rather than words.”
Diamond and Gutlohn (2006) in www.readingrockets.org retrieved
on December 3
rd
, 2009, state that vocabulary is the knowledge of words and
word meanings. The knowledge of words and word meaning here implies how
that word fits into the world, not only implies a definition.
According to John (2000) vocabulary is knowledge involving
knowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary test
in to find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym, a
dictionary – tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language
(http://scribd.com/doc.18475644/vocabulary-mastery, retrieved on December 3
rd
,
2009).
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Nation (2008: 7 -12) divides vocabulary into three of four levels
largely on the basis of how often it occurs in the language (its frequency) and
how widely it occurs (its range).
a. High frequency words
High frequency words are word needed in formal and informal uses of the
language, in speech and in writing, and in novels, conversation,
newspapers, and academic texts.
b. Academic words
Academic words do not occur so often in other kinds of language use.
These words are used in academic writing and academic text book like
economics or geography texts, academic articles such as articles from
journals, and laboratory manuals.
c. Technical words
Technical words are words with more special purposes and these area the
words that are very common in one particular area, such as the vocabulary
of Physics or the vocabulary of Applied Linguistics.
d. Low frequency words
Low frequency words include (1) words that are not quite frequent or wide
range enough to be high frequency words (abort, absorb, accelerate,
accent, accusation, acid, acre), (2) technical words from other areas (one
person’s technical vocabulary is another person’s low frequency
vocabulary), and (3) words that just occur rarely.
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Each sentence consists of words (vocabulary) having different
function. Each of the functions is classified as a different part of speech
(Frank, 1972: 1). They are as follows:
Part of Speech Explanation Example
a. Noun
Noun could be the name
of person, place, things
or idea
magazine, umbrella,
coffee, stone, etc.
b. Verb
It is words expressing
action
to teach, to play, to
cook, etc
c. Adjective
It is the word used to
qualify noun or pronoun Mr. Adam is smart;
smart is the adjective
d. Adverb
It is a word used for
qualifying the meaning
of verb, adjective, or
another adverb
Mrs. Nurul is teaching
in the classroom
e. Conjunction
It is a word used to
relate one word to
another one, or one
sentence to another one
I have to call him
before I go
f. Pronoun
It is the word which can
take the place of a noun
They are my lecture
g. Interjection
It is a word put into a
sentence to express a
sudden feeling of mind
or emotion
Hurrah! I am the
winner
Based on the explanation above, vocabulary is words related to the
worlds to give name for everything in the world. Vocabulary taught in school
is not only noun, but also the other parts of speech like verb, adjective,
adverb, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection.
2. Vocabulary Mastery
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Cameron (2002) in http://scribd.com/doc.18475644/vocabulary-
mastery, retrieved on December 6
th
, 2009, says that “Persons said to ‘know’ a
word if they can recognize its meaning when they see it”.
Nation in Nation (2008: 61) give the aspects in knowing a word,
they are as follows
In column 3, R = receptive knowledge, P = productive knowledge
Form Spoken R
P
What does the word sound like?
How is the word pronounced?
Written R
P
What does the word look like?
How is the word written and spelled
Word parts R
P
What parts are recognizable in this word?
What word parts are needed to express the
meaning?
Meaning Form and
meaning
R
P
What meaning does this word form signal?
What word form can be used to express this
meaning?
Concept and
Referents
R
P
What is included in the concept?
What items can the concept refer to?
associations R
P
What other words does this make us think
of?
What other words could we use instead of
this one?
Use Grammatical
Function
R
P
In what patterns does the word occur?
In what patterns must we use this word?
collocations R
P
What words or types of words occur with
this one?
What words or types of words must we use
with this one?
Constraints
on use
(register,
frequency ..)
R
P
Where, when, and how often would we
expect to meet this word?
Where, when, and how often can we use
this word?
Ur (1996: 60) also give the knowledge needs to be taught in
teaching vocabulary:
a. Form: Pronunciation and spelling
1ĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭ
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The learners have to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and
what it looks like (its spelling).
b. Grammar
When teaching a new verb, for example, we might give also its past form,
and we might note if it is transitive or intransitive. Similarly, when
teaching a noun, we may wish to present its plural form or draw learners’
attention to the fact that it has no plural at all.
c. Collocation
The collocations typical of particular items are factor that makes a
particular combination sound ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ in a given context. In the
other words, Collocation is words organization.
d. Aspects of meaning
1) Denotation, connotation, appropriateness
The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world
is called denotation. A less obvious component of the meaning of an
item is its connotation: the associations, or positive or negative
feelings. A more subtle aspect of meaning that often needs to be taught
is whether a particular item is the appropriate one to use in a certain
context or not.
2) Meaning relationships
Here are various meaning relationships:
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a) Synonyms: items that mean the same
b) Antonyms: items that mean the opposite
c) Hyponyms: items that serve as specific examples of a general
concept
d) Co-hyponyms or co-ordinates: other items that are the ‘same kind
of thing’.
e) Superordinates: general concepts that ‘cover’ specific items.
f) Translation: words or expressions in the learners’ mother tongue
those are (more or less) equivalent in meaning to the item being
taught.
e. Word formation
Vocabulary items, whether one-word or multi-word, can often be broken
down into their component ‘bits’. Exactly how these bits are put together
is another piece of useful information – perhaps mainly for more advanced
learners.
Hornby (1995: 721) defines mastery as complete knowledge or
complete skill. It is supported by Swannel (1994: 656) who states that mastery
is comprehensive knowledge.
Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that vocabulary
mastery is knowledge of the aspects of words including form (pronunciation
and spelling), grammar, usage, aspect of meaning, and also word formation
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(for advance learners). The knowledge is used to expresses physical objects or
ideas, moreover, it can be used in the appropriate context in communication.
3. Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners
Decarrico (2001: 285) states “vocabulary learning is central to
language acquisition, whether the language is first, second, or foreign.” In
every language, vocabulary mastery is important because the lack of
vocabulary makes the communication not run smoothly. Because of that
reason, vocabulary should be introduced to the learners with the appropriate
technique.
According to McKeown and Beck in Linse (2005: 122), it is
important to use both formal and informal vocabulary instruction that engages
students’ cognitive skills and gives opportunities for the learners to actually
use the words. The cognitive skills are needed by students to think and
analyze which of two words would be a better choice in a sentence
Linse says that teaching vocabulary should be integrated into
teaching the four skills – listening, speaking, reading and writing. For
example, the teachers introduce students to specific lexical items that they
would encounter as part of their reading lesson (2005: 122).
Nation in Nunan (2003: 135 - 140) mentions the principles for
teaching vocabulary as follows:
a. Focus on the most useful vocabulary
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Teaching useful vocabulary before less useful vocabulary gives learners
the best return for their learning effort. The most useful depends on the
goals of the learners (for example vocabulary for elementary school,
junior high school, senior high school, or vocational school).
b. Focus on the vocabulary in the most appropriate way
Here are the examples of vocabulary learning strategies: word parts,
guessing from context, using word cards, and using dictionaries.
c. Give attention to high frequency words across the four strands of a course
Vocabulary should get deliberate attention through teaching and study and
should be met and used in communicating messages in listening, speaking,
reading and writing.
d. Encourage learners to reflect on and take responsibility for learning
There is an important principle that lies behind choosing and learning and
that is that learners need to realize that they must be responsible for their
own learning.
Nation in Cameron (2001: 85) gives basic techniques by which
teachers can explain the meaning of new words in the young learner
classroom:
a. By demonstrating
1) Using an object, a cut-out figure, pictures, photographs
2) Using gesture or performing an action
3) Drawing diagrams on the board
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b. By explanation
1) Analytical definition
2) Putting the new word in a defining context (e.g. an ambulance takes
sick people to hospital)
3) Translating into another language
Ur (1996: 63) also gives ways of presenting new vocabulary to the
students as follows:
a. Concise definition (as in a dictionary; often a superordinate with
qualifications: for example, a cat is an animal which . . . . . )
b. Detailed description (of appearance, qualities, . . . . . )
c. Examples (hyponyms)
d. Illustration (pictures, objects)
e. Demonstration (acting, mime)
f. Context (story or sentence in which the item occurs)
g. Synonyms
h. Opposites (antonyms)
i. Translation
j. Associated ideas, collocations
Teaching young learners is not easy. They have different
characteristics from adult. Children life cannot be separated from playing.
Children also love games. Rixon in Brumfit, et al. (1991: 33) state that “It is
commonplace that young children learn better through play or at least can be
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induced to go along with teaching that is tempered by ‘fun’ activities.” In line
with that opinion, teaching vocabulary for young learner should be presented
in fun activities.
Based on the explanation above, teaching vocabulary for young
learner should be integrated into teaching the four skills – listening, speaking,
reading and writing. The teachers should choose appropriate technique to
introduce new words to young learner. Remembering that young learner can
not concentrate on one thing in a long time, the technique chosen should be
‘fun’ as the children’s life. Dealing with this research, technique chosen to
introduce new words is using diagram but it is presented in ‘fun’ activity, like
a game. The diagram is word webs. To explain the meaning, pictures are
chosen because they are fun and children like it.
B. Review on Word Webs
1. The Definition of Word Webs
As what is explained above, one technique to explain new words is
using diagram. For young learner the use of diagram should be presented in an
enjoying activity. The teachers can use word webs in the game to make
students interested in learning new vocabularies. Johnson (in Cox, 1998: 61)
defines word webs as diagram that helps children see how words are related to
one another.
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Decarrico says that word webbing is an activity that helps bring into
consciousness relationships among word in a text and helps deepen
understanding by creating associative networks for words (2001: 288).
Estes (1999) in Journal of Reading in Content Areas defines word
webs as a strategy for graphically representing concepts. Word webbing
builds a side-by-aside graphical representation of students’ knowledge and
perspectives about the key themes. It is useful when teaching a key word or
concept in depth. Students can help brainstorm words that relate to the key
word or concepts and, with the teacher's help, categorize the words
(http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson, retrieved on November 22
nd
,
2009).
The concept of word webs is like mind map. It is a diagram used to
represent ideas linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea
(www.wikipedia.com, retrieved on November 22
nd
, 2009). According to Linse
(2006) word webs is graphic organizer to help learners visually organizing the
information into different clusters.
Based on some definitions above, it can be concluded that word
webs is diagram to present the relationship among the words. This activity is
used to build students’ vocabulary skill. By using this technique, the students
are expected to be able to internalize the words they’ve learned. As what is
stated before that teaching vocabulary should be integrated into the four skills,
here, word webs can be used as brain storming before the activity and post
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activity to organize the relationship between the previous vocabularies having
been understood and the new ones.
2. Procedures of Making Word Webs
Anderson (in Nunan, 2003: 80) says that word webs are a very good
activity for building students’ vocabulary mastery. Here are the procedures of
making word webs:
a. Begin by writing a key concept in the middle of board/paper inside the
rectangle/circle
b. Write secondary ideas inside the smaller circles
The figure below gives the example of word webs:
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3. Word Webs in Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learner
Teaching vocabulary should be integrated with the four skills:
listening, speaking, reading and writing. The important thing is how the
teachers present the new words to the students. One activity of teaching
vocabulary is brainstorming around a topic before the main activity. Ur (1996:
68 – 69) suggests to use diagram to show words association (word webs). This
activity is mainly for revising words the class already knows, but new ones
may be introduced, by the teacher or by students. This technique is not only
for teaching noun, the teachers can also gives stimulus-words by asking the
students think the possible verb, adjective or adverb dealing with the noun.
Teaching vocabulary to young learners is purposed to prepare them
to communicate in both written and spoken. Young learner or children love
games. In line with that reason, teaching vocabulary to young learner should
be presented in fun activity. As what is stated above, word webbing is
showing the words relationship to internalize the meaning and presenting in
fun activity (like a game). This technique can be applied in teaching
vocabulary to young learner.
Johnson and Pearson (in Cox, 1998: 61) suggest using the following
strategy:
a. Choose a key word related to students’ ideas, inters, or current studies.
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b. Write the word in the middle of the chalkboard or large piece of chart-
paper.
c. Brainstorm other words that are related to the key word, and classify the
new words in categories that you or the students suggest.
d. Label the categories that emerge.
e. Discuss the words and their relationships and meanings.
Word webs is useful when teaching a key word or concept in depth.
Students can help brainstorm words that relate to the key word or concepts
and, with the teacher's help, categorize the words. The benefit of using word
webs in teaching vocabulary are as follows:
a. Increase their knowledge of synonyms for common words
b. Expand their written and oral vocabularies
c. Identify clues in context for more specific word choices
(http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=282, retrieved on
November 22
nd
, 2009)
Based on the explanation above, word webs is appropriate
technique for teaching vocabulary to young learners. Word webbing is a fun
activity which can show the word relation by drawing diagram.
C. Teaching English to Young Learners
1. Young Learners and Their Characteristics
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Pribilova (2006: 10) says that young learner can be anybody from
the age of three to the age of eighteen. Although they are categorized as young
learners, of course, they have different learning development. There are some
children learning faster, while the others need more time.
The term young learners can be used to categorize the following
learners:
a. Pre-school learners
b. Primary school learners
c. Secondary school or teenage learners (www.teaching-young-learners.htm,
retrieved on November 22
nd
, 2009)
Young learners have different characteristics from the adults. The
characteristics cover their ways of thinking and their attitude. Holden in
Brumfit (1995: 7) writes that children cannot concentrate on one thing for a
long period and the lesson should therefore be divided into a series of
activities lasting no longer than five or ten minutes because children are
bombarded with new experience and information. Here are the other
characteristics of children in their language learning:
a. Children respond the language well through concrete things (visual things)
rather than abstract things,
b. Children need physical movements and real activities to stimulate their
thinking,
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c. Children will be enthusiastic if they are taught using fun activities or being
involved in activities,
d. Children love to play, and learn best when they are enjoying themselves,
e. Children learn well through something that is close to their culture,
f. Children like to work together (http://peni.staff.uns.ac.id/2008/10/10/young-
learner-characteristics/, retrieved on November 22
nd
, 2009).
2. Teaching English at Elementary School
Teaching second language to all age groups is actually similar. Both
adult and children are recognizing new language. The difference lies on how
the teachers deliver the materials because the children’s way of thinking and
attitude are different from adults.
Brumfit (1997) states the reason of teaching English for elementary
students. One of the reasons is because in the early age, elementary student,
for example, is the best time to learn second language. The earlier students
start, the more time they get.
It is believed that when a child is introduced to a second language at
an early age their chances of becoming more proficient in the target language
will be higher (www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/ methodology/young_learner,
retrieved on December 20
th
, 2009). In learning language, spoken language
comes naturally before reading and writing. Here are the stages in picking up
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English (www.britishcouncil.org/parents-help-how-children learnlanguages.htm,
retrieved on December 20
th
, 2009):
a. Silent period
When babies learn their home language, there is a ‘silent period’, when
they look and listen and communicate through facial expression or
gestures before they begin to speak. When young children learn English,
there may be a similar ‘silent period’ when communication and
understanding may take place before they actually speak any English
words. During this time, parents/teachers should not force children to take
part in spoken dialogue by making them repeat words. Spoken dialogues
should be one-sided, the adult’s talk providing useful opportunities for the
child to pick up language.
b. Beginning to talk
After some time, depending on the frequency of English sessions, each
child (girls often more quickly than boys) begins to say single words
(‘cat’, ‘house’) or ready-made short phrases (‘What’s that?’, ‘It’s my
book’, ‘I can’t’, ‘That’s a car’, ‘Time to go home’) in dialogues or as
unexpected statements. The child has memorised them, imitating the
pronunciation exactly without realising that some may consist of more
than one word. This stage continues for some time as the child picks up
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more language using it as a short cut to dialogue before they are ready to
create their own phrases.
c. Building English
Gradually children build up phrases consisting of a single memorised
word to which they add words from their vocabulary (‘a dog’, ‘a brown
dog’, ‘a brown and black dog’) or a single memorised language to which
they add their own input (‘That’s my chair’, ‘Time to play’). Depending
on the frequency of exposure to English and the quality of experience,
children gradually begin to create whole sentences.
Linse (2005: 2) mentions the of young learner teacher’s job; those
are providing care and providing instruction. Providing care means that the
teachers should know the children’s need and want. They have to provide
interesting, fun and comfortable situation in order that the children can study
well in the class. To give best possible instruction, the teachers need to adjust
educational experiences to meet the developmental stages of the individual
child according to their stage of learning development. For example, a child
having developed strong oral language skills in her native language is better
prepared to begin reading than a child who has not. A young learner who can
comprehend a sequence of events is better prepared to understand a story than
a child who cannot. According to Dunn in www.britishcouncil.org, retrieved on
December 20
th
, 2009, children should not be told they have made a mistake
because any correction immediately demotivates. Mistakes may be part of the
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process of working out grammar rules of English or they may be a fault in
pronunciation. ‘I goed’ soon becomes ‘went’ if the child hears the adult repeat
back ‘yes, you went’; or if the adult hears ‘zee bus’ and repeats ‘the bus’. As
in learning their home language, if children have an opportunity to hear the
adult repeat the same piece of language correctly, they will self-correct in
their own time.
English in elementary school in Indonesia hasn’t been a primary
subject. It is not urgent, but it is quite important. According to Permendiknas
tahun 2006, English should be taught in elementary school in order that the
students have been ready to study English in the higher level (junior high
school and senior high school). Every elementary school should consider
English as the secondary subject after their own local language in order that
the students can communicate using English and face technology
improvement since the early age.
Elementary school students are categorized as young learners.
Superfine (2006), a freelance teacher, mentions the characteristic of young
learner (children) in learning language as follows:
a. Young learners only just start their schooling so teachers have a clear
opportunity to mould the mind of the children and their expectation of life
in school.
b. They tend to be keen and enthusiastic learner than the older.
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c. Young learners need physical movement and activity as much as
stimulation for their thinking. They have a short attention span and have
very little inhibition. They are usually very spontaneous so an activity in
the form of games, songs and drama is recommended. When reviewing
the situation we return to the main explanations for better learning at a
younger age and the suggestion that the young brain is more adaptable
before puberty and the acquisition of languages is less inhibited in the
younger learner.
Considering the characteristic of young learners who tend to be
keen and enthusiastic and are usually very spontaneous, the use of word webs
is recommended. It is because word webs can attract the young learners.
When the teacher writes the main idea on the board then asks the learners
“what is in your mind when you hear this word?”, the students
enthusiastically will answer the teacher’s question. That activity can be used
as brain-storming before activity. During activity, the teacher can add the new
words to the diagram. After activity, the teacher can use word webs as a game.
The teacher can prepare words written on cards, then, ask the students to
organize or classify the words.
Piaget (in Cox, 1998: 50) views adults (teachers or other caretakers)
role in teaching language as creating situations in which children discover
meaning themselves. Those situations will stimulate children to gain the
language competence. When children discover the meaning of the learning by
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themselves, it is wished that they can keep the knowledge for a long time. By
using word webs as a game, the learners experience in learning new words.
Finally, they are expected to improve their vocabulary mastery.
Clark (1990: 6-8) states the characteristics of the children are as
follows:
a. Children are developing conceptually. They develop their way of thinking
from the concrete to the abstract thing.
b. Children have no real linguistic. They teach subject what school provides
for them
c. Children are still developing their common skill such as turn taking and
the use of body language. They learn more slowly.
d. Young children are very egocentric. They tend to resolves around
themselves.
e. Children get bored easily, they have no choice to attend school. The class
activities must be fun and interesting by setting up the interesting
activities.
f. Children are at early of their education, ensuring success and enhancing
the children’s motivation are important factors in promoting the success of
early start in foreign language learning.
g. Children are better mimics. It will take them more confident in attempting
the sound of foreign language and they delighted in playing the sound.
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h. Children forget quickly. Therefore, the teacher in teaching English needs
repetition.
The diagram shown in word webs can help students see how the
words relate one to the others. The lines of the diagram help students who still
develop their way of thinking from concrete to abstract. Word webs as game,
can attract the children who are easily bored in learning. Because children
have short term memory, they need a unique technique in making note of the
new vocabulary. Here, word webs also help students to memorize words. The
students can add small picture/template in the diagrams.
Based on the explanation above, teaching English at elementary
school is quite important. The teachers should know the children’s need and
want in learning foreign language. In order that the language can be received
and retained by the students, the teacher should choose the appropriate
methods and technique to teach English in elementary school.
D. Rationale
Teaching learning process is successful when all learners are active
and involved in the activity. Teaching English to young learner focuses on
teaching vocabulary because elementary school students still develop their
vocabulary knowledge. The knowledge of words consists of some aspects. They
are form (pronunciation and spelling), grammar, aspects of meaning and also
collocation (word usage).
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Indonesian students in elementary school have difficulties in
learning English because English is not their mother tongue and the difference
system (rule) between Indonesian language and English. The teacher of young
learners, as the caregiver, should know the students needs in learning the
language. Teaching English for young learner is not easy. They have different
characteristic with adults. Young learners, who like playing, will be interested in
the learning language, when the activity is presented in fun and warm situation.
One technique of teaching vocabulary is by demonstrating the
diagram. Considering that children like playing, the activity should be presented
in game. Word webs are one fun activity to show words relationship through
diagram. The teacher can use this technique to explain new word to the students.
Word webbing is also unique way in making note of words. Usually, the teacher
asks students to make a note by making a list of difficult words. By using word
webs, students can make a diagram to show the relationship of each word. To
explain the meaning of each word, the teacher can use picture by asking the
students stick the appropriate words for each words in the word webs. By
showing and recognizing the relationship among words and the meaning, the
learners are expected to apply the words in wider context, such as in sentence,
paragraph even in text. Then, it will be effective to use word webs to improve the
students’ vocabulary mastery.
E. Hypothesis
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Based on the theoretical above, it is assumed that students’
vocabulary mastery can be improved by using word webs. Word webbing is fun
activity for young learner to see and show the relationship among the words so
that they know the concept and then can apply the words in communication
(spoken and written). Then, the researcher makes hypothesis that by using word
webs, the students’ vocabulary mastery can be improved.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter covers the setting and subject of the research, the method of
the research, and the steps of conducting the research. Each of them is discussed in
the following section.
A. The Setting and Subject of the Research
This research deals with improving students’ vocabulary mastery by using
word webs. It is conducted in SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga. It is located in
Diponegoro street No. 134, in the district of Sidorejo Lor, Sidorejo, Salatiga. There
are 9 classrooms in the school because first until third grade have been parallel. SDN
Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga has many facilities which can make the students feel endure
there. There is a canteen between teacher’s office and fifth classroom. There are also
students’ health centre, rest rooms, mosque, library, and learning centre. All the
facilities are kept well. Every room is clean because there is a school guard and
gardener who clean the school. The students also help them to clean their own
classes.
This elementary school, which is led by Drs. Purwanto, M. Pd., is a national
standard school. It means that SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga has implemented the
standard of education service as the government’s rule. SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga
uses KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) curriculum as the basic of
teaching learning process.
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This research itself is conducted in class 3A. The teacher who is responsible
to this class is Mrs. Meyna, S. Pd. This class consists of 25 students, 12 boys and 13
girls. The class is chosen because third grade of elementary school is the important
stage of learning English. Based on the syllabus, third grade of elementary school
students should be able to apply the words they learned (in first and second grade) in
the sentence. 3A is chosen as the subject of the research because they have high
motivation in learning, but they have difficulties in learning English.
Before doing research, the writer has done pre-research/observation in SDN
Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga in January 2010. The next action includes pre-test, the action
itself, and post test which are conducted from March to June 2010. Then, analyzing
the result of action research will be conducted from June 2010.
Here is the schedule of the research:
month

Activity
Jan Feb March April May June
Pre research (observation)
Analyzing problems
Planning the action
Doing action
Data analyzing
Reflection
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B. Research Method
This research will be conducted as classroom action research in order to
improve students’ vocabulary mastery by using word webs. The vocabulary in this
research is limited in the topics which are taught for the third grade student of SDN
Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga, those are, “Things in My House” and “Food and Drink”.
After the students’ words knowledge improves, they are expected to be able to apply
those words in sentence, paragraph, and even real communication.
1. The Definition of Action Research
There some definitions given by some experts. According to Burns
(1993: 30), “Action research is the application of fact finding to practical problem
solving in social situation with view to improve the quality of action within
involving the collaboration and cooperation of researchers, practitioners and
laymen”. According to Little (2001: 4) action research is a process to identify and
solve classroom instructional concerns within teacher’s own classrooms.
Kemmis (in Hopkin, 1993: 44) defines action research as:
“…………. A form of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants
in social (including educational) situations in order to improve the
rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices,
and, (b) their understanding of these practice, and (c) the situation ins in
which the practices are carried out. It is most rationally empowering
when undertaken by participants collaboratively, though it is often
undertaken by individual, and sometimes cooperation with ‘outsiders’.
In education, action research has been employed in school based
curriculum development, professional development, school
improvement programs, and systems planning and policy
development.”
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Bodgan and Biklen in Burns, 1999: 30 propose action research as the
systematic collection of information that is designed to bring about social change.
Wallace (1998: 18) says that action research is one method to develop the
teachers professionally on a continuing basis by reflecting on interesting and/or
problematic areas in a structured way to facilitate the ‘reflective cycle’.
Bramble and Mason (1997: 43) say that the results of action research
have direct application to real-world problem. Classroom action research is kind
of problem solving in the class to improve students achievement.
According to Kemmis and McTaggart (1998) in Burns (1999: 32),
action research is a dynamic and complementary process which consists of four
fundamental steps in a spiraling process. They are as follows:
1) Planning
Developing a plan of critically informed to improve what is already
happening.
2) Action
Act to implement the plan.
3) Observation
Observe the effects of the critically informed action in the context in
which it occurs
4) Reflection
Reflect these effects as the basis for further planning
The spiral model can be illustrated as follows:
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Table 3.2 An illustration of Action Research Spiral
Based on the definition proposed by some experts above, classroom
action research is not only a problem solving in teaching learning process, but
also a reflection for the teachers of the way of their teaching in their class in order
that the quality of their teaching and students’ achievement improve.
In this research, the writer conducts classroom action research as a way
of problem solving being faced in teaching vocabulary for third year students of
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SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga; moreover, this research is conducted to make social
and educational change and improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery.
2. The Feature of Action Research
Here are several features of action research as quoted by Tinker-Sach
(2000: 71):
Features Action Research
Duration Usually conducted over short period of time
Size the Project Involves one or more teachers from a school or
several schools
Ethical Consideration Usually informal consent is given as the students
participation are known to the teachers and the
purpose is beneficial to the parties involved
Focus Investigates one or more practical
teaching/learning factors
Design Practical and manageable in design to allow for
teacher workload and teaching process
Research Tools and Data
Collection Procedures
Utilizes one or more research tools to collect and
analyze the data
Usually simple and straightforward procedures
Results Usually localized to a specific class/ teaching/
learning community or context with practical
implications
Sharing of Result May be formal or informal and reported in local
international referred journals for the benefits of
those who teach
Context Classroom-based or school-based and may
involve one or more school contexts usually
within the same region
Table 3.3 The Features of Action Research
3. The Process of Doing Action Research
According to McNiff (in Burns, 1999: 35) action research should be
flexible. That flexibility makes difference interpretations of what are appropriate
processes for the circumstances of the research.
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Burns (1999) proposes action research as a series of interrelated
experiences involving the following phases:
a. Exploring
It is a starting point for conducting some initial action. Here, the researchers
make the document of general observations of the situation and look for
recent article or books to obtain ideas for research.
b. Identifying
This involves a ‘fact finding’ process which enables the researchers to refine
their ideas about the general focus area, to prepare for systematic investigation
and finally to suggest further action.
c. Planning
It involves developing variable plan of action for gathering data, and
considering and selecting a range of appropriate research methods. This phase
is aimed at trialing a particular course of action and collecting data on the
outcomes of the action.
d. Collecting Data
During this period, the procedures selected for collecting data are developed
and put into action.
e. Analyzing/Reflecting
This phase is considered as a combination of both analysis and reflection. At
this stage, the data are analyzed using a systematic process of analysis and
interpretation according to agreed criteria.
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f. Hypothesizing/Speculating
The hypotheses drawn are based on the data that have been collected to this
point, on the analysis and reflections that have arisen form the analysis. The
hypotheses may form the basis for further action to test them out.
g. Intervening
This stage involves changing classroom approaches or practices in response to
the hypotheses one has made. It may involve some further deliberate
experimenting with different teaching methods.
h. Observing
This phase involves observing the outcomes of the intervention and reflecting
on its effectiveness. This involves a new set of teaching strategies and
activities and recycling back into a period of further data collection.
i. Reporting
This phase involves articulating the activities, data collection and results that
have come out of the research process within the research group.
j. Writing
This is very important phase because it aims to ensure that the research has a
chance of being disseminated to others, rather than remaining as a private or
isolated activity.
k. Presenting
This phase also aims at ensuring that the research is presented to a wider
audience.
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A. Technique of Collecting the Data
There are two kinds of data: qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative
data of the research will be collected by using some techniques of data collection
including: observation, interview, research diary, and document analysis. To provide
more accurate data, photographs are also taken during the implementation of the
research. The data which is collected in this study consists of the information
obtained during pre-research, the process, and the results of action research. The
application of data collection in this study is summarized in the table 3.4.
Steps of the
Study
Objectives Participants Techniques Data
Pre-Research To know the
problems
faced by the
teacher
√ Teacher
√ Researcher
Interview
Observation
Result of
Interview
Field notes
Students’
pretest
Implementation To know the
students
vocabulary
mastery
√ Researcher Observation
Photographs
Documents
Field notes
Photographs
of TL
process
Lesson plan
documents
Students’
assessment
Result
discussion
To know the
students’
improve-
ment
√ Teacher
√ Researcher
Researcher’s
diary
Reflective
notes
Students’
post-test
Table 3.4Table of Collecting Data
As shown in table 3.4, the techniques of collecting data are interview,
observation, photographs, pretest, post test, document, and diary. The techniques will
be conducted as follows:
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a. Interview will be conducted to students and teachers.
b. Observation will be conducted during the implementation of the research.
c. Photographs will be taken during the implementation of the research
d. Document consists of lesson plan and students’ assessment.
e. Researcher’s diary will be noted during the research.
To take the quantitative data, the writer conduct test as the technique.
Heaton (1998: 51-63) gives possible types of vocabulary test. Here are the types of
the test:
a. Multiple-choice items (A)
1) Type 1
In this type of recognition item the stem is replaced by a picture. The testees
see the picture and have to select the most appropriate word relating to the
picture. This type is clearly very appropriate at the elementary stages.
2) Type 2
In this test, the testees have to select the correct option to which the definition.
Example:
A person who receives and pay out money in a bank
a. broker b. accountant c. creditor d. cashier
3) Type 3
This type asks the testees to select the best synonym or definition. Example:
Advocate
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a. support b. advise c. contradict d. damage
4) Type 4
The stem here consists of a sentence. Hence, this type of recognition items is
generally to be preferred to the previous three types in so far as the ‘problem’
word appears in context. Example:
It is rained continuously for two whole days.
a. without stopping c. regularly
b. heavily d. at odd moments
b. Multiple-choice items (B)
These kinds of test items are useful in many respects but may possibly belong
more to tests of grammar and structure. Example:
Ann . . . . . me of a girl I used to know
a. recalls b. reminds c. remembers d. recollects
Although the collocations in such items may be tested equally well without a
context, it is usually advisable to test them in sentence. Example:
I don’t believe you: I think you’re . . . . . . . . . . lies.
a. saying b. talking c. speaking d. telling
c. Sets (associated words)
1) Type 1: Recognition
Example:
Read each of the following lists of four words. One of word does not belong
in each list. Put a circle round the odd word in each list.
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Son happy arrive
Father married depart
Boy engaged go away
Brother single leave
2) Type 2: Production
Each group of words is related to a particular subject. Write down the
particular subject which is connected with each group of words.
Hand volume
Wrist track
Dial head
Face spool
(= watch) (= tape recorder)
d. Matching items
Example:
1. ‘I hear the prisoner . . . . . . . yesterday and the police are still
looking for him’
2. ‘We were all relieved that Mr. Benson . . . . after the operation.
(etc)
e. More objective items
1) Type 1: word formation test items
Came about run into pulled through got away
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Example: write a word in each blank. The word you write must be the correct
form of the word on the left.
i. Care be _______ when you cross the road
ii. Cruel to mistreat animals is a form of _________
iii. Interest do you think this book is __________?
2) Type 2: items involving synonyms
Example: write in each space the best word to replace the words underlined in
each sentence.
Tom went at once to the dctor’s immediately
I came across an interesting book __________
3) Type 3: rearrangement items
Example: rearrange the following letter to make words.
p – l – a – p (apple)
c – e – l – p – a (place), etc
f. Completion items
Example: complete each blank with the most appropriate word to replace each
number in the text.
Rosnah : what’s the (1) ________ today?
Mohamed : it’s the seventh
Rosnah : At what (2) _________ does the concert start?
Mohamed : Seven o’clock, I think.
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Based on the explanation above, the types of test to test the students’
vocabulary mastery are: (1) rearranging items to test spelling; (2) multiple choice
items A type 2 (definition) to test the knowledge of words meaning; (3) multiple
choice items B to test the knowledge of word use; and to test pronunciation, the
researcher asks the students the pronounce some words. In collecting data, there are
two considerations. They are:
a. Validity
Wallace (1998: 36) says that validity means testing what are supposed to test, and
not something else. Validity is the degree to which a test measures what it claims
to be measuring. To measure the validity of the test, the researcher uses the
internal validity. The formula is as follows:
ݎ
ݐ

ܺ
݅
തതത
െܺ
ݐ
തതത
ܵ

݌
݅
ݍ
݅
Where:
ݎ
ݐ
= The coefficient of correlation between X and Y
ܺ
݅
= The average of each student
Xt= The total number of the right answers of each student minus Xi
݌
݅
= The total number of the right answers divided by n
ݍ
݅
= The total number of the wrong answers divided by n
݊ = number of students
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b. Reliability
Reliability deals with the issue of fairness to all candidates. The researcher should
consider if the research procedures used by Researcher A are exactly followed by
Researcher B, the results will be the same each time?(Wallace, 1998: 36).
Reliability is important for any test. A test will be reliable if it is held many times
approximately the same result will be obtained. To measure the reliability, the
formula which is used is as follows:
ݎ
݇݇

݇
݇ െ1
ቈ1 െ
∑݌ݍ
ܵ
2

Where :
ݎ
݇݇
= The reliability of the instrument
݇ = The number of valid item
B. The Technique of Data Analysis
There are qualitative and quantitative ways in analyzing data:
1. Qualitative
In analyzing the data in the form of qualitative, the writer will use Constant
Comparative Method as suggested by Strauss and Glasser in Moleong (2004: 288-
289). They state that in general, the data analysis process includes data reduction,
data classification, and data synthesis. They are as follows:
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a. Data Reduction
1) Unit identification. First, the smallest unit that is found in the data is
identified. It must have close relationship with the research problems.
2) Having got the unit, the next step is making codification. It means that we
have to code every unit in order to know where the data come from.
b. Data Classification
1) Categorization arrangement. It is aimed at choosing every unit that has the
same characteristics.
2) Every category must be labeled.
c. Data Synthesis
1) To synthesis means to look for the relationship between one category to the
others.
2) Then related one category to the others must be given a label again.
2. Quantitative
To analyze the test (quantitative data), the writer compares the mean
score of the pre test and post test.The mean of the pre test and post test can be
calculated with the formulas as follows:
N
X
X

=
N
Y
Y

=
In which:
X = Means of pre-test scores
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Y = Means of post-test scores
N = Number of pairs
(Furchan (2004:158)
Finally, by analyzing the observation and the test result, the researcher
can make the conclusion whether word webs can improve the students’
vocabulary mastery or not.

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CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
This chapter discusses the result of research. Here, the researcher describes
some findings and discussions about the implementation of the use of word webs to
improve student’s vocabulary mastery. There are some objectives of the research.
They are as follows:
1. To identify the improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery in the third grade
students of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga after implementing word webs in
teaching vocabulary.
2. To find the phenomenon that takes place when the teacher teaches vocabulary
through word webs.
3. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of implementing word webs in teaching
vocabulary.
Before conducting the research, the researcher does pre-research to identify
the problem faced by the students. The research is conducted in two cycles. Every
cycle in this research consists of series of steps, namely identifying the problems,
planning the action, implementing the action, observing or monitoring the action,
reflecting the result of the observation, and revising the plan.
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A. Introduction
The researcher noted the results of pre-research in her field note. Pre-
research was held before conducting the research in order to identify the problems
occurring during the teaching learning process. In the pre-research, the researcher
interviewed the teacher and students, and also observing the teaching learning
process. The researcher also conducted pre-test to prove those problems faced by the
third students of SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga.
Based on the interview and observation in pre-research, English was taught
in SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga from the first grade. In the first and second grade, the
students were just taught about the equivalent meaning of each English word in
Indonesian. In the classes, the teacher used picture to help the students. Then, the
researcher focused on the third grade students because they started to learn using
words in simple sentences, or even simple text. Based on the mark that researcher got
from the teacher, the third grade students’ vocabulary mastery was still low because
the students felt that English was not their language. It is based on a student’s
statement. She said, “Miss, kalau ngasih nilai jangan pelit- pelit donk. Kita khan
orang Indonesia, bukan orang Inggris.” They felt that English was so difficult. Based
on the observation and interview to some students, the difficulties were identified as
follows: (a) the students got difficulties in pronouncing words correctly; (b) the
students got difficulties in remembering and grasping the word meaning; (c) the
students got difficulties to use the words in sentences; and (d) the students got
difficulties in writing words (spelling words) correctly. In teaching English, the
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teacher never gave brainstorming, even, when they learned new text, the teacher just
gave the meaning of difficult word to the students. The students were just given by a
lot of tasks from the book. Consequently, the students got tired and bored in doing the
assignment. The students could not remember the meaning of words well and use
words in appropriate context. Moreover, they could not pronounce and spell words.
The teacher rarely drilled them to pronounce and spell words.
Considering those causes, the researcher proposed to use new technique by
using word webs in main activity, as warming up, and also post activity in presenting
and practicing some vocabularies through classroom action research in order to
improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The researcher wants to improve students’
vocabulary mastery which involves pronouncing the words correctly, recognizing the
words meaning, using the word based on the context, and spelling the letters of the
words.
B. Research Findings
The implementation of this research was held in two cycles. Each cycle
consisted of three meetings. Each meeting took about 90 minutes. The first cycle was
conducted on Tuesday, 27
st
April 2010, Saturday, 1
st
May 2010, and Saturday, 8
th
May, 2010. Meanwhile, the second cycle was conducted on Saturday, 15
th
May 2010,
Tuesday, 18
th
May 2010, and Tuesday 25
th
May 2010. The topics discussed were
“Food and Drink” and “Things in My House (In the Bedroom and Kitchen)”. Every
cycle in this research consists of five steps, namely planning the action, implementing
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the action, observing and monitoring the action, reflecting the observation, and
revising the plan. They could be explained in the following parts.
1. Cycle 1
a. Planning the Action
The action plan for first cycle was made based on the problems found in
the pre-research which was proved by pre-test. The problems were identified
as follows: (a) the students got difficulties in pronouncing words correctly; (b)
the students got difficulties in remembering and grasping the word meaning;
(c) the students got difficulties to use the words in sentences; and (d) the
students got difficulties in writing words (spelling words) correctly. Those
difficulties were also proved in the students’ pre-test. To overcome those
problems, the researcher decided to hold an action research by carrying new
technique in teaching vocabulary to the students in order to improve the
students’ vocabulary mastery. Word webs is used as warming up, whilst
activity, and post activity. It is expected that word webs could attract the
students’ participation in learning English. After they participate in the
learning activity, it is expected that English is not as difficult as they thought
before, their motivation in learning English increases, and finally their
vocabulary mastery improves.
Before implementing the action, the researcher gave the students a pre-
test. There were 60 items of the pre-test. The pre-test items have been proven
to be good enough in validity and reliability. The test was also given in the
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end of the cycle as a post-test; therefore, the writer knew the differences of the
results between those tests. The researcher also prepared the materials,
students’ worksheet, a lesson plan as teacher’s guidance in teaching
vocabulary and everything needed in the action. The researcher as the teacher
in this research was helped by a collaborator. They collaborated to observe the
whole phenomena during the teaching and learning process in the classroom.
b. Implementing the Action
1. First Meeting
The first meeting was conducted on Tuesday, April 27
th
2010 at 09.00
a.m. to 10.30 a.m. The topic to be discussed in second meeting was “Things in
My House”, and the teacher focused on “Things in My Bedroom”.
Firstly, the teacher greeted students, then, checked the students’
attendance. The teacher introduced new topic to the student. She wrote the
topic would be discussed on the board. She wrote ”MY HOUSE” and read it.
The teacher asked to the students, ”What will we learn?”. All of the students
said loudly, ”My house.” The teacher continued, ”Students, coba kalian
sebutkan part of your house, ruangan apa saja yang ada di rumah kalian.”
Enthusiastically the students answered, ”Living room”, ”Bedroom”,
”Kitchen”. Then, she made word webs from the students’ answer. ”Well, there
are living room, Bedroom, Kitchen, bathroom, dining room.” The teacher
asked the students to focus on the word “Bedroom”, then asked, “Siapa yang
sudah punya bedroom sendiri?” Some students raised their hands and said,
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“Aku, Miss, aku Miss.” A student, Adam, said, “Aku punya, Miss, tapi aku
boboknya sama kakaku.” the teacher asked Adam, ”Well, barang – barang
apa aja yang ada di kamarmu?”, but almost all students answered the
teacher’s question, ”tempat tidur, Miss”, ”lemari baju, Miss”, ”Selimut, Miss”.
The class became very noisy. The teacher asked the students to calm down. Ri
wrote the students’ answer. Then, she asked some volunteers to complete the
word webs on the board.
The teacher gave the students a simple text. There were some pictures
in the text. “Students, repeat after I read the sentence!” The teacher led the
students to read the text. When there was a picture, the teacher helped the
students to name the picture and spell the words. The teacher gave worksheet
to the students. Based on the text, the teacher led the students to understand
the meaning and word use. The teacher used word webs to lead the students to
understand the meaning and word use. “Well, di kertas kalian ada diagram
dan ada kotak. Kotak pertama ada tulisan “there are many clothes on my
bed”, so, jadi di branch pertama, yang ada tulisan “putting my clothes in . . .
.” titik – titiknya itu kalian tempel gambar apa yang sesuai.” The students
looked busy to stick the picture on the right place. All of them did their job
well. They looked like playing a puzzle. Some students asked the teacher the
meaning of words they didn’t know. Their next job was to complete letters
into correct word. All of the words were in the text they had read before. After
that, the teacher led the students to pronounce each word in the word webs.
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The teacher used word webs in a game as the post activity. The
students were divided into four groups. The game was “Whispering Game”.
The teacher whispered words dealing with the topic to the students in the back
line, then, they whispered the word to the students in front of them. The
students in the front line looked for the appropriate picture according to what
they had heard, then stack the pictures on the place which had been served by
RI. In that game, the students were very enthusiastic. Every group tried to be
the winner. Unfortunately, group 3 was disqualified because they were
cheating. The winner was group 2. The members of the group were Silvi,
Tata, Nisa, Yaya, Angel, and Ivon. RI gave reward to the winner.
Every student sat on their own chair. Group 2 was still happy with
their victory. The class was so noisy. The teacher made them calm. The
teacher checked the students’ understanding of the lesson and gave them
homework. Finally, RI closed the lesson.
2. Second Meeting
The second meeting was conducted on Saturday, May 1
st
2010 at
09.00 am to 10.15 a.m. The topic was still “Things in My House” and the
teacher focused on “Eating Utensils”.
After the bell had rung, the researcher (RI) and observer (SW) went to
class 3A. The teacher and observer looked the students entered to the class
and they had sat on their own chair. The teacher greeted them, “Good
morning, students.” And the students answered, “Good morning, Miss Riana.”
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After checking the students’ attendance and condition, the teacher also asked
whether the students had been ready to join the lesson or not.
The teacher wrote the topic which was discussed on the board, then,
she continued, “What rooms are in your house? Coba ada ruangan apa saja
di rumah kalian?” the students answered, “Ruang tamu, Miss.” “Ruang
makan, Miss,” “Dapur, Miss”, “Kamar tidur, Miss”. The teacher made the
word webs for the topic being discussed. “Well, there are living room, dinning
room, bedroom, and also kitchen” (she made the branches of the main topic).
Then, she asked the students to focus on the word “bedroom”. “Students,
where does your mother cook? Dimana ibu kalian memasak?” They
answered, “Kitchen”. The teacher raised her thumb, “very good”. She
continued, “What things are in the kitchen which you usually use to eat?
Barang – barang apa yang ada di dapur yang biasa kalian gunakan untuk
makan?” almost all students raised their hands. The teacher asked some
students to write their answer on the board to complete the word webs. The
teacher asked the students to make the word webs on the black board. Every
student did what RI said. The teacher gave some of pictures to the students.
The pictures were about things in the kitchen. They should stick the pictures
according to the appropriate rooms (in the kitchen) and gave the name. To
help the students find the meaning, the teacher gave a simple text.
After brainstorming, the teacher discussed the text with the students.
The students explained some difficult words. After the students finished their
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job, the teacher drilled them to pronounce each word. After that, the teacher
drilled the students to spell the words. “Students, how do you spell “spoon”?”
The students spelled the word “spoon” orally. The teacher continued the other
words. After spelling, the teacher also helped the students use some words in
context, for example: I need two forks, put the noodle in the bowl, etc.
Unfortunately, the bell was ringing. On that day, the teachers of SDN
Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga would have a meeting, so the students came home
earlier. RI shared the worksheets to the students and asked them to do the task
as homework. The teacher reviewed the lesson fast, then, closed the lesson,
reminded them to do the homework. At last, they were praying together, and
the teacher said “good bye and take care” to the students.
3. Third Meeting
The third meeting was conducted on Saturday, May 8
th
2010 at 09.00 a.
m. until 10.15 a.m. The topic in this meeting was “Things in My House”, and
the teacher focused on “Things in My Kitchen”.
The teacher greeted the students and checked their attendance. The
students replied the greeting. No one was absent. Suddenly, some students
said, ”Ayo Miss, game lagi kayak kemarin.” The teacher smiled, then
answered, ”Ok, tapi kita belajar dulu, ya. Now, prepare your materials.”
everybody prepared their books and stationary. Then, the teacher asked the
students about the material which was discussed in the last meeting. The
students answered, “Alat makan, Miss,” the other student said, “Bedroom,
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Miss.” The teacher smiled and said, “Very good, you still remember. Last
meeting we had learned about eating utensils and also things in our bedroom”
The teacher wrote the word “House” on the board. She added with the word
“Bedroom” as the part of main topic. Then, she asked, “What are the other
rooms? Ruangan yang lain di rumah apa lagi?” The students answered,
“Bathroom, Miss, dinning room, living room, kitchen.” The class became very
noisy because every student wanted to answer. After making the class calm,
the teacher reminded the student, that they should raise their hand before
answering the questions. Then, teacher would choose who should answer the
questions. RI continued the lesson. She wrote every part of house. She asked
the students to focus to the word “Kitchen”. “Well, students. Look at the word
“Kitchen”! Untuk apa ruangan ini?” The students answered, “Memasak,
Miss.” The teacher said, “very good. It’s place for cooking.” The teacher
continued, “You also find eating utensils there.” The teacher made line for the
word “eating utensils” for the word “kitchen”. The teacher reminded the
students about things in the kitchen which are used to eat. She asked the
students to mention the things which they used to eat as last meeting. Some
volunteers came in front of the class to write their answer in the word webs on
the board. Then, the teacher said, “You can also find cooking utensils there.
Selain alat makan, kalian juga bisa menemukan alat memasak di sana. Apa
saja ya alat masak itu?” The class became so noisy. The teacher asked the
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students to calm down. Then, choose some volunteers to mention cooking
utensils.
After finishing the word webs, the teacher gave the students a text.
There were some pictures in the text. “Students, repeat after I read the
sentence!” The teacher led the students to read the text. When there was a
picture, RI helped the students to name the picture and spell the words. The
teacher discussed the questions related to the text with the students. Those
were about spelling, meaning, word use, and meaning. The teacher asked the
students, “Kira – kira, setelah kalian baca text, ada benda yang belum
disebutkan di word webs nggak?” The students answered, “Ada, Miss. Cutting
board, cup, sink, refrigerator.” The teacher pointed some students to write the
answer on the board. Then, the teacher led the students to use some words in
certain context. She said, “This is knife to cut the vegetables. It is very sharp.”
As the post activity, the teacher divided the students into four groups.
They would play game “Where am I”. The students said, “Hore!!!!” and
found their group. The students gathered in their group and made a line. The
teacher showed a card to the students in the backside. Then, the students in the
back side whispered the word to the three students in front of them. The third
students should found the picture of the word and gave it to the next students.
The teacher then asked, “Where am I?” The last students answered, “In the
Bedroom” or “In the Kitchen”, and stuck the picture as the branch of the word
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“Bedroom” or “Kitchen”. They did it until the last picture. The things are the
things in the bedroom and in the kitchen.
The students looked very happy and energetic. The teacher gave
homework for the students to measure their understanding. Because the time
was over, the teacher closed the lesson, then, she said, “Goodbye.”
4. Fourth Meeting
Fourth meeting was post-test. It was conducted on Tuesday, May 11
th
,
2010 at 09.00 until 10.10 a.m. The test was used to measure the students’
understanding of the material. The test was about “Things in My House”
which was taught in first, second, and third meetings. There were 40
questions: 20 questions for “Things in My Bedroom” and 20 questions for
“Things in My Kitchen”. There were four aspects which were tested. Those
are pronunciation, word meaning, word use, and spelling.
After the bell rang, the teacher greeted the students and checked
students’ attendance. Fortunately, no one was absent. Then, the teacher asked
the students to prepare their stationary. She asked the students to keep their
English book in the bag. The class became so noisy. All of the students were
afraid to have test. Finally, the teacher could assure them to do the test
because they had learned the material before.
After the students were calm, the teacher distributed the worksheets to
the students. She said, “Students, pertama, kalian kerjakan romawi 2 dan 3.
Romawi satu nanti Miss Riana panggil nama kalian, kemudian kalian maju ke
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depan, dan baca. Jelas?” all of the students answered, “Jelas, Miss.” While
the students did the test, the teacher and observer tested pronunciation. She
called the students according to the student number.
After the students finished the test, the teacher said, “Thank you.” Then
she said good bye to the students.
c. Observation of the Action
The observations were made simultaneously as long as the teaching
learning process. The observations were noted by the researcher and also the
observer (collaborator). To support the data, the researcher also did interview
to the students after the teaching learning process. In monitoring the
implementation of word webs in teaching vocabulary, besides observation and
interview, the researcher also used assignment and test. Those were used as
consideration to revise the action for the next step.
In the first cycle, the topics chosen were “Things in My House”. The
teacher implemented word webs as a brainstorming before activity. The
teacher also used word webs in the post activity. The students’ score in the
pre-test showed that the four aspects were still low, but pronunciation and
spelling were lower than the others. In each meeting, the teacher focused on
the four aspects: word meaning, pronunciation, spelling, and word use. After
brainstorming, the teacher drilled the students to pronounce each word, then,
she asked the students to spell the words. Firstly, the students spelled the
words in Indonesian, but continuously the teacher taught them to pronounce
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the words in English. The teacher used pictures in helping the students
understand the meaning of the words. Those pictures were based on the texts
which were given before. To teach word use, the teacher directly gave the
examples of sentences.
In teaching learning process, the teacher tried to combine word webs
and pictures. The students were challenged to learn words with the new
technique. In their lesson before, they just did a lot of assignment from the
teacher without understanding the meaning, pronunciation, spelling, and word
use. They looked very happy and interested when the teacher introduced word
webs combined with pictures. They enjoyed sticking the picture according to
the strands of the main topic.
The students became more active during teaching-learning process.
They were active in asking and answering questions. They were also more
enthusiastic in doing assignment. Moreover, they were not confused in
English class. Word webs as brainstorming really helped the students tune in
the lesson. Good atmosphere also occurred in the class. The students only did
many assignments, but also communicated with the teacher. When the teacher
asked questions, many students raised their hand.
At the end of the first cycle, the teacher gave the students a posttest to
measure the students’ achievement in learning vocabulary. The researcher
also compared the result of the pretest and the posttest. The mean of the
pretest was 53.88 and the mean of posttest was 63.40. Thus, it can be
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concluded that there was an improvement of vocabulary mastery of the
students before and after the cycle I. There was also an improvement in
achieving each aspect of vocabulary in the first posttest.
Nevertheless, the result of cycle 1 had not been satisfying because there
were some weaknesses during the implementation of the action. When the
teacher asked the students to write their answer on the board, there were some
students who did not want to do that. They were afraid to make mistakes.
d. Reflecting
After the treatment in this cycle, the students’ score improved. The
mean score of post test was 63.36. It is better than the pre-test (53.88). The
level of significance of the improvement between pre-test 1 and post-test 1 is
4.89 (the t
t
for 25 students is 2.060). After observing and analyzing the result
of the observation in cycle I, the writer found positive results and weaknesses
in the first cycle. They were described as follows:
1) Positive Results
a) Using word webs as brainstorming helped students tune in the lesson
and also create new word understanding.
b) The combination of word webs and picture helped students in
understanding words.
c) There was an improvement of students’ behavior in teaching and
learning process. The students did the task and assignment actively.
The communication between the teacher and students arouse because
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the students were not only given a lot of assignment. The teacher
facilitated them to learn through word webs.
d) There was an improvement of students’ vocabulary mastery. It was
proven by the improvement of the post-test result.
2) Weaknesses
a) The students tended to be noisy in implementing word webs in
brainstorming. The students answered the teacher’s question
irregularly. They laughed at their friends’ answer that was wrong.
Therefore, it was needed to give warning to the students who were
noisy.
b) Although the picture helped the students in understanding words,
sometimes sticking picture for each student was so tiring. It also spent
a lot of time to finish it.
c) There were some students who were afraid to write their answer on the
board.
By analyzing the observation result, the researcher and collaborator
concluded that word webs was suitable technique for the students in learning
and practicing new vocabulary, but the students still made some mistakes, and
more students made mistakes in using words in certain context and spelling
some words correctly.
e. Revising the Plan
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To solve the problems in cycle 1, the researcher and collaborator
decided to conduct cycle 2. They revised the plan in order to correct the
weaknesses in cycle 1. The plan for the next cycle would be more focused on
teaching spelling and word use, making the students answer the teacher’s
question regularly and avoiding class noisy, grouping the students in order to
decrease wasting time, and also conducting the teaching learning process in
fun activity.
2. Cycle 2
a. Planning the Action
The action plan for cycle 2 was made to solve the weaknesses of cycle
1. To overcome the weaknesses in cycle 1, the teacher and collaborator
revised the plan as follows: (1) focusing on teaching spelling and word use;
(2) asking the students to raise their hands when they want to answer
questions; (3) grouping the students to economize the time and build
cooperation; and (4) challenging the students to play games in order that they
were not bored just sitting on their chair. In cycle 2, the teacher still used
word webs in brainstorming, during activity, and post activity, but the teacher
and collaborator tried to present word webs as a game. They also grouped the
students in order that they could cooperate.
The topic discussed in cycle 2 was “Food and Drink”. The researcher
and collaborator prepared the materials, students’ worksheet that consisted of
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some tasks, lesson plan as teacher’s guidance in teaching, and everything
related to the action. Post-test would also be given in the end of cycle 2.
b. Implementing the Action
1. First Meeting
The first meeting was conducted on Saturday, 15
th
May 2010 at 09.00
a.m. to 10.30 a.m. The topic was “Foods and Drinks”. The material just
focused on foods and drinks in breakfast time. The teaching aids were course
books and some pictures. After coming to the class, the teacher greeted the
students. After greeting, the teacher explained about the topic which would be
discussed and the purpose to study that. Besides that, the teacher also
explained that the class would study the topic by creating word webs.
After giving an introduction, the teacher continued the lesson. She
started the main activity by asking them a question, “Have you had breakfast?
Tadi sudah sarapan?” Then, the students answer, “Udah, Miss.” she wrote the
word “breakfast” on the board, then, she made two lines to connect the circle
with words “food” and “drinks”. After that, she asked to the students, “What
food do you usually eat in your breakfast? Biasanya kalian sarapan apa?”
Enthusiastically, the students answer, “nasi”, “telur ceplok”, “nasi goreng”,
“ayam”. RI, then, made strands on the circle with the word “food”, “We
usually eat rice, fried egg, fried rice. What about the drinks?”.
Enthusiastically, the student answer “Tea, Miss”, “milk”, “air putih”, “coffee”.
The teacher added the drinks that had been mentioned by the students in the
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strand of the word “drink”. After giving a brainstorming, RI asked the
students to be calm and pay attention to her because she wanted to read a
simple dialogue for them. The teacher read a dialogue. If there was a kind of
meals in the dialogue, the teacher showed the picture to the students. After
reading the dialogue, the teacher asked the students, “What meals are eaten by
White’s family?” some students were asked to write the words of meals they
remembered on the board.
Then, the teacher drilled to pronounce the words. After they finished,
the students were asked to make their own word webs. While the students
made their word webs, the teacher checked whether they spelled the words
correctly or not. The teacher gave correction when the students made
mistakes. The teacher also explained how to use words in certain context, for
example, “a glass of milk”, “a cup of coffee”, “The fried egg is salty, you put
too much salt.”
To know the students’ understanding, the teacher gave exercise to the
students. The teacher shared the students’ worksheet. There are four kinds of
questions: (1) some pictures, the students should give (v) to the picture which
are the meals eaten by White’s family; (2) dictation; (3) finding the meaning;
and (4) using the words in certain context.
After doing the assignment, the teacher invited the students to play a
game. The teacher still used word webs in the game. The students were
attracted to the game. There were two groups; each group consists of three
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students. They were asked to stick the picture according to the proper context,
for example, the picture of sugar, should be stuck on the strand with the words
“A spoon of . . . . “ The group which could finish their job faster and properly
was the winner. The winner was group one; the members were Tata, Nisa and
Silvi.
RI asked the students’ feeling after studying using word webs. “Are you
happy?” The students answered, “Happy, Miss. Asyik nempel – nempel
gambarnya. Capek, Miss. Haus, Miss tapi happy”. The other studens said,
“Kok aku nggak dapet giliran maen game nya tah, Miss?” The teacher was
happy because the students enjoyed the lesson. “So far, any questions? Ada
pertanyaan nggak?” “No, Miss.” The teacher explained that the time was
over, and the lesson would be continued next meeting.
2. Second Meeting
The second meeting was conducted on Tuesday, May 18
th
, 2010 at 09.00
am to 10.10 a.m. The topic was “Food and Drinks” and the teacher focused on
“Snacks”.
When the teacher and collaborator entered the class, the class was very
noisy and some students were still outside enjoying their meals. The teacher
asked the students who were still outside to come in the class. After the class
was quiet, the teacher greeted the students.
The teacher mentioned the topic which would be discussed. She wrote
the topic on the board (Meals). “Last meeting, kita belajar tentang Meal when
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having breakfast. Now, sekarang, kita belajar makanan favorite kita. Kalian
tau, ada banyak makanan instant dan makanan ringan (snacks). Makanan
mana yang lebih kalian suka?” The teacher made two branches on the topic
which had been made: instant meals and snacks. After that, she asked the
student to give some examples, “Adam, tau makanan instant nggak? Apa
saja?”, Adam answered, “KFC ya, Miss.”, the other student answered, “pizza,
Miss.” “Hamburger, Miss”. “Very good”. When the teacher asked the students
about the example of meals, they were very enthusiastic. The teacher also
asked the example of snacks. The teacher asked the students to complete the
word webs on their board.
The teacher gave text to the students. It was a kind of a simple poem.
The teacher read the poem, and asked the students to repeat. After reading the
poem, the teacher led the students to understand it. The teacher shared a piece
of paper and some pictures of meals for each student. “Has everybody got the
paper and pictures? Udah dapat semua?” the students answered, “Udah,
Miss.” The students made the word webs on the paper. After that, the teacher
re-read the poem for the students, and asked the students to add the picture of
the meal to their word webs by sticking them on the paper without giving the
name. While reading the poem, the students were sticking the picture on their
word webs according to the meal they had heard. When the teacher felt that
the words were new for the students, she showed the picture to the students
and showed where the students should stick the pictures (whether on the
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branch “instant meal” or “snack”. After sticking the pictures according to the
word webs, the teacher drilled the students to spell the name of the picture and
wrote the name behind the proper picture. The students looked enjoying the
activity. Still using pictures and the word webs, the teacher led the students to
use the words in a simple sentence. “Miss Riana will show you picture, let’s
make the sentence”. The teacher showed the picture of a bucket of fried
chicken, then, she said, “We buy a bucket of fried chicken.” The students
repeat the sentence, and they were asked to add the words “a bucket” to the
picture of “fried chicken”. The students got difficulty in this activity, but the
teacher led them patiently to use the words. The three aspects of teaching
vocabulary had been taught, then, the teacher led the students to pronounce
the words properly.
After doing some activities, the teacher gave assignment to the students
to evaluate whether the lesson can be received well or not. The evaluation of
pronunciation and spelling could be finished by the students, but
unfortunately, the evaluation of word meaning and word use could not be
finished by some students. The teacher asked the students to finish the
assignment in their house and reminded them not to forget to do and bring the
assignment next meeting.
The teacher gave reflection which had been done that day by asking the
students’ feeling and comments. RI asked the students, “How is your feeling
after this lesson? Bagaimana pendapat kalian setelah pelajaran ini?” The
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students answer, “Asyik, Miss, makanannya bikin laper aja, enak – enak, bikin
pengen.” Some students complained, “Waktunya terlalu cepat, Miss.” “Aku
nggak selesai ngerjain tugasnya”, “Capek, Miss.” The teacher gave response
and advised them. The teacher also asked them to finish their assignment at
home and bring the homework next meeting. Finally, the teacher closed the
lesson, then, said good bye.
3. The Third Meeting
The third meeting was held on Tuesday, May 25
th
, 2010, at 09.00 a. m.
until 10.10 a.m. In the third meeting, the teacher chose “Having Lunch in
Food Court” as the topic. After preparing the material needed, the teacher and
collaborator came to the 3A. They looked the students of 3A entering to their
class. All of the students sat on their chair, then, the collaborator sat on her
chair in the back side. The teacher greeted the students and checked the
students’ attendance. The teacher asked the students about the topic which had
been discussed in the last meeting, “Hari Selasa kemarin kita belajar tentang
apa?”, the students answered, “Favorite Meals, Miss.” Then, the teacher
mentioned the new topic which would be discussed in the lesson. “Well, today
we will learn new topic. Hari ini kita belajar topic baru, tentang ‘Meals in
Food Court’. Siapa yang pernah ke food court?” Almost all of them raised
their hands.
The teacher made word webs on the black board. She wrote ‘Meals in
food court’ on the middle of the black board. Then, she gave the two
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branches: ‘foods’ and ‘drinks’. Then, she asked the students to mention the
foods and drinks belonging to the each branch, then asked the volunteer to
write their answer on the board. After the teacher and the students had
finished the word webs, the teacher drilled the students to pronounce each
word appropriately.
The teacher gave text for the students. First, she read the text, then, the
students repeated it. After reading the text, the teacher and the students
discussed some word dealing with the topic by asking the meaning.
The teacher led the students to use each word in simple sentences by
adding word in the word webs. “Students, look the word ‘meatball’! coba
lihat kata ‘meatball’! I want a bowl of meatball” While saying the sentence,
RI wrote ‘a bowl of’ beside the word ‘meatball’. “What do I want? Apa yang
Miss Riana ingin beli?” The students answer, “A bowl of meatball.” The
teacher also explained the other foods that used ‘a bowl of’, like porridge and
chicken noodle.
The teacher still drilled the students using the word in sentences. “The
iced tea is bitter, I need a spoon of sugar. Es tehnya apa?” The students
answered, “bitter, pahit.” Then, the teacher asked, “And I need?” the students
answered a spoon of sugar.” The teacher wrote the words ‘a spoon of sugar’
beside the word ‘iced tea’. The teacher continued for the other words. “The
orange juice is sour.” The students looked confused. The teacher helped them,
“jus jeruknya rasanya asam, kecut.” The students said, “ow”. RI asked, “What
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is the taste? Rasa jus jeruknya?” All at once the students answered, “Sour”.
The teacher smiled and said, “Very good”. The teacher wrote the word ‘sour’
beside the word ‘orange juice’ in the word webs. Because the time is limited,
the teacher explained to use the words and wrote the word fast. She said “The
fried rice is hot and salty. Nasi gorengnya pedas dan asin.” and wrote the
word ‘hot’ and ‘salty’ beside the word ‘fried rice’. The students took notes
like the teacher in their own word webs.
After leading the students to use the words in sentence, the teacher
divided the students into 3 groups. Each group has eight students. Each group
had to stand in line according their group. The teacher used word webs in a
game. Then, the teacher explained what they must do. “Students, setiap
anggota kelompok yang baris di belakang akan Miss Riana tunjukan kata,
kemudian kalian bisikan ke teman kalian yang ada di depan, dilanjutkan
sampai depan. Yang ada di barisan paling depan, harus mencari gambar
yang sesuai dan menempelkannya di tempat yang di sediakan sesuai dengan
nomor. Jelas?” Enthusiastically the students answered, “Jelas, Miss.” The
students could do the game well. Each group competed to win the game.
They looked very cheerful. It seemed that the first group would win the game.
The teacher asked the students to sit on their own chair. ”Are you tired,
capek?” The students answered, “sedikit, Miss. Nggak Miss.” The teacher
asked them to do task, “After you finished your assignment, Miss Riana will
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give you candies”. Some students complained, but the teacher could assure
them to do the task. Sometimes rewards were needed to motivate the students.
The bell was ringing. The teacher gave quick review of the lesson. Then
the teacher said goodbye. The teacher and the observer left the class and went
back to the teacher’s office.
4. Fourth Meeting
After third meeting of cycle 2, the teacher also conducted post-test. It
was held on Saturday, May 29
th
, 2010 at 09.00 to 10.00 a.m. The test was
used to measure the students’ understanding about “Foods and Drinks”. There
were 20 questions to measure pronunciation, word meaning, word use, and
spelling.
After entering the class, the teacher greeted the students. Then, she
checked students’ attendance. The teacher explained that they would have
test. Surprisingly, the students did not complain. They kept their English book
in their bags, and just prepared their pencil and eraser.
While the students did test, the teacher and observer test the students’
pronunciation. The teacher called the students according to students’ number.
At 10.00 all of the students finished their test. The students submitted their
work to the teacher. Finally, the teacher led them to pray and said good bye.
c. Observing the Action
The observer noted the result of observation in field note. The researcher
also gave addition in the field note. During the implementation, the teaching
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learning process became more living than before. Almost students participate
in the lesson. When the teacher asked them to come in front of the class, they
did not feel shy or afraid. Apparently, the third grade students of SDN
Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga were active. They liked moving and cooperating. The
game could attract the students to participate in the lesson.
The students looked enjoying the lesson. When there was something
they did not understand, they actively asked to the teacher. They were also
enthusiastic in reading the text. Word webs was not only used in the
brainstorming and post activity, but also implemented during activity. In
doing the assignment, the students did not complain like before because the
teacher led and helped them. Good atmosphere was also built in the class.
Most of the students also paid attention to the teacher. Good communication
also occurred between the students and teacher.
The students’ vocabulary mastery also improved. It can be seen from the
post test result in cycle 2 which was better than the post test in the first cycle.
The mean of pre-test 2 was 59.92, the mean of post test in cycle 2 improved to
79.60. It was also better than the mean in cycle 1, which was 63.40.
d. Reflecting
Based on the observation results which were gathered in field notes, the
researcher and observer reflected the result of the action in the cycle 2 as
follows:
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1. The students’ score improved. The score of four aspects improved. The
mean score in posttest cycle 2 is 79.60. It is better than the mean score in
pre-test of cycle 2, that is, 59.62 and post-test in cycle 1, that is, 63.40.
The level of significance of the improvement between pre-test 2 and post
test 2 is 7.94 (t
t
for 25 students is 2.060), while the level of significance of
the improvement between post-test 1 and 2 is 8.50 (t
t
for 25 students is
2.060).
2. Almost all of the students could pronounce the words properly. 96%
students could pronounce well. They just made around 0 – 2 mistakes
from 5 questions.
3. Almost all of the students could spell and use the words properly. 72%
students could spell the words properly. They just made around 0 – 2
mistakes from 5 questions and 68% students could use the words properly
in sentences.
4. Almost all of the students understand the words’ meaning after the teacher
implement word webs in brain storming. 96% students could understand
word meaning of the materials. They just made around 0 – 2 mistakes
from 5 questions.
5. The students were active in the lesson. Sometimes they were noisy and
made jokes with their friends, although they were still tune in the lesson.
6. The teacher could implement word webs in the lesson without using
pictures. The teacher could implement word webs as brainstorming. It
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built the students’ knowledge of words. The teacher could also implement
word webs during and post activity.
7. The students were not bored because they were challenged to play games.
They not only sat on their chair but also moved although just a little. It
quite decreased their boredom.
The researcher and collaborator concluded that teaching vocabulary
using word webs could help the student understand new words. Word webs
could encourage the students to participate in the teaching learning activity, so
their vocabulary mastery improved. The students’ vocabulary improvement
could be seen from their mean score in the post test 2 which was better in the
post test 1. The mean score in post test 2 was 79.60, while the mean score in
post test 1 was 63.40. Because the students’ vocabulary mastery and behavior
improved significantly, the researcher and observer decided to stop the cycle.
C. Discussion
Nowadays, English has been taught in elementary school although it is just
an optional subject. SDN Sidorejo Lor 1 Salatiga has taught English since the first
grade. In the first to second grade, the students are introduced by words. The teacher
usually uses picture to introduce new words. In the next grade, that is third grade, the
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students are encouraged to use English in simple sentence or even text. Sometimes
they get difficulties in reading activity.
To solve the problem, the researcher tried to use new technique. The
technique was “Word Webs”. Word webs are diagrams to present the relationship
among the words to build students’ vocabulary mastery. This technique is good to be
implemented for the beginners. Based on the students’ test result and researcher’s
observation, word webs can improve students’ vocabulary mastery.
There are some reasons why word webs should be implemented in teaching
vocabulary for young learners. Nation in Cameron (2001: 85) states that the teacher
can explain new word in the young learner classroom by demonstrating.
Demonstrating means using visual aids to help young learners understand new words.
In demonstrating, the teacher can use diagram. The diagram which is chosen should
be able to stimulate the students to the topics. Word webs can be used because it is
diagrams which show the relationship among words.
Ur (1996: 63) says that presenting new vocabulary to the students by giving
examples or hyponyms. Word webs is also a way to give examples or hyponyms of
themes. Children will be enthusiastic if they are taught using fun activities or being
involved in activities (http://peni.staff.uns.ac.id/2008/10/10/young-learner-
characteristcs/). That is why word webs should be chosen. It can be implemented as a
game and it can encourage students to involve in activity, in brainstorming for
example. By using word webs, the teacher can ask students about certain topic. There
is a significant change before and after action research. Students’ learning activity is
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improved from passive to active. The improvement includes the students’ activeness
during teaching learning process, asking, and answering questions. Word webs help
the students in understanding the relationship among words. Their pre-knowledge is
built before the main activity. In activity, the students’ knowledge increases after they
add some words related to the topic in word webs. After main activity, the students’
knowledge also increases after the teacher leads them to add new words in word
webs.
Based on the reasons above, word webs is an appropriate technique for
teaching vocabulary to young learners. The concept of word webs is like mind map. It
is a diagram used to represent ideas linked to and arranged around a central key word
or idea (www.wikipedia.com). How this technique can improve students’ vocabulary
mastery? Before activity, the teacher uses word webs for brainstorming. Firstly, the
teacher writes the main topic on the middle of the board. Then, the teacher asks the
sub-theme to the students. From the sub-theme, the students are stimulated to think
some words belonging to each branch. Ur (1996: 68-69) suggests to use diagram to
show word association (word webs). This activity is mainly for revising words the
class already knows, but new ones may be introduced, by teachers or students. Word
association can help the students make concept about topic. For example in cycle 1,
the theme was “Things in My House”. The theme was categorized into sub-theme.
The teacher helped the students categorize things in their house according to the
rooms (for example bedroom and kitchen). After categorizing the words, the students
will easily remember the meaning. The teacher can also use pictures to help the
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students understand word meaning. This technique is not only for teaching noun, but
also giving stimulus words by asking the students to think the possible verb, adjective
or adverb dealing with the noun. In line with Ur’s statement, it can be concluded that
word webs can be used to teach word use.
One of the benefits of using word webs in teaching vocabulary is expanding
students’ written and oral vocabularies (http://www.readwritethink.org). When
brainstorming, the students were asked to write some words on the board and their
note book. This activity help them in spelling. If there was a mistake, the teacher
helped them to correct it. After making word webs, the teacher drilled the students to
pronounce each word. It helped them in pronunciation. When the students had seen
and known the word belonged to which strands, they will easily internalize word
meaning. In introducing words in word use, the teacher stimulated the students by
asking them to think the possible verb, adjective, or adverb dealing with the noun.
Then, the teacher gave the example of the use of word in sentence.
It is obviously known implementing word webs in teaching vocabulary
encourages the students’ interest and understanding. After finishing a meeting, the
researcher interviewed some students. She asked about the students’ feeling after
learning English through word webs. A student said, “Saya jadi mudeng Miss
membaca text bahasa Inggris.” The other student added, “Iya, Miss. Kalau dikasih
soal tentang bacaan, sekarang jadi bisa.” It means that word webs in brainstorming
is able to encourage the students’ pre knowledge. After that, easily the students can
understand texts. The other students said, “Sekarang aku udah bisa baca kata – kata
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bahasa Inggris, Miss.” She continued, “Aku juga udah mulai bisa nulisnya.” Besides,
helping the students in understanding the relationship of words and meaning, word
webs can also help them spell word. The teacher’s examples in pronunciation also
help the students to pronounce each word. Based on the researcher and collaborator
observation during teaching learning process and also the students’ score in post test
1 and 2, almost all students are able to use words properly. For example, the students
have known how to use word “fry” and “fried”. They use the word “fry” in “I fry
chicken”, and use the word “fried” in “I eat fried chicken”.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
All stages in the action research were completely done from December to
June 2010. Based on the result of the research, it can be concluded that word webs
can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery and the quality of the teaching learning
process. The improvement was showed by the result of the post test in cycle 2 which
was better than post test in cycle 1 and pretest. The mean score in post test 2 was
79.60. It is better than 59.52 in pre-test 2, and 63.36 in post-test 1.
There were some changes as the result of the actions. The changes were
either in the participation or the behavior of the involved members, and also the
students’ vocabulary mastery. The changes were as follows:
1. The changes in the English teaching learning process
Before the action research, the English teacher just taught the students through
LKS and asked the students to do many assignments from the LKS. Therefore,
the teaching learning process was monotonous and boring. The students were also
passive in the teaching learning process. They just did the assignment. The
communication and discussion between students and teacher were not built.
During the implementation of the action, the students were actively involved in
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the teaching learning process. The discussion and communication occurred, and
the class became alive.
2. The changes of the students’ vocabulary mastery
Because the students’ behavior in English class was better than before, that was
they actively participated in teaching learning process, their vocabulary mastery
also improved. They were involved in finding new knowledge. Before
implementing the action the researcher found the capability in pronunciation,
word meaning, word use, and also spelling was low. After the action, the students
could pronounce the words properly (96% students could pronounce correctly).
They also understand the meaning of word in context (96% could understand
word meaning). Then, the students were able to spell words correctly (72%
students could spell correctly), and they understand the use of words in text (68%
students could use word in sentences
B. Implication
Teaching English to young learner should be patient and use appropriate
technique in order that they can be interested in the lesson. Children like asking
something new, so the teacher should help them to understand the new things.
Implementing word webs in teaching English has been proven to be an effective way
to help students learn words. The diagram as visual technique helps them understand
words. Based on the conclusion in this study and supported by all of the data of the
research, there is an improvement in teaching vocabulary by implementing word
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webs in teaching learning process. Selecting the way to present the vocabulary is
based on the class situation and the students’ condition. Therefore, the chosen
technique should attracts the students’ attention and achieves the teaching aims. One
technique that has been proven to be an effective way to teach vocabularies is
implementing word webs in teaching learning process as brain storming, main
activity, and also post activity.
C. Suggestion
After carrying out the research and obtaining the conclusion, the researcher
would like to propose some suggestions directed to English teacher, students,
institution of Education, and other researcher.
1. To teachers
Teaching is helping students to understand. Teaching not only pushes students to
do a lot of assignment but also learns the characteristics of each student to know
exactly what they need and what problems they faced on their development.
Besides, the teacher, especially young learner teacher, should make the teaching
learning process interesting and enjoyable. The teachers should be able to attract
students to learn without compulsion. It can be done by leading them in
understanding the material and also attract them to develop their pre-knowledge.
Word webs can be used as brainstorming to build their pre-knowledge, as main
and post activity to add or develop their knowledge.
2. To Students
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Students should be accustomed to study and do exercise continually. The students
should build their own motivation to study. After their teacher uses word webs,
they can use it by themselves. They can apply it in making notes. They can add it
with their own pictures and also color.
3. Institution of Education
The institution should encourage the English teacher to improve the quality of the
teaching. The head master should remind the teachers that teaching is helping the
students to develop their knowledge. He can suggest word webs as the alternative
technique in building and develop the students’ knowledge. The institution should
provide various media supporting the teaching learning activity, such as pictures,
notebook, and LCD. It should facilitate teacher to be creative in using various
media.
4. The other researchers
This research studies the implementation of word webs in teaching vocabulary to
children. This study is just one of efforts in increasing the students’ motivation
and achievement. It is hoped that the result of the study can be used as additional
reference for further research on similar problems for the other researchers.