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# Power quality indicators estimation using robust Newton-type algorithm

V. Terzija and V. Stanojevic Abstract: A two-stage robust Newton-type numerical algorithm for power quality assessment in electric power systems is described. The robust Newton-type algorithm is applied to estimate current and voltage spectra and the fundamental frequency simultaneously, in the ﬁrst algorithm stage. The algorithm robustness is achieved by developing an extra module called a ‘bad data detector’. In the second algorithm stage power quality indicators are calculated, particularly the active, reactive, apparent and distortion powers. The main advantage is that the technique provides estimates which are insensitive to frequency deviations and to bad data appearing as a consequence of communication error, incomplete measurement, errors in mathematical models etc. The algorithm performance is tested under laboratory conditions using the distorted voltage and current signals digitised during an AC motor start. A simulation example of processing distorted currents and voltages of an arc furnace is also presented.

1

Introduction

As deregulation imposes tighter utility competition for customers [1] power quality (PQ) assessment is causing much more interest in the industry. New digital instruments measuring power quality indicators are being developed. Some of the devices available on the market are used for automated PQ assessment [2]. During the process of A/D conversion of the input signals, the appearance of bad data (so called ‘outliers’) is possible. These are typical measurement errors. To process such signals, robust measurement algorithms must be applied. In an electric power system an increase or decrease in frequency occurs due to disturbances in the power system. Large blocks of load are being connected or disconnected, or large sources of generation are going ofﬂine. Frequency variations are much more likely to occur for the loads that are supplied by a generator isolated from the utility system (islands). An overview of numerical algorithms used today in power engineering can be found in [3]. Various numerical algorithms for power measurements are sensitive to frequency variations. Typical examples are algorithms based on the fast Fourier technique (FFT), or algorithms based on the least error squares technique (LS) and on the assumption that system frequency is known in advance and constant (50 or 60 Hz). In this paper a two-stage robust Newton-type numerical algorithm for PQ assessment is described. In the ﬁrst stage of the algorithm the signals are processed independently from each other to estimate current and voltage spectra. In the second algorithm stage unknown PQ indicators, such as root mean square (RMS) value, power factor (PF), total harmonic distortion factor (THD), distortion power etc. are calculated by using suitable deﬁnitions. A numerical

r IEE, 2004 IEE Proceedings online no. 20040580 doi:10.1049/ip-gtd:20040580 Paper ﬁrst received 6th May 2003 and in revised form 14th January 2004 The authors are with the ABB Calor Emag AG, Oberhausene St 33, Gatiger D40472, Germany IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 151, No. 4, July 2004

algorithm presented in this paper considers the system frequency as an unknown signal-model parameter to be estimated. This approach solves the problem of sensitivity to frequency variations. By the introduction of power frequency in the vector of unknown model parameters, the signal model becomes nonlinear, so strategies of nonlinear estimation are used. For the purpose of voltage and current spectra estimation, the robust Newton-type algorithm (NTA) is successfully implemented in PQ assessment. The new algorithm is not sensitive to outliers appearing as an error caused by, for example, communication channels, incorrect mathematical models, problems by A/D conversion, incomplete measurements etc. This important feature is achieved by extending the existing algorithm with a bad data detector (BDD) module, capable of recognising outliers in a series of samples belonging to a data window being processed. The features of the new robust algorithm are demonstrated by processing distorted voltages and currents measured on a real AC motor during motor start. In addition, a simulation example for processing distorted currents and voltages of an arc furnace is presented. 2 Robust Newton-type algorithm

Let us assume the following observation model of the input voltage (or current) signal, digitised at the measurement device location: vðtÞ ¼ hðx; tÞ þ xðtÞ ð 1Þ in which v(t) is an instantaneous voltage at time t, x(t) a zero mean random noise, x a suitable parameter vector and h( Á ) nonlinear function expressed as: hðx; tÞ ¼ V0 þ

M X k ¼1

Vk sinðk ot þ jk Þ

ð 2Þ

For the generic model (2), a suitable vector of unknown parameters is given by: x ¼ ½ V0 ; o ; V1 ; . . . ; VM ; j 1 ; . . . ; j M T ð 3Þ where V0 is the magnitude of the decaying DC component

477

By using a standard statistical test such as the chi-square test [7. J# where i is an iteration index. The MNRT can be successfully applied if the data series analysed is normally distributed. the value of t at a discrete time index is given by tm ¼ mTs and the following discrete representation of the signal model can be used: vm ¼ hðxm . The adopted signal model is a highly nonlinear function of the unknown frequency. The key relation of the NTA algorithm is given by: À1 T ^ i þ ð JT ^i . 2. as it has been during the signal model development. m ¼ 1. With this module the algorithm robustness is achieved. given by (1) and (2). . The NTA algorithm belongs to non recursive. tm Þ þ xm . 100 model samples 50 ð 4Þ ð 5Þ Vkm sinðk om tm þ jkm Þ where all unknown parameters from (3) now have a subscript m. j3 . 3. In Fig. 151. The number of unknowns (i. to determine the unknown model parameters).y. the narrow part of a data window with sampled values and predicted values is presented. In this paper. 1 j2 ¼ M @ hðxÞ X ¼ Vk kt cosðk ot þ jk Þ @o k ¼1 ð 9Þ j2 þ k ¼ j2 þ M þ k ¼ where k ¼ 1. Distrib. tÞ r ¼ v À hð x ð12Þ Residual vector r has N elements.4640 0. Transm. In [4] the Newton-type algorithm for the simultaneous estimation of voltage phasors and power system frequency is presented.4615 0. distortion of the input signals is taken into account. The problem is to solve the overdetermined system of nonlinear equations (i. It is assumed that the input data are corrupted with bad data. It is derived under the assumption that the input voltage is a pure sine wave. N. 1. The outlier in Fig. in n unknowns are obtained.4640 0.4635 0.4645 ^ is estimated vector. . so application of nonlinear estimation is required.e. hðxm . 1 is obvious. y. The Jacobian matrix J is an (N Á n) matrix.e. The input signals are sampled during a ﬁnite period of time. s 0. the model order) is n ¼ 2M+2. j2þ2M j1 ¼ @ hðxÞ ¼1 @ V0 ð 7Þ ð 8Þ Fig. July 2004 . nonlinear estimators.i ¼ 1.4615 0. having as its elements the partial derivatives of signal model (2). for goodness of the ﬁt. No. x i ¼ À1 T T ðJi Ji Þ Ji is referred to as a left pseudo-inverse of ^i . tm Þ ¼ V0m þ M X k ¼1 The elements of the Jacobian are calculated in terms of the estimates estimated in the step before. s 0. so the algorithm presented is extended with the module called the bad data detector (BDD). Á Á Á .4630 t. 478 @ hðxÞ ¼ sinðk ot þ jk Þ @ Vk @ hðxÞ ¼ Vk cosðk ot þ jk Þ @ jk ð10Þ ð11Þ To recognise and remove outliers from data window and consequently to improve both the robustness and the calculation performances of the NTA algorithm. Consequently. 6] for testing outliers is used in the BDD module. showing an outlier 40 20 ð 6Þ 0 −20 ∆U. called a data window. in which a problem of power quality is considered. 2. The BDD module calculates the following residual vector r: ^i . 4. tÞÞ ^iþ1 ¼ x x i Ji Þ Ji ðv À hðx 0 U1. tÞ is Jacobian Ji. the maximum (normalised) residual test (MNRT) [5.4625 0.4620 0.4625 0. v is an (N Á 1) measurement vector. V −40 −60 −80 −100 −120 −140 0. The expected beneﬁt of introducing power system frequency into the vector of unknown signal parameters is algorithm insensitivity to frequency changes. o is the fundamental angular velocity. where j ¼ ½j1 . M. it was proved that the residuals processed are distributed by normal distribution with zero mean. a set of N (NZn ¼ 2M+2) nonlinear equations. equal to 2pf..at t ¼ 0. By providing N samples on the data window. its residual value will be far from other residuals.4645 Fig. 1 Segment of arbitrary data window.4635 0. if an outlier exists in the data window. ri. which is shown in Fig. by processing the data belonging to the preceding data window). f being frequency. Vol. both small and large. Let us denote with j an arbitrary row of the Jacobian.4620 0.-Gener. Vk is the magnitude of the kth harmonic and jk is the phase angle of the kth harmonics. M is the highest order of the harmonics presented in the signal. j2 . The MNRT is applied IEE Proc.e. hðx an (N Á 1) vector of nonlinear functions determined by the assumed mathematical model of the input signal and N is the number of samples belonging to the data window. (i. If the input signal is uniformly sampled with sampling frequency fs and sampling period Ts ¼ 1/fs. V −50 −100 −150 0.4630 t. 8]. . 2 Residuals corresponding to data from Fig.

There is not an unique deﬁnition for the reactive power. In [4] it is shown that the number of iterations provided at one data window i can be reduced to a single iteration. Voltage and current root mean square (RMS) values: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ uM uM uX 1 uX 1 Vk2 IRMS ¼ t I2 ð15Þ VRMS ¼ t 2 2 k k ¼1 k ¼1 IEE Proc. the residual which is farthest from the other residuals is recognised. July 2004 In Sections 4 and 5 two test examples are presented. after a short convergence period tcnv. The signiﬁcance level a is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. The average power is expressed as: Pav ¼ V0 I0 þ M X 1 k ¼1 2 Vk Ik cosðjk À ck Þ ð20Þ where jk and ck are the voltage and current kth harmonics phase angles.. e. 151. The prerequisite for this step is the suitable interface between the corresponding inputs (of the power quality disturbances analyser) and outputs (of the algorithm presented). By this. the true estimates are obtained. It is important to know the nature of signals processed.e. In other words.vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ1 0v uM uM uX 1 uX 1 t t 2 @ Vk Vk2 A100% THDv ¼ 2 2 k ¼2 k ¼1 ð17Þ Active and reactive powers of the fundamental harmonic are expressed as: 1 P1 ¼ V1 I1 cosðj1 À c1 Þ ð18Þ 2 1 ð19Þ Q1 ¼ V1 I1 sinðj1 À c1 Þ 2 Several deﬁnitions of power components in linear sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal systems [9–12] are proposed. the null hypothesis H0 of no outliers is rejected. No.e. Vol. and at the same time does not inﬂuence the algorithm features. Distrib. which determines the selection of the optimal signal model and the minimal sampling frequency. to set i ¼ 1). The following Budeanu’s reactive power deﬁnition [9] is used in this paper: QBud ¼ M X 1 k ¼1 2 Vk Ik sinðjk À ck Þ ð21Þ Apparent harmonic power: S ¼ VRMS IRMS Budeanu’s distortion power: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 À Q2 D ¼ S 2 À Pav Bud ð22Þ ð23Þ The second stage algorithm calculates PQ indicators from the current/voltage spectra estimated by the robust NTA. s is its standard deviation.N À2Þ ð14Þ GCR ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ t 2 N À 2 þ tð N a=2N . That allows us to provide a high measurement accuracy over a wide range of frequency changes.g. the t distribution converges to the standard normal distribution. The NTA algorithm presented is adaptive in nature. In both test examples investigated the bad data are artiﬁcially added to the corresponding signals being 479 . For example. vi is deleted from data window and this process is repeated until no outliers are detected. That means that there is probability of 0. The methodology presented could be coupled with the stand-alone software packages for classiﬁcation of power quality disturbances. the estimate from the preceding iteration is used as an input to the next. The test statistic G is then compared with the critical value GCR: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u 2 tð N À 1u a=2N . This simpliﬁcation signiﬁcantly reduces CPU requirements. When the degree of freedom tends to inﬁnity. typical motor start signals are processed. The null hypothesis in this method is: H0: There is no outlier in the data. for voltage: ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ. A typical motor starting current and its fast amplitude changes were a challenging task to be considered. These were obtained through computer simulation. Transm.-Gener. The alternative hypothesis is: Ha: There is at least one outlier in the data. The new algorithm design procedure requires the appropriate choice of sampling frequency. and ri is the residual that maximises G. the length of data window Tdw and the initial guess for the vector of unknown parameters x0.on the vector of residuals. The basic formulas used by this are given in the following text. The simulation offered the opportunity for changing the system frequency. In the ﬁrst step. Given a step change of one (or all) model parameter(s). The arc furnace distorted voltages processing was an excellent test example for checking the features of the new robust Newton-type algorithm. The second test example considered voltages and currents obtained at the terminal of an arc furnace. the true estimates can be obtained in the frequency range of Àfs/2 to +fs/2. The new algorithm for power quality indicators estimation can be also applied in some other examples important from the power quality point of view. 3 Second stage numerical algorithm Total power factor (PF): PF ¼ M X 1 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃvﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ1 !. If G4GCR.N À2Þ where N is the number of residuals. a is the signiﬁcance level and t is the critical value of the t distribution with (N–2) degrees of freedom.05. the initial vector x0 can be calculated by using FFT. In the ﬁrst test example.05 of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.0v uM uM uX 1 uX 1 2A t 2 @ Vk Ik cosðjk À ck Þ Ik t V 2 2 2 k k ¼1 k ¼1 k ¼1 ð16Þ Total harmonic distortion (THD). tcnv Tdw [4]). With the initial guess x0 correctly determined. It is achieved by computing the following test statistic: rj jri À ð13Þ G ¼ max s where r is the mean of the residual vector. The degree of freedom is a parameter of the t-distribution. Consequently. The convergence period is approximately equal to the length of data window (i. the residual ri corresponding to the sample vi in data window is an outlier. These signals are obtained under laboratory conditions. 4. (i. In the BDD module the signiﬁcance level is set to a ¼ 0.

during and after start 400 300 200 100 Signals are digitised before and after the beginning of the motor start (ts ¼ 1.1 Data acquisition during motor start Under laboratory conditions the motor voltages and currents are recorded during the motor start test. due to unknown random electromagnetic interferences etc. the fast amplitude changes make the estimation difﬁcult. s 2.0 t. The total observation time was to ¼ 2. (c) random amplitudes (e. 6 Outliers in voltage signal: a selected example from Fig.9 2. 4. The nature of bad data is random. 1. s 2. during and after start 400 300 200 100 u1.3 2.c. The motor start lasted approximately Dt ¼ 0. coupled to a loaded DC machine was switched to the power system at ts ¼ 1.65 s.5 A 11 kW 50 Hz 0.6 1.1 2.205 2. so those added to the signals were of the following nature: (a) zero input.7 1. machine coupling load 0 −100 −200 −300 Fig. (b) maximal input. Data window size used in NTA algorithm was 40 ms. 5 a slight voltage drop during the motor start is visible.8 1.200 t. 6 the outliers in voltage signal are presented.6 4. 5 Motor voltage before. From the current amplitude estimation point of view.5 1.1 2.210 Fig. and variable speed in the range of 0–2100 rev/min. Their amplitudes varied in the range of +/À400 A (V). They are artiﬁcially injected into the originally recorded signals. 4 Motor current before.3 2. In Fig. In all graphs showing the estimation results the black curve presents the estimation obtained by using the robust approach. Data are sampled with the sampled frequency fs ¼ 5 kHz.). 3 is separately excited. During data recording bad data did not occur. No. It is simple to observe the outliers existing in the current signal.g. In Fig. with Pn ¼ 11 kW.8 1. 151. In Fig.4 2.3 s.. s 2. due to wrong A/ D conversion). The instants and the values are selected randomly. The issue of bad data nature is extremely difﬁcult and depends on the problem under consideration.5 Fig. 3 Schematic structure of test-machine unit Table 1 Rated data of AC motor under test Un In Pn fel cos jn nn Tn 380/220 V 22. corresponds to the lost of the input sample (e. Such a fast change can only be tracked with estimators possessing excellent convergence properties. Transm.0 t. 4 First test example: the motor start 400 300 200 100 i1.g. 4 and 5 the recorded current and voltage of one of three phases are presented.7 1.2 Estimation results In this Section the main results of the application of the two-stage robust NTA numerical algorithm will be given. A 0 −100 −200 −300 −400 1. An AC motor.2 2. The main rated data of the motor are given in Table 1. V 0 −100 −200 −300 −400 2. In Figs. Both signals are severely distorted. The DC machine from Fig.4 2. The AC motor used in the test has a double squirrel cage rotor and is air cooled. 3 the schematic structure of the test machine unit is given.5 s. V power system induction machine d. The starting current is shown in Fig.5 1. Under these severe circumstances the PQ indicators are calculated. while the grey curve presents the result that is not based on the robust estimation (algorithm without BDD module).5 Fig.g.86 1470 rev/min 72 N m −400 1. the results obtained directly by the application of the robust NTA algorithm are given: current RMS values IEE Proc. 5 4.195 2.2 2. First.processed. July 2004 . due to wrong A/D conversion).65 s). Vol. 4.9 2. corresponds to the wrong assigned maximal value (e.-Gener. 480 u1. Distrib.190 2.

1 t.3 2. V 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.7 1. (7–10) it is shown that the robust approach delivered the more accurate result.4 2.3 2. % 1. 8). In all Figs.00 49.7 1.5 Fig.85 1.7 1. s 2.90 49. 8 Fig. A simple low-pass moving average ﬁlter is used for the ﬁltering.0 t.9 2. No. 9 Estimated frequency of supplying voltage Fig. 12 Estimated THD values of motor voltages 481 IEE Proc. Hz 50.1 2. 151.0 t. During the testing an independent measuring device was not available to verify the presented results.5 u1. s 2. In Figs.3 2.4 2.0 2.8 1. July 2004 . 10 Filtered estimated frequency from Fig. 4. Vol.95 49. Even under these conditions.2 2. 9 and 10).6 1.8 6 4 1. Before the motor start.10 50.1 THDu1. 7).2 50.1 2. the input signals are practically zero.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1. 11 18 16 14 Estimated THD values of motor currents 50.3 2.9 2.5 Fig. 4 and 5 with the estimates plotted in Figs. Hz 50.for one phase (Fig. % 12 10 8 f ..8 1. s 2. presenting a measuring noise (see zero RMS estimated values of currents).2 2.8 1.0 t.5 50.4 2. but these values do not have any 180 160 140 120 l1.-Gener. The moving average ﬁlter simply calculated the average value of estimated frequencies belonging to the current data window. 10 the ﬁltered frequency is presented. s 2.5 49.5 1.2 2. s 2.6 1.2 2.1 2.5 0 1.6 1.05 f .3 2.0 49.5 1. 7 Estimated RMS values of motor currents practical meaning.4 2. 7 and 8).5 205 Fig. During the motor start both the current and voltage RMS values are correctly estimated (compare the original signals from Figs. Distrib.4 2.9 2. and voltage frequency (Figs.6 1.9 49.3 2.9 2.9 2. s 2.8 1.0 t.7 1. the estimated THD factors 50 45 40 230 225 220 THD i1.1 t.2 2.8 1. V 35 30 25 20 15 215 210 10 5 200 1. the other indicators important for the PQ assessment are derived.4 2.0 2.7 1.1 2.5 1.8 1. Transm. 8 Estimated RMS values of motor voltages Fig.2 2.6 1. the frequency is estimated.9 2. 11 and 12.15 50.7 1. Based on the estimates obtained in the ﬁrst algorithm stage. In Fig. voltage RMS values for one phase (Fig.

9 2.8 1.1 2. 4.1 2.7 1. IEE Proc. 18 Estimated 3-phase Budeanu’s distortion power 1.4 0. 16 (estimated apparent power) is presented.9 2.8 1.0 t.30 2. The steady state started at approximately 2.9 2.5 Q Bud.7 1. 14–18 the active.2 2.0 t.3 0. compared with the steady state.7 1.8 1.20 2. the robust approach gave the more accurate estimates. W × 10 4 4 Fig. VA 1.5 1.5 1.5 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 Fig. 14 Estimated 3-phase average active power 5000 1.2 0.9 2.5 Fig.1 2.4 2.1 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 0 1.2 2.6 1.7 0. During the steady state the current THD factor is greater than the voltage THD factor.3 2.15 2. 16 0.4 2. Note that.for current and voltage are presented.6 1.1 2.3 2. In Fig. 13 6 Estimated total power factor 5 5000 2. 151. The importance of the robust estimation is particularly experienced by the estimation of the distortion power presented in Fig.5 D.25 t.5 8000 1.2 2.4 2.1 2. 13 the estimated total power factor is presented. In Figs. s 2. 16 Fig.8 1.40 Ptot.7 1. As mentioned previously.5 Estimated 3-phase apparent power p.7 1. reactive.2 2.8 0.15 s.f.8 1. Distrib. the power factor is essentially larger value than in the steady state. As expected. Transm. The robust NTA numerical algorithm delivers much more accurate results compared with those without BDD module. VAr × 104 5 4 3 2 1 0 1. July 2004 . As expected.6 1. No.. before the motor start.35 2. All powers present 0. s 2. s 2.3 2. VA 7500 7000 6500 8 7 6 6000 5500 Zoomed segment from Fig.3 2. In Fig. 17 3 10000 2 9500 9000 1 8500 0 1.5 Fig. 15 482 Estimated 3-phase Boudeanu’s reactive power the total motor powers (the sum of the single powers per phase). Vol. 0. so the THD factors before the motor start are relatively large values. s 2. VA × 104 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1. the input signals were practically a noise.4 2.0 t.0 t.2 2.-Gener.0 t. s 2.6 1.5 Fig.6 11 10 9 8 7 S. during the motor start.3 2. during the motor start the greater values are obtained.4 2. s 2. apparent and distortion powers are.6 1.5 S. 17 a zoomed segment from Fig. 18. presented respectively.9 2.

In the simulation without bad data and for f ¼ 50 Hz equal results are obtained for all algorithms mentioned. At t ¼ 1.08 1. kA 0 −0. Distrib.. the known leakage effect occurs.4 0. 4.15 Fig. Simulations are provided on signals with and without bad data and for 50 and 49.5 Hz.5 49.8 0.5 Second test example: arc furnace 5. respectively. a 50 Hz simulation was provided. Transm. In this example data are sampled with the sampled frequency fs ¼ 3200 Hz. 20 Measured voltage at arc furnace terminal Fig. As known.0 2 49.10 1. additionally corrupted by bad data (a sudden drop of three successively sample values from the expected values to zero at t ¼ 1. From Fig. In Figs.5 Hz system frequencies.5 Hz signals. 21 Frequency estimated from voltage signal 483 IEE Proc. It has been concluded that both signals have odd harmonics only. Simulation was provided for system frequency 5. The simulation has been provided by using a unique software package suitable for the simulation of fast electromagnetic transients and nonlinear phenomena like electrical arcs [14]. the FFT is a useful technique only if the signal fundamental frequency is equal to the assumed one (the nominal frequency). Both algorithms are capable of adapting the estimation to the actual system frequency. only selected results are presented.2 t. Hz 49.8%) and only notable in the spectral domain. for the off-nominal frequencies the spectral components are calculated incorrectly [15]. The inﬂuence of frequency changes on the algorithm accuracy was simultaneously investigated.11 t.7 49. 19 and 20. For the ‘+/À10% sample amplitude change’ (t ¼ 1.13 1.8 49.9 1 u.1 3 50. will be presented in this Section. 19 and 20). In this Section an example of processing signals typical for arc furnaces is presented. Due to limited space.12 1.-Gener. The NTA with BDD module delivers correct estimates also in the ranges where signals are corrupted with bad data.2 I .3 1. In other words. Data window size used in NTA algorithm was 40 ms. s 1. Using this test example. kV 0 −1 −2 −3 1.2 −0. The most challenging test example estimation results. 151. The signal model included 15 odd harmonics. This determined the signal model implemented by the NTA application. bad data distorted 49. The advantages of the new robust NTA are also observable in Figs. Its distortion is smaller (THDE0. a Newton-type algorithm with and without BDD module and the common fast Fourier technique (FFT) are implemented and compared. 22–25. independent of the system frequency.28 s with an artiﬁcially ‘+/À10% sample amplitude change’. The current signal is additionally corrupted with bad data. No.6 0.11 s).3 1. 21–25 selected power quality indicators are presented. The presented test example is an additional proof that NTA extended with a BDD module can be successfully 50. Figure 21 shows that FFT is not capable of processing signals with an off-nominal frequency correctly.15 f . 19 Measured current at arc furnace terminal Before processing the arc furnace signals from Figs.8 1.09 1.09 1. 20 it can be noted that the voltage signal is a distorted signal (THDE11.5 Hz test signals processing (Figs. 19 and 20.6 49.1 Arc furnace simulation f ¼ 49.1 1. That was not the case with FFT.5%). The current signal (Fig. Otherwise. suitable voltages and currents are processed.4 −0. It has been shown that this ‘small’ bad data corruption did not essentially affect the estimation procedure.0 NTA-Grubbs NTA FFT 1. The nonlinear arc furnace model and the test example from [13] are used.14 1.12 1.4 1.5 Fig.2 Estimation results 0. in which the results for NTA with and without BDD module and FFT are presented. 19) is also a distorted signal. the current and the voltage signals at the terminal of the arc furnace are obtained and are presented in Figs. Vol. July 2004 .28 s) it can be observed that estimates for NTA with and without the BDD module are slightly different.4 49. These obtained by NTA with BDD module are correct.10 1.14 1.6 −0.08 1. s 1.13 1. Both signals were additionally corrupted around t ¼ 1. Only short segments of signals are presented. s 1. To investigate the spectrum features. The NTA algorithm with and without BDD module delivered accurate estimates for f ¼ 49.11 s three successively sample values are put to the maximal current amplitude value. In the case of processing signals corrupted by bad data. only the NTA with BDD module was capable of processing signals correctly. Based on the simulation.11 t.

: ‘Probability. Transm. Technometrics. 17. P. pp.. and reliability for engineers and scientists’ (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press LLC. B. These are typical for power systems during faults and abnormal operations.g. H.100 estimation of distorted signals.3 1. Saha. No. pp. USA. M.-Gener. and Kovacevic.: ‘Statistics theory and its application’ (Tehnicka Knjiga. statistics..4 1. pp. 99. 1927) 10 Fryze. and Moore.) 9 Budeanu.. J. 1–21 6 Stefansky..5 Fig.5 Fig. 1368–1374 5 Grubbs. It may be also used in designing the algorithms for the applications in other ﬁelds of engineering. kA 0.5395 0. 4th Edn. IEEE Trans. Vol. The algorithm is successfully applied in the processing of currents and voltages recorded during the laboratory start of an 11 kW AC motor and analysis of signals typical for arc furnaces. July 2004 .1 1. It is based on the application of the robust Newton-type algorithm for the simultaneously frequency and spectrum 484 1 Dugan. B. (1). pp.S.0.: ‘Rejecting outliers in factorial designs’. I. The BDD module is based on the maximum normalised residual test. Marsh...5405 I RMS. Romania.E. C. 151.045 0. 11. During the motor start both currents and voltages were severely distorted and artiﬁcially corrupted with bad data.. 1931.: ‘Procedures for detecting outlying observations in samples’. Sachdev.0 NTA-Grubbs NTA FFT 1. 6 Conclusions In this paper a two-stage robust numerical algorithm for the estimation of power quality indicators is presented and successfully applied through two test examples: (a) laboratory motor starting and (b) arc furnace simulation. This technique is not limited only to measurement applications in power systems. 23 Estimated RMS values of arc furnace voltage 1. 1994. P.0 1.3 1.1 1.M.040 2. The NTA itself delivered better results compared with the standard Fourier technique-based methods (e. The algorithm is not sensitive to the changes of the frequency of the input signal.4 1. Distrib.: ‘Active.H. Power Deliv.055 0.045 2.110 1. T. and Winston. (Institut Romain de l’Energie.5390 0. IEEE Trans. Djuric. In particular.5 Hz). s 1.: ‘Voltage phasor and local system frequency estimation using Newton-type algorithm’. New York. s 1. Power Deliv. 75–84 4 Terzija. 469–479 7 Pavlic.. J...M. MVA NTA-Grubbs NTA FFT 0. Technometrics. 1969.: ‘Electrical power systems quality’ (McGraw-Hill.035 1. R. 2. W. 1845–1854 IEE Proc.060 2. The results obtained offered a hope that the algorithm presented could be efﬁciently applied in practice.025 2.5415 0..S. A. 9.e. The NTA algorithm is extended with a BDD module offering the robust algorithm features (i.. Bajpai. 193–203 11 Kusters.5 1.095 1.055 2. 1988.5 1.035 2. 24 Estimated single-phase arc furnace apparent power applied for the processing of distorted signals corrupted with bad data.J.: ‘Bibliography of relay literature 2000 IEEE committee report’. FFT). Burnworth. V.4 1. In the case of arc furnace simulation the voltage processed was severely distorted and with an off-nominal frequency (49.050 0.3 1. Przegled Elektrotek. kV 2. 4. MVA 1. 7 References 1... 2nd Edn.L. 1980. s 1. Power Appar. Swanson.090 NTA-Grubbs NTA FFT 1.2 t. Kasztenny. Test Laboratories Int. pp. Publ. reactive and apparent power in non-sinusoidal systems’. 25 Estimated single-phase arc furnace distortion power 2.050 U RMS.3 1. IEEE Trans. 7. 14.1 1.: ‘Puissances reactives at ﬁctives’. 1972.2 t.065 0.5400 0.C.. (3).070 0.060 0.: ‘On the deﬁnition of reactive power under non-sinusoidal conditions’. M.0 Fig. Florida. (1). M. B.5410 0.4 1. pp. 1996) 2 DFR Assistant TM Product Description.5380 D. Bucharest.2 t. Crossley. McCuen..5385 0.M. W.D. S.1 1.B. providing the ability of processing the signals corrupted with bad data). and Morgan.. M...) 8 Ayyub. F. s 1. 2003.. It is proved that the new robust algorithm delivers better results compared with the algorithm without the BDD module. M.030 2.020 1. the amplitude of motor current was changing during the transient. 2002.105 S. 22 Estimated RMS values of arc furnace current Fig.185 1. Zagreb.2 t.I. 1996 3 Sidhu.040 0. W. Darlington. Syst. R.B. Boca Raton. Stephens..0 NTA-Grubbs NTA FFT 1.

: ‘Suggested deﬁnition of reactive power for non-sinusoidal systems’. Cavallini. V.W. 2026–2036 . R. 1361–1362 13 Montanari. Inst.. M. L. 1972. 9.. Transm. 1994. Electr. (in German) TB-157/92 Univ. and Schafer.V. D. Loggini. 1st Edn. and Zakikhani. IEEE Trans. A.. pp.. (4). A. Proc. D. 119.-Gener. R. 1975.: ‘Simulation von Netzmodellen mit zweiseitiger Einspeisung zum Test von Netzschutzeinrichtungen’. July 1992 15 Oppenheim. Simon. pp.: ‘Digital signal processing’ (Prentice Hall.) IEE Proc.. July 2004 485 . No. and Zaninelli..: ‘Arc-furnace model for the study of ﬂicker compensation in electrical networks’. and Terzija..C.... P.. 14 Lonard. Pitti. G. Eng. Power Deliv. Distrib. Kaiserslautern. 151. Vol. W.12 Shepherd. 4..